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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 693-702, May-June 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278362

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of purebred Bos taurus taurus bovine breeds raised in Brazil in association with climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables. The breeds Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolais, Devon, Flemish, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn and Simental were classified according to their aptitude (milk, meat or dual-purpose). They were spatialized according to their aptitude using state and municipal information. The milk breeds were found in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, while the dual-purpose breeds were found in Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states and the beef breeds were concentrated in the southern region. Only the Aberdeen Angus meat breed showed higher dispersion in other regions. Meat and dual-purpose breeds tended to be raised in regions with lower maximum temperature, average temperature, thermal amplitude and temperature-humidity index. Dual-purpose breeds were found in municipalities with high humidity and altitude, but with a low gross domestic product, little technical guidance received from cooperatives and the government, low control of diseases and parasites, as well as low use of pasture rotation systems. The spatial distribution of Brazilian bovine taurine breeds, regardless of aptitude, was related to climatic, physical and socioeconomic factors.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de raças bovinas puras Bos taurus taurus criadas no Brasil, associadas a variáveis climáticas, físicas e socioeconômicas. As raças Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolês, Devon, Flamenga, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn e Simental foram classificadas de acordo com sua aptidão (leite, carne ou duplo-propósito). Elas foram espacializadas de acordo com sua aptidão a partir de informações estaduais e municipais. As raças leiteiras foram encontradas nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, enquanto as raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas nos estados de Minas Gerais e Rio Grande do Sul, e as raças de carne concentraram-se na região Sul. Apenas a raça de carne Aberdeen Angus apresentou maior dispersão nas demais regiões. As raças de carne e de duplo-propósito tendem a ser criadas em regiões com menores temperatura máxima, temperatura média, amplitude térmica e índice de temperatura e umidade. As raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas em municípios com alta umidade e altitude, mas com baixo produto interno bruto, pouca orientação técnica recebida de cooperativas e do governo, baixo controle de doenças e de parasitas e baixo uso de sistema de rotação de pastagens. A distribuição espacial das raças taurinas bovinas brasileiras, independentemente da aptidão, foi relacionada a fatores climáticos, físicos e socioeconômicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Adaptation, Biological , Socioeconomic Analysis , Climate , Animal Distribution , Animal Husbandry/methods , Brazil
2.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190480, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278442

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evolution of species is inevitably accompanied by the evolution of metabolic networks to adapt to different environments. The metabolic networks of different species were collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) website, and some enzyme reactions with the highest occurrence frequency in all species were found and are reported in this paper. The correlation coefficients of whether the enzyme reactions appear in all species were calculated, and the corresponding evolutionary correlation connection networks were calculated according to different correlation coefficient thresholds. These studies show that, as the evolutionary correlation of enzyme reactions increases, the weighted average of the mean functional concentration ratios of the enzyme reactions also increases, indicating that the functional concentration ratio of enzyme reactions has a certain correlation with the evolutionary correlation. The work presented in this paper enhances our understanding of the characteristics and general rules of metabolic network evolution.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Activation , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Adaptation, Biological , Metabolism
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 35: 48-56, sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047771

ABSTRACT

Background: Tamarix ramosissima is a desert forest tree species that is widely distributed in the drought-stricken areas to sustain the fragile ecosystem. Owing to its wide usage in the desert restoration of Asia, it can be used as an ecophysiological model plant. To obtain reliable and accurate results, a set of reference genes should be screened before gene expression. However, up to date, systematical evaluation of reference genes has not been conducted in T. ramosissima. Results: In this study, we used eigenvalues derived from principal component analysis to identify stable expressed genes from 72,035 unigenes from diurnal transcriptomes under natural field conditions. With combined criteria of read counts above 900 and CV of FPKM below 0.3, a total of 7385 unigenes could be qualified as candidate reference genes in T. ramosissima. By using three statistical algorithm packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, the stabilities of these novel reference genes were further compared with a panel of traditional reference genes. The expression patterns of three aquaporins (AQPs) suggested that at least UBQ (high expression), EIF4A2 (low expression), and GAPDH (moderate expression) could be qualified as ideal reference genes in both RT-PCR and RNA-seq analysis of T. ramosissima. Conclusions: This work will not only facilitate future studies on gene expression and functional analysis of genetic resources of desert plants but also improve our understanding of the molecular regulation of water transport in this plant, which could provide a new clue to further investigate the drought adaptation mechanism of desert plant species under harsh environments.


Subject(s)
Tamaricaceae/genetics , Transcriptome , Reference Standards , Adaptation, Biological , Gene Expression , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves/genetics , Desert , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Droughts , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Seq
5.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 41(1): 24-30, jun. 2018. ilus, graf, map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-953633

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: proporcionar datos de la adaptación del Aedes aegypti en altitudes superiores a los de su hábitat natural en el departamento de Cochabamba. Métodos: la notificación así como la vigilancia entomológica, permitieron caracterizar taxonómicamente y geográficamente la infestación por Aedes aegypti, en municipios del eje metropolitano del departamento de Cochabamba y observar el cambio de escenario epidemiológico producido. La utilización de materiales de investigación entomológica, además del estudio integral permitió identificar factores predisponentes para la colonización del vector. Resultados: se encontró la presencia del vector en diferentes altitudes geográficas y en varios municipios del departamento de Cochabamba, en los que anteriormente no se encontraba. Se observó una variación de temperatura inusitada y lluvia en el mes de enero de 2016, que proporcionó climáticas favorables para la proliferación de Aedes aegypti y otros vectores. Se identificó una mayor infestación en la zona sur de la ciudad de Cochabamba, además de ser el área que ha presentado más factores de riesgo como son la presencia de criaderos artificiales comunes y no comunes, con presencia incalculable de desechos inservibles intradomiciliarios. Conclusiones: observar la presencia del vector en municipios grandes como Cercado, denota Riesgo de gran magnitud para la población por lo que representa un ESPII-ESPIN. El cambio climático como uno de los factores para la variación de los diversos nichos ecológicos, ha permitido que los Valles hayan brindado condiciones propicias para la colonización del Aedes aegypti y que este se adapte a altitudes mayores a 2 200 m s.n.m. La ciudad de Cochabamba es un punto importante de entrada para el ingreso de personas provenientes de áreas endémicas de trasmisión de Dengue, Zika y Chikungunya, tanto del exterior como del interior, lo que representa alto riesgo para la transmisión de estas enfermedades en las nuevas áreas de dispersión del vector. Hasta el momento julio 2016 solo se evidencio la presentación autóctona de un caso en la ciudad de Cochabamba. La dificultad en la provisión y almacenamiento de agua en las viviendas, son factores fundamentales para la proliferación de criaderos potenciales para Aedes aegypti.


Objetive: to provide data of the adaptation of Aedes aegypti at higher altitudes than its natural habitat in the department Cochabamba. Methods: notification as well as Entomological Surveillance allowed taxonomic and geographic characterization of Aedes aegypti infestation in municipalities of the metropolitan axis of Cochabamba department and to observe the change in the epidemiological scenario produced. The use of entomological research materials, besides the integral study allowed to identify predisposing factors for the colonization of the vector. Results: the presence of the vector was found at different geographic altitudes and in several municipalities in the department of Cochabamba, where it was previously not found. An unusual temperature variation and rainfall in January 2016 provided favorable climatic conditions for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti and other vectors. Greater infestation was identified in the southern area of the city of Cochabamba, besides being the area that has presented more risk factors such as the presence of common and non-common artificial breeding grounds, with an incalculable presence of intradomiciliary waste. Conclusions: observing the presence of the vector in large municipalities such as Cercado, denotes a high risk for the population, which represents an ESPII-ESPIN. Climate change as one of the factors for the variation of the various ecological niches has allowed the Valleys to provide conditions conducive to the colonization of Aedes aegypti and that it overcomes adaptation to altitudes higher than 2200 m s.n.m. The city of Cochabamba is an important entry point for the entry of people from endemic areas of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya transmission, both from the outside and the interior, which represents a high risk for the transmission of these diseases in the new areas of vector dispersion. Until July 2016 only the autochthonous presentation of a case in the city of Cochabamba was evidenced. The difficulty in the provision and storage of water in the dwellings are fundamental factors for the proliferation of potential breeding sites for Aedes aegypti.


Subject(s)
Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Aedes/parasitology , Adaptation, Biological
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 29-40, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903844

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To compare the genetic determinants involved in plant colonization or virulence in the reported genomes of K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae and K. pneumoniae. Materials and methods: In silico comparisons and Jaccard analysis of genomic data were used. Fimbrial genes were detected by PCR. Biological assays were performed with plant and clinical isolates. Results: Plant colonization genes such as cellulases, catalases and hemagglutinins were mainly present in K. variicola genomes. Chromosomal β-lactamases were characteristic of this species and had been previously misclassified. K. variicola and K. pneumoniae isolates produced plant hormones. Conclusions: A mosaic distribution of different virulence- and plant-associated genes was found in K. variicola and in K. quasipneumoniae genomes. Some plant colonizing genes were found mainly in K. variicola genomes. The term plantanosis is proposed for plant-borne human infections.


Resumen: Objetivo: Comparar genes de colonización de plantas o de virulencia en los genomas reportados de K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae y K. pneumoniae. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron análisis in silico y de Jaccard. Por PCR se detectaron genes de fimbrias. Se realizaron ensayos biológicos con aislados de plantas y clínicos. Resultados: Los genes de colonización de plantas como celulasas, catalasas y hemaglutininas se encontraron principalmente en genomas de K. variicola. Las β-lactamasas cromosómicas son características de la especie y en algunos casos estaban mal clasificadas. K. variicola y K. pneumoniae producen hormonas vegetales. Conclusiones: Se encontró una distribución en mosaico de los genes de asociación con plantas y de virulencia en K. variicola y K. quasipneumoniae. Principalmente en K. variicola se encontraron algunos genes involucrados en la colonización de plantas. Se propone el término plantanosis para las infecciones humanas de origen vegetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Computer Simulation , Disease Reservoirs , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gene Ontology , Genes, Bacterial , Klebsiella/enzymology , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella/pathogenicity
8.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 20(2): 407-423, mai.-ago. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837894

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O presente artigo aborda o tema da constituição da noção de espaço para a psicanálise, discutindo as relações entre percepção e representação a partir de fenômenos de instabilidade de bordas no campo pulsional (como a alucinação, a despersonalização, o Unheimlich, os processos miméticos ou mesmo a errância psicótica). Propõe que as relações espaço-temporais no âmbito humano sejam tomadas como efeito da posição do sujeito na linguagem, problematizando a função do recalque como produtor de fronteiras que definem e estabilizam as relações do sujeito em sua experiência perceptiva.


ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the theme of the constitution of the notion of space in psychoanalysis, discussing the relations between perception and representation from the viewpoint of boundary instability phenomena related to the instinctual field (such as hallucinations, depersonalization, theUnheimlich, mimetic processes, or even psychotic roaming). It proposes to consider spatiotemporal relations at the human level as an effect of the subject’s position in language, problematizing the function of repression as a producer of boundaries that define and stabilize the subject’s relations in his perceptual experience.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological , Psychoanalysis , Psychotic Disorders
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 27-34, July. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015826

ABSTRACT

Background: In recent years, Antarctica has become a key source of biotechnological resources. Native microorganisms have developed a wide range of survival strategies to adapt to the harsh Antarctic environment, including the formation of biofilms. Alginate is the principal component of the exopolysaccharide matrix in biofilms produced by Pseudomonas, and this component is highly demanded for the production of a wide variety of commercial products. There is a constant search for efficient alginate-producing organisms. Results: In this study, a novel strain of Pseudomonas mandelii isolated from Antarctica was characterized and found to overproduce alginate compared with other good alginate producers such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Alginate production and expression levels of the alginate operon were highest at 4°C. It is probable that this alginate-overproducing phenotype was the result of downregulated MucA, an anti-sigma factor of AlgU. Conclusion: Because biofilm formation is an efficient bacterial strategy to overcome stressful conditions, alginate overproduction might represent the best solution for the successful adaptation of P. mandelii to the extreme temperatures of the Antarctic. Through additional research, it is possible that this novel P. mandelii strain could become an additional source for biotechnological alginate production.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas/metabolism , Alginates/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Pseudomonas/growth & development , Pseudomonas/genetics , Adaptation, Biological , Cold Temperature , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms , Phaeophyta , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antarctic Regions
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 43-50, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839350

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance to salinity and temperature, the genetic diversity and the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates obtained from wild genotypes of common bean cultivated in soil samples from the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais and Paraná. The isolates were subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) at different temperatures (28 °C, 33 °C, 38 °C, 43 °C and 48 °C). Genotypic characterization was performed based on BOX-PCR, REP-PCR markers and 16S rRNA sequencing. An evaluation of symbiotic efficiency was carried out under greenhouse conditions in autoclaved Leonard jars. Among 98 isolates about 45% of them and Rhizobium freirei PRF81 showed a high tolerance to temperature, while 24 isolates and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 were able to use all of the carbon sources studied. Clustering analysis based on the ability to use carbon sources and on the tolerance to salinity and temperature grouped 49 isolates, R. tropici CIAT899 and R. tropici H12 with a similarity level of 76%. Based on genotypic characterization, 65% of the isolates showed an approximately 66% similarity with R. tropici CIAT899 and R. tropici H12. About 20% of the isolates showed symbiotic efficiency similar to or better than the best Rhizobium reference strain (R. tropici CIAT899). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that two efficient isolates (ALSG5A1 and JPrG6A8) belong to the group of strains used as commercial inoculant for common bean in Brazil and must be assayed in field experiments.


Subject(s)
Rhizobium/physiology , Symbiosis , Phaseolus/genetics , Phaseolus/microbiology , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology , Genotype , Phylogeny , Rhizobium/isolation & purification , Rhizobium/classification , Adaptation, Biological , Carbon/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Phaseolus/classification , Environment , Salt Tolerance
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 1-2, Jan.-Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839362

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pediococcus acidilactici strain K3 is an alcohol-tolerant lactic acid bacterium isolated from nuruk, which is a traditional Korean fermentation starter for makgeolli brewing. Draft genome of this strain was approximately 1,991,399 bp (G+C content, 42.1%) with 1525 protein-coding sequences (CDS), of which 44% were assigned to recognized functional genes. This draft genome sequence data of the strain K3 will provide insights into the genetic basis of its alcohol-tolerance.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/drug effects , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Ethanol/pharmacology , Pediococcus acidilactici/drug effects , Pediococcus acidilactici/genetics , Lactic Acid/biosynthesis , Computational Biology/methods , Genomics/methods , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Pediococcus acidilactici/isolation & purification , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolism
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 333-341, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843176

ABSTRACT

Las cactáceas son la vegetación característica de las zonas áridas en México, donde las lluvias son escasas, la evapotranspiración es elevada y la fertilidad de los suelos es baja. Las plantas han desarrollado estrategias fisiológicas como la asociación con microorganismos en la zona de la rizósfera para incrementar la captación de nutrientes. En el presente trabajo se obtuvieron 4 aislados bacterianos de la rizósfera de Mammillaria magnimamma y Coryphantha radians, los que fueron nombrados como QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 y QAP24 e identificados genéticamente como pertenecientes al género Bacillus. Estos aislados exhibieron in vitro propiedades bioquímicas como solubilización de fosfatos, producción de ácido indolacético y actividad ACC deaminasa, que se relacionan con la promoción del crecimiento de las plantas. Dicha promoción fue ensayada inoculando semillas de M. magnimamma y evaluando luego algunos parámetros. Se encontró que todos los aislados incrementaron la germinación desde un 17% hasta un 34,3% (con respecto a las semillas testigo sin inocular); el aislado QAP24 fue el que presentó el mayor efecto en este sentido y permitió la germinación de todas las semillas viables (84,7%) 3 días antes que en el testigo. La inoculación de este aislado en plantas de Mammillaria zeilmanniana mostró un efecto positivo sobre la floración: en 2 meses dentro del período de un año se detectó un incremento en el número de plantas en floración con respecto a las plantas testigo, de hasta el 31,0% en uno de ellos. Se concluye que los aislados de Bacillus spp. caracterizados poseen potencial para ser empleados en programas de conservación de especies vegetales de zonas áridas.


Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M. magnimamma seeds. It was found that all isolates increased germination from 17 to 34.3% with respect to the uninoculated control seeds, being QAP24 the one having the greatest effect, accomplishing the germination of viable seeds (84.7%) three days before the control seeds. Subsequently, the inoculation of Mammillari zeilmanniana plants with this isolate showed a positive effect on bloom, registering during two months from a one year period, an increase of up to 31.0% in the number of flowering plants compared to control plants. The characterized Bacillus spp. isolates have potential to be used in conservation programs of plant species from arid zones.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Cactaceae/microbiology , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/growth & development , Germination/drug effects , Flowers/drug effects , Reference Parameters/methods
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1009-1018, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769674

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the utilization of rhodococci in the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated environments. This study investigates the response of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 cells to 1% organic solvents (alkanes, aromatics). A combination of microbiology, biochemical, and molecular approaches were used to examine cell adaptation mechanisms likely to be pursued by this strain after 1% organic solvent exposure. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was found to utilize 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene) as the sole carbon source. Modifications in cell viability, cell morphology, membrane permeability, lipid profile, carotenoid pigments profile and 16S rRNA gene were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells grown 1 and 24 h on minimal medium in the presence of 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene). Due to its environmental origin and its metabolic potential, R. erythropolis IBBPo1 is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with crude oils and other toxic compounds. Moreover, the carotenoid pigments produced by this nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium have a variety of other potential applications.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/drug effects , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Adaptation, Biological/toxicity , Organic Chemicals/drug effects , Organic Chemicals/genetics , Organic Chemicals/physiology , Organic Chemicals/toxicity , /drug effects , /genetics , /physiology , /toxicity , Rhodococcus/drug effects , Rhodococcus/genetics , Rhodococcus/physiology , Rhodococcus/toxicity , Solvents/drug effects , Solvents/genetics , Solvents/physiology , Solvents/toxicity
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 295-300, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743801

ABSTRACT

La relación entre los caracteres morfológicos y la ecología de los organismos permite deducir respuestas adaptativas. Estas adaptaciones son el resultado de presiones selectivas que actúan sobre los organismos, así como el tipo de presa que consumen o el ambiente en el que se encuentran. De esta manera, los organismos exhiben morfologías que les permiten explotar los recursos disponibles. Sceloporus es un grupo de lagartijas altamente diverso en Norteamérica además de encontrarse en diversos hábitats, lo que lo hace un modelo óptimo para probar hipótesis adaptativas y evolutivas. El objetivo fue evaluar si existen diferencias morfológicas en la cabeza de algunas especies de Sceloporus y determinar si dicha morfología surge como una respuesta adaptativa al tipo de presa o al uso de hábitat. Para ello, se tomaron ocho variables morfométricas de la cabeza de 20 especies de éste género y que se distribuyen en México. Los datos de dieta y uso de hábitat se obtuvieron de literatura y se correlacionaron con los análsis morfológicos de este estudio. Los resultados indican una clara diferencia entre especies con respecto a cinco de ocho variables medidas, entre ellas se observó el alto de la cabeza, hocico, mandíbula, sínfisis mandibular y proceso retroarticular. Además, se obtuvo que el ancho y alto de la cabeza, se encuentran relacionados con el tipo de presa que las lagartijas consumen, y únicamente el alto de la cabeza, se correlaciona con el uso de hábitat. Con base en los resultados, se propone que la morfología de la cabeza de las lagartijas que se analizaron, está siendo moldeada por el tipo de presas que consumen y no por el ambiente, tal como se ha observado en otros lacertilios.


The relationship between morphological characters and ecology can provide adaptive responses. These adaptations are the result of selective pressures acting on organisms as well as the type of prey consumed or the environment in which they find themselves. Therefore, organisms that exhibit certain morphology traits that allow them to exploit available resources. Sceloporus is a highly diverse group of lizards in North America besides living in diverse habitats, they make an excellent model for testing adaptive and evolutionary hypotheses. The aim of this study was to assess whether there are morphological differences in the heads of some species of Sceloporus and determine whether the morphology emerges as an adaptive response to the type of prey, or habitat use. Eight morphometric variables of the head of 20 different species of this genus were found and collected throughout Mexico. Data on diet and habitat use were obtained from literature and correlated with morphological analysis of this study. The results indicate a clear difference between species for five of the eight variables measures, including top of the head, nose, jaw, mandibular symphysis and retro articular process was observed. Furthermore, it was found that the width and height of the head, is related to the type of prey lizards consumed, and only the top of the head, is correlated with habitat use. Based on these results, it is proposed that the morphology of the heads of lizards analyzed, is being shaped by the type of prey consumed, and not the environment, such as observed in other lizards.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Biological , Diet , Head/anatomy & histology , Lizards/anatomy & histology , Analysis of Variance , Ecosystem , Lizards/physiology , Principal Component Analysis
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 237-244, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744510

ABSTRACT

Bile acids are potent olfactory and gustatory stimulants for fish. Electro-olfactogram recording was used to test whether the olfactory epithelium of pintado catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans is specifically sensitive to bile acids, some of which have been hypothesized to function as pheromones. Five out of 30 bile acids that had been pre-screened for olfactory activity in fish were selected. Cross-adaptation experiments demonstrated that sensitivity to bile acids is attributable to at least 3 independent classes of olfactory receptor sites. The taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCD) were the most potent compounds. By using avoidance/preference tests, we found that P. corruscans prefers water containing TCA. Bile acids are discriminated by olfactory epithelium of pintado, supporting that these compounds could function as pheromones.


Os ácidos biliares são potentes estimulantes olfatórios e gustatórios em peixes. Registros em eletro-olfactograma foram usados para testar se o epitélio olfatório de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, pintado, é sensível aos ácidos biliares, alguns dos quais têm sido propostos como feromônios. Foram selecionados cinco de uma lista de trinta ácidos biliares previamente testados em atividade olfatória em peixes. Testes de adaptação cruzada demonstraram que a sensibilidade aos ácidos biliares se dá por 3 classes independentes de sites de receptores olfatórios. O ácido taurocólico (TCA) e o ácido tauroquenodesoxicólico (TCD) foram os compostos mais potentes. Em testes de evasão/preferência, P. corruscans prefere água contendo o ácido TCA. Os ácidos biliares são discriminadas por epitélio olfatório de pintado, evidenciando que estes compostos podem funcionar como feromônios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts/adverse effects , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Pheromones/adverse effects , Adaptation, Biological
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 35(1): 4-19, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744557

ABSTRACT

A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo adaptar o Questionário Sentido de Vida (QSV), reunindo evidências de sua validade fatorial e consistência interna. Realizaram-se dois estudos junto a estudantes universitários de João Pessoa, PB. No estudo 1 participaram 414 voluntários, a maioria do sexo feminino (63,5%), com idade média de 28,2 anos (dp = 9,50). No estudo 2 participaram 201 pessoas, a maioria do sexo feminino (74,6%), com idade média de 26,7 anos (dp = 9,56). Nos dois estudos os participantes responderam o QSV e perguntas demográficas, sendo que os do segundo responderam dois outros instrumentos: Teste Propósito de Vida (Pil-Teste) e Escala de Percepção Ontológica do Tempo (EPOT). No estudo 1 foi realizada uma análise fatorial confirmatória, sugerindo a adequação da estrutura bifatorial [GFI = 0,94, AGFI = 0,90, CFI = 0,95 e RMSEA = 0,086]; os alfas de Cronbach dos fatores foram 0,89 (busca de sentido) e 0,85 (presença de sentido). No estudo 2 foi observada evidência de validade convergente do QSV com o Pil-Teste e a EPOT. Concluiu-se que o QSV tem demonstrado ser pertinente para avaliar, nos modos propostos, o sentido de vida, podendo ser utilizado em pesquisas no contexto brasileiro...


This research aimed to adapt the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) gathering evidence of its factorial validity and reliability. Two studies were held with undergraduate students from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba state, Brazil. In Study 1, participants were 414 volunteers, mostly female (63.5%), with a mean age of 28.2 (sd = 9.56). Study 2 involved 201 subjects, mostly female (74.6%), with a mean age of 26.7 (sd = 9.50). The participants of both studies answered the MLQ and demographic questions. The participants of Study 2 also answered the following instruments: Purpose of Life Test (Pil-Test) and Ontological Time Perception Scale (OTPS). In Study 1, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed, suggesting the appropriateness of the two-factor structure [GFI = .94, AGFI = .90, CFI = .95, and RMSEA = 0.086]; the Cronbach's alphas of these factors were .89 (search for meaning) and .85 (presence of sense). In Study 2, we observed evidence of convergent validity of the MLQ with respect to the Pil-Test and OTPS. In conclusion, the MLQ was considered an appropriate instrument to measure the life purpose in the way it was proposed, being useful in research in the Brazilian context...


La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo adaptar el Cuestionario Sentido de Vida (CSV), reuniendo evidencias de su validez factorial y fiabilidad. Se han llevado a cabo dos estudios con estudiantes universitarios de João Pessoa (PB). En el Estudio 1 han participado 414 voluntarios, la mayoría mujeres (63.5%), con edad promedia de 28.2 años (dt = 9.50). En el Estudio 2 los participantes han sido 201 personas, la mayoría mujeres (74.6%), con edad promedia de 26.7 años (dt = 9.56). En ambos estudios los participantes contestaron al CSV y preguntas demográficas, siendo que aquellos del Estudio 2 aún respondieron a otros dos instrumentos: el Teste Propósito de Vida (Pil-Test) y la Escala de Percepción Ontológica del Tiempo (EPOT). En el Estudio 1 se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio, sugiriendo la adecuación de la estructura con dos factores [GFI = 0.94, AGFI = 0.90, CFI = 0.95 y RMSEA = 0.086]; sus alfas de Cronbach fueron 0.89 (búsqueda de sentido) y 0.85 (presencia de sentido). En el Estudio 2 se observó evidencia de validez convergente del CSV con el Pil-Test y la EPOT. Se concluyó que el CSV se mostró adecuado para medir el sentido de vida, de la forma que ha sido propuesto, pudiendo utilizarse en investigaciones dentro del contexto brasileño...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adaptation, Biological , Adaptation, Psychological , Life , Adaptation
18.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 17(2): 22-34, 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-848153

ABSTRACT

Refletir sobre a problemática das relações entre indivíduo e cultura envolve vários ângulos de abordagem. No texto que se segue procuraremos refletir o tema à luz de alguns marcos referenciais, como a obra de Freud intitulada O Mal-Estar na Civilização (1930), cuja complexidade remete ao filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes, no século XVII. Nos meados do século XX surgiu o conceito de "identificação adesiva" proposto pela psicanalista Esther Bick, que, embora pesquisado no ângulo específico da psicopatologia, permite uma ampla aplicação no contexto social e cultural. Na última década do século XX, a descoberta dos "neurônios-espelho" no âmbito das neurociências colocou em evidência a teoria do "desejo mimético", elaborada pelo antropólogo e filósofo francês René Girard, que, ao longo das últimas décadas, tem propiciado intensos diálogos com a psiquiatria, a psicologia e a psicanálise.(AU)


The reflection about the problem of the relationship between the individual and the culture involves several angles of approach. The following text seeks to reflect the theme in the light of some benchmarks as Freud's work entitled The Civilization and its Discontents (1930) whose complexity refers to the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes in the seventeenth century. In the mid-twentieth century appears the concept of "adhesive identification" proposed by the psychoanalyst Esther Bick that, although researching the specific angle of psychopathology, allows a wide application in the social and cultural context. In the last decade of the twentieth century the discovery of the "mirror neurons" in the framework of neuro-science has highlighted the theory of "mimetic desire" drawn up by the French anthropologist and philosopher René Girard who, over the last decades, has fostered intense dialogues with Psychiatry, Psychology and Psychoanalysis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological , Identification, Psychological , Mirror Neurons , Psychoanalysis , Cultural Characteristics
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 319-324, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715432

ABSTRACT

Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126)= 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our results partially support the hypothesis previously proposed by other authors regarding the effect of awn length upon dispersal unit burial, but would also account for the differences observed in burial depth between diaspores with an available pivot point for the passive awn and diaspores lacking thereof. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1): 321-326. Epub 2014 March 01.


Trachypogon spicatus es una gramínea dominante de algunas sabanas del norte de Suramérica. Su unidad dispersante presenta una arista higroscópica la cual facilita su inserción en irregularidades del suelo, facilitando su ubicación en microhábitats favorables para su establecimiento. Igualmente, se ha sugerido que existe una relación positiva entre la longitud de la arista y la capacidad de entierro de la unidad dispersante. Esta relación incrementa la probabilidad de supervivencia de la semilla ante el fuego al ser el suelo aislante de las altas temperaturas. Se colocaron 192 diásporas de T. spicatus, en bloques aleatorios, en bandejas de sustrato bajo condiciones de invernadero. Luego, se sometieron a cambios de humedad para garantizar el movimiento de la arista y pintaron con aerosol rojo el último día del experimento para determinar la profundidad de entierro. Se evaluó el efecto de la presencia de cariópsis, la longitud de la arista y la presencia de un punto de apoyo para la arista sobre la profundidad de entierro de la diáspora. Se realizó una prueba de sal de Tetrazolio para probar la viabilidad de germinación de 35 cariópsis. No se observaron diferencias significativas en la profundidad de entierro entre diásporas provistas y desprovistas de cariópsis (F(2,126)=0.034, p=0.853). La longitud de la arista parece guardar una relación positiva con la profundidad de entierro únicamente para aquellas unidades dispersantes cuyas aristas no cuentan con un punto de apoyo (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Por otro lado, aquellas diásporas cuyas aristas contaban con un punto de apoyo lograron profundidades de entierro significativamente mayores (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). La prueba de viabilidad determinó que 0% de las cariópsis analizadas eran capaces de germinar, esto posiblemente sea debido a la diferencia entre el tiempo de recolección y de prueba. Consideramos que el factor presencia/ausencia de cariópsis era importante ya que había sido ignorado en estudios previos y por la alta producción de diásporas estériles en las gramíneas. Los resultados sugieren que el mecanismo físico que opera sobre la capacidad de entierro de la unidad dispersante de T. spicatus es el torque. Esto explica por qué solo se apoyaron parcialmente las hipótesis propuestas previamente por otros autores, y justifica las diferencias observadas en cuanto a la profundidad de entierro entre unidades dispersantes cuyas aristas contaban o carecían de un punto de apoyo.


Subject(s)
Germination/physiology , Poaceae/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Seeds/growth & development , Adaptation, Biological , Fires , Time Factors
20.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19 (1): 88-98
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-157561

ABSTRACT

Foot orthoses are widely prescribed to treat a range of lower extremity problems. Long-term biomechanical effects of foot orthosesare not clearly documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of foot orthoses on leg muscles activity in individuals with pesplanus during walking. In this clinical trial we selected 45 subjects after clinical examination. The subjects were divided into three equal groups: experimental pesplanus, control pesplanus and a healthy control group [with normal feet]. In the pre-test stage, electrical activity of leg muscles including tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius and soleus were recorded at stance phase of walking, while all subjects walked barefoot along a 14m line. Experimental pesplanus group wore the custom-made orthoses for a period of six months. Then experimental pesplanus and control pesplanus groups underwent post-test. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After six months of utilizing foot orthoses, the tibialis anterior activity significantly decreased in contact sub-phase [P=0.006]. The medial gastrocnemius activity showed a significant decrease in midstance sub-phase in the post-test [P=0.007]. Also, the soleus muscle had decreased activity in contact [P=0.033] and midstance [p=0.023] sub-phases in the post-test. According to the results of this study, we found that long term use of foot orthoses could change muscle activation and result in secondary adaptation


Subject(s)
Humans , Foot Deformities/therapy , Foot Deformities/rehabilitation , Walking , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Analysis of Variance , Leg , Foot , Adaptation, Biological
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