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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 284-293, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364965


ABSTRACT A major challenge in the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the selection of patients who would benefit from surgical treatment. Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) indicate renal cell stress and are associated with cell cycle arrest. The [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] ratio (Nephrocheck®) has been recently applied in patients in intensive care units patients to predict the development of acute kidney injury. In this study, we evaluated the performance of these biomarkers performance to distinguishing obstructive hydronephrosis (HN) from non-obstructive HN. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with UPJO were enrolled in this study. Urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] and clinical characteristics (hydronephrosis grade, differential renal function, and drainage half-time) were measured in the following groups: 26 children with obstructive HN at initial diagnosis (group 1A) and after six months of dismembered pyeloplasty (group 1B); 22 children with non-obstructive HN (group 2), and 26 children without any urinary tract condition, as the control group (group 3). Results: Comparing the initial samples, [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] had higher levels in the HN groups and lower levels in the control group; however, no difference was observed between the HN groups (obstructive vs. non-obstructive). After six months of follow-up, patients who underwent dismembered pyeloplasty showed stability in the urinary concentration of [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7]. All patients with [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] higher than 1.0 (ng/mL)2/1000 had diffuse cortical atrophy on ultrasonography. Conclusions: We showed that urinary levels of urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] are higher in children with HN than controls. Nephrocheck® is not reliable in predicting the need for surgical intervention for pediatric patients with UPJO.

Humans , Child , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers/urine , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/urine , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/urine , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Kidney/physiology
Clinics ; 76: e1924, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153960


OBJECTIVES: Positive fluid balance is frequent in critically ill patients and has been considered a potential biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to evaluate positive fluid balance as a biomarker for the early detection of AKI in critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. The sample was composed of patients ≥18 years old who stayed ≥3 days in an intensive care unit. Fluid balance, urinary output and serum creatinine were assessed daily. AKI was diagnosed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria. RESULTS: The final cohort was composed of 233 patients. AKI occurred in 92 patients (40%) after a median of 3 (2-6) days following ICU admission. When fluid balance was assessed as a continuous variable, a 100-ml increase in fluid balance was independently associated with a 4% increase in the odds of AKI (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.08). Positive fluid balance categorized using different thresholds was always significantly associated with subsequent detection of AKI. The mixed effects model showed that increased fluid balance preceded AKI by 4 to 6 days. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a positive fluid balance might be an early biomarker for AKI development in critically ill patients.

Humans , Adult , Critical Illness , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Biomarkers , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 722-731, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137346


Abstract Objective: To provide a new interpretation of the effect of intraoperative hemodynamic data on postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) development and to determine the accuracy of some biomarkers which are thought to be the early markers of renal injury. Methods: One hundred adult patients who were connected to the heart-lung pump during open-heart surgery were included in this study. Hemodynamic data, oxygen delivery, and transfusions were recorded intraoperatively, and the preoperative and 3. postoperative hour cystatin C, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) parameters were measured for early detection of kidney damage. In the analysis, 95% significance level was used to determine the difference. Results: According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criterion, AKI developed in 24 patients, 18 of whom were stage 1, two were stage 2, and four were stage 3. AKI (+) patients had more transfusions in the intraoperative period and AKI development was a risk factor for postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 levels were found to be approximately two-fold in the postoperative period in AKI (+) patients, whereas cystatin C was not sensitive in AKI detection. Conclusion: AKI development increases the risk of postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 were successful in detecting AKI in the early postoperative period.

Humans , Male , Female , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Biomarkers/blood , Cystatin C
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 244-248, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131672


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of AKI staging on 30-day mortality of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed according to the International Club of Ascites recommendations and staged according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. Comparisons between groups were made by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. Chi-square was calculated for dichotomous variables. Comparisons of renal impairment status among patients were performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and differences between groups were analyzed using the log-rank test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-two patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of AKI was performed in 98 (42.2%) of them. The overall 30-day mortality was 19.8% (46/232). Mortality increased as the degree of AKI progressed. Among patients who did not have AKI, mortality was 5.2% (7/134). When compared to patients without AKI, patients diagnosed with AKI stage 1a had mortality of 12.1% (4/33, P=0.152); patients with AKI stage 1b had mortality of 45% (18/40, P<0.001); and patients with AKI stages 2 or 3 had mortality of 68% (17/25, P<0.001). Moreover, it is noteworthy that full response to treatment was associated to a decreased mortality when compared to patients who did not show complete recovery of renal function (14.3% vs 57.9%, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI stages 1b or greater, but not AKI stage 1a, are associated to higher 30-day mortality of patients with cirrhosis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A lesão renal aguda (LRA) é uma complicação comum e grave na cirrose. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto dos estágios da LRA na mortalidade em 30 dias de pacientes com cirrose. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com pacientes com cirrose hospitalizados. LRA foi diagnosticada de acordo com as recomendações do International Club of Ascites e o estadiamento foi feito de acordo com as recomendações da European Association for the Study of the Liver. Comparações entre os grupos foram feitas por análise de variância unidirecional e teste de Tukey. O teste do qui-quadrado foi calculado para variáveis categóricas. Comparações quanto à lesão renal entre os pacientes foram realizadas com estatísticas de Kaplan-Meier, e diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste de log-rank. Um P-valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS: Duzentos e trinta e dois pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O diagnóstico de LRA foi realizado em 98 (42,2%) deles. A mortalidade geral em 30 dias foi de 19,8% (46/232). A mortalidade aumentou de acordo com a progressão dos estágios de LRA. Entre pacientes sem LRA, a mortalidade foi de 5,2% (7/134). Quando comparados aos pacientes sem LRA, pacientes diagnosticados com LRA estágio 1a tiveram mortalidade de 12,1% (4/33, P=0,152); pacientes com LRA estágio 1b tiveram mortalidade de 45% (18/40, P<0,001); e pacientes com LRA estágios 2 ou 3 tiveram mortalidade de 68% (17/25, P<0,001). Além disso, é importante ressaltar que a resposta completa ao tratamento associou-se à menor mortalidade quando comparada à ausência de recuperação completa da função renal (14,3% vs 57,9%, P<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: LRA estágios 1b ou superior, mas não estágio 1a, estão associadas à maior mortalidade em 30 dias de pacientes com cirrose.

Humans , Ascites , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 127-133, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131249


Resumo A indefinição de critérios diagnósticos para síndrome cardiorrenal aguda (SCRA) impacta em diferentes resultados prognósticos. Objetivou-se avaliar os critérios diagnósticos da SCRA e o impacto no prognóstico. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. A pesquisa incluiu artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e meta-análises publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2018. Não foi encontrada na literatura nem nas diretrizes de insuficiência cardíaca uma definição clara dos critérios diagnósticos da SCRA. O critério diagnóstico mais comumente utilizado é o aumento da creatinina sérica de pelo menos 0,3 mg/dl em relação à basal. Entretanto, existem controvérsias na definição de creatinina basal e de qual deveria ser a creatinina sérica de referência dos pacientes críticos. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que os critérios de SCRA devem ser revistos para que se inclua o diagnóstico de SCRA na admissão hospitalar. A creatinina sérica de referência deve refletir a função renal basal antes do início da injúria renal aguda.

Abstract The absence of a consensus about the diagnostic criteria for acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) affects its prognosis. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic criteria for ACRS and their impact on prognosis. A systematic review was conducted using PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The search included original publications, such as clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analyses, issued from January 1998 to June 2018. Neither literature nor heart failure guidelines provided a clear definition of the diagnostic criteria for ACRS. The serum creatinine increase by at least 0.3 mg/dL from baseline creatinine is the most used diagnostic criterion. However, the definition of baseline creatinine, as well as which serum creatinine should be used as reference for critical patients, is still controversial. This systematic review suggests that ACRS criteria should be revised to include the diagnosis of ACRS on hospital admission. Reference serum creatinine should reflect baseline renal function before the beginning of acute kidney injury.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Prognosis , Creatinine
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): S50-S58, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096514


La lesión renal aguda constituye un factor de riesgo independiente de la morbimortalidad en el recién nacido. Dentro de este grupo etario, presentan aún más susceptibilidad los recién nacidos prematuros en los cuales la nefrogénesis no se ha completado y los recién nacidos de bajo peso que presentan menor masa nefronal. Todo esto hace que el recién nacido deba ser evaluado y manejado de modo diferente al paciente pediátrico. En el presente consenso, se presentan las nuevas definiciones de lesión renal aguda y se revisan las diferentes etiologías, los métodos de diagnóstico y los tratamientos recomendados.

Acute kidney Injury is recognized as an independent risk factor of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Additionally, in this age group, there are other aggravating factors, such as incomplete nephrogenesis in premature infants and lower nephron mass in low birth weight neonates. All this means that the newborn must be evaluated and managed differently from the pediatric patient. In the present consensus, we review the new definitions of acute kidney injury, etiologies, diagnostic methods and recommended treatments.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/embryology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
Medwave ; 20(5): e7928, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116906


La insuficiencia renal aguda es el síndrome caracterizado por una disminución brusca, sostenida y potencialmente reversible de la velocidad de filtración glomerular y de las funciones tubulares, afectando de forma global la función renal. Comprende una serie de eventos que se inician con la presencia de factores de riesgo que conducen hacia las fases de progresión de la insuficiencia renal aguda (estrés, lesión e insuficiencia renal), que culmina con la necesidad de terapias de reemplazo renal o muerte. Actualmente, el uso de biomarcadores que diferencien entre un daño funcional temprano o daño estructural de inicio tardío del riñón, le permite al médico realizar un diagnóstico y manejo oportuno antes de que se establezcan las fases previas a la insuficiencia renal, mejorando así la sobrevida de estos pacientes. Esta revisión busca integrar evidencia científica disponible que describe las fases previas de la insuficiencia renal aguda, revisando sus posibles causas, clasificaciones y métodos actuales de diagnóstico, junto con las principales recomendaciones vigentes para su manejo.

Acute kidney injury is a syndrome characterized by a sudden, sustained, and potentially reversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate and tubular function, which globally impacts renal function. It comprises of a series of events starting with the presence of risk factors, then evolving towards acute kidney injury progression, characterized by stress, injury, and renal failure, culminating with either the use of renal replacement therapy or death. Currently, the use of biomarkers that differentiate between the initial functional deterioration and late-onset structural damage of the kidney enables the clinician to perform an early diagnosis and indicate treatment before the stages of acute kidney injury progression are established, thus increasing survival rates.

Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Survival Rate , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 564-569, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056599


ABSTRACT Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of unknown cause that involves large vessels - particularly the aorta and its branches - such as the carotid, coronary, pulmonary, and renal arteries. The left subclavian artery is the most frequently involved vessel. Stenosis of the renal artery has been reported in 23-31% of the cases and may result in malignant hypertension, ischemic renal disease, decompensated heart failure, and premature death. Involvement of both renal arteries is uncommon. Early onset anuria and acute kidney injury are rare and have been reported only in a few cases in the literature. This report describes the case of a 15-year-old female with constitutional symptoms evolving for a year, combined with headache, nausea, and vomiting, in addition to frequent visits to emergency services and insufficient clinical examination. The patient worsened significantly six months after the onset of symptoms and developed acute pulmonary edema, oliguria, acute kidney injury, and difficult-to-control hypertension, at which point she was admitted for intensive care and hemodialysis. Initial ultrasound examination showed she had normal kidneys and stenosis-free renal arteries. The patient was still anuric after 30 days of hospitalization. A biopsy was performed and revealed her kidneys were normal. Computed tomography angiography scans of the abdominal aorta presented evidence of occlusion of both renal arteries. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for Takayasu arteritis and had a severe complication rarely described in the literature: stenosis of the two renal arteries during the acute stage of ischemic renal disease.

RESUMO A Arterite de Takayasu (AT) é uma doença inflamatória crônica, granulomatosa, de causa desconhecida, que afeta grandes vasos, principalmente a aorta e seus ramos, incluindo artérias carótidas, coronárias, pulmonares e renais, sendo a artéria subclávia esquerda o vaso mais acometido. A estenose da artéria renal é relatada em 23-31% dos casos e pode resultar em hipertensão maligna, insuficiência renal por isquemia, descompensação cardíaca e morte prematura. O acometimento bilateral de artérias renais é incomum, sendo rara a presença de anúria súbita e lesão renal aguda como sintoma inicial da doença, com poucos relatos na literatura. O caso reporta uma adolescente de 15 anos com sintomas constitucionais durante um ano de evolução, associados a problemas como cefaleia, náuseas e vômitos, com idas frequentes a serviços de emergência, sem adequada investigação clínica. Após 6 meses do início dos sintomas, a paciente evoluiu de forma grave, com quadro de edema agudo de pulmão, oligúria, lesão renal aguda e hipertensão arterial de difícil controle, sendo necessário suporte em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e hemodiálise. A ultrassonografia inicial mostrava rins normais e artérias renais sem sinais de estenose. Após 30 dias de internamento, paciente permanecia anúrica, sendo realizada biópsia renal que se mostrou dentro dos padrões da normalidade. Angiotomografia de aorta abdominal evidenciou oclusão bilateral de artérias renais. A paciente descrita fechou critérios diagnósticos para arterite de Takayasu e manifestou uma complicação grave pouco descrita na literatura: estenose bilateral de artérias renais, ainda na fase aguda da nefropatia isquêmica.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Oliguria/diagnosis , Oliguria/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Acute Disease , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 580-584, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056602


Abstract In kidney biopsies reviews, scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is characterized by vascular endothelial injuries, C4d deposits on peritubular vessels, and acute and chronic injuries coexisting on the same biopsy. The clinical signs of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are described in systemic sclerosis (SSc), nevertheless, it has not been related to acute injuries described on kidney biopsies. We report a case of SRC in a patient with scleroderma-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome, which also showed clinical and histopathological data of TMA. On fundus examination, a severe acute hypertensive retinopathy was found. The kidney biopsy showed severe endothelial damage with widening of mucoid cells at the level of the intima, focal concentric proliferation on most small arterioles, and C3, C4d, and IgM deposits along the capillary walls. The genetic study of complement only showed the presence of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) risk haplotypes, without other genetic complement disorders. We understand that in a patient with TMA and SSc, the kidney damage would be fundamentally endothelial and of an acute type; moreover, we would observe clear evidence of complement activation. Once further studies correlate clinical-analytical data with anatomopathological studies, it is likely that we will be forced to redefine the SRC concept, focusing on the relationship between acute endothelial damage and complement activation.

Resumo Nas revisões de biópsias renais, a crise renal esclerodérmica (CRE) é caracterizada por lesões endoteliais vasculares, depósitos de C4d em vasos peritubulares e lesões agudas e crônicas que coexistem na mesma biópsia. Os sinais clínicos de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) são descritos na esclerose sistêmica (ES); no entanto, não foram relacionados às lesões agudas descritas nas biópsias renais. Relatamos um caso de CRE em um paciente com síndrome de superposição de esclerodermia-dermatomiosite, que também apresentou dados clínicos e histopatológicos de MAT. No exame de fundo do olho, foi encontrada uma retinopatia hipertensiva aguda grave. A biópsia renal mostrou lesão endotelial grave com alargamento das células mucoides ao nível da íntima, proliferação concêntrica focal na maioria das pequenas arteríolas e depósitos de C3, C4d e IgM ao longo das paredes dos capilares. O estudo genético do complemento mostrou apenas a presença de haplótipos de risco da proteína cofator de membrana (PCM), sem outros distúrbios genéticos do complemento. Entendemos que em um paciente com MAT e ES, o dano renal seria fundamentalmente endotelial e do tipo agudo; além disso, observaríamos evidências claras de ativação do complemento. Uma vez que novos estudos correlacionam dados clínico-analíticos com estudos anatomopatológicos, é provável que sejamos forçados a redefinir o conceito de CRE, enfocando a relação entre dano endotelial agudo e ativação do complemento.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Raynaud Disease/complications , Vision Disorders/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Papilledema/pathology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Hypertensive Retinopathy/pathology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/etiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 501-508, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056603


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing acute hemodialysis. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on adult patients undergoing acute hemodialysis with AKI or CKD diagnosis at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Dysnatremias were categorized as hyponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) or hypernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), and dyschloremias were defined as hypochloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) or hyperchloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). The outcome of interest was mortality during hospitalization. We performed generalized lineal Poisson family models with bias-corrected and accelerated non-parametric bootstrap to estimate the risk ratios at crude (RR) and adjusted analysis (aRR) by gender, age, HCO3 (for all patients) and Liaño score (only for AKI) with CI95%. Results: We included 263 patients (mean age: 54.3 years, females: 43%): 191 with CKD and 72 with AKI. Mortality was higher in patients with AKI (59.7%) than in patients with CKD (14.1%). In overall, patients with hypernatremia had a higher mortality during hospitalization compared to those who had normal sodium values (aRR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17-2.83); patients with hyponatremia did not have different mortality (aRR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69-2.04). We also found that hyperchloremia (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.83-2.18) or hypochloremia (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.30-14.78) did not increase mortality in comparison to normal chloride values. No association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization was found in CKD and AKI subgroups. Conclusions: In our exploratory analysis, only hypernatremia was associated with mortality during hospitalization among patients with AKI or CKD undergoing acute hemodialysis.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) ou doença renal crônica (DRC) submetidos a hemodiálise aguda. Métodos: O presente estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu pacientes adultos submetidos a hemodiálise aguda com diagnóstico de IRA ou DRC em um hospital público de Lima, Peru. Os distúrbios do sódio foram classificados como hiponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) ou hipernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), enquanto os distúrbios do cloro foram classificados como hipocloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) ou hipercloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). O desfecho de interesse foi mortalidade hospitalar. Utilizamos modelos de Poisson da família de modelos lineares generalizados com bootstrap não-paramétrico e correção de viés acelerado para estimar os riscos relativos na análise bruta (RR) e ajustada (RRa) para sexo, idade, HCO3 (para todos os pacientes) e escore de Liaño (apenas para IRA) com IC 95%. Resultados: Foram incluídos 263 pacientes (idade média 54,3 anos; 43% do sexo feminino), 191 com DRC e 72 com IRA. A mortalidade foi mais elevada nos pacientes com IRA (59,7%) do que nos indivíduos com DRC (14,1%). No geral, os pacientes com hipernatremia tiveram mortalidade hospitalar mais elevada do que os indivíduos com valores normais de sódio (RRa: 1,82; IC 95%: 1,17-2,83). Os pacientes com hiponatremia não apresentaram mortalidade diferente (RRa: 0,19; IC 95%: 0,69-2,04). Também identificamos que hipercloremia (RRa: 1,35; IC 95%: 0,83-2,18) e hipocloremia (RRa: 0,66; IC 95%: 0,30-14,78) não elevaram a mortalidade em comparação a indivíduos com níveis normais de cloro. Não foi encontrada associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar nos subgrupos com DRC e IRA. Conclusões: Em nossa análise exploratória, apenas hipernatremia apresentou associação com mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes com IRA ou DRC submetidos a hemodiálise aguda.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sodium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Peru/epidemiology , Bicarbonates/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/mortality , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/mortality
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): 557-567, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046289


Introducción. La lesión renal aguda (LRA) ha sido descrita como una complicación frecuente de las cirugías cardíacas en pacientes pediátricos, con impacto documentado en la morbimortalidad. Se estima una incidencia de alrededor del 40 % en este grupo de pacientes. El objetivo del trabajo fue calcular la incidencia de LRA en pacientes que tuvieron cirugía cardiovascular, definir los factores de riesgo asociados y el impacto de la LRA en los parámetros de evolución posquirúrgica.Población y métodos:Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional sobre pacientes pediátricos con cirugías cardiovasculares, operados entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2017 en el Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires. Se definió la incidencia de LRA según los criterios de Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes, considerando los valores de creatininemia y ritmo diurético pre- y posquirúrgicos.Resultados.Se incluyeron un total de 125 pacientes. Un 35 % desarrolló LRA. Al analizar los factores de riesgo, se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa para administración de vancomicina, diuréticos tiazídicos, requerimiento transfusional de glóbulos rojos, tiempo de bomba de circulación extracorpórea, de clampeo, lactato máximo intraquirúrgico, temperatura mínima y cierre diferido del tórax. Entre los parámetros de evolución posquirúrgica, se observó un incremento en la duración de la internación, requerimiento de inotrópicos, días de asistencia respiratoria mecánica, sangrado y complicaciones neurológicas.Conclusión. La incidencia de LRA en este estudio fue del 35 %. Se pudieron definir factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables asociados, y se detectó una mayor incidencia de complicaciones en aquellos pacientes que desarrollaron LRA

Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been described as a common complication of cardiac surgery in pediatric patients, whose impact on morbidity and mortality has been documented. Its incidence has been estimated to be approximately 40 % in this patient group. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of AKI in patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery and to define associated risk factors and the impact of AKI on the parameters of the post-operative course.Population and methods. This was a retrospective, observational study of pediatric patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2015 and December 2017 at Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires. The incidence of AKI was defined as per the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria, based on pre- and post-operative blood creatinine levels and urine output.Results. A total of 125 patients were included. Of them, 35 % developed AKI. The analysis of risk factors showed a statistically significant difference for the administration of vancomycin and thiazide diuretics, red blood cell transfusion requirement, extracorporeal circulation pump time, clamp time, maximal intraoperative lactate level, minimum temperature, and delayed chest closure. In relation to the parameters of the post-operative course, we observed a longer hospital stay, higher inotropic requirement, more days of mechanical ventilation, bleeding, and neurological complications.Conclusion. In this study, the incidence of AKI was 35 %. Modifiable and non-modifiable associated risk factors were defined and a greater rate of complications was observed in patients who developed AKI.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 565-571, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042031


Abstract Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Serum albumin, which is an acute phase reactant, is suggested to be associated with AKI development subsequent to various surgical procedures. In this study, we research the relation between preoperative serum albumin levels and postoperative AKI development in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing isolated CABG. Methods: We included a total of 634 diabetic patients undergoing CABG (60.5±9.1 years, 65.1% male) into this study, which was performed between September 2009 and January 2014 in a single center. The relation between preoperative serum albumin levels and postoperative AKI development was observed. AKI was evaluated and diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification. Results: AKI was diagnosed in 230 (36.3%) patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictors of AKI development. Proteinuria (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.066 [1.002-1.135]; P=0.043) and low preoperative serum albumin levels (OR and 95% CI, 0.453 [0.216-0.947]; P=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of AKI. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, albumin level <3mg/dL (area under the curve: 0.621 [0.572-0.669], P<0.001) had 83% sensitivity and 10% specificity on predicting the development of AKI. Conclusion: We observed that a preoperative low serum albumin level was associated with postoperative AKI development in patients with DM who underwent isolated CABG procedure. We emphasize that this adjustable albumin level should be considered before the operation since it is an easy and clinically implementable management for the prevention of AKI development.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Postoperative Complications/blood , Proteinuria , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Preoperative Period , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(2): 175-182, jun. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019251


La injuria renal aguda es una entidad clínica compleja, caracterizada por la disminución abrupta de la función renal. La hipercalcemia como etiología de la misma es poco frecuente. Los mecanismos involucrados en su desarrollo son múltiples y poco estudiados. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de 59 años que desarrolló un cuadro severo de falla renal aguda como complicación de crisis hipercalcémica por un adenoma de paratiroides. Se observó alteración en los marcadores de daño y función renal. La bioquímica urinaria mostró una necrosis tubular aguda. Los niveles de calcio, parathormona y calciuria se asociaron a endocrinopatía. La ecografía, el centellograma y la biopsia paratiroidea mostraron la presencia de un adenoma. Se presentaron otras complicaciones sistémicas concomitantes como pancreatitis y complicaciones cardíacas. El tratamiento paliativo fue la hemodiálisis y el definitivo la paratiroidectomía. El síndrome de hueso hambriento se presentó como una complicación postquirúrgica. Tras el alta, la recuperación de la función renal nunca fue total. El daño renal agudo asociado a disfunción sistémica por hipercalcemia puede llevar a una recuperación parcial de la función renal. Se debe considerar el desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica posterior a la falla renal aguda por hipercalcemia como complicación de la misma.

Acute renal injury is a complex clinical entity, characterized by the abrupt worsening in renal function. Hypercalcemia as its etiology is rare. The mechanisms involved in its development are multiple and rarely studied. The case of a 59-year-old male patient who developed a severe acute renal failure as a complication of an hypercalcemic crisis due to a parathyroid adenoma is presented here. Alterations in markers of damage and renal function were observed. Urinary biochemistry showed acute tubular necrosis. Calcium, parathormone and urine calcium levels were associated with endocrinopathy. The ultrasound, the scintigraphy and the parathyroid biopsy showed the presence of an adenoma. There were other concomitant systemic complications such as pancreatitis and cardiac complications. Hemodialysis was the palliative treatment, while the definitive treatment was parathyroidectomy. The hungry bone syndrome occurred as a postoperative complication. After discharge, recovery of renal function was never complete. Acute renal damage associated with systemic dysfunction due to hypercalcemia can lead to a partial recovery of renal function. The development of chronic kidney disease after acute renal failure due to hypercalcemia should be considered one of its complications.

A Lesão renal aguda é uma entidade clínica complexa, caracterizada pela diminuição abrupta da função renal. A hipercalcemia como etiologia da mesma não é muito frequente. Os mecanismos que participam no seu desenvolvimento são múltiplos e pouco estudados. Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente, homem, de 59 anos, que desenvolveu um quadro severo de insuficiência renal aguda como complicação de crise hipercalcêmica por um adenoma da paratireóide. Foi observada alteração nos marcadores de dano e função renal. A bioquímica urinária mostrou uma necrose tubular aguda. Os níveis de cálcio, paratormona e calciúria foram associados a endocrinopatia. A ultra-sonografia, a cintilografia, e a biópsia da paratireóide mostraram a presença de um adenoma. Apresentaram-se outras complicações sistêmicas concomitantes como pancreatite e cardíacas. O tratamento paliativo foi hemodiálise e o definitivo, a paratireoidectomia. A síndrome do osso faminto apresentou-se como uma complicação pós-operatória. Após a alta, a recuperação da função renal nunca foi total. O dano renal agudo associado à disfunção sistêmica por hipercalcemia pode levar para uma recuperação parcial da função renal. Deve ser considerado o desenvolvimento da doença renal crônica posterior à insuficiência renal aguda por hipercalcemia como complicação da mesma.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/complications , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Hypercalcemia/urine , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/urine
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 242-252, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013413


Abstract Background and objectives: Patients undergoing lung resection surgery are at risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. Determination of cytokine levels allows the detection of an early inflammatory response. We investigated any temporal relationship among perioperative inflammatory status and development of acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury on outcome and analyzed the feasibility of cytokines to predict acute kidney injury. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 174 patients scheduled for elective lung resection surgery with intra-operative periods of one-lung ventilation periods. Fiberoptic broncho-alveolar lavage was performed in each lung before and after one-lung ventilation periods for cytokine analysis. As well, cytokine levels were measured from arterial blood samples at five time points. acute kidney injury was diagnosed within 48 h of surgery based on acute kidney injury criteria. We analyzed the association between acute kidney injury and cardiopulmonary complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, intensive care unit re-admission, and short-term and long-term mortality. Results: The incidence of acute kidney injury in our study was 6.9% (12/174). Acute kidney injury patients showed higher plasma cytokine levels after surgery but differences in alveolar cytokines were not detected. Although no patient required renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury patients had higher incidence of cardiopulmonary complications and increased overall mortality. Plasma interleukin-6 at 6 h was the most predictive cytokine of acute kidney injury (cut-off point at 4.89 pg.mL-1). Conclusions: Increased postoperative plasma cytokine levels are associated with acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery in our study, which worsens the prognosis. Plasma interleukin-6 may be used as an early indicator for patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar apresentam risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda pós-operatória. A determinação dos níveis de citocinas permite detectar uma resposta inflamatória precoce. Investigamos a relação temporal entre o estado inflamatório perioperatório e o desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar. Além disso, avaliamos o impacto da lesão renal aguda no desfecho e analisamos a viabilidade das citocinas para prever este tipo de lesão. Métodos: No total, foram analisados prospectivamente 174 pacientes agendados para cirurgia eletiva de ressecção pulmonar com períodos intraoperatórios de ventilação monopulmonar. Lavado bronco-alveolar com fibra óptica foi realizado em cada pulmão antes e após os períodos de ventilação monopulmonar para análise das citocinas. Os níveis de citocina foram medidos a partir de amostras de sangue arterial em cinco momentos. A lesão renal aguda foi diagnosticada dentro de 48 horas após a cirurgia, com base nos critérios para sua verificação. Analisamos a associação entre lesão renal aguda e complicações cardiopulmonares, tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e de internação hospitalar, reinternação em unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade a curto e longo prazos. Resultados: A incidência de lesão renal aguda no estudo foi de 6,9% (12/174). Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda apresentaram níveis mais altos de citocinas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, mas não foram detectadas diferenças nas citocinas alveolares. Embora nenhum paciente tenha precisado de terapia renal substitutiva, os com lesão renal aguda apresentaram maior incidência de complicações cardiopulmonares e aumento da mortalidade geral. A interleucina-6 plasmática em seis horas foi a citocina mais preditiva de lesão renal aguda (ponto de corte em 4,89 pg.mL-1). Conclusões: O aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de citocinas no pós-operatório está associado à lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar no estudo, o que piora o prognóstico. A interleucina-6 plasmática pode ser usada como um indicador precoce para pacientes com risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cytokines/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/methods , Incidence , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , One-Lung Ventilation , Middle Aged
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 152-156, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002430


ABSTRACT Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a renal disease with an extensive differential diagnosis. This paper reports the case of a 55-year-old female patient diagnosed with Hansen's disease with acute progressive renal impairment after developing lower limb pyoderma. The association between Hansen's and kidney disease has been well documented, with glomerulonephritis (GN) ranked as the most common form of renal involvement. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) in adults has been associated with a number of pathogens occurring in diverse sites. The patient described in this case report had RPGN and biopsy findings suggestive of PIGN with C3 and IgA detected on immunofluorescence and kidney injury secondary to recent infection by Staphylococcus, a well-documented manifestation of renal impairment in patients with Hansen's disease.

RESUMO A Glomerulonefrite Rapidamente Progressiva (GNRP) é um padrão de doença renal com amplo diagnóstico diferencial. O caso reporta uma paciente de 55 anos com deterioração aguda e progressiva da função renal após quadro de piodermite em membro inferior com diagnóstico concomitante de hanseníase. Associação da hanseníase com doença renal é bem descrita, sendo a GN a forma de acometimento renal mais comum. As glomerulonefrites pós-infecciosas (GNPIs) em adultos ocorrem devido a um grande número de patógenos, nos mais diversos sítios. A paciente do caso relatado apresentava quadro de GNRP e achados de biópsia que sugerem GNPI com marcação de C3 e IgA na imunofluorescência, sugestiva de lesão renal secundária a infecção recente por Staphylococcus, uma manifestação bem descrita de doença renal em pacientes com hanseníase.

Humans , Middle Aged , Complement C3/metabolism , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 1-9, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019978


Abstract Kidney disease is a global public health problem, affecting over 750 million persons worldwide. The burden of kidney disease varies substantially across the world, as does its detection and treatment. In many settings, rates of kidney disease and the provision of its care are defined by socio-economic, cultural, and political factors leading to significant disparities. World Kidney Day 2019 offers an opportunity to raise awareness of kidney disease and highlight disparities in its burden and current state of global capacity for prevention and management. Here, we highlight that many countries still lack access to basic diagnostics, a trained nephrology workforce, universal access to primary health care, and renal replacement therapies. We point to the need for strengthening basic infrastructure for kidney care services for early detection and management of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease across all countries and advocate for more pragmatic approaches to providing renal replacement therapies. Achieving universal health coverage worldwide by 2030 is one of the World Health Organization's Sustainable Development Goals. While universal health coverage may not include all elements of kidney care in all countries, understanding what is feasible and important for a country or region with a focus on reducing the burden and consequences of kidney disease would be an important step towards achieving kidney health equity.

Resumo A doença renal é um problema de saúde pública global, afetando mais de 750 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O ônus da doença renal varia substancialmente em todo o mundo, assim como sua detecção e tratamento. Em muitos contextos, as taxas de doença renal e a provisão de seus cuidados são definidas por fatores socioeconômicos, culturais e políticos que levam a disparidades significativas. O Dia Mundial do Rim 2019 oferece uma oportunidade para aumentar a conscientização sobre doenças renais e destacar as disparidades em seu impacto e estado atual da capacidade global de prevenção e tratamento. Aqui, destacamos que muitos países ainda carecem de acesso a diagnósticos básicos, uma força de trabalho treinada em nefrologia, acesso universal à atenção primária à saúde e terapias de substituição renal. Apontamos para a necessidade de fortalecer a infra-estrutura básica para serviços de cuidados renais para detecção e tratamento precoce de lesão renal aguda e doença renal crônica em todos os países e defender abordagens mais pragmáticas para o fornecimento de terapias de substituição renal. Alcançar a cobertura universal de saúde em todo o mundo até 2030 é um dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Embora a cobertura universal de saúde não inclua todos os elementos do tratamento renal em todos os países, entender o que é viável e importante para um país ou região com foco na redução do impacto e das consequências da doença renal seria um passo importante para alcançar a equidade na saúde renal.

Humans , Global Health , Delivery of Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Risk Factors , Renal Replacement Therapy , Health Equity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Nephrologists
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268564


Introduction: acute kidney injury (AKI) is a challenging problem in developing countries due to late presentation of its victims to health care facilities. Data on the pattern of AKI, its outcome and factors associated with its recovery is scanty in developing countries therefore impeding AKI management. Aim: to study AKI recovery rate and its associated factors.Methods: an observational study conducted from September 2013 to June 2014 at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH). Participants were adults, admitted with AKI at KBTH. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria was used to diagnose and stage AKI.Results: mean age (SD) of the participants was 41.9 (± 19.2) years. About a third of the patients (34.6%) were less than 29 years with 30-39 years and 40-60 years constituting 23.0% and 23.6% respectively. Females were in the majority (56.0%). AKI stages I, II and III accounted for 11.0%, 6.8% and 70.7% respectively. Majority, 82.2% of the patients recovered their kidney function. Stage III AKI was significantly associated with decreasing odds of recovery [OR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.4-2.6, p = 0.002]. In addition, normal blood sodium was associated with recovery from AKI [OR, 95%CI = 2.3, (1.1-5.3), p = 0.043]. Almost half (45.5%) presented with fever whereas 32.5% and 22.5% presented with peripheral oedema and pulmonary oedema respectively.Conclusion: the study demonstrated high kidney function recovery following AKI. Dominant clinical features were fever, peripheral and pulmonary oedema. Advanced stage was associated with poor recovery whereas normal serum sodium level improves kidney function recovery

Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Ghana , Prospective Studies