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Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062


Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.

Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.

Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Acute Toxicity , Immune System
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021342, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350167


Paraquat is a potent herbicide widely used in the Indian agriculture industry. Human fatality due to paraquat poisoning is not uncommon in this country. The primary effect of paraquat is on the lungs, and the resultant pulmonary damage leads to the patient's demise. There is a high mortality rate in paraquat poisoning as the treatment is usually supportive with no known antidote. There are limited human studies that have observed the histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning. The authors have discussed the time-related histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning on autopsy subjects. The role of anticoagulants and fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of this poisoning has also been discussed.

Humans , Male , Female , Paraquat/poisoning , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/pathology , Autopsy , Acute Toxicity
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420


BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Acute Toxicity , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094947


Introdução: O câncer de próstata é considerado a neoplasia maligna mais comum que acomete homens em todas as Regiões do país, à exceção do câncer de pele não melanoma. Se diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, o câncer de próstata tem alta taxa de cura; contudo, terapêuticas como a radioterapia podem gerar complicações agudas que podem impactar as atividades cotidianas. Apesar das complicações no pós-tratamento, a radioterapia tem sido um método bastante praticado e que apresenta resultados positivos, ocasionando melhoria da sobrevida livre de doença. Objetivo: Avaliar os principais fatores preditores de complicações agudas que acometem pacientes em tratamento radioterápico para câncer de próstata. Método: Para identificação de fatores preditores de complicações agudas pós-radioterapia, avaliaram-se, consecutiva e prospectivamente, 208 pacientes diagnosticados com adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados com radioterapia conformacional 3D em um centro referência vinculado ao SUS entre os anos 2016 e 2017. Realizou-se ainda avaliação retrospectiva de prontuários para coleta de dados adicionais. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, Anova e regressão logística ordinal. Resultados: Após análise da amostra, evidenciou-se que, entre as complicações agudas, as de maior incidência foram radiodermite, cistite e enterite/retite, de forma que tais complicações tiveram como fatores associados volume irradiado, tratamento prévio e sintomas prévios ao tratamento. Conclusão: O estudo sugere que, apesar da existência de complicações ao final do tratamento, a grande maioria é de baixa complexidade e que pacientes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos prévios podem evoluir com presença de complicações mais graves.

Introduction: Prostate cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects men in all regions of the country, except for non-melanoma skin cancer. If diagnosed and treated early, prostate cancer has a high cure rate; however, therapies such as radiotherapy can generate acute complications that can impact daily activities. Despite post-treatment complications, radiotherapy has been a widely practiced method and has shown positive results, leading to improved disease-free survival. Objective: To evaluate the main predictive factors for acute complications that affect patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Method: To identify predictive factors for acute post-radiotherapy complications, 208 patients diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with 3D conformational radiotherapy were consecutively and prospectively evaluated at a referral center linked to SUS between the years 2016 and 2017. It was carried out retrospective evaluation of medical records to collect additional data. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact, Anova and ordinal logistic regression. Results: After analyzing the sample, it was evidenced that among the acute complications, those with the highest incidence were radiodermatitis, cystitis, enteritis/rectitis, so that these complications had associated predictive factors as irradiated volume, previous treatment and symptoms. Conclusion: The study suggests that despite the existence of complications at the end of the treatment, the vast majority are of low complexity and that the patients submitted to previous surgical procedures can evolve with the presence of more severe complications.

Introducción: El cáncer de próstata se considera la neoplasia maligna más común que afecta a los hombres en todas las regiones del país, con la excepción del cáncer de piel no melanoma. Si se diagnostica y trata temprano, el cáncer de próstata tiene una alta tasa de curación; sin embargo, las terapias como la radioterapia pueden generar complicaciones agudas que pueden afectar las actividades diarias. A pesar de las complicaciones posteriores al tratamiento, la radioterapia ha sido un método ampliamente practicado y ha mostrado resultados positivos, lo que lleva a una mejor supervivencia libre de enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales predictores de complicaciones agudas que afectan a los pacientes sometidos a radioterapia para el cáncer de próstata. Método: Para identificar los factores predictivos de complicaciones agudas posteriores a la radioterapia, 208 pacientes diagnosticados con adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados con radioterapia conformacional 3D fueron evaluados consecutiva y prospectivamente en un centro de referencia vinculado al SUS entre los años 2016 y 2017. Se realizó evaluación retrospectiva de registros médicos para recopilar datos adicionales. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher, de Anova y la regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Después de analizar la muestra, se evidenció que, entre las complicaciones agudas, las de mayor incidencia fueron radiodermatitis, cistitis, enteritis/retitis y síntomas obstructivos, por lo que estas complicaciones tenían factores predictivos asociados, como el volumen irradiado, el tratamiento previo y los síntomas. Conclusión: El estudio sugiere que a pesar de la existencia de complicaciones al final del tratamiento, la gran mayoría son de baja complejidad. Como factores predictivos encontrados, se puede mencionar el volumen irradiado, la existencia de tratamiento previo y los síntomas en la consulta inicial.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Radiodermatitis/radiotherapy , Brazil , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Retrospective Studies , Acute Toxicity , Cystitis/radiotherapy , Enteritis/radiotherapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750780


@#Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive compound from Nigella sativa is known for its various medicinal properties. Due to the low solubility of TQ, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) has been used as a delivery system to improve its efficacy. Nevertheless, the effect of TQ-NLC when administered intravenously is unclear. This study investigated the acute toxicity profile of intravenous administration of TQ-NLC in an in vivo model. Methods: Twelve female Sprague dawley rats were assigned randomly into two groups (n=6); a control and a treatment group that received normal saline and 25 mg/kg TQ-NLC, respectively, via intravenous injection. The rats were observed for 14 days for any alterations to their usual physical conditions such as behaviour and mortality, body weight, food intake, organ-to-body weight ratio, and haematological, biochemical and histopathological profile. Results: There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in the body weight, food intake, organ-to-body weight ratio, and haematological, biochemical and histopathological profile between TQ-NLC treatment and the control group. However, inflammation was observed at the site of injection on the rat’s tail. Conclusion: Intravenous administration of TQ-NLC (25 mg/kg) did not exert acute toxic effect in female Sprague dawley rats. The data can be used as a basis to further develop TQNLC as a potential therapeutic drug.

Acute Toxicity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750704


@#Introduction: Different solvents extraction was used to extract the good fatty acid composition of Dabai fruits. Nevertheless, solvents extraction may exhibit harmful effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate the safety of using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCO2) of dabai pulp oil by acute toxicity study in Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The CO pulp oil extract was prepared by SCO2 extraction of the freezedried pulp and was administered orally to SPF SD rats (consisted of 5 rats/sex/group) at upper limit dose 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 14 days. The study includes the control and treatment groups, each consisting of 5 male and female rats. The rats were fed and allowed to drink sterilized water ad libitum. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of the extract was determined using GC-FID. Electrolytes and biochemical parameters in blood, as well as relative organs weight were measured. Results: The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause any acute toxicity effects or mortality to the treatment of rats during observation periods in 14 days. FAC of the SCO2 extracted oil exhibited high content of palmitic and linoleic acids. The relative organs weights (ROW) and histopathology of rats were within normal range. Conclusion: Thus, the LD50 was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg of CO pulp oil extract and can be considered for further investigation for its therapeutic efficacy in a larger animal model

Acute Toxicity
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039063


The study evaluated the vasorelaxant effect induced by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (EEtOH-Zr/leaves). Wistar rats were treated with the leaf extract containing a single dose of 2,000 mg / kg, v.o. After 14 days, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent analysis of the biochemical parameters; they were then euthanized (sodium pentobarbital-100 mg/kg, i.p.) for the removal and morphological analysis of the heart, lung, liver and kidney. The vasorelaxation activity the and vascular reactivity of EEtOH-Zr/leaves were evaluated on artery mesenteric rings isolated from rats. The extract showed no signs of toxicity and no significant difference in the values of the biochemical parameters between the control group and the group of treated animals. In the evaluation of pharmacological activity in the smooth muscle, the EEtOH-Zr/leaves caused vasorelaxant effect on the tonic contraction induced by phenylephrine in mesenteric artery preparations in the presence (pD2=2.17±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=99.8±5.2%) and absence (pD2=2.14±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=95.3±6.4%) of the vascular endothelium. Oral administration of EEtOH-Zr/leaves reduced the contraction induced by the cumulative addition of PHE. It is concluded that the EEtOH-Zr/leaves promote vasorelaxation and reduce vascular reactivity of adrenergic alpha-1 agonist in the mesenteric artery. The results did not show toxic effects of the extract.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Zanthoxylum/toxicity , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Blood Vessels/drug effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039037


This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas. Acute toxicity and phytochemical tests on ethanol leaf extract were determined. In sub-chronic toxicity test, animals were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract every day for 90 days. Blood samples were collected via retro-orbital puncture for baseline studies and at 31, 61 and 91st days for determination of hematological, kidney and liver function parameters. Liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology analyses on 91st day. Also, a 28 day recovery study was carried out to determine reversibility in toxicological effects. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. Acute toxicity test did not show toxicity or death at 5000 mg/kg. There was significant (p<0.005) reduction in white blood cell and lymphocyte counts, significant (p<0.05) increase in some liver and kidney biomarkers as well as alterations in liver and kidney histo-architecture on 91st days in animals that were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg extract. However, toxicities observed on 91st day were reversible in recovery studies. The leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas may be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic when used for long periods

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Acute Toxicity/adverse effects , Dryopteris/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/instrumentation , Ethanol/toxicity
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026516


Introdução: A radioterapia é uma das modalidades terapêuticas de escolha para os tratamentos adjuvante e neoadjuvante, em pacientes com câncer de mama. Tal modalidade provoca reação de pele dolorosa conhecida como radiodermatite. Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores associados com o aparecimento de radiodermite após radioterapia e a sua associação com o maior grau de toxicidade nesses pacientes. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, com 117 pacientes com de câncer de mama submetidos à radioterapia conformacional 3D, entre 2016 a 2018, em doses variáveis. Dados pessoais foram coletados a partir de prontuário, e o grau de radiodermite estabelecido segundo os critérios do grupo de oncologia radioterápica. O total de 15 potenciais preditivos foram elencados e analisados por estatísticas univariada e multivariada. Resultados: A população do estudo apresentou uma média de 50 anos, 47% relataram alguma comorbidade, 59,83% realizaram cirurgia radical e 81,19% desenvolveram radiodermite. Observou-se, em análise multivariada, associação do desenvolvimento de radiodermite com maiores doses da radiação (p=0,011) e com uso de bólus diário (p=0,009). Conclusão: As principais variáveis que culminaram em maiores graus de radiodermite foram a dose da radiação e o uso de bólus diário. Categorizando os fatores preditivos, identificam-se o paciente com maior risco de lesões graves e a possibilidade da criação de protocolos mais eficazes na prevenção das radiodermatites.

Introduction: Radiotherapy is one of the therapeutic modalities chosen for adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in patients with breast cancer. This modality causes a painful skin reaction known as radiodermatitis. Objective:To evaluate the factors related with the appearance of radiodermatitis after radiotherapy and their relationship with the highest degree of toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Method: Retrospective study, with 117 patients with breast cancer submitted to 3D conformational radiotherapy between 2016 and 2018, at variable doses. Personal data were collected from medical records, and the degree of radiodermatitis established according to the criteria of the Radiation Oncology Group. The total of 15 predictive factors in potential were listed and later analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: The study population presented an average of 50 years, 47% reported some comorbidities, 59.83% underwent radical surgery and 81.19% developed radiodermatitis. In a multivariate analysis, there was an association between development of radiodermatitis and higher doses of radiation (p=0.011) and daily bolus use (p=0.009). Conclusion:The main elements that culminated in higher degrees of radiodermatitis were the dose of radiation and the use of daily bolus. By categorizing the predictive factors, we can identify the patient with the highest risk of severe skin lesions and enables the creation of more effective protocols for the prevention of radiodermatitis.

Introducción: La radioterapia es una modalidad terapéutica para tratamiento adyuvante y neoadyuvante, en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Tal modalidad provoca reacción de piel dolorosa conocida como radiodermatitis. Objetivo: Evaluar factores conexos con la aparición de radiodermatitis tras la radioterapia y su asociación con el mayor grado de toxicidad. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, con 117 pacientes con cáncer de mama sometidos a la Radioterapia Conformacional 3D entre 2016 a 2018. Los datos personales fueron recolectados a partir de prontuario, así como el grado de radiodermatitis establecido según los criterios del grupo de oncología radioterápica. El total de 15 potencial predictivos fueron enumerados y posteriormente analizados por estadística univariana y multivariada. Resultados: La población del estudio presentó un promedio de 50 años, el 47% informó de algunas comorbilidades, el 59,83% se sometió a cirugía radical y el 81,19% desarrolló radiodermatitis. En un análisis multivariado, hubo una asociación entre el desarrollo de radiodermatitis y dosis más altas de radiación (p=0.011) y el uso diario de bolos (p=0.009). Conclusión: Las principales variables que culminaron en mayores grados de radiodermatitis fueron la dosis de radiación y el uso de bolos diarios. Al categorizar los factores predictivos, podemos identificar al paciente con el mayor riesgo de lesiones cutáneas graves y permitir la creación de protocolos más efectivos para la prevención de la radiodermatitis.

Humans , Radiodermatitis/diagnosis , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Precipitating Factors , Retrospective Studies , Acute Toxicity
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 1-11, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973611


El hombre ha cambiado el ambiente para sostener la demanda global de recursos naturales como el agua. La gestión de los cuerpos hídricos tiene que ser constante, con el propósito preventivo y correctivo, dependiendo del estado de antropización de cada sistema. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la toxicidad del sedimento y los metales Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd y Cu, en el reservorio Paiva Castro, que abastece la Region Metropolitana de São Paulo. Se realizaron 2 muestreos (Mayo 2011, estación seca y Enero de 2012, estación húmeda) y se analizaron 5 puntos próximos a la captación de agua por la Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda y crónica en sedimento, a través de ensayos biológicos con el cladócero Daphnia similis y el insecto Chironomus xanthus. El tratamiento de datos se realizó con el test de Fisher (mortalidad). El nivel de asociación entre las variables en sedimento y en los test ecotoxicológicos fueron evaluados por test no-paramétricos, a través del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman's. Los resultados del presente trabajo señalaron bajas concentracones de metales en el sedimento del área de estudio y ausencia de toxicidad en los organismos ensayados. Se puede concluir que área estudiada del reservorio Paiva Castro se encuentra poco impactada por los metales, sin efectos directos sobre la calidad de vida los organismos bentónicos: D. similis y C. xanthus.

Man had changed the natural environment in an attempt trying to supply the global demand for resources. The management of the hydric bodies has to be constant, with preventive and corrective purpose, depending on the eutrophization state of each one. The objective of this article was to analyze the sediment toxicity and the metals Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu, in the Paiva Castro reservoir, that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It was made 2 collections (May 2011, dry season and January 2012, wet season). It was analyzed 5 points next to the water captation station by the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. The sediment was analyzed as for acute and chronic toxicity through bioassays with the cladocerans Daphnia similis and the insect Chironomus xanthus. Data treatment was done with Fisher Exact Test (mortality). The association level between the variables in sediment and ecotoxicological tests was available in non-parametric tests, through the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Oriented on the results presented in this work, pointing low concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments presented in the collect local, and the absence of toxicity, we can say that at this reservoir, at least in the collect area, it's low impacted, not implicating in direct interferences in the quality of life of benthonic organisms.

Zinc/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Water Reservoirs/prevention & control , Sediments/analysis , Copper/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Brazil , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Acute Toxicity/methods , Chronic Toxicity/analysis , Chronic Toxicity/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17579, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974398


Glucuronoxylan hydrogel (GXH) isolated from M. pudica seeds was assessed for acute toxicology in albino mice that were alienated into four groups. Three groups, i.e., II, III and IV received GXH at a dose of 1, 2 and 5 g/kg, respectively while group I was retained untreated and provided routine diet. After administering GXH, mice were examined for vomiting, diarrhea, allergy and tremors for 8 h. All animals were carefully observed for food and water consumption at 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 day after administering GXH. At the end of studies, blood samples were drawn for investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters. All animals were sacrificed, relative body weight of vital organs was calculated and their histopathology was studied. It was concluded that there was insignificant difference in body weight, behavioral pattern, food and water intake among treated and control groups. Haematology and biochemistry of blood samples from all groups were found analogous. Histopathological evaluation of vital body organs exhibited no lesions in all groups. Ocular, cardiac and dermal safety of GXH was also established on albino rabbits.

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rabbits , Mimosa pudica/toxicity , Hydrogels/analysis , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Mimosa pudica/adverse effects
Vitae (Medellín) ; 24(1): 23-29, 2017. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988506


Background: The mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) is widely used in traditional medicine, especially its seeds, which are used in Malaysia, Indonesia and some countries of South America. Recently an active fraction of the leaf ethanolic extract (labelled "Sm13-16,23"), showed promising results against some toxins of South American pit vipers. Objectives: In this study the aim was to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of fraction Sm13-16,23 from the leaf ethanolic extract, using Swiss Webster mice. Methods: Fraction Sm13-16,23 was administered orally in a single dose to 2000 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, clinical follow-up for 14 days was performed and then euthanasia, necropsy and histopathology of organs were performed. Results: Overall, there were not deaths recorded during the study period. Further not signs of toxicity in doses of 300mg/kg were observed, but at doses of 2000 mg/kg, histopathological lesions in the liver, as karyomegaly and binucleation were observed. Conclusions: Fraction Sm13-16, 23 does not produce toxicity lesion at doses of 300mg/kg, indicating that the acute oral toxicity risk is low.

Antecedentes: El árbol de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) es utilizado ampliamente en la medicina tradicional, especialmente sus semillas, que son usadas en Malasia, Indonesia y algunos países de Suramérica. Recientemente una fracción activa del extracto etanólico de las hojas (llamada "Sm13-16,23"), demostró resultados promisorios frente algunas toxinas de las víboras suramericanas. Objetivos: En este estudio se evaluó la toxicidad aguda oral de la fracción Sm13-16,23 del extracto etanólico de las hojas de S. macrophylla utilizando ratones Swiss Webster. Métodos: La fracción Sm13-16,23 se administró vía oral como dosis única a 2000 mg/kg y 300 mg/kg, se realizó seguimiento clínico de los animales durante 14 días y finalmente se les aplicó la eutanasia. Se practicó la necropsia de cada animal y se tomaron algunos órganos para su evaluación histopatológica. Resultados: No se registraron muertes durante el tiempo de estudio, ni se evidenciaron signos de toxicidad a dosis de 300mg/kg, sin embargo, a la dosis de 2000 mg/kg, se encontraron lesiones histopatológicas en el hígado; como cariomegalia y binucleación de los hepatocitos. Conclusión: La fracción Sm13-16,23 no produjo lesiones de toxicidad a dosis de 300mg/ kg, lo que indicia que el riesgo de toxicidad aguda oral es bajo.

Humans , Acute Toxicity , Meliaceae , Pathology , Phenolic Compounds
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1343-1350, set.-out. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827905


O tiametoxam é um inseticida neonicotinóide usado em diversas culturas e classificado como perigoso para o meio ambiente.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade aguda do inseticida, por meio da determinação da CL50%, e o risco ecotoxicológico com mensuração da concentração ambiental estimada (CAE) e do quociente de risco (QR). O experimento foi realizado com alevinos de tilápias expostas a 150, 300, 450, 600 e 750mg/L de Actara(R) WG por um período total de 96 horas. O oxigênio dissolvido, o pH e a temperatura foram mensurados diariamente em todos os aquários. Nos grupos experimentais, houve uma variação dos valores de pH e de OD para as diferentes concentrações do inseticida. A CL50% 96h do Actara(R) para alevinos de tilápia foi de 322,08ppm. O quociente de risco (QR) variou de baixo a alto, de acordo com a metodologia usada.(AU)

The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam is used in different cultures and classified as dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of thiamethoxam by determining the lethal concentration (LC50) and ecotoxicological risk through Estimated Environmental Concentration (EEC) and Risk Quotient (RQ) measurement. The assays were done with Tilapia fingerlings exposed to 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750mg / L Actara WG during 96 hours. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were measured daily in all aquariums. Dissolved oxygen and pH varied in the experimental groups. The LC50 Actara(R); 96h was 322.08ppm. The risk quotient (RQ) ranged from low to high according to the methodology used.(AU)

Animals , Acute Toxicity , Cichlids , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 33(1): 113-119, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | INS-PERU, LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-790817


Las hojas de la planta Xanthium spinosum se utilizan culturalmente en Paraguay por sus propiedades medicinales. Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda del extracto de hojas maduras; para el estudio se seleccionaron 35 ratones BALB/C machos que fueron distribuidos en 7 grupos, 6 de ensayo y 1 de control. El extracto fue preparado en concentraciones de 6 y 9% (g/dL); se administró la solución 6% a tres grupos y la solución 9% a los otros tres grupos, con dosis entre 200 y 1000 mg/kg. Al final de 14 días de observación, se extrajeron muestras de sangre para estudios laboratoriales de urea y transaminasas, además de órganos para estudios anatomopatológicos. Se determinaron aumentos en los niveles de GOT y urea en comparación al grupo control. Se concluye que el consumo del extracto de hojas maduras de Xanthium spinosum puede causar daño hepático...

The leaves of the Xanthium spinosum plant have been used culturally in Paraguay for their medicinal properties. Acute toxicity of mature leaf extract was evaluated. For the study, 35 Balb/c mice were selected and allocated into 7 groups, 6 test groups and 1 control group. The extract was prepared in concentrations of 6% and 9% (g/dL). The 6% concentration was administrated to 3 test groups and 9% concentration to the remaining 3 groups, with doses between 200 and 1000 mg/kg per mouse. After 14 days of observation, blood samples were taken for laboratory studies of urea and transaminases and organs were examined for pathological studies. There were increased levels of GOT and urea in the test groups compared to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of mature leaf extract of Xanthium spinosum can cause hepatic damage...

Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Acute Toxicity , Xanthium/toxicity
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 94 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846667


O óleo da amêndoa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) é considerado um coproduto do fruto, consumido na região do Cerrado, bioma brasileiro. Ele é fundamental para agregar valor e ampliar a utilização deste fruto regional a outros setores produtivos comerciais. Relatos na literatura apontam que o óleo possui capacidade antioxidante e efeitos benéficos sobre doenças inflamatórias, que estão associados à presença de ácidos graxos insaturados e fitoquímicos em sua composição química. Por outro lado, o tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4) é uma potente hepatotoxina, capaz de gerar radicais livres que levam ao estresse oxidativo e à inflamação. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os óleos da amêndoa de pequi obtidos artesanalmente e por prensagem a frio e verificar o efeito de seus constituintes graxos e bioativos sobre parâmetros oxidativos e inflamatórios de ratos submetidos à toxicidade aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono. Inicialmente, foram investigados os parâmetros de qualidade dos óleos, bem como o perfil de ácidos graxos, teores de compostos bioativos, capacidade antioxidante e estabilidade termo-oxidativa. Os óleos da amêndoa de pequi apresentaram boa qualidade e resistência termo-oxidativa e mostraram-se ricos em ácido graxo oleico, além de possuírem compostos com propriedades antioxidantes, como fenólicos, carotenoides, tocoferóis e fitosteróis. Posteriormente, o efeito do tratamento por 22 dias com óleos da amêndoa de pequi artesanal ou prensado a frio (3 mL/kg) sobre a toxicidade aguda induzida pelo CCl4 em ratos "Wistar" machos foi avaliado. Para tal, foram determinados marcadores bioquímicos séricos, perfil lipídico, peroxidação lipídica, marcadores do sistema de defesa antioxidante e detoxificante, além de parâmetros inflamatórios do tecido hepático. De maneira geral, verificou-se que os óleos da amêndoa de pequi não minimizaram as alterações hepáticas induzidas pelo CCl4, evidenciadas pelas enzimas marcadoras do dano hepático e por parâmetros inflamatórios, no entanto os animais tratados com o óleo prensado a frio aumentaram sua capacidade antioxidante

The pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) almond oil is considered a by-product of the fruit, consumed in the Brazilian savannah region. It is essential to add value and increase the use this regional fruit to other commercial productive sectors. The pequi almond oil has been reported to possess antioxidant capacity and beneficial effect on inflammatory diseases due its chemical composition in unsaturated fatty compounds and phytochemicals. On the other hand, the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxin that is capable of generating free radicals and lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the pequi almond oils obtained by handmade and cold-press process and verify the effect of their fatty acids and bioactive constituents on oxidative and inflammatory parameters in rats submitted to carbon tetrachloride-induced acute toxicity. Initially, quality parameters, chemical composition and thermo-oxidative stability of the oils were investigated. The pequi almond oils showed good quality and thermo-oxidative resistance and shown to be rich in oleic fatty acid, besides the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties, such as phenolics, carotenoids, tocopherols and phytosterols. Subsequently, the effect of the oils (3 mL/kg) treatment for 22 days on acute toxicity induced by CCl4 in male Wistar rats was evaluated. The serum biochemical markers levels, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, markers of antioxidant defense and detoxication and inflammatory parameters in liver tissue were determined. In general, it was found that the pequi almond oil not minimized liver alterations induced by CCl4, as evidenced by the liver function enzymes and the inflammatory parameters, however in animals which received the cold pressed oil was increased antioxidant capacity

Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Toxicity/prevention & control , Biomarkers/chemistry , Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning , Oxidative Stress , Ericales/classification , Carbon Tetrachloride/administration & dosage , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Lipid Peroxidation , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 82: 1-7, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025977


In view of the diversity of environments found in the Brazilian territory, it is understandable that the use of native species can provide more relevant information for ecotoxicological studies. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of water samples from the Atibaia River in an area that is under the influence of petroleum refinery using a native test-organism and submitting the data to PCA statistical analysis. Therefore, acute toxicity assays with Lecane bulla (Rotifera) were performed in four locations of the river, as well as physical-chemical analyses. Sampling was drawn in the dry and rainy seasons. The bioassays were static and lasted 48 hours; dead organisms were quantified at the end of the tests. Toxicological differences among the samples/per location and control were compared by means of the Analysis of Variance. Physical-chemical and mortality variables were simultaneously analyzed by multivariate analysis of the principal components and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Water samples from the exit of the refinery stabilization pond (location S.1) were toxic to L. bulla in both seasons, with significant differences in relation to the control and between the seasons. The statistical treatment of data showed that mortality was strong and positively correlated with total hardness, chlorides and EC, which together with pH presented higher values in location S.1, in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Due to its sensibility to the quality of the Atibaia river water samples, the potential use of L. bulla for ecotoxicological studies as an alternative test organism could be demonstrated.(AU)

Em virtude da diversidade de ambientes encontrada no território nacional, o uso de espécies nativas em estudos toxicológicos constitui assunto de extrema relevância. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade das águas do rio Atibaia, em uma região sob influência de uma refinaria de petróleo utilizando-se um organismo-teste nativo, e aplicando-se o método estatístico multivariado análise de componentes principais (PCA). Ensaios de toxicidade aguda com o rotífero Lecane bulla (Rotifera) e análises físico-químicas foram realizados com amostras obtidas em quatro diferentes pontos do rio em questão. As amostragens ocorreram nas estações seca e chuvosa. Os bioensaios foram estáticos e duraram 48 horas; organismos mortos foram quantificados no final dos testes. Diferenças toxicológicas entre as amostras de cada ponto e o controle foram comparadas por análise de variância. As variáveis físico-químicas e a mortalidade foram simultaneamente submetidas à análise multivariada dos componentes principais e pela correlação de Pearson. Amostras de água retiradas da saída da lagoa de estabilização (ponto S.1) foram tóxicas ao organismo L. bulla nas duas estações, com diferenças significativas em relação ao controle e entre as estações. O tratamento estatístico dos dados demonstrou que a mortalidade correlacionou-se forte e positivamente com parâmetros como dureza total, cloretos e EC, e, com o pH, apresentou valores maiores no ponto S.1 em ambas as estações. A sensibilidade apresentada pela espécie L. bulla em relação à qualidade das amostras da água do rio Atibaia indicou que este organismo apresenta potencial de uso para estudos de ecotoxicologia, podendo ser futuramente empregado como organismo-teste alternativo.(AU)

Rotifera , Water Quality , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Acute Toxicity , Rivers , Biological Assay , Multivariate Analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.3): 1118-1124, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776594


RESUMO Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly used to treat urinary infections, kidneys, breast, body aches, rheumatism, asthma, cramps, poor digestion and as a diuretic medicine. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent in rodents. After the collection processes, identification, drying and grinding, the lyophilized powder of the leaves produced, by infusion, the aqueous extract and it was dissolved in saline 0.9%. The administration was made by gavage at a dose of 2000 mg kg-1to rats and mice of both genders. The oral toxicity was determined according to the OECD 423 guide. Signs of toxicity were observed for 15 days and classified from 0 to 4 respectively as missing, rare, mild, moderate and severe. The weight of the animals and the physiological parameters such as food intake and excrements production were observed. All animal tissue samples were collected for histological analysis. The extract was included in Type 5 (substance with LD50 higher than 2000 mg kg-1 and less than 5000 mg kg-1), being considered of low toxicity, but the histopathologycal findings suggested nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The absolute weight of the kidneys and the heart of the male rats and mice increased, but there was no significant raise in the relative weight of the animals’ organs.

RESUMO Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é uma planta usada popularmente para tratar infecções do trato urinário, rim, mama, dores no corpo, reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e também é usada como diurético. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de folhas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent em roedores. Após os processos de coleta, identificação, secagem e moagem, o pó liofilizado das folhas da planta foi utilizado para produzir o seu extrato aquoso por infusão e então dissolvido em solução salina a 0.9 %. A administração foi feita por gavagem na dose de 2000 mg kg-1 em ratos e camundongos de ambos os sexos. A toxicidade oral foi determinada de acordo com o guia 423 da OECD. Sinais de toxicidade foram observados por 15 dias e tabulados de 0 a 4, respectivamente, como ausentes, raros, leves, moderados e graves. Foi acompanhado o peso dos animais e parâmetros fisiológicos tais como alimentação e excreções. Amostras do tecido de todo o animal foram coletadas para análise histológica. A toxicidade encontrada para o extrato foi incluída na classe 5 (substâncias com DL50 superior a 2000 mg kg-1 e menor que 5000 mg kg-1) sendo considerada baixa, porém, as observações histopatológicas sugerem nefrotoxicidade e cardiotoxicidade. O peso absoluto dos rins e coração de ratos e camundongos machos aumentou, porém, não houve aumento significativo no peso relativo dos órgãos dos animais.

Mice , Rats , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Ulmaceae/classification , Cannabaceae/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 19(4): 399-406, out.-dez. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-750677


INTRODUCCIÓN: a nivel mundial la exposición accidental o voluntaria a sustancias tóxicas es causa frecuente de intoxicación. En reportes estadísticos predominan las intoxicaciones por psicofármacos y plaguicidas, pero las plantas tóxicas también son frecuentemente consultadas en los servicios de urgencias. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el comportamiento de las intoxicaciones agudas por plantas tóxicas en cuanto a incidencia y morbilidad, reportadas por Centro de Toxicología de Villa Clara (CENTOX-VC), e identificar los tipos de plantas causales, lugar de procedencia del paciente intoxicado y tipo de intoxicación más frecuente. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo en el Centro de Toxicología Clínica de Villa Clara, Cuba, durante los cuatro primeros años de su creación (2008-2011), considerando variables como edad, municipio y/o provincia, planta tóxica responsable, causas de la intoxicación y vías de exposición. RESULTADOS: se atendieron 70 pacientes intoxicados en la consulta de urgencia por plantas tóxicas (8,22 %). Hubo mayor incidencia en el año 2009 con 47 pacientes (67,1 %). Predominó el rango de edad entre 5 y 14 años, el sexo masculino (57,1 %); las intoxicaciones más frecuentes fueron por nuez o nogal (Aleurites trilobus J.R. Forst. & G. Forst) (52,9 %), piñón de botija (Jatropha curcas L) (14,3 %), salvadera (Hura crepitans L) y yuquilla (Cycas circinalis L) (12,9 %) y (10 %) respectivamente. Predominaron las intoxicaciones no intencionales (94,3 %) y la vía de exposición digestiva (95,8 %). Cifuentes fue el municipio de mayor incidencia con 37 pacientes (52,8 %). CONCLUSIONES: la caracterización en nuestro estudio de la incidencia y morbilidad expuesta, así como ser el sexo masculino, grupos etarios (niños y adolescentes) los más afectados por las intoxicaciones agudas de forma no intencional por vía digestiva, brinda conocimientos e información para los profesionales de la salud en el manejo de estos pacientes, debiéndose continuar con su estudio, y realizar labores de divulgación para disminuir su morbilidad.

INTRODUCTION: accidental or intentional exposure to toxic substances is a frequent cause of poisoning worldwide. Statistical reports show a predominance of poisoning by psycholeptics and pesticides, but poisoning by toxic plants is also frequently treated at emergency services. OBJECTIVE: characterize the incidence and morbidity of acute poisoning by toxic plants as reported by Villa Clara Toxicology Center (CENTOX-VC) and identify the types of causal plants, place of residence of the poisoned patient and most frequent poisoning type. METHODS: an observational retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Villa Clara Clinical Toxicology Center in Cuba during the four years following the founding of the Center (2008-2011). The variables considered were age, municipality and/or province, causal toxic plant, causes of the poisoning episode and manner of exposure. RESULTS: seventy patients were cared for at the emergency service for poisoning by toxic plants (8.22 %). The highest incidence was found in the year 2009 with 47 patients (67.1 %). There was a predominance of the 5-14 age range and the male sex (57.1 %). The most frequent causal agents were walnut tree (Aleurites trilobus J. R. Forst. & G. Forst) (52.9 %), physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) (14.3 %), sandbox tree (Hura crepitans L.) (12.9%) and queen sago (Cycas circinalis L.) (10 %). A predominance was observed of unintentional poisoning (94.3 %) and oral intake (95.8 %). The highest incidence was found in the municipality of Cifuentes with 37 patients (52.8 %). CONCLUSIONS: a characterization is provided of poisoning by toxic plants which includes reference to its incidence and morbidity, the groups most frequently affected (children and adolescents and the male sex), and manner of exposure (unintentional by oral intake). These contents will be useful to health professionals managing poisoning episodes. Further studies should be conducted and dissemination activities performed with a view to reducing the morbidity of these events.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Plant Poisoning , Plants, Medicinal/poisoning , Acute Toxicity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 18(4): 279-286, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-772165


Introdução: A Dioclea grandiflora, conhecido como Mucunã de caroço,atua sobre o Sistema Nervoso Central, doenças da próstata e pedrasnos rins. Objetivo: Realizar estudo toxicológico não clínico agudo, emratos, com base na Instrução Normativa nº4, de 18 de junho de 2014da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Material eMétodos: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, ambos os sexos, dose 2000mg/kg, via oral, do extrato etanólico bruto de Dioclea grandifloraadministrado a um grupo tratado e um grupo controle (veículo). Apósa administração, os parâmetros de comportamento foi observado por30, 60, 90, 120, 180 e 240 minutos, consumo de ração e água,parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. O número de sobreviventescontabilizados para determinar a DL50. Resultados: Houve aumentoestatisticamente significativo no consumo de água (Controle:160,4±5,85; Tratado: 201,3±8,55) e ração das fêmeas (Controle:95,98±3,02; Tratado: 113,1±2,42) e aumento estatisticamentesignificativo no consumo de água (Controle: 236,7±6,43; Tratado:267,5±8,72) e ração dos machos (Controle: 152,4±2,51; Tratado:177,64,15). Aumento estatisticamente significativo na albumina dosmachos (Controle: 3,2±0,08; Tratado: 3,6±0,08), nas fêmeas reduziuestatisticamente significativo a fosfatase alcalina (Controle:198,5±18,81; Tratado: 99,97±16,02) , proteína total (Controle:7,85±0,09; Tratado: 6,85±0,24) e globulinas (Controle: 4,28±0,14;Tratado: 3,27±0,27). Diminuiu estatisticamente significativo o númerode hemácias nas fêmeas (Controle: 10,18±0,28; Tratado: 9,62±0,18).Conclusão: De acordo com os resultados a DL50 foi superior à dosetestada, porém são necessários estudos toxicológicos de longa duraçãopara atestar a segurança de seu uso...

Introduction: Dioclea grandiflora, known as Mucunã de caroço, acts onthe central nervous system, and against prostate disease and kidneystones. Objective: To perform a nonclinical acute toxicology study inrats following the Normative Instruction #4 as of June 18th 2014 of theNational Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Material and Methods:Wistar rats of both sexes were used in the study. A dose of 2000 mg/kg of Dioclea grandiflora ethanolic extract was administered orally tothe test group. A control group using only the vehicle was also included.Then behavioral parameters were monitored for 30, 60, 90, 120, 180,and 240 minutes after feed and water intake, along with hematologicaland biochemical parameters. The number of survivors was recordedto determine the LD50. Results: There was a statistically significantincrease in water (Control: 160.4 ± 5.85; Treated: 201.3 ± 8.55), andfeed intake (Control: 95.98 ± 3.02; Treated: 113.1 ± 2.42) for femalerats; and a statistically significant increase in water (Control: 236.7 ±6.43; Treated: 267.5 ± 8.72) and feed intake (Control: 152.4 ± 2.51;Treated: 177.6 ± 4.15) for males. A statistically significant increase inalbumin levels was observed for males (Control: 3.2 ± 0.08; Treated:3.6 ± 0.08), and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase (Control: 198.5 ±18.81; Treated: 99.97 ± 16.02), total protein (Control: 7.85 ± 0.09;Treated: 6.85 ± 0.24) and globulin (Control: 4.28 ± 0.14; Treated: 3.27± 0.27) was found for females. Also, in females the number of redblood cells was found to be significantly reduced (Control: 10.18 ±0.28; Treated: 9.62 ± 0.18). Conclusion: According to the results, theLD50 value found was higher than that of the tested dose. Howeverlong-term toxicology studies are needed to further prove the safetyof the extract...

Animals , Rats , Central Nervous System , Acute Toxicity/analysis , Rats, Wistar
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3,supl.1): 670-678, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-727194


A Mikania glomerata é uma planta pertencente à família Asteraceae que é bastante utilizada na medicina popular devido às suas ações broncodilatadora, antiasmática, expectorante e antitussígena. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as propriedades físico-químicas do pó obtido a partir das folhas de M. glomerata, bem como, avaliar a toxicidade em camundongos após tratamento agudo com doses repetidas do extrato etanólico padronizado preparado a partir das folhas dessa espécie. Durante o estudo das propriedades físico-químicas do pó obtido a partir das folhas de M. glomerata foram feitas as determinações da densidade bruta e de compactação, do teor de cinzas totais, do teor de umidade, e da granulometria. De acordo com os resultados obtidos podemos sugerir que o pó pode ser usado na formulação de uma forma farmacêutica sólida. Na segunda parte do estudo foi determinada a Dose Letal 50% (DL50), bem como, realizada a análise morfológica macroscópica e avaliados a toxicidade aguda com doses repetidas e os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos. De acordo com os dados obtidos na segunda parte deste estudo podemos sugerir que o extrato etanólico pode ser usado de forma segura em humanos, uma vez que apresentou valor de DL50 de aproximadamente 3000 mg Kg-1), bem como, não produziu nenhuma alteração morfológica nos principais órgãos, e nem provocou alterações nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos.

The Mikania glomerata is a plant belonging to the Asteraceae that is widely used in folk medicine because of its bronchodilator, antiasthmatic, expectorant and antitussive actions. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of the powder obtained from the leaves of M. glomerata, and to evaluate its toxicity in mice after acute treatment with repeated doses of standardized ethanol extract prepared from the leaves of this plant species. We determined the bulk and packing density, the total ash content, the moisture content and the particle size. The results suggest that the powder can be used in the formulating of a solid pharmaceutical form. In the second part of this study, we determined the 50% lethal dose (LD50), performed the gross morphological analysis and evaluated the acute toxicity from the use of repeated doses and the biochemical and hematologic parameters in mice. The data obtained in this part suggest that the ethanol extract can be used safely in humans, since it has a LD50 value of approximately 3000 mg kg -1 and produced no morphological changes in the major organs, or caused alterations in the biochemical and hematological parameters in mice.

Acute Toxicity/analysis , Asteraceae/classification , Mikania/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism