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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 389-402, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939873

ABSTRACT

Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2 = 0.033; P = 0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2 = 0.032; P = 0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2 = 0.027; P = 0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients' lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Bacteria/classification , Chemokine CCL4/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Humans , Lung , Microbiota/genetics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Prognosis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
3.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE0326345, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374004

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do uso de ventilação mecânica com pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP) na função renal dos pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, quantitativo, desenvolvido na UTI de um hospital público de Brasília, Distrito Federal. A amostra foi constituída de 52 prontuários de pacientes internados na UTI de novembro de 2016 a dezembro de 2018. A coleta dos dados foi realizada por meio de um questionário com dados demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais. Os pacientes foram alocados em grupos: (1) PEEP ≤ 5 cmH2O, (2) PEEP > 5 cmH2O e < 10 cmH2O e (3) PEEP ≥ 10 cmH2O. Resultados A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 59 anos e 50% deles tinha mais de 63 anos. Constatou-se que 63,16% dos pacientes que estavam em ventilação mecânica com pressão positiva ao final da expiração ≥ 10 cmH2O evoluíram no estágio 1 (menor gravidade de lesão renal aguda (LRA)) e 21,5% no estágio 2 (moderada gravidade). Ainda assim, um pequeno percentual (5,8%) de pacientes evoluiu a óbito. Pacientes sem sucesso no desmame da ventilação mecânica apresentaram 10,24 vezes a chance de evoluir com LRA. Conclusão o emprego da ventilação mecânica pode determinar danos à função renal dos pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva e que aqueles com maior necessidade de oferta de PEEP evoluíram com diferentes gravidades e persistência da LRA.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del uso de la ventilación mecánica con presión positiva espiratoria final (PEEP) en la función renal de los pacientes internados en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UTI). Métodos Estudio de corte retrospectivo, cuantitativo, desarrollado en la UCI de un hospital público de Brasília, Distrito Federal. La amuestra estuvo constituida por 52 prontuarios de pacientes internados en la UCI de noviembre de 2016 a diciembre de 2018. La recolección de los datos se realizó por medio de un cuestionario con datos demográficos, clínicos y laboratoriales. Los pacientes fueron distribuidos en grupos: (1) PEEP ≤ 5 cmH2O, (2) PEEP > 5 cmH2O y < 10 cmH2O y (3) PEEP ≥ 10 cmH2O. Resultados El promedio de edad de los pacientes era de 59 años y el 50 % de ellos tenía más de 63 años. Se constató que el 63,16 % de los pacientes que estaban en ventilación mecánica con presión positiva al final de la expiración ≥ 10 cmH2O evolucionaron en la etapa 1 (menor gravedad de lesión renal aguda (LRA)) y 21,5 % en la etapa 2 (moderada gravedad). Aun así, un pequeño porcentaje (5,8 %) de pacientes falleció. Pacientes sin éxito en la descontinuación de la ventilación mecánica presentaron 10,24 veces la posibilidad de evolucionar con LRA. Conclusión el uso de la ventilación mecánica puede determinar daños a la función renal de los pacientes internados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos y que los que tengan una mayor necesidad de oferta de PEEP evolucionaron con distintas gravedades y persistencia de la LRA.


Abstract Objective To assess the effect of using mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the renal function of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods This is a quantitative retrospective cohort study developed in the ICU of a public hospital in Brasília, Distrito Federal. The sample consisted of 52 medical records of patients admitted to the ICU from November 2016 to December 2018. Data collection was performed through a questionnaire with demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Patients were allocated in two groups: (1) PEEP ≤ 5 cmH2O, (2) PEEP > 5 cmH2O and < 10 cmH2O, and (3) PEEP ≥ 10 cmH2O. Results The mean age of patients was 59 years and 50% of them were over 63 years. It was found that 63.16% of patients who were on mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure ≥ 10 cmH2O evolved in stage 1 (less severe acute kidney injury (AKI)) and 21.5% in stage 2 (moderate gravity). Even so, a small percentage (5.8%) of patients died. Patients who were unsuccessful in weaning from mechanical ventilation had a 10.24-fold chance of developing AKI. Conclusion mechanical ventilation use can cause damage to the renal function of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and that those with greater need to offer PEEP evolved with different severities and persistence of AKI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Medical Records , Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Time Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289351

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La disfunción renal aguda es frecuente en pacientes quirúrgicos. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo que influyen en el desarrollo de lesión renal aguda durante el postoperatorio inmediato en cuatro años. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo casos y controles. (750 controles y 230 casos). Fue empleado el Chi Cuadrado (α< 0,05), el OR con IC 95 por ciento y el cálculo de valores predictivos. Resultados: La frecuencia fue de un 23,4 por ciento. Los factores de riesgo en el posoperatorio fueron: mayores de 60 años (OR 4,0 IC 95 por ciento 2,9-5,6) (p=0,00), cirugía de urgencia (OR 2,7 IC 95 por ciento 2,1-3,6) (p=0,00), ASA clase 4 (OR 2,0 IC 95 por ciento 1,4-2,8,) (p=0,00). En el intra y posoperatorio: cirugía de fractura de cadera (OR 4,9 IC 95 por ciento 3,2-7,5), anestesia general (OR 3,0 IC 95 por ciento 2,2-4,2), administración mayor de 2500 mL de cristaloides (OR 186,1 IC 95 por ciento 107,4-321,9) (p=0,00), más de 60 mg de furosemida (OR 3,3 IC 95 por ciento 2,4-4,6) (p=0,00), APACHE II inicial ≥ 15 puntos (OR 46 IC 95 por ciento 28,1-74,8) (p=0,00). El mayor valor predictivo lo obtuvo el APACHE II inicial (sensibilidad 92,0 por cientoy especificidad 80,0 por ciento). Conclusiones: El control de los factores de riesgo en el posoperatorio inmediato disminuiría de forma significativa la incidencia de lesión renal aguda, en especial en aquellos mayores de 60 años, con cirugía de urgencia, anestesia general, fractura de cadera y APACHE II por encima de 15 puntos. Debe garantizarse la normovolemia, individualizar y optimizar dosis-tiempo de exposición de la furosemida, hemoderivados y aminas vasoactivas(AU)


Introduction: Acute renal dysfunction is frequent in surgical patients. Objective: To identify the risk factors that influence the development of acute kidney injury during the immediate postoperative period in four years. Methods: A case-control study was carried out, with 750 controls and 230 cases. Chi-square (α<0.05), odds ratio [OR] (95 percent confidence interval [95 percent CI]) and calculation of predictive values ​​were used. Results: The frequency was 23.4 percent. The postoperative risk factors were age over 60 years (OR: 4.0; 95 percent CI: 2.9-5.6) (P=0.00), emergency surgery (OR: 2.7; 95 percent CI: 2.1-3.6) (P=0.00), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class IV (OR: 2.0; 95 percent CI: 1.4-2.8) (P=0.00). In the intraoperative and postoperative periods, the risk factors were hip fracture surgery (OR: 4.9; 95 percent CI: 3.2-7.5), general anesthesia (OR: 3.0; 95 percent CI 2.2-4.2), administration of more than 2500 mL of crystalloids (OR: 186.1; 95 percent CI: 107.4-321.9) (P=0.00), more than 60 mg of furosemide (OR: 3.3; 95 percent CI: 2.4-4.6) (p=0.00), initial acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15 points (OR: 46; 95 percent CI: 28.1-74.8) (p=0.00). The highest predictive value was obtained by the initial APACHE II (sensitivity of 92.0 percent and specificity of 80.0 percent). Conclusions: The control of risk factors in the immediate postoperative period would reduce the incidence of acute renal injury significantly, especially in patients aged over 60 years, who underwent emergency surgery, received general anesthesia, with hip fracture and APACHE II above 15 points. Normovolemia must be guaranteed, as well as individualizing and optimizing the relationship dose-time of exposure of furosemide, blood products and vasoactive amines(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Case Reports , Risk Factors
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 128-132, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154655

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thromboembolic events are frequent in patients with COVID-19 infection, and no cases of bilateral renal infarctions have been reported. We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with diabetes mellitus and obesity who attended the emergency department for low back pain, respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and shock. The patient had acute kidney injury and required hemodialysis. Contrast abdominal tomography showed bilateral renal infarction and anticoagulation was started. Kidney infarction cases require high diagnostic suspicion and possibility of starting anticoagulation.


Resumo Fenômenos tromboembólicos são frequentes em pacientes com infecção por COVID-19 e nenhum caso de infarto renal bilateral havia sido relatado. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 41 anos, com diabetes mellitus e obesidade, que deu entrada no serviço de urgência por lombalgia, insuficiência respiratória associada à pneumonia COVID-19, cetoacidose diabética e choque. A paciente apresentava lesão renal aguda e demandava hemodiálise. A tomografia abdominal contrastada mostrou infarto renal bilateral e foi iniciada anticoagulação. Os casos de infarto renal requerem alta suspeita diagnóstica e possibilidade de iniciar a anticoagulação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Infarction/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Renal Dialysis/methods , Fatal Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
6.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE03193, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1278068

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência da síndrome cardiorrenal (SCR) em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) crônica descompensada e sua associação com os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, achados admissionais, mortalidade e tempo de hospitalização. Método: Estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi constituída por 379 prontuários de pacientes adultos com o diagnóstico médico de IC crônica descompensada, admitidos em hospital público no estado de São Paulo, ao longo de 2015. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2016. A disfunção renal foi considerada em pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de doença renal crônica (DRC) pela taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) < 89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Testes com valor de p menor ou igual a 0,05 foram estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A prevalência da SCR foi de 54,1%, sendo 24,8% do tipo 1 e 29,3% do tipo 2. Os principais fatores associados à SCR foram: maior média de idade, mulheres, IC de etiologia isquêmica, menor fração de ejeção, portadores de diabetes mellitus, doença arterial coronariana, uso de estimuladores cardíacos artificiais, hipotireoidismo e doença de Chagas, bem como o perfil hemodinâmico de descompensação da IC nos tipos C e L. Destacam-se, ainda, inapetência, sonolência, estertores na ausculta respiratória, alteração na perfusão tissular, redução do débito urinário, com aumento dos níveis séricos de potássio, ureia e creatinina na avaliação clínica inicial. Os pacientes com disfunção renal apresentaram maior mortalidade, sem diferença significativa quanto ao tempo de hospitalização. Conclusão: Houve alta prevalência da SCR em pacientes com IC crônica descompensada, associada à maior mortalidade e diversos indicadores clínicos.


Resumen Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia del síndrome cardiorrenal (SCR) en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) crónica descompensada y su relación con los datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y descubiertos en la admisión, la mortalidad y el tiempo de hospitalización. Métodos: Estudio transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 379 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos con diagnóstico médico de IC crónica descompensada, ingresados en hospital público en el estado de São Paulo, durante 2015. La recolección de datos se realizó en 2016. La disfunción renal fue considerada en pacientes con diagnóstico previo de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) por el índice de filtración glomerular (IFG) < 89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Pruebas con un valor de p menor o igual a 0,05 fueron estadísticamente significativos. Resultados: La prevalencia del SCR fue del 54,1 %, del cual el 24,8 % fue de tipo 1 y el 29,3 % de tipo 2. Los principales factores asociados al SCR fueron: mayor promedio de edad, mujeres, IC de etiología isquémica, menor fracción de eyección, portadores de diabetes mellitus, enfermedad arterial coronaria, uso de estimuladores cardíacos artificiales, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Chagas, así como también el perfil hemodinámico de descompensación de la IC en el tipo C y L. Además, se destacan la inapetencia, somnolencia, estertores en la auscultación pulmonar, alteración en la perfusión tisular, reducción del flujo urinario, con aumento del nivel en sangre de potasio, urea y creatinina en la evaluación clínica inicial. Los pacientes con disfunción renal presentaron mayor mortalidad, sin diferencia significativa con relación al tiempo de hospitalización. Conclusión: Se observó una alta prevalencia del SCR en pacientes con IC crónica descompensada, relacionada con una mayor mortalidad y diversos indicadores clínicos.


Abstract Objective: to identify cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) prevalence in patients with decompensated chronic heart failure (HF) and its association with sociodemographic and clinical data, admission findings, mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods: a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 379 medical records of adult patients with a medical diagnosis of decompensated chronic HF admitted to a public hospital in the state of São Paulo, throughout 2015. Data collection occurred in 2016. Kidney failure was considered in patients with a previous diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Tests with a p value less than or equal to 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: CRS prevalence was 54.1%, with 24.8% being type 1 and 29.3% being type 2. The main factors associated with CRS were: higher mean age; women; HF of ischemic etiology; lower ejection fraction; people with diabetes mellitus; coronary artery disease; artificial cardiac stimulator use; hypothyroidism and Chagas disease; hemodynamic profile of HF decompensation in types C and L. Also noteworthy are inappetence, drowsiness, rales on respiratory auscultation, alteration in tissue perfusion, decreased urine output, with increased serum levels of potassium, urea and creatinine in the initial clinical assessment. Patients with kidney failure had higher mortality, with no significant difference in length of hospital stay. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of CRS in patients with decompensated chronic HF, associated with higher mortality and several clinical indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Medical Records , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Cardio-Renal Syndrome , Heart Failure/etiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nursing Care
7.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(2): 140-142, 30/06/2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103727

ABSTRACT

O tratamento de desidratação e distúrbios eletrolíticos graves é contraindicado por meio de hipodermóclise, mas o nível de evidência da recomendação se baseia na opinião de especialistas. Descreve-se caso clínico de paciente com idade avançada, com indicação de cuidados paliativos, que evoluiu com desidratação hiperosmolar com hipernatremia grave, injúria renal aguda e hipercalemia. Tratou-se a paciente com solução hipotônica por meio da técnica de hipodermóclise, com resolução completa do quadro. Conclui-se que há necessidade de mais estudos sobre o uso da hipodermóclise para o tratamento de distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos graves.


The treatment of dehydration and severe electrolyte disturbances using hypodermoclysis is usually contraindicated, but the level of evidence for its recommendation is based on expert opinion. This case report describes an older patient receiving palliative care who developed hyperosmolar dehydration with severe hypernatremia, acute kidney injury, and hyperkalemia. She was treated with hypodermoclysis using a hypotonic solution, which led to complete resolution of the condition. In conclusion, further studies on the use of hypodermoclysis for the treatment of severe hydroelectrolytic disorders are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Dehydration/complications , Hypodermoclysis/methods , Hyperkalemia/complications , Hypernatremia/complications , Palliative Care , Frail Elderly , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Kidney/injuries
8.
Cienc. enferm. (En línea) ; 26: 6, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124364

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre variações do clearance de creatinina (ClCr) e os fatores clínicos de pacientes internados em clínica médica. Material e Método: Estudo longitudinal, do tipo coorte prospectivo, quantitativo, realizado em um hospital público do Distrito Federal. 85 pacientes evoluíram com Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA), de acordo com a classificação Kidney Disease: Improving Glogal Guidelines (KDIGO). O acompanhamento foi até 1 mês pós-alta hospitalar. A gravidade dos pacientes foi medida através do Índice de Comorbidade de Charlson. Considerou-se significativo resultados com p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: 51,8% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Entre as comorbidades se destacaram hipertensão arterial (70,6%), diabetes mellitus (57,6%) e as cardiopatias (52,9%). O tempo de permanência hospitalar (p= 0,001) e a idade (p= 0,05) estiveram associadas a pior função renal. Pacientes com ClCr ≤ 30 ml/min estiveram associados a uma maior taxa de mortalidade (p= 0,007). Conclusão: Idade avançada e maior tempo de internação hospitalar se associaram a piora da função renal (ClCr < 60 ml/min). Àqueles com severa piora da função renal (ClCr < 30 ml/min) apresentaram maior taxa mortalidade.


ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the relationship between variations in creatinine clearance (ClCr) and clinical factors in hospitalized patients in internal medicine. Material and Method: A prospective, quantitative, cohort study conducted at the medical clinic of a public hospital in Distrito Federal. 85 patients progressed with Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), according to the Kidney Disease Improving Glogal Guidelines (KDIGO) classification. Patients were followed-up to 1 month after hospital discharge. Patient severity was measured using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results with p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Results: 51.8% of the patients were male. Most common comorbidities were hypertension (70.6%), diabetes mellitus (57.6%) and heart disease (52.9%). The length of hospital stay (p = 0.001) and age (p = 0.05) were associated with worse renal function. Patients with CrCl ≤ 30 ml/min were associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Older patients and longer hospital stay were associated with worsening renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min). Those with severe worsening of renal function (CrCl < 30 ml/min) presented higher mortality rate.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Verificar la relación entre variaciones del clearance de creatinina (CLCr) y los factores clínicos de pacientes internados en medicina interna. Material y Método: Estudio longitudinal, del tipo cohorte prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital público del Distrito Federal. 85 pacientes evolucionaron con Lesión Renal Aguda (LRA), de acuerdo con la clasificación de las normas KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Guidelines). El seguimiento fue hasta 1 mes post-alta hospitalaria. La gravedad de los pacientes fue medida a través del Índice de Comorbilidad de Charlson. Se consideraron significativos resultados con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: 51,8% de los pacientes eran del sexo masculino. Entre las comorbilidades se destacaron hipertensión arterial (70,6%), diabetes mellitus (57,6%) y las cardiopatías (52,9%). El tiempo de permanencia hospitalaria (p = 0,001) y la edad (p = 0,05) estuvieron asociadas a la peor función renal. Los pacientes con ClCr ≤ 30 ml/min estuvieron asociados a una mayor tasa de mortalidad (p = 0,007). Conclusión: Edad avanzada y el mayor tiempo de internación hospitalaria se asociaron al empeoramiento de la función renal (ClCr < 60 ml/ min). Aquellos con severo empeoramiento de la función renal (CLCr < 30 ml/min) presentaron mayor tasa de mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Comorbidity , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Inpatients , Kidney Diseases/complications , Length of Stay
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 391-396, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056736

ABSTRACT

Los altos niveles de vitamina B12 o cobalamina, también denominado hipervitaminosis B12 es una anormalidad analítica frecuentemente subestimada. De acuerdo con la literatura algunas de las entidades relacionadas con este hallazgo son las neoplasias sólidas (primarias o metastásicas) y las enfermedades hematológicas agudas o crónicas. Otras causas incluyen la afección hepática, la gammapatía monoclonal de significación indeterminada, la insuficiencia renal y, con menor frecuencia, un exceso de consumo de vitamina B12, enfermedades inflamatorias o autoinmunes y los trastornos hematológicos transitorios (neutrofilia y eosinofilia secundaria). Este artículo informa sobre causas de hipervitaminosis B12, nuestra experiencia y hace una revisión de la literatura.


High serum levels of vitamin B12 or cobalamin, also called hypervitaminemia B12, is a frequently underestimated biological abnormality. According to the literature, some of the entities related to this finding are solid neoplasia (primary or metastatic) and acute or chronic hematological diseases. Other causes include liver disorders, monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance, renal failure and, less frequently, excess of vitamin B12 intake, inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, and transient hematological disorders (neutrophilia and secondary eosinophilia). This article reports on causes of hypervitaminosis B12, our experience and a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin B 12/blood , Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Nutrition Disorders/blood , Vitamin B 12/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/blood
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019114, July-Sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017352

ABSTRACT

Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma, the most common adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a proliferative neoplasm of enlarged B cells. Patients may be asymptomatic on presentation, but if present, symptoms often correlate with direct organ dysfunction resulting from the site of involvement. While the gastrointestinal system is the most common site of extranodal involvement, virtually any part of the body can be infiltrated by malignant lymphocytes. Here, we present an unusual case of cardiac and bilateral renal involvement by Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma in a 78-year-old male with a relatively unremarkable medical history. This combination of organ involvement and the resulting clinical symptoms are uncommonly described in the literature. The patient was treated for his symptoms prior to death, but the underlying cause that explained his presentation was not identified until performance of an autopsy. As such, this case demonstrates the utility of the medical autopsy, a gold standard in diagnostic medicine that can provide a variety of benefits in today's healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Lymphoma/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome
11.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(2): 62-67, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001117

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: conocer la sobrevida del programa de trasplante renal en el Hospital Nacional de Niños, de enero 1978 a enero 2016. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo, en niños que recibieron un trasplante renal. Se recopiló la información de los expedientes clínicos. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de edad que tuvieran un injerto viable por al menos tres meses, pacientes con expediente pasivo completo y que brindaran el consentimiento informado. Resultados: se recopiló un total de 152 pacientes, y se incluyeron 143 en el estudio, ya que 9fueron excluidos. El 51 % (n= 73) fueron mujeres. Se realizó 167 trasplantes renales, el 63,5 % (n=105) fue de injertos provenientes de donante vivo relacionado. La sobrevida al primer año fue del 100 %, el 95 % a los 10 años y el 61% a los 20 años del trasplante. En cuanto a la sobrevida del injerto, se encontró una sobrevida al primer año del 95 %, del 76 % a los 3 años y del 73 % a los 5 años después del trasplante, con una incidencia de rechazo agudo del 28,7 %. Conclusión: el trasplante renal en niños es un procedimiento muy complejo donde la sobrevida depende de múltiples factores ambientales y adquiridos; sin embargo, sí es posible que centros pediátricos como el nuestro puedan llegar a alcanzar porcentajes de sobrevida acordes a los de centros de países desarrollados.


Abstract Objective: to know the survival of the renal transplant program at the National Children's Hospital, from January 1978 to January 2016. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study in children who received a kidney transplant. The information was compiled from the clinical files. We included children who had a viable graft for at least three months, patients with a complete passive file and who provided informed consent. Results: A total of 152 patients were collected, and 143 were included in the study, since 9 were excluded. 51% (n = 73) were women. A total of 167 kidney transplants were performed, 63.5% (n = 105) were grafts from a related living donor. Survival at the first year was 100%, 95% at 10 years and 61% at 20 years after transplantation. Regarding the survival of the graft, a survival rate of 95% was found in the first year, 76% at 3 years and 73% at 5 years after transplantation, with an incidence of acute rejection of 28.7%. Conclusions: Kidney transplantation in children is a very complex procedure where survival depends on multiple environmental factors and / or acquired, however it is possible that pediatric centers like ours can reach survival rates according to centers in developed countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Costa Rica , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Hospitals, Pediatric
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 258-261, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013769

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A segurança e a eficácia do rituximabe em pacientes com comprometimento renal não foram estabelecidas, e o mesmo ocorre com os efeitos da hemodiálise nos níveis séricos de rituximabe. Atualmente, apenas alguns relatos de caso avaliaram o nível sérico de rituximabe antes e após a diálise. Não foram até aqui publicados dados relativos ao uso de rituximabe em pacientes sob terapia de substituição renal contínua. Os autores apresentam um caso referente a uma mulher com 59 anos de idade atendida com quadro de tetraparesia paraneoplásica. Ela foi admitida no serviço de medicina intensiva devido a hemorragia alveolar com insuficiência respiratória e lesão renal aguda, que necessitou da utilização de terapia de substituição renal contínua. Após os procedimentos diagnósticos, estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de linfoma linfoplasmocítico. Deu-se início ao tratamento com rituximabe e ciclofosfamida. Os níveis de rituximabe foram determinados no soro e no dialisato. Não se encontrou qualquer nível de rituximabe no dialisato. A paciente faleceu após 2 meses no serviço de medicina intensiva por pneumonia nosocomial causada por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a múltiplos fármacos.


ABSTRACT Rituximab safety and efficacy in patients with renal impairment have not been established, nor have the effects of hemodialysis on serum rituximab level. There are only a few published case reports assessing serum rituximab level pre- and postdialysis. No data have been published regarding the usage of rituximab in patients with continuous renal replacement therapy. The authors present a case of a 59-year-old female patient who presented with paraneoplastic tetraparesis. She was admitted to the intensive care unit due to alveolar hemorrhage with respiratory failure and acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. After a diagnostic workup, the diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma was established. Therapy with rituximab and cyclophosphamide was started. Rituximab levels were determined in serum and dialysate. No rituximab was found in the dialysate. The patient died after 2 months in the intensive care unit from nosocomial pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Fatal Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Middle Aged
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 296-299, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012529

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a rapid progressive thrombotic disease in which hemorrhagic infarction of the skin and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs. It can potentially cause acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is no description in the medical literature of renal histological findings of PF. Case report: A 20-year-old female patient, previously healthy, was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with odynophagia, fever, generalized myalgia and anuria, which evolved with the appearance of purpuric plaques on the face and limbs. She required dialysis on admission. Laboratorial tests showed anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevation of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The purpuric lesions became bullous with ruptures and then necrotic and erosive, reaching the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and musculature, until bone exposure. There was no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy aimed at the treatment of meningococcemia. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and PF were then suspected. The patient remained in daily dialysis, requiring plasmapheresis. After sustained improvement of the thrombocytopenia, she underwent renal biopsy, which was not compatible with TMA, characterizing possible PF. A complete recovery of the renal function was achieved and cutaneous sequels were treated with grafts. Conclusion: When thrombotic and hemorrhagic phenomena overlap, obtaining a renal biopsy can be difficult. However, in the presented case, the biopsy allowed the exclusion of AKI caused by TMA, presenting for the first time, histological findings compatible with PF.


RESUMO Introdução: Purpura Fulminans (PF) é uma doença trombótica de rápida progressão, com infarto hemorrágico da pele e coagulação intravascular disseminada (CIVD). É potencialmente causadora de injúria renal aguda (IRA). Porém, não há descrição na literatura médica dos achados histológicos renais causados por PF. Relato de caso: Mulher, 20 anos, previamente hígida, hospitalizada por odinofagia, febre, mialgia generalizada e anúria, evoluiu com aparecimento de placas purpúricas em face e membros. Necessitou de hemodiálise (HD) já na admissão. Exames laboratoriais mostravam anemia, leucocitose, plaquetopenia e elevação de desidrogenase lática. As lesões purpúricas tornaram-se bolhosas com rompimento e progressão para necrose, se aprofundaram, atingindo derme, subcutâneo e musculatura, até a exposição óssea. Não houve melhora com antibioticoterapia inicial voltada para tratamento de meningococemia. Suspeitou-se, então, de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) e PF. A paciente permaneceu em HD diária e necessitou também de plasmaférese, após melhora sustentada da plaquetopenia, foi submetida à biópsia renal, que não foi compatível com MAT, possivelmente caracterizando PF. Houve recuperação completa da função renal e as sequelas cutâneas foram tratadas com enxerto. Conclusão: Em casos nos quais os fenômenos trombóticos e hemorrágicos se sobrepõem, a obtenção da biópsia renal se torna difícil. Neste caso, a biópsia permitiu excluir IRA causada por MAT e mostrar, pela primeira vez, achados compatíveis com PF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Purpura Fulminans/complications , Purpura Fulminans/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Renal Dialysis , Plasmapheresis , Skin Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Length of Stay
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 1-9, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Kidney disease is a global public health problem, affecting over 750 million persons worldwide. The burden of kidney disease varies substantially across the world, as does its detection and treatment. In many settings, rates of kidney disease and the provision of its care are defined by socio-economic, cultural, and political factors leading to significant disparities. World Kidney Day 2019 offers an opportunity to raise awareness of kidney disease and highlight disparities in its burden and current state of global capacity for prevention and management. Here, we highlight that many countries still lack access to basic diagnostics, a trained nephrology workforce, universal access to primary health care, and renal replacement therapies. We point to the need for strengthening basic infrastructure for kidney care services for early detection and management of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease across all countries and advocate for more pragmatic approaches to providing renal replacement therapies. Achieving universal health coverage worldwide by 2030 is one of the World Health Organization's Sustainable Development Goals. While universal health coverage may not include all elements of kidney care in all countries, understanding what is feasible and important for a country or region with a focus on reducing the burden and consequences of kidney disease would be an important step towards achieving kidney health equity.


Resumo A doença renal é um problema de saúde pública global, afetando mais de 750 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O ônus da doença renal varia substancialmente em todo o mundo, assim como sua detecção e tratamento. Em muitos contextos, as taxas de doença renal e a provisão de seus cuidados são definidas por fatores socioeconômicos, culturais e políticos que levam a disparidades significativas. O Dia Mundial do Rim 2019 oferece uma oportunidade para aumentar a conscientização sobre doenças renais e destacar as disparidades em seu impacto e estado atual da capacidade global de prevenção e tratamento. Aqui, destacamos que muitos países ainda carecem de acesso a diagnósticos básicos, uma força de trabalho treinada em nefrologia, acesso universal à atenção primária à saúde e terapias de substituição renal. Apontamos para a necessidade de fortalecer a infra-estrutura básica para serviços de cuidados renais para detecção e tratamento precoce de lesão renal aguda e doença renal crônica em todos os países e defender abordagens mais pragmáticas para o fornecimento de terapias de substituição renal. Alcançar a cobertura universal de saúde em todo o mundo até 2030 é um dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Embora a cobertura universal de saúde não inclua todos os elementos do tratamento renal em todos os países, entender o que é viável e importante para um país ou região com foco na redução do impacto e das consequências da doença renal seria um passo importante para alcançar a equidade na saúde renal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Delivery of Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Risk Factors , Renal Replacement Therapy , Health Equity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Nephrologists
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(6): 509-517, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956489

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: HIV-related mortality is still high, especially in developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate factors associated to death in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with all HIV adult patients admitted to a tertiary infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: survivors and non-survivors. Demo-graphical, clinical and laboratory data were compared and a logistic regression was performed in order to investigate risk factors for death. P values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients with mean age of 39 years were including in the study, 69.5% males. Fifteen patients (7.5%) died. Non-survivors presented a higher percentage of males (93.3 vs. 67.3%, p = 0.037). Non-survivors presented AKI (73.3 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001), liver dysfunction (33.3 vs. 11.5, p = 0.031), dyspnea (73.3 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.002) and disorientation (33.3 vs. 12.4%, p = 0.025) more frequently. Non-survivors also had higher levels of urea (73.8 ± 52.7vs. 36.1 ± 29.1 mg/dL, p < 0.001), creatinine (1.98 ± 1.65 vs. 1.05 ± 1.07 mg/dL, p < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (130.8 vs. 84.8 U/L, p = 0.03), alanine aminotransferase (115.6 vs. 85.4 U/L, p = 0.045) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (1208 vs. 608 U/L, p = 0.012), as well as lower levels of bicarbonate (18.0 ± 4.7 vs. 21.6 ± 4.6 mEq/L, p = 0.016) and PCO2 (27.8 ± 7.7 vs. 33.0 ± 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, disorientation (p = 0.035, OR = 5.523, 95%CI = 1.130 - 26.998), dyspnoea (p = 0.046, OR = 4.064, 95%CI = 1.028 - 16.073), AKI (p < 0.001, OR = 18.045, 95%CI = 4.308 - 75.596) and disseminated histoplasmosis (p = 0.016, OR = 12.696, 95%CI = 1.618 - 99.646) and LDH > 1000 U/L (p = 0.038, OR = 4.854, 95%CI = 1.093 - 21.739) were risk factors for death.]CONCLUSION: AKI and disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) were the main risk factors for death in the studied population. Neurologic and respiratory impairment as well as higher levels of LDH also increased mortality in HIV-infected patients.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade relacionada ao HIV ainda é alta, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar os fatores associados ao óbito em pacientes com HIV. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com todos os pacientes com HIV admitidos consecutivamente em um hospital terciário de doenças infecciosas em Fortaleza, Nordeste do Brasil, entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: sobreviventes e não sobreviventes. Dados demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais foram comparados e análise de regressão logística foi feita para investigação dos fatores de risco para óbito. RESULTADOS: Um total de 200 pacientes, com média de idade de 39 anos, foi incluído no estudo, sendo 69,5% do sexo masculino. Óbito ocorreu em 15 pacientes (7,5%). Os não sobreviventes apresentaram maior percentual de homens (93,3 vs. 67,3%, p = 0,037) e um menor tempo de internação (8 ± 6 vs. 18 ± 15 dias, p = 0,005). Na análise multivariada, desorientação (p = 0,035, OR = 5,523), dispneia (p = 0,046, OR = 4,064), LRA (p < 0,001, OR = 18,045), histoplasmose disseminada (p = 0,016, OR = 12,696) e desidrogenase lática (LDH) > 1.000 U/L (p = 0,038, OR = 4,854) foram fatores de risco para óbito. CONCLUSÕES: LRA e histoplasmose disseminada foram os principais fatores de risco para óbito na população estudada. Distúrbios neurológicos e respiratórios, bem como níveis elevados de LDH, também estiveram associados com o aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Confusion/complications , Confusion/mortality , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/mortality , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 119-122, abr. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954960

ABSTRACT

El síndrome urémico hemolítico atípico (SUHa) es una entidad rara que se presenta como una microangiopatía trombótica (anemia hemolítica no inmune, trombocitopenia e insuficiencia renal aguda), cuyas lesiones anatomopatológicas típicas son el engrosamiento de las paredes de capilares y arteriolas con trombosis obstructiva del lumen vascular. Se produce por desregulación de la vía alterna del complemento en la superficie celular, debido a causas genéticas o adquiridas, con una alta tasa de mortalidad, enfermedad renal crónica terminal y recurrencia post-trasplante renal. Las mutaciones de peor pronóstico son las asociadas a factor H, factor B y fracción C3 del complemento. La terapia plasmática resulta útil solo en algunos casos, mientras que el uso de eculizumab es altamente eficaz tanto para el tratamiento agudo como para prevenir las recurrencias en el post-trasplante. Comunicamos el caso de una mujer adulta con diagnóstico de SUHa congénito (mutación de C3) en tratamiento preventivo con eculizumab posterior al trasplante renal, sin recurrencia de la enfermedad, ni efectos adversos relacionados al medicamento a los 36 meses de seguimiento post-trasplante.


Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare entity. It is characterized by a thrombotic microangiopathy (nonimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure), with a typical histopathology of thickening of capillary and arteriolar walls and an obstructive thrombosis of the vascular lumen. The syndrome is produced by a genetic or acquired deregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, with high rates of end stage renal disease, post-transplant recurrence, and high mortality. Mutations associated with factor H, factor B and complement C3 show the worst prognosis. Even though plasma therapy is occasionally useful, eculizumab is effective both for treatment and prevention of post-transplant recurrence. We describe here an adult case of congenital aHUS (C3 mutation) under preventive treatment with eculizumab after renal transplantation, with neither disease recurrence nor drug-related adverse events after a 36-months follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/etiology , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Graft Rejection/drug therapy
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(4): 467-469, Oct.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893796

ABSTRACT

Abstract A previously healthy 24 yo male presented with a two-month history of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and malaise. He reported abuse of different substances, including an injectable veterinary vitamin compound, which contains high doses of vitamin A, D and E, and an oily vehicle that induces local edema and enhances muscle volume. Serum creatinine was 3.1 mg/dL, alanine transaminase 160 mg/dL, aspartate transaminase 11 mg/dL, total testosterone 23 ng/dL, 25-OH-vitamin D >150 ng/mL (toxicity >100), 1,25-OH-vitamin D 80 pg/mL, vitamin A 0.7 mg/dL, parathormone <3 pg/mL, total calcium 13.6 mg/dL, 24-hour urinary calcium 635 mg/24h (RV 42-353). A urinary tract ultrasound demonstrated signs of parenchymal nephropathy. The diagnosis was hypercalcemia and acute renal failure secondary to vitamin D intoxication. He was initially treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide and prednisone. On the fifth day of hospitalization a dose of pamidronate disodium was added. The patient evolved with serum calcium and renal function normalization. Thirty days later he presented normal clinical and laboratory tests, except 25-OH-vitamin D that was persistently increased (107 ng/mL), as it may take several months to normalize. This case report is a warning of the risks related to the use of veterinary substances for aesthetics purposes.


Resumo Um paciente de 24 anos do sexo masculino, previamente hígido, apresentou-se com uma história de dois meses de dor epigástrica, náuseas, vômitos, fadiga e mal-estar. Ele relatava abuso de diferentes substâncias, incluindo um composto vitamínico veterinário injetável contendo altas doses de vitamina A, D e E, e um veículo oleoso que induz edema local com aumento de volume muscular. A creatinina sérica estava 3,1 mg/dL, alanina transaminase 160 mg/dL, aspartato transaminase 11 mg/dL, testosterona total 23 ng/dL, 25-OH-vitamina D > 150 ng/mL (toxicidade > 100), 1,25-OH-vitamina D 80 pg/mL, vitamina A 0,7 mg/dL, paratormônio < 3 pg/mL, cálcio total 13,6 mg/dL, cálcio urinário de 24h 635 mg/24h (VR 42-353). Uma ultrassonografia do trato urinário demonstrou sinais de nefropatia parenquimatosa. O diagnóstico foi hipercalcemia e insuficiência renal aguda secundária a intoxicação por vitamina D. Ele foi tratado inicialmente com hidratação intravenosa, furosemida e prednisona. No quinto dia de hospitalização uma dose de pamidronato dissódico foi adicionada. O paciente evoluiu com normalização do cálcio sérico e da função renal. Trinta dias depois ele apresentou testes clínicos e laboratoriais normais, exceto a 25-OH-vitamina D que estava persistentemente elevada (107 ng/mL), já que ela pode demorar vários meses para normalizar. Este relato de caso é um alerta aos riscos relacionados ao uso de substâncias veterinárias para fins estéticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Vitamin A/adverse effects , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin E/adverse effects , Veterinary Drugs/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Hypercalcemia/chemically induced , Vitamins/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Hypercalcemia/complications
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 323-328, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and it may be associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administrate antimicrobials in dosis to achieve adequate serum levels, preventing overdosis and drug toxicity or underdosing and risk for resistance to antibiotics and higher mortality. To date, there aren't validated guidelines on antibiotic dosis adjustment in septic patients with AKI and the recommendations are extrapolated from studies conducted in non-critical patients with chronic kidney disease in end stage receiving chronic renal replacement therapy. This study aimed to review and discuss the complexity of that issue, considering the several factors related to the drugs removal: critically ill patient characteristics, antimicrobial properties and dialysis method.


Resumo A sepse é a principal causa de óbito em pacientes críticos e pode cursar com falência de vários órgãos, entre eles os rins, requerendo, com frequência, suporte renal agudo e elevando a mortalidade. Assim, torna-se imprescindível a administração de antimicrobianos em dose que garanta nível sérico adequado para evitar superdosagem e toxicidade medicamentosa ou ainda subdosagem e risco de resistência microbiana, ambas as situações contribuindo para maior mortalidade. Até o momento, não há diretrizes validadas para auxiliar no ajuste de dose de antibióticos nos pacientes sépticos com lesão renal aguda em suporte renal, sendo as recomendações extrapoladas de estudos realizados em pacientes não críticos e com doença renal em estádio final recebendo terapia renal substitutiva crônica. Esse estudo teve como objetivo revisar e discutir a complexidade desse assunto, levando em consideração os vários fatores relacionados à remoção de drogas: características do paciente crítico, propriedades dos antimicrobianos e método dialítico utilizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 239-245, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893781

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with the increasing age of the population and the increasing number of elderly survivors of acute kidney injury (AKI). The risk factors for the progression of CKD after AKI are unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between AKI and its progression to CKD and the risk factors involved. Methods: An observational, retrospective study of AKI patients followed from 2009 to 2012 was carried out. We evaluated the etiology of AKI, the use of vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation, the need for dialysis, the presence of comorbidities, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the length of stay and the progression of CKD. Statistical analyses, including the Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation, were performed using SPSS. Results: The 207 patients analyzed had a mean age of 70.1 ± 13.1, and 84.6% of the male patients exhibited decreased renal function and CKD (vs. 60.4% of the female patients). The progression of AKI to CKD was more frequent in patients admitted to wards (63.8%), cancer patients (74.19%), patients with sepsis (67.18%) and patients with obstruction (91.66%). Dialyses were performed in 16.4% of the patients, but this was not correlated with the progression of CKD. Conclusions: Being an elderly male patient with AKI due to sepsis and obstruction was correlated with progression to CKD following discharge.


Resumo Introdução: A incidência da doença renal crônica (DRC) está aumentando com o aumento da idade da população e o número crescente de idosos sobreviventes da lesão renal aguda (LRA). Os fatores de risco para a progressão da DRC após a lesão renal aguda (LRA) não são claros. Objetivos: Investigar a associação entre a LRA e sua progressão para a DRC e os fatores de risco envolvidos. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo observacional, retrospectivo de pacientes com LRA acompanhados de 2009 a 2012. Foram avaliados a etiologia da LRA, o uso de drogas vasoativas, ventilação mecânica, necessidade de diálise, presença de morbidades associadas, ritmo de filtração glomerular estimado (eGFR), duração da internação e a progressão da DRC. As análises estatísticas incluíram o teste Qui-quadrado e a correlação de Pearson utilizando o programa do SPSS. Resultados: Os 207 pacientes analisados apresentaram idade de 70,1 ± 13,1 anos, 84,6% eram do sexo masculino e que apresentaram redução da função renal e DRC (vs. 60,4% dos pacientes do sexo feminino). A progressão da LRA para DRC foi mais frequente em pacientes internados em enfermarias (63,8%), pacientes com câncer (74,19%), com sepse (67,18%) e com obstrução do trato urinário (91,66%). As dialises foram realizadas em 16,4% dos pacientes, mas isso não foi correlacionado com a progressão da DRC. Conclusões: Pacientes idosos com LRA devido à sepse e obstrução do trato urinário foram correlacionados com a progressão para DRC após a alta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Disease Progression
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