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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 284-293, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364965


ABSTRACT A major challenge in the management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the selection of patients who would benefit from surgical treatment. Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) indicate renal cell stress and are associated with cell cycle arrest. The [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] ratio (Nephrocheck®) has been recently applied in patients in intensive care units patients to predict the development of acute kidney injury. In this study, we evaluated the performance of these biomarkers performance to distinguishing obstructive hydronephrosis (HN) from non-obstructive HN. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with UPJO were enrolled in this study. Urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] and clinical characteristics (hydronephrosis grade, differential renal function, and drainage half-time) were measured in the following groups: 26 children with obstructive HN at initial diagnosis (group 1A) and after six months of dismembered pyeloplasty (group 1B); 22 children with non-obstructive HN (group 2), and 26 children without any urinary tract condition, as the control group (group 3). Results: Comparing the initial samples, [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] had higher levels in the HN groups and lower levels in the control group; however, no difference was observed between the HN groups (obstructive vs. non-obstructive). After six months of follow-up, patients who underwent dismembered pyeloplasty showed stability in the urinary concentration of [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7]. All patients with [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] higher than 1.0 (ng/mL)2/1000 had diffuse cortical atrophy on ultrasonography. Conclusions: We showed that urinary levels of urinary [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] are higher in children with HN than controls. Nephrocheck® is not reliable in predicting the need for surgical intervention for pediatric patients with UPJO.

Humans , Child , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers/urine , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/urine , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/urine , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Kidney/physiology
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 470-477, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350897


Abstract Introduction: The outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) remain dismal even today, owing in part due to the lack of an ideal biomarker for detecting renal damage early enough. We conducted this pilot study to determine the clinical significance of Frusemide Stress Test (FST) to predict the severity of AKI. Methods: A total of 80 patients with AKI-KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) stage 1 or stage 2 underwent FST by administering a bolus dose of frusemide (1mg/kg for frusemide naïve and 1.5mg/kg for prior frusemide exposure in the past week), and urine output was then measured for the next two hours with volume replacement as desirable. The progression to AKI-KDIGO stage 3 within 14 days of FST was studied as the primary outcome. The composite end point of achieving AKI-KDIGO stage 3 or death within 14 days of FST was studied as the secondary outcome. Results: Out of 80 patients, 28(35%) patients met the primary outcome, and 34(42.5%) patients met the secondary composite outcome. Except for baseline Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) status (p=0.018), other demographic characteristics were comparable between progressors and non-progressors group. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, a cumulative 2-hour post-FST urine output of ≤300 mL predicted progression to stage 3 AKI with 82.14% sensitivity, 82.69% specificity, and AUC of 0.89±0.03 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The FST showed promising results as a novel tubular biomarker to identify progression to severe AKI with good predictive ability.

Resumo Introdução: Os desfechos da Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA) permanecem desanimadores ainda hoje, em parte pela falta de um biomarcador ideal para detectar danos renais com a devida antecedência. Realizamos este estudo piloto para determinar a importância clínica do Teste de Estresse com Furosemida (TEF) em prever a gravidade da LRA. Métodos: Um total de 80 pacientes com LRA-KDIGO estágio 1 ou 2 foram submetidos ao TEF pela administração de uma dose em bolus de furosemida (1mg/kg para pacientes virgens de furosemida e 1,5mg/kg para exposição prévia à furosemida na semana anterior). O débito urinário foi então medido durante as duas horas seguintes com reposição de volume conforme desejável. A progressão para LRA-KDIGO estágio 3 dentro de 14 dias de TEF foi estudada como principal desfecho. O desfecho composto de atingir a LRA-KDIGO estágio 3 ou óbito em 14 dias após TEF foi estudado como desfecho secundário. Resultados: Dos 80 pacientes, 28 (35%) atingiram desfecho primário, e 34 (42,5%) pacientes atingiram o desfecho composto secundário. Exceto pelo estado basal da Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) (p=0,018), outras características demográficas foram comparáveis entre o grupo progressores e não progressores. Usando a análise da Curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (ROC), um débito urinário cumulativo de 2 horas pós-TEF de ≤300 mL previu a progressão para estágio 3 da LRA com 82,14% de sensibilidade, 82,69% de especificidade, e AUC de 0,89±0,03 (p<0,0001). Conclusão: O TEF mostrou resultados promissores como novo biomarcador tubular para identificar progressão para LRA grave com boa capacidade preditiva.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Furosemide , Biomarkers , Pilot Projects , ROC Curve , Exercise Test
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 484-491, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347149


Abstract Introduction: High leuko-glycaemic index (LGI) (> 2000) has been associated with poor prognosis in many critical care settings. However, there is no evidence of LGI's prognostic value in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study aims to analyze the prognostic value of LGI in the postoperative period of CABG. Methods: Single-center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed. Consecutive adult patients undergoing CABG between 2007 and 2019 were included. Blood glucose levels and white blood cells count were evaluated in the immediate postoperative period. LGI was calculated by multiplying both values and dividing them by 1,000 and analyzed in quartiles. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best cutoff value. The primary combined endpoint was in-hospital mortality, low cardiac output (LCO), or acute kidney injury (AKI). Secondary endpoints included in-hospital death, AKI, atrial fibrillation, and LCO. Results: The study evaluated 3,813 patients undergoing CABG (88.5% male, 89.8% off-pump surgery, aged 64.6 years [standard deviation 9.6]). The median of LGI was 2,035. Presence of primary endpoint significantly increased per LGI quartile (9.2%, 9.7%, 11.8%, and 15%; P<0.001). High LGI was associated with increased occurrence of in-hospital mortality, LCO, AKI, and atrial fibrillation. The best prognostic cutoff value for primary endpoint was 2,000. In a multivariate logistic regression model, high LGI was independently associated with in-hospital death, LCO, or AKI. Conclusion: High LGI was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, LCO, or AKI in postoperative period of CABG. It was also associated with higher in-hospital death.

Humans , Male , Female , Glycemic Index , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Bypass , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(2): 105-109, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379260


Objetivo: Validar o desempenho dos escores APACHE II e SOFA para predizer a mortalidade em pacientes com injúria renal aguda em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo realizado de janeiro de 2018 a setembro de 2020 em um hospital do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram incluídos 256 pacientes. Resultados: Ambos os escores apre- sentaram desempenho adequado para a discriminação da mortalidade em pacientes com injúria renal aguda (área sob a curva para APACHE II de 0,80 e para SOFA de 0,77). Conclusão: A injúria renal aguda é uma condição frequente em ambiente de unidade de terapia intensiva, e os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que ambos os índices são mais precisos quando aplicados em centros únicos e podem ser utilizados rotineiramente para predizer a mortalidade na população

Objective: To validate the performance of the APACHE II and SOFA scores to predict mortality in patients with acute kidney injury in an Intensive Care Unit. Methods: This is an observational and retrospective study conducted from January 2018 to September 2020 at a hospital in Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 256 patients were included. Results: Both scores showed adequate performance for the discrimination of mortality in acute kidney injury patients (area under the curve of 0.80 for APACHE II and 0.77 for SOFA). Conclusion: Acute kidney injury is a frequent condition in intensive care unit settings and the results of the present study suggest that both indices are more accurate when applied in single centers, and can be used routinely to predict mortality in the population

Humans , Male , Female , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Area Under Curve , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units/trends
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(4): 641-647, abr. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389485


SARS-CoV-2 infection has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations secondary to the impairment of different organs, including kidney. Rhabdomyolysis is produced by disintegration of striated muscle and the liberation of its contents to the extracellular fluid and bloodstream. This may produce hydro electrolytic disorders and acute kidney injury. We report a 35-year-old female with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who was hospitalized because of respiratory failure and developed renal failure. The etiologic study showed elevated total creatine kinase levels and a magnetic resonance imaging confirmed rhabdomyolysis. The patient required supportive treatment with vasoactive drugs, mechanic ventilation and kidney replacement therapy. She had a favorable evolution with resolution of respiratory failure and improvement of kidney function.

Humans , Female , Adult , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 20-27, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154663


ABSTRACT Introduction: Emergence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) requires prompt diagnosis and differentiation between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and proliferative glomerulonephritis. We studied the potential use of commercial urinary biomarkers' tests in the diagnosis of AKI in patients with NS. Methods: A cross sectional estimate of urinary concentrations of KIM-1 and NGAL was performed in 40 patients with NS: 9 with proliferative glomerulopathy, being 4 with AKI and 31 without proliferative glomerulopathy, being 15 with AKI. AKI was defined using the KDIGO criteria. Results: The mean age was 35 ± 16 years. The main diagnoses were focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (10, 25%), membranous glomerulopathy (10, 25%), minimal change disease (7, 18%), lupus nephritis (6, 15%), and proliferative glomerulonephritis (3, 8%). Patients with ATN had higher levels of urinary KIM-1 (P = 0.0157) and NGAL (P = 0.023) than patients without ATN. The urinary concentrations of KIM-1 (P= 0.009) and NGAL (P= 0.002) were higher in patients with AKI than in patients without AKI. Urinary NGAL and KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with ATN without proliferative glomerulonephritis than in patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis (P = 0.003 and P=0.024, respectively). Conclusions: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) estimates correlated with histological signs of ATN and were able to discriminate patients with AKI even in conditions of NS. Furthermore, urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 may be useful in the differential diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis and exudative glomerulonephritis in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

RESUMO Introdução: O surgimento de lesão renal aguda (LRA) em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica (SN) requer diagnóstico imediato e diferenciação entre necrose tubular aguda (NTA) e glomerulonefrite proliferativa. Avaliamos o uso potencial de testes de biomarcadores urinários comerciais no diagnóstico de LRA em pacientes com SN. Métodos: Uma estimativa transversal das concentrações urinárias de KIM-1 e NGAL foi realizada em 40 pacientes com SN: 9 com glomerulopatia proliferativa, sendo 4 com LRA e 31 sem glomerulopatia proliferativa, sendo 15 com LRA. A LRA foi definida usando os critérios da KDIGO. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 35 ± 16 anos. Os principais diagnósticos foram glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (10, 25%), glomerulopatia membranosa (10, 25%), doença por lesão mínima (7, 18%), nefrite lúpica (6, 15%) e glomerulonefrite proliferativa (3, 8 %). Os pacientes com NTA apresentaram níveis mais elevados de KIM-1 urinário (P = 0,0157) e NGAL (P = 0,023) do que pacientes sem NTA. As concentrações urinárias de KIM-1 (P = 0,009) e NGAL (P = 0,002) foram maiores em pacientes com LRA do que em pacientes sem LRA. Os níveis urinários de NGAL e KIM-1 foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com NTA sem glomerulonefrite proliferativa do que em pacientes com glomerulonefrite proliferativa (P = 0,003 e P = 0,024, respectivamente). Conclusões: As estimativas de lipocalina associada a gelatinase de neutrófilos (NGAL) e molécula de lesão renal 1 (KIM-1) se correlacionaram com sinais histológicos de NTA, e foram capazes de discriminar pacientes com LRA mesmo em condições de SN. Além disso, os níveis urinários de NGAL e KIM-1 podem ser úteis no diagnóstico diferencial de necrose tubular aguda e glomerulonefrite exsudativa em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica.

Humans , Adult , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lipocalin-2 , Kidney Function Tests
Clinics ; 76: e1924, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153960


OBJECTIVES: Positive fluid balance is frequent in critically ill patients and has been considered a potential biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to evaluate positive fluid balance as a biomarker for the early detection of AKI in critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. The sample was composed of patients ≥18 years old who stayed ≥3 days in an intensive care unit. Fluid balance, urinary output and serum creatinine were assessed daily. AKI was diagnosed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria. RESULTS: The final cohort was composed of 233 patients. AKI occurred in 92 patients (40%) after a median of 3 (2-6) days following ICU admission. When fluid balance was assessed as a continuous variable, a 100-ml increase in fluid balance was independently associated with a 4% increase in the odds of AKI (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.08). Positive fluid balance categorized using different thresholds was always significantly associated with subsequent detection of AKI. The mixed effects model showed that increased fluid balance preceded AKI by 4 to 6 days. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a positive fluid balance might be an early biomarker for AKI development in critically ill patients.

Humans , Adult , Critical Illness , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Biomarkers , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 217-221, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361632


A sarcoidose caracteriza-se como doença granulomatosa que acomete diferentes órgãos humanos, especialmente os pulmões, sendo sua patogênese pouco conhecida. No caso em questão, a paciente iniciou com sintomas inespecíficos, como fraqueza, perda ponderal e tosse seca esporádica, sendo internada para extensão da propedêutica. Sugeriu-se como hipótese diagnóstica inicial possível quadro de mieloma múltiplo, tendo em vista a anemia, a disfunção renal, a hipercalcemia e, sobretudo, as lesões osteolíticas apresentadas pela paciente. Todavia, o diagnóstico de sarcoidose foi selado a partir das biópsias de medula óssea e de linfonodo inguinal, que evidenciaram mielite e linfadenite granulomatosas, respectivamente. A terapêutica instituída baseou-se na administração de corticosteroides e em medidas de redução da calcemia. A paciente recebeu alta, com melhora do quadro clínico, para acompanhamento ambulatorial da doença. Conclui-se que a sarcoidose não possui tratamento curativo, mas a terapêutica imunossupressora é eficaz no controle da progressão da enfermidade, fazendo com que o paciente tenha um prognóstico favorável.

Sarcoidosis is characterized as a granulomatous disease that affects different human organs, especially the lungs, and its pathogenesis is little known. In this case, the patient started with nonspecific symptoms, such as weakness, weight loss, and sporadic dry cough, being hospitalized for extension of the propaedeutics. The initial diagnostic hypothesis suggested was a possible case of multiple myeloma, based on the anemia, renal dysfunction, hypercalcemia and, above all, the osteolytic lesions presented by the patient. However, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made after bone marrow and inguinal lymph node biopsies that showed granulomatous myelitis and lymphadenitis, respectively. The therapy instituted was based on the administration of corticosteroids and on measures to reduce the level of calcium. The patient was discharged, with clinical improvement, for outpatient follow-up of the disease. It is concluded that sarcoidosis has no curative treatment, but immunosuppressive therapy is effective in controlling the progression of the disease, giving the patient a favorable prognosis.

Humans , Female , Aged , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Rare Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , X-Rays , Biopsy , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , Bone Marrow/pathology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia , Anemia , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Myelitis/diagnosis
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 722-731, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137346


Abstract Objective: To provide a new interpretation of the effect of intraoperative hemodynamic data on postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) development and to determine the accuracy of some biomarkers which are thought to be the early markers of renal injury. Methods: One hundred adult patients who were connected to the heart-lung pump during open-heart surgery were included in this study. Hemodynamic data, oxygen delivery, and transfusions were recorded intraoperatively, and the preoperative and 3. postoperative hour cystatin C, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) parameters were measured for early detection of kidney damage. In the analysis, 95% significance level was used to determine the difference. Results: According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criterion, AKI developed in 24 patients, 18 of whom were stage 1, two were stage 2, and four were stage 3. AKI (+) patients had more transfusions in the intraoperative period and AKI development was a risk factor for postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 levels were found to be approximately two-fold in the postoperative period in AKI (+) patients, whereas cystatin C was not sensitive in AKI detection. Conclusion: AKI development increases the risk of postoperative complications. NGAL and IL-18 were successful in detecting AKI in the early postoperative period.

Humans , Male , Female , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Biomarkers/blood , Cystatin C
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 244-248, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131672


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of AKI staging on 30-day mortality of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed according to the International Club of Ascites recommendations and staged according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines. Comparisons between groups were made by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. Chi-square was calculated for dichotomous variables. Comparisons of renal impairment status among patients were performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and differences between groups were analyzed using the log-rank test. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-two patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of AKI was performed in 98 (42.2%) of them. The overall 30-day mortality was 19.8% (46/232). Mortality increased as the degree of AKI progressed. Among patients who did not have AKI, mortality was 5.2% (7/134). When compared to patients without AKI, patients diagnosed with AKI stage 1a had mortality of 12.1% (4/33, P=0.152); patients with AKI stage 1b had mortality of 45% (18/40, P<0.001); and patients with AKI stages 2 or 3 had mortality of 68% (17/25, P<0.001). Moreover, it is noteworthy that full response to treatment was associated to a decreased mortality when compared to patients who did not show complete recovery of renal function (14.3% vs 57.9%, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI stages 1b or greater, but not AKI stage 1a, are associated to higher 30-day mortality of patients with cirrhosis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A lesão renal aguda (LRA) é uma complicação comum e grave na cirrose. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto dos estágios da LRA na mortalidade em 30 dias de pacientes com cirrose. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com pacientes com cirrose hospitalizados. LRA foi diagnosticada de acordo com as recomendações do International Club of Ascites e o estadiamento foi feito de acordo com as recomendações da European Association for the Study of the Liver. Comparações entre os grupos foram feitas por análise de variância unidirecional e teste de Tukey. O teste do qui-quadrado foi calculado para variáveis categóricas. Comparações quanto à lesão renal entre os pacientes foram realizadas com estatísticas de Kaplan-Meier, e diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste de log-rank. Um P-valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS: Duzentos e trinta e dois pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O diagnóstico de LRA foi realizado em 98 (42,2%) deles. A mortalidade geral em 30 dias foi de 19,8% (46/232). A mortalidade aumentou de acordo com a progressão dos estágios de LRA. Entre pacientes sem LRA, a mortalidade foi de 5,2% (7/134). Quando comparados aos pacientes sem LRA, pacientes diagnosticados com LRA estágio 1a tiveram mortalidade de 12,1% (4/33, P=0,152); pacientes com LRA estágio 1b tiveram mortalidade de 45% (18/40, P<0,001); e pacientes com LRA estágios 2 ou 3 tiveram mortalidade de 68% (17/25, P<0,001). Além disso, é importante ressaltar que a resposta completa ao tratamento associou-se à menor mortalidade quando comparada à ausência de recuperação completa da função renal (14,3% vs 57,9%, P<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: LRA estágios 1b ou superior, mas não estágio 1a, estão associadas à maior mortalidade em 30 dias de pacientes com cirrose.

Humans , Ascites , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 290-299, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134853


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a recurrent complication in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with negative outcomes. Objective: To investigate factors associated with mortality in critically ill AKI patients in a South Brazilian ICU. Methods: The study was observational retrospective involving AKI patients admitted to the ICU between January 2011 and December 2016 of at least 18 years old upon admission and who remained in the ICU at least 48 hours. Comparisons between selected characteristics of survivor and non-survivor groups were done using univariate analysis; multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine factors associated with patient mortality. Results: Of 838 eligible patients, 613 participated in the study. Men represented the majority (61.2%) of the patients, the median age was 53 years, and the global mortality rate was 39.6% (n= 243). Non-recovery of renal function after AKI (OR= 92.7 [38.43 - 223.62]; p <0.001), major surgery-associated AKI diagnosis (OR= 16.22 [3.49 - 75.38]; p <0.001), and the use of vasoactive drugs during the ICU stay (OR = 11.49 [2.46 - 53.70]; p <0.002) were the main factors independently associated with patient mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate observed in this study was similar to that verified in other centers. Non-recovery of renal function was the variable most strongly associated with patient mortality, suggesting that the prevention of factors that aggravate or maintain the AKI episode should be actively identified and mitigated, possibly constituting an important strategy to reduce mortality in AKI patients.

RESUMO Introdução: A lesão renal aguda (LRA) é uma complicação recorrente na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), e está associada a desfechos desfavoráveis. Objetivo: Investigar fatores associados à mortalidade em pacientes com LRA, criticamente enfermos em uma UTI do Sul do Brasil. Métodos: O estudo foi retrospectivo observacional, envolvendo pacientes com LRA internados na UTI entre janeiro de 2011 e dezembro de 2016, com pelo menos 18 anos de idade na admissão e que permaneceram na UTI por pelo menos 48 horas. Comparações entre características selecionadas de grupos sobreviventes e não sobreviventes foram feitas usando análise univariada; regressão logística multivariada foi aplicada para determinar fatores associados à mortalidade dos pacientes. Resultados: Dos 838 pacientes elegíveis, 613 participaram do estudo. Os homens representaram a maioria (61,2%) dos pacientes, a idade média foi de 53 anos e a taxa de mortalidade global foi de 39,6% (n = 243). Não recuperação da função renal após LRA (OR = 92,7 [38,43 - 223,62]; p <0,001), diagnóstico de LRA associado à cirurgia (OR = 16,22 [3,49 - 75,38]; p <0,001) e uso de drogas vasoativas durante a internação na UTI (OR = 11,49 [2,46 - 53,70]; p <0,002) foram os principais fatores independentemente associados à mortalidade dos pacientes. Conclusão: A taxa de mortalidade observada neste estudo foi semelhante à verificada em outros centros. A não recuperação da função renal foi a variável mais fortemente associada à mortalidade dos pacientes, sugerindo que a prevenção de fatores que agravam ou mantêm o episódio de LRA deve ser ativamente buscada e incentivada, possivelmente constituindo uma estratégia importante para reduzir a mortalidade em pacientes com LRA.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Kidney/physiopathology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 127-133, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131249


Resumo A indefinição de critérios diagnósticos para síndrome cardiorrenal aguda (SCRA) impacta em diferentes resultados prognósticos. Objetivou-se avaliar os critérios diagnósticos da SCRA e o impacto no prognóstico. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. A pesquisa incluiu artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e meta-análises publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2018. Não foi encontrada na literatura nem nas diretrizes de insuficiência cardíaca uma definição clara dos critérios diagnósticos da SCRA. O critério diagnóstico mais comumente utilizado é o aumento da creatinina sérica de pelo menos 0,3 mg/dl em relação à basal. Entretanto, existem controvérsias na definição de creatinina basal e de qual deveria ser a creatinina sérica de referência dos pacientes críticos. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que os critérios de SCRA devem ser revistos para que se inclua o diagnóstico de SCRA na admissão hospitalar. A creatinina sérica de referência deve refletir a função renal basal antes do início da injúria renal aguda.

Abstract The absence of a consensus about the diagnostic criteria for acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) affects its prognosis. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic criteria for ACRS and their impact on prognosis. A systematic review was conducted using PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The search included original publications, such as clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analyses, issued from January 1998 to June 2018. Neither literature nor heart failure guidelines provided a clear definition of the diagnostic criteria for ACRS. The serum creatinine increase by at least 0.3 mg/dL from baseline creatinine is the most used diagnostic criterion. However, the definition of baseline creatinine, as well as which serum creatinine should be used as reference for critical patients, is still controversial. This systematic review suggests that ACRS criteria should be revised to include the diagnosis of ACRS on hospital admission. Reference serum creatinine should reflect baseline renal function before the beginning of acute kidney injury.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Prognosis , Creatinine
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 18-23, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098334


Abstract Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in about 22% of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery and 2.3% requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). The current diagnostic criteria for AKI by increased serum creatinine levels have limitations and new biomarkers are being tested. Urine sediment may be considered a biomarker and it can help to differentiate pre-renal (functional) from renal (intrinsic) AKI. Aims: To investigate the microscopic urinalysis in the AKI diagnosis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients, mean age 62.3 years, 67.5 % male, with creatinine 0.91 mg/dL (SD 0.22) had a urine sample examined in the first 24 h after the surgery. We looked for renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) and granular casts (GC) and associated the results with AKI development as defined by KDIGO criteria. Results: Twenty three patients (20.17 %) developed AKI according to the serum creatinine criterion and 76 (66.67 %) by the urine output criterion. Four patients required RRT. Mortality was 3.51 %. The use of urine creatinine criterion to predict AKI showed a sensitivity of 34.78 % and specificity of 86.81 %, positive likelihood ratio of 2.64 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.75, AUC-ROC of 0.584 (95%CI: 0.445-0.723). For the urine output criterion sensitivity was 23.68 % and specificity 92.11 %, AUC-ROC was 0.573 (95%CI: 0.465-0.680). Conclusion: RTEC and GC in urine sample detected by microscopy is a highly specific biomarker for early AKI diagnosis after cardiac surgery.

Resumo Introdução: Lesão renal aguda (LRA) ocorre em cerca de 22% dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca e 2,3% necessitam de terapia renal substitutiva (TRS). Os atuais critérios diagnósticos para LRA fundamentados no aumento dos níveis de creatinina sérica apresentam limitações e novos biomarcadores estão sendo testados. O sedimento urinário é um biomarcador que pode ajudar a diferenciar a LRA pré-renal (funcional) da LRA renal (intrínseca). Objetivos: Investigar a urinálise microscópica no diagnóstico de LRA em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. Métodos: Um total de 114 pacientes com idade média de 62,3 anos, 67,5% do sexo masculino e níveis médios de creatinina de 0,91 mg/dL (DP 0,22) tiveram amostras de urina examinadas nas primeiras 24 horas após a cirurgia. A identificação de células epiteliais tubulares renais (CETR) e cilindros granulares (CG) foi associada a desfechos de desenvolvimento de LRA conforme os critérios do KDIGO. Resultados: Vinte e três pacientes (20,17%) desenvolveram LRA pelo critério de creatinina sérica e 76 (66,67%) pelo critério de diurese. Quatro pacientes necessitaram de TRS. A mortalidade foi de 3,51%. O uso da creatinina urinária como critério preditivo para LRA mostrou sensibilidade de 34,78% e especificidade de 86,81%; razão de verossimilhança positiva de 2,64 e razão de verossimilhança negativa de 0,75; e ASC-COR de 0,584 (IC 95%: 0,445-0,723). Para o critério de diurese, a sensibilidade foi de 23,68% e a especificidade 92,11%; a ASC-COR foi 0,573 (IC 95%: 0,465-0,680). Conclusão: A identificação de CETR e CG em amostras de urina por microscopia representa um biomarcador altamente específico para o diagnóstico precoce de LRA após cirurgia cardíaca.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Portugal/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/urine , Biomarkers/urine , Prospective Studies , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast/methods , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Early Diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): S50-S58, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096514


La lesión renal aguda constituye un factor de riesgo independiente de la morbimortalidad en el recién nacido. Dentro de este grupo etario, presentan aún más susceptibilidad los recién nacidos prematuros en los cuales la nefrogénesis no se ha completado y los recién nacidos de bajo peso que presentan menor masa nefronal. Todo esto hace que el recién nacido deba ser evaluado y manejado de modo diferente al paciente pediátrico. En el presente consenso, se presentan las nuevas definiciones de lesión renal aguda y se revisan las diferentes etiologías, los métodos de diagnóstico y los tratamientos recomendados.

Acute kidney Injury is recognized as an independent risk factor of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Additionally, in this age group, there are other aggravating factors, such as incomplete nephrogenesis in premature infants and lower nephron mass in low birth weight neonates. All this means that the newborn must be evaluated and managed differently from the pediatric patient. In the present consensus, we review the new definitions of acute kidney injury, etiologies, diagnostic methods and recommended treatments.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/embryology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
Medwave ; 20(5): e7928, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116906


La insuficiencia renal aguda es el síndrome caracterizado por una disminución brusca, sostenida y potencialmente reversible de la velocidad de filtración glomerular y de las funciones tubulares, afectando de forma global la función renal. Comprende una serie de eventos que se inician con la presencia de factores de riesgo que conducen hacia las fases de progresión de la insuficiencia renal aguda (estrés, lesión e insuficiencia renal), que culmina con la necesidad de terapias de reemplazo renal o muerte. Actualmente, el uso de biomarcadores que diferencien entre un daño funcional temprano o daño estructural de inicio tardío del riñón, le permite al médico realizar un diagnóstico y manejo oportuno antes de que se establezcan las fases previas a la insuficiencia renal, mejorando así la sobrevida de estos pacientes. Esta revisión busca integrar evidencia científica disponible que describe las fases previas de la insuficiencia renal aguda, revisando sus posibles causas, clasificaciones y métodos actuales de diagnóstico, junto con las principales recomendaciones vigentes para su manejo.

Acute kidney injury is a syndrome characterized by a sudden, sustained, and potentially reversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate and tubular function, which globally impacts renal function. It comprises of a series of events starting with the presence of risk factors, then evolving towards acute kidney injury progression, characterized by stress, injury, and renal failure, culminating with either the use of renal replacement therapy or death. Currently, the use of biomarkers that differentiate between the initial functional deterioration and late-onset structural damage of the kidney enables the clinician to perform an early diagnosis and indicate treatment before the stages of acute kidney injury progression are established, thus increasing survival rates.

Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Survival Rate , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 564-569, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056599


ABSTRACT Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of unknown cause that involves large vessels - particularly the aorta and its branches - such as the carotid, coronary, pulmonary, and renal arteries. The left subclavian artery is the most frequently involved vessel. Stenosis of the renal artery has been reported in 23-31% of the cases and may result in malignant hypertension, ischemic renal disease, decompensated heart failure, and premature death. Involvement of both renal arteries is uncommon. Early onset anuria and acute kidney injury are rare and have been reported only in a few cases in the literature. This report describes the case of a 15-year-old female with constitutional symptoms evolving for a year, combined with headache, nausea, and vomiting, in addition to frequent visits to emergency services and insufficient clinical examination. The patient worsened significantly six months after the onset of symptoms and developed acute pulmonary edema, oliguria, acute kidney injury, and difficult-to-control hypertension, at which point she was admitted for intensive care and hemodialysis. Initial ultrasound examination showed she had normal kidneys and stenosis-free renal arteries. The patient was still anuric after 30 days of hospitalization. A biopsy was performed and revealed her kidneys were normal. Computed tomography angiography scans of the abdominal aorta presented evidence of occlusion of both renal arteries. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for Takayasu arteritis and had a severe complication rarely described in the literature: stenosis of the two renal arteries during the acute stage of ischemic renal disease.

RESUMO A Arterite de Takayasu (AT) é uma doença inflamatória crônica, granulomatosa, de causa desconhecida, que afeta grandes vasos, principalmente a aorta e seus ramos, incluindo artérias carótidas, coronárias, pulmonares e renais, sendo a artéria subclávia esquerda o vaso mais acometido. A estenose da artéria renal é relatada em 23-31% dos casos e pode resultar em hipertensão maligna, insuficiência renal por isquemia, descompensação cardíaca e morte prematura. O acometimento bilateral de artérias renais é incomum, sendo rara a presença de anúria súbita e lesão renal aguda como sintoma inicial da doença, com poucos relatos na literatura. O caso reporta uma adolescente de 15 anos com sintomas constitucionais durante um ano de evolução, associados a problemas como cefaleia, náuseas e vômitos, com idas frequentes a serviços de emergência, sem adequada investigação clínica. Após 6 meses do início dos sintomas, a paciente evoluiu de forma grave, com quadro de edema agudo de pulmão, oligúria, lesão renal aguda e hipertensão arterial de difícil controle, sendo necessário suporte em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e hemodiálise. A ultrassonografia inicial mostrava rins normais e artérias renais sem sinais de estenose. Após 30 dias de internamento, paciente permanecia anúrica, sendo realizada biópsia renal que se mostrou dentro dos padrões da normalidade. Angiotomografia de aorta abdominal evidenciou oclusão bilateral de artérias renais. A paciente descrita fechou critérios diagnósticos para arterite de Takayasu e manifestou uma complicação grave pouco descrita na literatura: estenose bilateral de artérias renais, ainda na fase aguda da nefropatia isquêmica.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Oliguria/diagnosis , Oliguria/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Acute Disease , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 580-584, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056602


Abstract In kidney biopsies reviews, scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is characterized by vascular endothelial injuries, C4d deposits on peritubular vessels, and acute and chronic injuries coexisting on the same biopsy. The clinical signs of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) are described in systemic sclerosis (SSc), nevertheless, it has not been related to acute injuries described on kidney biopsies. We report a case of SRC in a patient with scleroderma-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome, which also showed clinical and histopathological data of TMA. On fundus examination, a severe acute hypertensive retinopathy was found. The kidney biopsy showed severe endothelial damage with widening of mucoid cells at the level of the intima, focal concentric proliferation on most small arterioles, and C3, C4d, and IgM deposits along the capillary walls. The genetic study of complement only showed the presence of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) risk haplotypes, without other genetic complement disorders. We understand that in a patient with TMA and SSc, the kidney damage would be fundamentally endothelial and of an acute type; moreover, we would observe clear evidence of complement activation. Once further studies correlate clinical-analytical data with anatomopathological studies, it is likely that we will be forced to redefine the SRC concept, focusing on the relationship between acute endothelial damage and complement activation.

Resumo Nas revisões de biópsias renais, a crise renal esclerodérmica (CRE) é caracterizada por lesões endoteliais vasculares, depósitos de C4d em vasos peritubulares e lesões agudas e crônicas que coexistem na mesma biópsia. Os sinais clínicos de microangiopatia trombótica (MAT) são descritos na esclerose sistêmica (ES); no entanto, não foram relacionados às lesões agudas descritas nas biópsias renais. Relatamos um caso de CRE em um paciente com síndrome de superposição de esclerodermia-dermatomiosite, que também apresentou dados clínicos e histopatológicos de MAT. No exame de fundo do olho, foi encontrada uma retinopatia hipertensiva aguda grave. A biópsia renal mostrou lesão endotelial grave com alargamento das células mucoides ao nível da íntima, proliferação concêntrica focal na maioria das pequenas arteríolas e depósitos de C3, C4d e IgM ao longo das paredes dos capilares. O estudo genético do complemento mostrou apenas a presença de haplótipos de risco da proteína cofator de membrana (PCM), sem outros distúrbios genéticos do complemento. Entendemos que em um paciente com MAT e ES, o dano renal seria fundamentalmente endotelial e do tipo agudo; além disso, observaríamos evidências claras de ativação do complemento. Uma vez que novos estudos correlacionam dados clínico-analíticos com estudos anatomopatológicos, é provável que sejamos forçados a redefinir o conceito de CRE, enfocando a relação entre dano endotelial agudo e ativação do complemento.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Raynaud Disease/complications , Vision Disorders/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Papilledema/pathology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Hypertensive Retinopathy/pathology , Hypertensive Retinopathy/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/etiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/diagnostic imaging