Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 461
Filter
1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6474, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the epidemiological profile of patients aged 50 years or older diagnosed as HIV/AIDS, in a Specialized Service of the Public Health System. Methods A retrospective cohort study using secondary data from medical records in the period 2014 to 2018. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and features related to treatment adherence were organized in a database. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean (or median) ± standard deviation (or interquartile range), and categorical variables expressed as number and percentage of patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to assess the probability of overall specific survival. Results Of the 241 initially eligible patients, 149 patients were evaluated, registering 19 deaths in the studied period. There was a predominance of males aged 50-59 years, with severe immunodeficiency upon admission (29.7%), and with a CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells in 62 (46.3%) of patients. Elderly people aged 61 or over were more adherent. There was an increase in the CD4+ T lymphocyte count by an average of 139.63 in the first 6 months, and 50.51 from the first 6 months to 12 months of follow-up, with an average increase in the first 12 months of 157.63 cells. Specific overall survival in the period was 85%. Conclusion Patients older than 50 years had an immune response and no viral load detection in the 12-month period, deserving further studies to improve survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Public Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged
2.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE00625, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349861

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Identificar a prevalência da síndrome metabólica e a concordância entre os critérios do National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) e da International Diabetes Federation (IDF) em pessoas vivendo com HIV. Métodos Estudo analítico transversal, realizado em cinco serviços especializados em município do interior paulista, de 2014 a 2016, com 340 pessoas vivendo com HIV. Variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas necessárias para classificação da síndrome metabólica pelos critérios do NCEP-ATPIII e da IDF foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas. Para avaliar a concordância entre os critérios da SM, NCEP-ATPIII e IDF, foi utilizada a estatística first-order agreement coefficient. Para verificar a relação entre a síndrome metabólica e as variáveis do estudo, utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados A prevalência da síndrome metabólica foi de 28,5% pelo critério NCEP-ATPIII e 39,3% IDF. As maiores prevalências foram associadas ao sexo feminino e faixas etárias a partir dos 50 anos, enquanto que, no tempo de diagnóstico entre 2 a 10 anos, prevalências menores. A concordância entre os dois critérios foi considerada substancial. Conclusão A concordância substancial entre os critérios IDF e NCEP-ATPIII sugere a possibilidade de intercambio entre eles. Ademais, os resultados sinalizam para a necessidade de atenção especial dos serviços para a avaliação do perfil metabólico e identificação das pessoas vivendo com HIV que possuem alto risco cardiovascular.


Resumen Objetivo Identificar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y la concordancia entre los criterios del National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) y de la International Diabetes Federation (IDF) en personas que viven con el VIH. Métodos Estudio analítico transversal, realizado en cinco servicios especializados en un municipio del interior del estado de São Paulo, de 2014 a 2016, con 340 personas que viven con el VIH. Por medio de entrevistas se recopilaron las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas necesarias para la clasificación del síndrome metabólico mediante los criterios del NCEP-ATPIII y de la IDF. Para evaluar la concordancia entre los criterios del SM, NCEP-ATPIII e IDF, se utilizó la estadística first-order agreement coefficient. Para verificar la relación entre el síndrome metabólico y las variables del estudio, se utilizó la regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta. Resultados La prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue del 28,5 % mediante el criterio NCEP-ATPIII y 39,3 % por la IDF. Las mayores prevalencias se asociaron al sexo femenino y los grupos de edad a partir de los 50 años, mientras que hubo prevalencias menores en el tiempo de diagnóstico entre 2 y 10 años. La concordancia entre los dos criterios fue considerada sustancial. Conclusión La concordancia sustancial entre los criterios IDF y NCEP-ATPIII sugiere la posibilidad de intercambio entre ellos. Además, los resultados señalan la necesidad de una atención especial de los servicios para evaluar el perfil metabólico e identificar a las personas que viven con el VIH con alto riesgo cardiovascular.


Abstract Objective To identify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the agreement between the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in people living with HIV. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study, carried out in five specialized services in a city in the interior of São Paulo, from 2014 to 2016, with 340 people living with HIV. Sociodemographic and clinical variables necessary for classification of the metabolic syndrome by the NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria were collected through interviews. To assess the agreement between MS, NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, the first-order agreement coefficient statistic was used. To verify the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the study variables, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28.5% by the NCEP-ATPIII criterion and 39.3% IDF. The highest prevalence was associated with females and age groups from 50 years old, while, in the time of diagnosis between 2 and 10 years, lower prevalence. The agreement between the two criteria was considered substantial. Conclusion The substantial agreement between the IDF and NCEP-ATPIII criteria suggests the possibility of interchange between them. Moreover, the results signal the need for special attention from services for the assessment of the metabolic profile and identification of people living with HIV who are at high cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , HIV/drug effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210071, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279458

ABSTRACT

In the space of four decades, Brazil has faced two serious pandemics: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The country's response to HIV/AIDS was coordinated by several stakeholders and recognised the importance of scientific evidence in guiding decision-making, and a network offering monitoring and antiretroviral treatment was provided through coordinated efforts by the country's universal health system. Conversely, the lack of a centrally coordinated strategy and misalignment between government ministries regarding the COVID-19 pandemic response, together with the denial of scientific evidence, promotion of ineffective treatments and insufficient vaccination efforts, have all led to the uncontrolled spread of infection, the near-total collapse of the health system and excess deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2962, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144688

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Tratamiento Antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), la prevalencia de la adherencia terapéutica es un proceso complejo influido por múltiples factores relacionados con el paciente, la enfermedad, el fármaco, el entorno y el médico. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de adherencia a la TARGA en personas con VIH/sida de un área de salud y algunas variables relacionadas. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en 153 pacientes de 18 y más años, con diagnóstico de VIH/sida, del Policlínico "Marcos Manduley", municipio Centro Habana, de enero a diciembre de 2018. La fuente de datos fueron las historias clínicas individuales y se aplicó el cuestionario SMAQ para complementar la información. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado ((2) con significación estadística, ɒ = 0,05, se identificaron variables cuyos coeficientes fueron significativamente diferentes de 0 (p < 0,05) y el grado de correlación entre variables utilizando el coeficiente tau-b de Kendall. Resultados: El 70,5 por ciento tuvo buena adherencia a la TARGA. Se encontró asociación estadística y moderada relación directa entre la adherencia terapéutica y la menor edad de los pacientes, débil relación directa con el mayor tiempo bajo tratamiento y ligera relación directa con la presencia de reacciones adversa. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió identificar que el nivel de adherencia terapéutica a la TARGA fue adecuado, usando el cuestionario SMAQ y se relaciona con algunas variables, resultados que concuerdan con otros estudios consultados(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of therapeutic adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors related to the patient, the disease, the drug, the environment and the doctor. Objective: To identify the level of adherence to HAART and some related variables in people with HIV / AIDS in a health area. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in 153 patients aged 18 and over with HIV / AIDS diagnosis that received medical assistance at "Marcios Manduley" Polyclinic in Centro Habana municipality from January to December 2018. Data were obtained from individual medical records; the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) was applied to complement the information. The Chi-square test ((2) was used with statistical significance, p = 0.05; variables whose coefficients were significantly different from 0 (p <0.05) were identified and the degree of correlation between variables was obtained using Kendall's correlation coefficient. Results: The results show that 70.5 percent of people had good adherence to HAART. There was statistical association and moderate direct relationship between therapeutic adherence and younger age patients, weak direct relationship with the longest duration of treatment and a slight direct relationship with the presence of adverse reactions. Conclusions: The study allowed us to identify that the level of therapeutic adherence to HAART was adequate using the SMAQ questionnaire. It is related to some variables, showing results that are consistent with other studies consulted(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Epidemiology, Descriptive
5.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 01-05, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353755

ABSTRACT

El VIH/SIDA es una enfermedad neurotrópica que afecta al sistema nervioso central y dependiendo de la fase clínica de la enfermedad genera deterioro neurológico, psiquiátrico y neuropsicológico en grado variable. Se describe el caso de un paciente que presentó un cuadro de deterioro cognitivo severo (demencia SIDA) con posterior mejoría de signos y síntomas, y establecimiento posterior de secuelas neuropsicológicas después de un año de su diagnóstico. Se comparó una evaluación neuropsicológica en etapa de deterioro cognitivo severo con otra de seguimiento, realizada un año después de iniciar el tratamiento antirretroviral. Se presentan las características clínicas del paciente utilizando el estudio de caso como herramienta metodológica y sobre la base de un procedimiento clínico y psicométrico.


HIV/AIDS is a neurotropic disease that affects the central nervous system and depending on the clinical phase of the disease generates neurological, psychiatric and neuropsychological impairment to varying degrees. The case of a patient who presented severe cognitive impairment (AIDS dementia) is described with subsequent remission of signs and symptoms, and establishment of neuropsychological sequelae after one year of diagnosis. A neuropsychological evaluation in stage of severe cognitive impairment was compared with another follow-up one year after initiating antiretroviral treatment. The clinical characteristics of the patient are presented using the case study as a methodological tool and based on a clinical and psychometric procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/etiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS Dementia Complex , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293272

ABSTRACT

Numerosas investigaciones demuestran que existe alteración del metabolismo lipídico en pacientes con VIH/SIDA, caracterizada por un aumento en la concentración de triglicéridos y la disminución de las lipoproteínas de alta y baja densidad y del colesterol total. La dislipidemia en personas VIH/SIDA depende de la supresión viral en el momento del estudio, de la respuesta al agente antirretroviral específico que se relaciona con la susceptibilidad genética, además de otros factores entre los cuales se encuentra el empleo de medicamentos, el peso y el estilo de vida. Los pacientes que conviven con esta infección tienen por esta razón un riesgo incrementado de accidente cardiovascular y diabetes. El objetivo fue determinar si existían diferencias en el perfil lipídico en una cohorte de pacientes que reciben esquemas de tratamientos diferentes en la población enfocada. Este fue un diseño observacional de cohorte prospectivo (24) con componente analítico que incluyó pacientes con diagnóstico de HIV y con tratamiento que concurrieron al Programa Regional de Control VIH-SIDA en el Hospital Regional de Encarnación-VII Región Sanitaria de Itapúa de abril a septiembre de 2016. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la mayoría de los analitos componentes del perfil lipídico. Es necesario realizar un control periódico del perfil lipídico en estos grupos de pacientes, pues ello contribuirá a un mejor seguimiento del estado de salud así como a la prevención de accidentes cardiovasculares en los pacientes que conviven con VIH/SIDA y que están en tratamiento con antirretrovirales


Numerous research studies show that there is an impaired lipid metabolism in patients with HIV/AIDS, characterized by an increase in triglyceride concentration and decreased high- and low-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol. Dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS people depends on viral suppression at the time of the study, response to the specific antiretroviral agent that relates to genetic susceptibility, as well as other factors including the use of medications, weight and lifestyle. Therefore, patients living with this infection have an increased risk of cardiovascular accident and diabetes. The objective was to determine whether there were differences in lipid profile in a cohort of patients receiving different treatment schemes in the targeted population. This was a prospective cohort design research with analytical component that included patients with HIV diagnosis and treatment that attended the Regional HIV-AIDS Control Programme at the Regional Hospital of Encarnacion - VII Itapúa Health Region from April to September 2016. Significant differences were found in most analytes components of the lipid profile. A periodic control of the lipid profile is necessary in these patient groups as this will contribute to a better monitoring of the health status as well as to the prevention of cardiovascular accidents in patients living with HIV/AIDS, and who are being treated with antiretrovirals


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Cholesterol, VLDL , Cholesterol , HIV , Cholesterol, LDL
7.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 194-217, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139640

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo pretendo apresentar alguns dos resultados de uma pesquisa de pós- -doutoramento, na qual acompanhei grupos virtuais e encontros presenciais de interlocutores adeptos de práticas sexuais tidas como "de risco", tais como o sexo bareback, em eventos exclusivos para homens cisgêneros. O objetivo aqui é analisar um certo regime de regulação ético-moral percebido em campo relativo à preocupação de se afirmar que essas práticas sexuais partem de valores como a "responsabilidade", o "consentimento" e o "cuidado". Nas dinâmicas observadas, esses valores se (re)constroem e fissuram a partir do atravessamento de elementos diversos como drogas e medicamentos, além de diversos tensores libidinais. É sobre a produção contextual desses conceitos e a sua relação frente às atuais políticas pública de prevenção que pretendo me debruçar no artigo.


Abstract This article presents some results of a postdoctoral research, in which I followed virtual groups and face-to-face meetings of interlocutors engaging at sexual practices considered "risky", such as bareback sex, in events exclusive for cisgender men. The objective here is to analyze a certain regime of ethical-moral regulation perceived in the fieldwork regarding a concern to assign to these sexual practices values such as "responsibility", "consent" and "care". In the observed dynamics, these values are (re)constructed and fissured at the intersection of diverse elements such as drugs and medications, in addition to several libidinal tensors. This article addresses these concepts contextual production and their relation to current public prevention policies.


Resumen En este artículo tengo la intención de presentar algunos de los resultados de una investigación posdoctoral, en la que seguí grupos virtuales y reuniones cara a cara de interlocutores que eran expertos en prácticas sexuales consideradas "en riesgo", como el sexo a pelo, en eventos exclusivos para hombres cisgénero. El objetivo aquí es analizar un cierto régimen de regulación ético-moral percibido en el campo con respecto a la preocupación de afirmar que estas prácticas sexuales parten de valores tales como "responsabilidad", "consentimiento" y "cuidado". En la dinámica observada, estos valores se (re) construyen y descifran a través del cruce de diferentes elementos, como drogas y medicamentos, además de varios tensores libidinales. Se trata de la producción contextual de estos conceptos y su relación con las políticas actuales de prevención pública que pretendo abordar en el artículo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexuality/ethics , Unsafe Sex , Pleasure , Cisgender Persons , Self Care , Social Values/ethnology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Health Policy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 778-786, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic infection (OI) in immunosuppressed patients. However, there are no clear cut-off values available for quantitative plasmatic CMV measures (viral load [VL]) to discriminate those with CMV illness from those infected suffering a transient viral reactivation. Aim: To estimate a CMV VL cut-off point that discriminates infected patients and those with CMV related diseases, and to clinically characterize AIDS patients with this OI. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of AIDS patients admitted by any reason between years 2017 and 2019 and who had a positive plasma CMV VL at any titer. Cases were categorized with illness or infected using accepted criteria and the cut-off value was obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: Twelve patients were identified as having a CMV-associated illness and seven with CMV infection. A CMV VL of 3,800 copies/mL had a sensitivity of 91.6% and 100% specificity to discriminate both states. Of the 12 patients with CMV illness, all were in AIDS stage and only five were receiving HIV therapy. Predominant clinical presentations were gastrointestinal (50%), followed by liver involvement (25%) and CMV disease (25%). All patients were treated with ganciclovir or valganciclovir. Ten patients had a favorable response (83.3%), one patient only had a laboratory improvement (8.3%) and one died during treatment (8.3%). Drug toxicity was recorded in nine patients but in only three cases, a dose adjustment was necessary. Conclusions: The predominant clinical manifestation in our series was gastrointestinal. A CMV VL cutoff level of CMV VL of 3,800 copies / mL is useful to discriminate infected patients from those with CMV related disease.


Antecedentes: Citomegalovirus (CMV) es una infección oportunista (IO) en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Sin embargo, se requieren puntos de corte de carga viral (CV) para discriminar a aquellos con enfermedad por CMV de aquellos infectados que sufren una reactivación viral transitoria. Objetivos: Estimar un punto de corte de la CV de CMV que discrimine a los enfermos de los infectados y, además, caracterizar clínicamente a los pacientes con sida que presentan esta IO. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de pacientes con sida hospitalizados por cualquier motivo entre los años 2017 y 2019, y que presentaron un CV de CMV plasmática positiva a cualquier título. Los casos se clasificaron como enfermos utilizando criterios aceptados y el valor de corte se obtuvo mediante análisis de una curva ROC. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, 12 pacientes fueron identificados con enfermedad asociada al CMV y siete con infección. Una CV de 3.800 copias/ml logró una sensibilidad de 91,6% y una especificidad de 100% para discriminar ambos estados. De los 12 pacientes enfermos, todos estaban en etapa de sida y solo 5 recibían terapia contra el VIH. La presentación clínica predominante fue gastrointestinal (50%) seguida del compromiso hepático (25%) y de la enfermedad por CMV (25%). Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con ganciclovir o valganciclovir. Diez pacientes tuvieron una respuesta favorable (83,3%), uno solo tuvo mejoría de laboratorio (8,3%) y otro paciente falleció durante el tratamiento (8,3%). Nueve pacientes evolucionaron con toxicidad farmacológica, pero en solo 3 casos fue necesario ajustar las dosis. Conclusiones: La forma predominante de presentación de la enfermedad fue gastrointestinal. Un punto de corte de 3.800 copias/ml discrimina pacientes infectados de aquellos con la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus
9.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 135-139, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223597

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by HIV. 3% of the people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil are 60 years old or over. Although older adults correspond to a small percentage, there has been a significant increase in the incidence in this group in recent years. Thus, HIV infection in older adults is a reality, however, literature hardly addresses this topic. The objective is to study the epidemiological clinical profile of older adults living with HIV monitored at a referral center. Methods:This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with data collection obtained from the medical records of the STI/AIDS outpatient clinic at a reference center. The data were sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory, collected from September 2018 to February 2019. Results:In the reference center, 309 older adults were registered, representing 6.7% of all patients registered in the service. Of these, 75.6% are men, 38% are married, 70% heterosexual and approximately 50% with low education. Comorbidities are associated, with dyslipidemia (54%) being the main one. At the time of diagnosis, 65.8% had detectable viral load and 62% had CD4 + cells <500 cls/mm³ and after therapeutic follow-up, only 20% had detectable viral load. Several therapeutic regimens are used, the main one being Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz (35.3%). Conclusion: The epidemiological profile of the population served in the region follows national and global characteristics, with a predominance of men, heterosexuals, married and with low education.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) é uma doença causada pelo HIV. Das pessoas vivendo com HIV(PVHIV)no Brasil, 3% apresentam 60 anos ou mais. Apesar dos idosos corresponderem a um pequeno percentual, há aumento significativo da incidência nesse grupo nos últimos anos. Dessa forma, a infecção pelo HIV em idosos é uma realidade, contudo, a literatura pouco aborda esse tema. O objetivo do trabalho é estudar o perfil clínico epidemiológico dos idosos vivendo com HIV acompanhados em um centro de referência. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo, de corte transversal, com coleta de dados obtida através dos prontuários do ambulatório de IST/SIDA de um centro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais, foram coletados no período setembro de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Resultados: No centro de referência, estão cadastrados 309 idosos, representando 6,7% de todos os pacientes matriculados no serviço. Destes, 75,6% são homens, 38% casados, 70% de orientação heterossexual e aproximadamente 50% com baixa escolaridade. Comorbidades estão associadas, sendo a dislipidemia (54%) a principal. No momento do diagnóstico, 65,8% apresentavam carga viral (CV) detectável,62% tinham células CD4+ < 500céls/mm³ e após seguimento terapêutico apenas 20% apresentavam CV detectável. Vários esquemas terapêuticos foram utilizados, sendo o principal Tenofovir, Lamivudina e Efavirenz (35,3%). Conclusão: O perfil epidemiológico da população atendida na região segue as características nacionais e mundiais, com predomínio de homens, heterossexuais, casados e de baixa escolaridade.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirido(SIDA) es una enfermedad causada por el VIH. De las personas que viven con el VIH (PVVIH) en Brasil, el 3% tiene 60 años o más. Aunque los adultos mayor es corresponden a un pequeño porcentaje, en los últimos años se ha producido un aumento significativo de la incidencia en este grupo. La infección por VIH en los adultos mayores es una realidad; sin embargo, la literatura aborda poco este tema. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el perfil clínico epidemiológico de adultos mayores que conviven con el VIH y se atienden en un centro de referencia. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, con datos obtenidos de los registros de ETS/SIDA de un centro de referencia. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio desde septiembre de 2018 hasta febrero de 2019. Resultados: En el centro de referencia están registrados309 adultos mayores, que representan el 6,7% de todos los pacientes inscriptos en el servicio. De ellos, el 75,6% es del sexo masculino, el 38%, casado, el 70% con orientación heterosexual y aproximadamente el 50% con baja escolaridad. De las comorbilidades asociadas, la dislipidemia esla principal (54%). En el momento del diagnóstico, el 65,8% tenía una carga viral detectable (CV), el 62%tenía células CD4+<500 células/mm³ y después del seguimiento terapéutico sólo el 20% tenía CV detectable. Se utilizaron varios esquemas terapéuticos, siendo los principales el Tenofovir, la Lamivudina y el Efavirenz (35,3%). Conclusión: El perfil epidemiológico de la población atendida en la región sigue las características nacionales e internacionales, con predominio de hombres heterosexuales, casados y de baja escolaridad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV/immunology , Marital Status , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Sexuality , Educational Status , Health Services for the Aged
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 65-72, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the outcome of patients with HIV infection, providing virological control and reducing mortality. However, there are several reasons as to why patients may discontinue their antiretroviral therapy, with adverse events being one of the main reasons reported in the literature. This is a case-control nested in a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS, conducted to identify the incidence of ART modification due to adverse events and the associated factors, in two referral services in Recife, Brazil, between 2011 and 2014. Of the modifications occurred in the first year of ART, 25.7% were driven by adverse events. The median time elapsed between initiating ART and the first modification due to adverse events was 70.5 days (95% CI: 26-161 days). The main adverse events were dermatological, neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal. Dermatological events were the earliest to appear after initiating ART. Efavirenz was the most prescribed and most modified drug during the study period. The group of participants who used zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz had a 2-fold greater chance (adjusted OR: 2.16 95% CI: 1.28-3.65) of switching ART due to adverse events when compared to the group that used tenofovir with lamivudine and efavirenz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Brazil , Zidovudine/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Benzoxazines/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Tenofovir/adverse effects
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 81-86, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091908

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS The systematic review included articles indexed in MEDLINE (by PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS, and LILACS. Studies eligible included the year of publication, diagnose criteria of NAFLD and HIV, and were published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 2006 to 2018. The exclusion criteria were studies with HIV-infection patients and other liver diseases. Two reviewers were involved in the study and applied the same methodology, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). RESULTS One hundred and sixteen papers were selected, including full articles, editorial letters, and reviews. Twenty-seven articles were excluded because they did meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 89 articles were read, and 13 were considered eligible for this review. Four case series used imaging methods to identify NAFLD, and nine included histology. The prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients ranged from 30%-100% and, in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), from 20% to 89%. A positive association between dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and body mass index was observed. There was no agreement between the studies that evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral drugs and NAFLD. CONCLUSION This systematic review showed a high prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients, which was associated with metabolic risk factors. The possible association between antiretroviral therapy and NAFLD needs further studies.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a relevância da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em pacientes com HIV / AIDS. MÉTODOS A revisão sistemática foi realizada utilizando instrumentos de busca de material científico indexado, incluindo MEDLINE (pela PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS e LILACS. Estudos elegíveis incluíram o ano de publicação, critérios para diagnostico de DHGNA e HIV, publicados em inglês, português e espanhol, entre 2006 a 2018. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram estudos com pacientes com outras doenças do fígado. Dois revisores foram envolvidos na pesquisa dos artigos e o PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta - Analyses) foi utilizado nas análises. RESULTADOS Cento e dezesseis artigos foram selecionados, 27 excluídos porque não preencheram critérios de inclusão e assim, 89 foram lidos pelos investigadores. Desses, 13 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Quatro séries de casos utilizaram métodos por imagens para identificação de DHGNA e nove estudos utilizaram biópsia hepática. A prevalência de DHGNA em pacientes com HIV variou de 30% a 100% e esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) entre 20% e 89%. Na avaliação das principais variáveis estudadas, observou-se a associação positiva entre dislipidemia, resistência à insulina e índice de massa corporal. Não houve concordância entre os artigos que avaliaram a relação dos antiretrovirais com a DHGNA. CONCLUSÕES A presente revisão sistemática sugere elevada prevalência de DHGNA em pacientes infectados com HIV. DHGNA nesses pacientes foi associada principalmente a fatores metabólicos. A possível associação entre terapia antiretroviral e DHGNA nesses pacientes vem sendo discutida, mas são necessários mais estudos para estabelecer essa associação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects
12.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190267, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1130549

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Analisar a coordenação do cuidado às pessoas que vivem com HIV, segundo unidade prisional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado em seis unidades prisionais do Estado de São Paulo. Entrevistaram-se 85 detentos vivendo com HIV e seis diretores técnicos. Indicadores de coordenação foram criados a partir de perguntas com escala de 1 a 5, classificando-os em satisfatórios (>3,5 a 5,0), regulares (>2,5 a 3,5) e insatisfatórios (1,0 a 2,5). Utilizou-se ANOVA e Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: A coordenação foi classificada como insatisfatória (média 2,49). Indicadores insatisfatórios: "Questionar efeitos colaterais da terapia antirretroviral (TARV)"; "Questionar dificuldades na tomada da TARV"; "Observar tomada da TARV"; "Solicitar fracos/embalagens da TARV para monitorar a ingesta medicamentosa"; "Pedir explicações quanto ao uso da TARV"; "Questionar condições de acondicionamento da TARV na cela"; "Informar e discutir resultados T-CD4+ e carga viral"; "Informar agendamento da consulta no serviço de referência em HIV" e "Levar para atendimento em outras especialidades médicas". Obtiveram classificação regular: "Levar para atendimento médico de urgência quando necessário" e "Não perder consulta no serviço de referência em HIV". "Questionar sobre a regularidade no uso da TARV" foi o único indicador pior avaliado na comparação entre as unidades prisionais estudadas (p<0,05). Conclusão: O desempenho das unidades prisionais não difere em relação à grande parte dos indicadores de coordenação estudados, indicando que todas precisam melhorar o desempenho no que diz respeito ao desenvolvimento de ações de monitoramento do uso da TARV, informar e discutir resultados dos exames com os detentos e levar para atendimento fora da unidade prisional.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar la coordinación del cuidado a las personas que viven con el VIH, según unidad penitenciaria. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en seis unidades penitenciarias del estado de São Paulo. Se realizó entrevista a 85 presos que viven con el VIH y seis directores técnicos. Fueron creados indicadores de coordinación a partir de preguntas con escala de 1 a 5 y se clasificaron en satisfactorios (>3,5 a 5,0), regulares (>2,5 a 3,5) e insatisfactorios (1,0 a 2,5). Se utilizó ANOVA y Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: La coordinación fue clasificada como insatisfactoria (promedio 2,49). Indicadores insatisfactorios: "Preguntar sobre efectos secundarios del tratamiento antirretroviral (TARV)", "Preguntar sobre dificultades en la toma del TARV", "Observar toma del TARV", "Solicitar frascos/envases del TARV para monitorear la ingesta de medicamentos", "Pedir explicaciones sobre el uso del TARV", "Preguntar sobre condiciones de almacenaje del TARV en la celda", "Informar y discutir resultados T CD4+ y carga viral", "Informar consultas agendadas en el servicio de referencia en VIH" y "Llevar para recibir atención en otras especialidades médicas". Obtuvieron clasificación regular los indicadores: "Llevar para recibir atención médica de urgencia cuando es necesario" y "No perder el turno en el servicio de referencia en VIH". "Preguntar sobre la regularidad de uso del TARV" fue el único indicador peor evaluado en la comparación entre las unidades penitenciarias estudiadas (p<0,05). Conclusión: El desempeño de las unidades penitenciarias no difiere con relación a la mayoría de los indicadores de coordinación estudiados, lo que indica que todas necesitan mejorar el desempeño respecto al desarrollo de acciones de monitoreo del uso del TARV, informar y discutir resultados de los análisis con los presos y llevarlos para recibir atención fuera de la unidad penitenciaria.


Abstract Objective: To analyze the care coordination for people living with HIV according to the prison unit. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in six prison units in the state of São Paulo. Eighty-five inmates living with HIV and six technical directors were interviewed. Coordination indicators were created from questions with a 1-5 scale and classified as satisfactory (>3.5 to 5.0), regular (>2.5 to 3.5) and unsatisfactory (1.0 to 2.5). ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis were used. Results: The coordination was classified as unsatisfactory (mean 2.49). Unsatisfactory indicators: "Questioning side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART)"; "Questioning the difficulties in ART intake"; "Observing ART intake"; "Requesting ART bottles/packages to monitor medication intake"; "Asking for explanations regarding the use of ART"; "Questioning the storage conditions of ART in the prison cell"; "Informing and discussing T-CD4 + and viral loading results"; "Informing the scheduling of consultation at the HIV reference service" and "Take to care for other medical specialties". The following obtained regular classification: "Take to emergency medical care when needed" and "Not missing an appointment at the HIV reference service". "Questioning the regularity of the use of ART" was the single worst indicator evaluated in the comparison between the prison units studied (p<0.05). Conclusion: The performance of prison units does not differ in relation to most coordination indicators studied, which shows the need for improving the performance with regard to the development of actions to monitor the use of ART, inform and discuss test results with inmates and take them to care outside the prison unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prisoners , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Comprehensive Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3407-3416, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019676

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a eficácia do uso do telefone para adesão de pessoas com HIV/AIDS à terapia antirretroviral. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs/Bireme), Scopus, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline/PubMed), Web of Science; e nas bibliotecas Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO) e Cochrane, com uso dos seguintes descritores: "HIV", "Cell Phones", "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" e "Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active". Obteve-se uma amostra de 17 artigos. As intervenções com uso de telefones celulares propostas foram: uso de aplicativos de celulares, Serviço de Mensagem Curta e chamadas telefônicas. Na maioria dos estudos, o uso do telefone trouxe impacto significativo sobre a adesão ao tratamento. A avaliação dos estudos apontou boa qualidade metodológica e sigilo de alocação adequado. Acerca dos métodos de mensuração da adesão destacou-se a autorrelatada. A utilização de telefone celular foi eficaz para a melhoria da adesão à terapia antirretroviral de pessoas vivendo com HIV.


Abstract This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone use for the adherence of people with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy. A systematic review was carried out in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs/ Bireme), SCOPUS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science; and in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Cochrane libraries, using the following descriptors: "HIV", "Cell Phones", "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" and "Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active". We gathered a sample of 17 papers. The proposed cellphone interventions were the use of cellular applications, Short Message Service, and telephone calls. In most studies, telephone use has had a significant impact on adherence to treatment. The evaluation of the studies showed good methodological quality and adequate allocation secrecy. Self-reported adherence emerged among the adherence measuring methods. Cellphone use was effective in improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Medication Adherence , Telephone , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Cell Phone
14.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 18(3)set. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1123263

ABSTRACT

HISTÓRICO: A cascata de cuidado contínuo surgiu como uma estratégia para se transpor a infecção por HIV e se alcançar o objetivo final em cuidados, que seria a supressão viral. Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever a cascata de cuidado contínuo em indivíduos com HIV/AIDS em um Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado. METODOLOGIA: Esse é um estudo de coorte retrospectivo que analisou indivíduos adultos com diagnóstico confirmado de HIV/AIDS e que iniciaram seu acompanhamento no Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada (NAMI) da Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), cidade de Fortaleza, estado do Ceará, na região Nordeste do Brasil. Os dados que se seguem foram usados na pesquisa: carga viral CD4+/CD8+ e carga viral do HIV. Os participantes foram classificados em dois grupos: retidos no cuidado em saúde (grupo 1) e não retidos no cuidado em saúde (grupo 2), totalizando uma coorte de 511 participantes. RESULTADO: A análise univariada entre os grupos demonstrou que havia predominância significativa de pacientes homens com média de idade mais alta no grupo 1 (p = 0,01). Um histórico prévio de dependência química, e na primeira consulta, foi mais frequente no grupo 2 (p = 0,001 e p = 0,01 respectivamente). Os pacientes do grupo 1 tinham um histórico mais frequente de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) (p=0,002) e estavam mais imunossuprimidos quando do diagnóstico (p = 0,002). O uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV) na primeira consulta foi mais significativo no grupo de pacientes retidos (p<0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo sugere a necessidade de aprimoramento da "cascata de cuidados" através de sua expansão, na medida em que considere riscos comportamentais dinâmicos, o que poderia transpor as barreiras sistêmicas de acesso aos serviços de saúde para as pessoas que vivem com HIV/AIDS.


ANTECEDENTES: La cascada constante de tratamiento/cuidados ha emergido como una estrategia a fin de dejar atrás la infección por VIH en busca de la meta última del tratamiento, que es la supresión viral. El estudio apunta a describir la cascada de cuidados en individuos con VIH/SIDA en un Servicio Ambulatorio Especializado. MÉTODOS: El diseño del estudio es un grupo retrospectivo de individuos adultos con diagnosis confirmada del VIH/SIDA, quienes iniciaron su seguimiento en el Centro de Cuidados Médicos Integrados (NAMI) de la Universidad de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), en la ciudad de Fortaleza, estado de Ceará, en el nordeste de Brasil. Las informaciones siguientes fueron utilizadas en la investigación: CD4+/CD8+ carga viral y carga viral del VIH/SIDA. Los individuos fueron clasificados en dos grupos: retenidos (grupo 1) y no retenidos (grupo 2), totalizando una muestra de 511 participantes. RESULTADOS: El análisis de variable única entre estos grupos demostró que había una predominancia significativa de pacientes masculinos con una edad promedio más elevada en el grupo 1 (p = 0.01). Un antecedente de adicción previa a narcóticos durante la primera consulta fue más frecuente en el segundo grupo (p = 0.001 y p = 0.01 respectivamente). Los pertenecientes al grupo 1, de manera más frecuente, tenían antecedentes de infecciones sexualmente transmitidas (IST) (p = 0.002) y estaban más inmunosuprimidos a la época del diagnóstico (p = 0.002). El uso de TARV (terapia antirretroviral) en la primera consulta fue también más significativo en el grupo de pacientes retenidos (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONES: El estudio sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la "cascada de tratamiento/cuidados" mediante su expansión, a fin de abordar los riesgos de conducta dinámica, lo cual puede transponer las barreras sistémicas de acceso a los servicios de salud para las personas que conviven con VIH/SIDA.


BACKGROUND: The continuous care cascade has emerged as a strategy to transpose HIV infection to attain the ultimate goal of care, which is viral suppression. The study aims to describe the care cascade in individuals with HIV / AIDS in a Specialized Ambulatory Service. METHODS: The study design is a retrospective cohort of adult individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of HIV/AIDS who initiated their follow-up at the Integrated Medical Care Center (NAMI) of Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The following data were used in the investigation: CD4+/CD8+ viral load and HIV viral load. The subjects were classified into two groups: retained (group 1) and non-retained (group 2), totaling a sample of 511 participants. RESULTS: The univariate analysis between these groups showed that there was a significant predominance of male patients with a higher mean age in group 1 (p = 0.01). A history of previous drug addiction and at the first consultation was more frequent in the second group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01 respectively). Patients from group 1 more often had a history of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) (p = 0.002) and were more immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.002). The use of ART at the first consultation was also more significant in the group of retained patients (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a need to improve the "cascade of care" by expanding it to address dynamic behavioral risks, which can transpose the systemic barriers of access to health services for people living with HIV/AIDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Ambulatory Care , Sustained Virologic Response , Health Profile , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission
15.
Medisan ; 23(4)jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091117

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Uno de los progresos más significativos en el enfrentamiento a la epidemia del VIH/sida ha sido el desarrollo de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad. Objetivo: Estimar las variaciones en la efectividad de la terapéutica empleada (zidovudina, lamivudina y nevirapina), en lo referente a parámetros clínicos y hematológicos seleccionados. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo, de series de casos, en 45 pacientes con VIH/sida, quienes egresaron del Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 2015 hasta el 2017, para lo cual se emplearon variables clínicas y terapéuticas. Resultados: La terapia empleada modificó de manera beneficiosa los parámetros de estudio CD4 y carga viral. Asimismo, hubo una magnitud porcentual connotada en los afectados con buena evolución clínica (39 para 86,7 %) y la efectividad del esquema propuesto fue porcentualmente visible, al mostrar más de 80,0 % de los pacientes con respuesta favorable a dicha terapia. Conclusiones: El esquema terapéutico fue efectivo, pues se produjo un incremento marcado de los valores de linfocitos CD4 y la disminución relevante de la replicación viral, lo que trajo consigo un importante decremento de las enfermedades oportunistas.


Introduction: One of the most significant progresses in fighting the epidemic of HIV/aids has been the development of the antirretroviral therapy of great activity. Objective: To calculate variations in the effectiveness of the used therapeutic process (zidovudine, lamivudine y nevirapine), regarding selected clinical and hematological parameters. Method: An observational and descriptive series of cases study was carried out in 45 patients with HIV/aids who were discharged from the Internal Medicine Service in Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 2015 to 2017, for which clinical and therapeutic variables were used. Results: The implemented therapy modified in a beneficial way the study parameters CD4 and viral load. Also, there was a connoted magnitude percentage in those affected patients with good clinical course (39 representing 86.7 %) and the effectiveness of the proposed pattern was visible, when showing more than 80.0 % the patients with favorable response to this therapy. Conclusions: The therapeutic pattern was effective, because a marked increment of the CD4-lymphocytes count and the marked decrease of the viral replication, what caused an important decrease of the opportunist diseases.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Viral Load
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2543-2555, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011852

ABSTRACT

Resumo A AIDS é uma manifestação clínica avançada da infecção pelo HIV. Gera imunodeficiência grave e inúmeras infecções associadas, podendo levar à morte. A disponibilidade da Terapia Antirretroviral (TARV) diminuiu a morbi-mortalidade do HIV/AIDS, mas seus benefícios dependem da adesão ao tratamento. Esta revisão integrativa da literatura seguiu a estratégia PICO para identificar os fatores associados à adesão à TARV em adultos. Foram consultadas as bases Medline, SciELO, Lilacs e PePSIC e incluídos artigos publicados entre janeiro de 2010 e dezembro de 2016. Foram analisados 125 artigos, quanto às características dos estudos, medidas de adesão e fatores associados. Os resultados mostraram grande variação na definição da adesão e no uso das medidas para seu monitoramento, além de inúmeros fatores associados à adesão. Os quais foram agrupados nas categorias: 1. variáveis individuais; 2. características do tratamento; 3. características da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS; 4. relação com o serviço de saúde e 5. apoio social. É importante que os serviços caracterizem o perfil dos usuários, sistematizem as medidas de adesão e avaliem regionalmente fatores associados à adesão, para a detecção precoce da não adesão à TARV e estabelecimento de planos efetivos de intervenção.


Abstract AIDS is an advanced clinical manifestation of HIV infection. It generates severe immunodeficiency and associated infections that may lead to death. The antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbimortality of HIV/AIDS, but its benefits depend on ART adherence. This integrative review followed the PICO method to identify factors associated with adult adherence to ART. Empirical papers published between January 2010 and December 2016 in the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and PePSIC databases were included. We analyzed 125 papers regarding the characteristics of studies, adherence measures and associated factors. Results showed a wide variety in the definition of adherence and the use of measures for its monitoring, as well as several adherence-associated factors. These were categorized as follows: 1- Individual variables; 2- Treatment characteristics; 3- HIV/aids infection characteristics; 4- Relationship with the health services; 5- Social support. Health services should characterize the users' profiles, systematize adherence measures and regionally assess adherence-associated factors for the early detection of non-adherence to ART and implementation of effective intervention plans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Social Support , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 331-339, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013791

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El tratamiento anti-retroviral (TAR) es indispensable en pacientes con infección por VIH/ SIDA; suprimir la carga viral requiere de un estricto apego a éste, por compromiso del paciente. El fracaso del TAR es primordialmente por falta de adherencia, que puede ser debida a una deficiente calidad de vida y/o a variables psicológicas. Objetivo: Determinar la calidad de vida, variables psicológicas y la adherencia al TAR, en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA. Material y Método: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por VIH/SIDA y con TAR. Se recabaron los instrumentos MOS SF-36 y VPAD-24, una encuesta demográfica, y datos clínicos. Se hicieron asociaciones cuantitativas y cualitativas entre las variables. Resultados: La adherencia al TAR estuvo asociada con evitar comportamiento depresivo y con ausencia de adicciones. El comportamiento depresivo se encontró asociado con las adicciones. Un 87% de pacientes estaba en el rango de mejor calidad de vida. Por debajo del promedio del puntaje de salud general estuvieron masculinos, con orientación sexual HSH, solteros, en la vitalidad a los ≥ 38 años, en dolor corporal y función social a tres esquemas TAR. Conclusión: La buena adherencia al TAR estuvo asociada a evitar comportamiento depresivo y a la ausencia de adicciones y no se asoció a la calidad de vida.


Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is essential in HIV/AIDS patients. Suppressing viral load requires strict adherence to ART in addition to the patient's commitment to treatment. The failure of ART is mainly due to lack of adherence, which may in turn be due to poor quality of life and/or to psychological variables. Aim: To determine the quality of life and psychological variables and adherence to ART, in patients with HIV/AIDS. Material and Method: 160 patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and with ART were included. The MOS SF-36 and VPAD-24 instruments, a socio-demographic survey, and clinical data were collected. Quantitative and qualitative associations were made between the variables. Results: The adherence to ART was associated with avoidance of depressive behavior and with the absence of addictions. Depressive behavior associated with addictions. 87% of patients ranked in the best quality of life. Below the average of the general health score were males, with MSM sexual orientation, single, in vitality at ≥ 38 years, in corporal pain and with social function to three ART schemes. Conclusion: Good adherence to ART was associated with avoiding depressive behavior and with non-addictions and not associated with quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/psychology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/psychology , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Mexico
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 32-40, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003654

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los estudios clínicos orientados a evaluar la calidad de medicamentos genéricos pueden ser útiles para fortalecer políticas de acceso a terapia anti-retroviral combinada (TARc). Objetivo: Describir la efectividad y seguridad del esquema genérico lamivudina/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, pertenecientes a un programa de atención integral. Materiales/Métodos: Estudio clínico prospectivo fase IV abierto y sin grupo control. Entre 2012-2014, se incluyeron y siguieron 40 pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve y con indicación para iniciar tratamiento. Los pacientes fueron tratados con el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV y fueron seguidos durante 12 meses. El seguimiento incluyó valoración clínica, parámetros inmunovirológicos y de laboratorio, al inicio del tratamiento y a los 3, 6 y 12 meses. Resultados: De los 40 pacientes, 30 (75%) cumplieron los doce meses de tratamiento; de ellos, 80% alcanzó CV indetectable (< 40 copias/mL) y 83,3% CV < 50 copias/mL. Adicionalmente, en el grupo hubo un incremento en la mediana de 173 linfocitos TCD4/mm3. Por su parte, los resultados del hemograma completo, creatininemia y transaminasas hepáticas se conservaron en rangos normales y no generaron cambios del TARc. Los efectos adversos reconocidos para estos medicamentos se presentaron en menos de 10% de los pacientes y no tuvieron implicaciones graves. Conclusiones: En este grupo pequeño de pacientes, el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV es efectivo y seguro en el tratamiento de pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, y su perfil de efectividad y seguridad es similar al del esquema 3TC/TDF/EFV innovador en pacientes con condiciones clínicas similares.


Background: Clinical studies aimed to evaluating the quality of generic drugs may be useful to strengthen policies of access to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Aim: To describe the effectiveness and safety of the generic schema lamivudine/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) in patients with HIV/AIDS naive, belonging to a comprehensive care program. Methods: A nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study, during 2012 to 2014 naive HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive cART were recruited. Patients were treated with generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV and were followed-up during 12 months. Clinical, immunological and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Results: Of the 40 patients, 30 (75%) met the 12 months of treatment; of them, 80% achieved undetectable viral load (< 40 copies/mL) and 83.3% viral load < 50 copies/mL. Additionally, there was a significant increase (173 cells/mm3) in the median for CD4 T lymphocyte count. Moreover, the results of the whole blood count, creatinine and transaminases were preserved in normal ranges and did not generate changes in the cART. Potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs occurred in less than 10% of patients and had no serious implications. Conclusions: In this small group of patients, the generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS naïve, and its effectiveness and safety profile is similar to show by innovator scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV in patients with similar clinical conditions. Registro Estudio: Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos (RPCEC) ID: RPCEC00000134. Registered 20 July 2012.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cyclopropanes , Alkynes
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(3): e00064618, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989512

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar fatores associados ao bem-estar psicológico de travestis e mulheres transexuais. Estudo transversal com 602 travestis e pessoas transexuais em sete municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil entre 2014 e 2015. Foi realizada seleção amostral com abordagem consecutiva e técnica bola de neve. A variável dependente foi bem-estar psicológico (WHOQOL-BREF) e as independentes foram: características sociodemográficas, modificações corporais, condições de saúde, violência e encarceramento. A análise de variância múltipla foi usada para identificar os fatores associados. A maioria tinha cor da pele preta ou parda e entre 25 e 39 anos de idade, até o Ensino Médio completo, renda individual de até dois salários mínimos e trabalhava, sendo 42,3% profissionais do sexo. Cerca de um quarto já foi presa. Em torno de um quarto fazia tratamento para HIV. O escore médio observado foi de 63,2 (IC95%: 61,8-64,6). Na análise múltipla, estiveram associados ao menor bem-estar psicológico: não ter endereço fixo, ter menor escolaridade, estar insatisfeita com as relações pessoais, suporte de amigos ou procedimentos transexualizadores realizados e ter sofrido violência verbal ou sexual. Enquanto piores condições de vida e de exposição à violência prejudicam o bem-estar psicológico de travestis e mulheres transexuais, a possibilidade de realizar transformações corporais desejadas e o respeito ao nome social interferem positivamente na avaliação que fazem de suas vidas.


Abstract: This article sought to estimate factors associated with the psychological well-being of transvestites and trans women. It is a cross-sectional study with 602 transvestites and trans individuals in seven cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil from 2014 to 2015. We carried out a sample selection through a consecutive approach and using the snowball technique. The dependent variable was psychological well-being (WHOQOL-BREF) and the independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, body modifications, health conditions, violence and incarceration. We used a multiple variance analysis to identify associated factors. Most were black or brown and were aged between 25 and 39 years, had up to complete secondary education, individual income of up to two times the minimum wage and worked, and 42.3% were sex workers. Around one-quarter had been incarcerated. Around one-quarter were in treatment for HIV. Mean psychological well-being score was 63.2 (95%CI: 61.8-64.6). In the multiple analysis, the factors associated with lower psychological well-being were: not having a fixed address, having lower educational levels, being dissatisfied with personal relationships, friend support or the gender-affirming procedures they had undergone and having suffered verbal or sexual violence. While worse living conditions and exposure to violence harm the psychological well-being of transvestites and trans women, the possibility of undergoing desired body transformations and having their social name respected interfere positively in their evaluations of their lives.


Resumen: El objetivo fue estimar factores asociados al bienestar psicológico de travestis y mujeres transexuales. Se trata de un estudio transversal con 602 travestis y personas transexuales en siete municipios del estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2014 y 2015. Se realizó una selección de muestras con un enfoque consecutivo y técnica bola de nieve. La variable dependiente fue bienestar sicológico (WHOQOL-BREF) y las independientes fueron: características sociodemográficas, modificaciones corporales, condiciones de salud, violencia y encarcelamiento. Se usó un análisis multivariante de variancia para identificar los factores asociados. La mayoría tenía el color de piel negro o eran mulatos, y entre 25 y 39 años de edad, con hasta la enseñanza media completa, renta individual de hasta dos salarios mínimos y trabajaba, siendo un 42,3% profesionales del sexo. Cerca de un cuarto ya estuvo presa. También cerca de un cuarto estaba con tratamiento para el VIH. Las puntuaciones medias de bienestar sicológico fue 63,2 (IC95%: 61,8-64,6). En el análisis múltiple, estuvieron asociados a un menor bienestar sicológico: no tener dirección fija, tener menor escolaridad, estar insatisfecha con las relaciones personales, apoyo de amigos o procedimientos transexualizadores realizados, y haber sufrido violencia verbal o sexual. Mientras que unas peores condiciones de vida y de exposición a la violencia perjudican el bienestar sicológico de travestis y mujeres transexuales, la posibilidad de realizar las transformaciones corporales deseadas y el respeto al nombre social interfieren positivamente en la evaluación que hacen de sus vidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Transvestism/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Homophobia , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180126, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041554

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We assessed the clinical-epidemiological profile of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the Santos region (São Paulo state) with the highest AIDS prevalence in Brazil. METHODS Information was extracted from records of 409 AIDS-infected patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was diagnosed in 24.7% of patients during admission, and 39.6% of already diagnosed patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) irregularly. The mortality rate was 19.1%, and the main secondary manifestations were neurotoxoplasmosis and tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS patients in the Santos region had high rates of late diagnosis and low treatment adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL