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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 390-394, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Basketball sports will effect on the morphology and structure of the hand bones and joints. Objective: The article selected nine professional basketball players (basketball group) and 11 non-basketball players (control group) in the provincial youth team. A 64-row spiral computed tomography scan was used to scan the wrist and three-dimensional reconstruction. The volume of each carpal bone and the computed tomography value (bone density) were measured. Methods: To explore the influence of basketball sports on the hand bones and joints' morphological structure, the paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the computed tomography images of young male basketball players' wrist bones. Results: Compared with the carpal bones in the control group, the volume of the right navicular bone and the small polygonal bone, the left-hand navicular bone, the large triangular bone, and the small polygonal bone in the basketball group increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Basketball can increase the volume of the part of the wrist bones of adolescent male athletes and reduce the bone density; the morphological structure of the non-smashing wrist bones of basketball players has similar changes to that of the spikers. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O basquetebol afetará a morfologia e a estrutura dos ossos e articulações da mão. Objetivo: o artigo selecionou nove jogadores profissionais de basquete (grupo de basquete) e 11 não jogadores de basquete (grupo de controle) da equipe juvenil da província. Uma tomografia computadorizada espiral de 64 linhas foi usada para digitalizar o punho e a reconstrução tridimensional. O volume de cada osso do carpo e o valor da tomografia computadorizada (densidade óssea) foram medidos. Métodos: Para explorar a influência dos esportes de basquete sobre os ossos da mão e a estrutura morfológica das articulações, o artigo analisa as características estruturais das imagens de tomografia computadorizada de ossos do punho de jovens jogadores de basquete do sexo masculino. Resultados: Em comparação com os ossos do carpo no grupo de controle, o volume do osso navicular direito e o osso poligonal pequeno, o osso navicular esquerdo, o osso triangular grande e o osso poligonal pequeno no grupo de basquete aumentaram significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusões: O basquete pode aumentar o volume dos ossos do punho de atletas adolescentes do sexo masculino e reduzir a densidade óssea; a estrutura morfológica dos ossos do pulso que não se quebram em jogadores de basquete tem mudanças semelhantes às dos espigões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: el baloncesto afectará la morfología y la estructura de los huesos y articulaciones de la mano. Objetivo: El artículo seleccionó nueve jugadores de baloncesto profesionales (grupo de baloncesto) y 11 jugadores no baloncesto (grupo de control) en el equipo juvenil provincial. Se utilizó una tomografía computarizada en espiral de 64 filas para escanear la muñeca y la reconstrucción tridimensional. Se midieron el volumen de cada hueso del carpo y el valor de la tomografía computarizada (densidad ósea). Métodos: Para explorar la influencia de los deportes de baloncesto en la estructura morfológica de los huesos de la mano y las articulaciones, el artículo analiza las características estructurales de las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de los huesos de la muñeca de los jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto. Resultados: En comparación con los huesos del carpo en el grupo de control, el volumen del hueso navicular derecho y el hueso poligonal pequeño, el hueso navicular izquierdo, el hueso triangular grande y el hueso poligonal pequeño en el grupo de baloncesto aumentaron significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusiones: El baloncesto puede aumentar el volumen de los huesos de la muñeca de los deportistas varones adolescentes y reducir la densidad ósea; la estructura morfológica de los huesos de las muñecas que no se rompen de los jugadores de baloncesto tiene cambios similares a los de los atacantes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Basketball , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/physiology , Athletes , Wrist Joint/growth & development , Algorithms , Adaptation, Physiological , Carpal Bones/growth & development , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
2.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 495-500, ago.2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A corrente interferencial é uma modalidade bastante utilizada, porém, apresenta como fator limitante a quantidade de acomodações, o que é comum em eletroestimulação. Apesar de possuir alguns recursos que visam reduzir a adaptação fisiológica, não é totalmente eficaz; neste sentido, pode haver diferenças devido à técnica de uso. Assim, o presente estudo pretendeu analisar se há diferenças na adaptação para as formas bipolar ou tetrapolar em indivíduos com dor lombar crônica não específica. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico cruzado, composto por 15 voluntárias com dor lombar crônica não específica, as quais receberam terapia bipolar ou tetrapolar em semanas subsequentes. Foi explicado sobre a adaptação à corrente e o que deveria avisar quando ocorresse, e, desta forma, foi computado o número de vezes em que o fenômeno ocorreu, o tempo necessário até ocorrer a primeira adaptação, a intensidade inicial da corrente utilizada e o quanto aumentou-se após a primeira adaptação. RESULTADOS: Para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas, foi observada diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: As técnicas analisadas não mostraram diferenças na adaptação em mulheres jovens com dor lombar não específica.


INTRODUCTION: The interferential current is a widely used modality; however, it presents as a limiting factor the amount of accommodation, which is common in electrostimulation. Despite having some resources that aim to reduce physiological adaptation, it is not fully effective in this sense, but there may be differences due to the technique of use. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze whether there are differences in the accommodation for bi- or tetrapolar forms in individuals with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHODS: Crossover clinical study, consisting of 15 volunteers with chronic nonspecific low back pain, who received bipolar or tetrapolar therapy in subsequent weeks. They were explained about the current accommodation and that they should be told when it occurred, and in this way, the number of times that the phenomenon occurred, the time needed until the first accommodation occurred, the initial intensity of the current used, and how much it increased after the first accommodation were computed. RESULTS: None of the variables analyzed had a significant difference between the two techniques (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The techniques analyzed showed no differences in accommodation in young women with nonspecific low back pain.


Subject(s)
Low Back Pain , Adaptation, Physiological , Electric Stimulation Therapy
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 992-1001, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155031

ABSTRACT

Studies on biochemical constituents and hydration of horses in training or competitions are essential for the knowledge of their adaptive physiological and metabolic responses to the type of exercise inherent to the sport. The present research evaluated the effects of exercise on hydric status and physiologic and biochemical profiles in Quarter Horses during a barrel race training session. The design consisted of three evaluation times (T): at rest, before the start of physical activity (T0); immediately after a 10-minute warm-up trot and then running the barrel race courses twice with a 10-minute interval (T1); and after one hour's rest after the second course (T2). The parameters analyzed were: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature (BT) and mucose color; the capillary refill time (CRT), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma proteins (TPP), serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were evaluated and used to infer water status; plasma osmolarity (Osm) was measured; the electrolytes sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), total calcium (tCa), total magnesium (tMg) and phosphorus (P), plasma glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac) and the muscle enzymes creattine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) completed the evaluated parameters. The data for the variables studied were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test at 5% probability. After exercise (in T1), HR, RR, BT, PCV, TPP, Glu, Lac, Cre increased (P<0.05), there was also increase in phosphorus and decrease in K (P<0.05), but there was no hypophosphatemia and hipokalemia, respectively. After rest (in T2), only glucose returned to baseline levels (T0) and, with lower mean values, HR, RR, BT, PCV, K and Lac did not return to baseline levels (T0), while P decreased (P<0.05). Osm, BUN, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK and AST did not change between times (P>0.05). It was concluded that the maximum intensity exercise performed on two barrel race courses caused mild hemoconcentration, did not changed plasma osmolality or concentrations of important electrolytes and muscle enzymes of horses, but caused hyperlactatemia without the plasma lactate concentrations being fully recomposed after resting.(AU)


O perfil bioquímico e o status de hidratação de equinos em treinamentos ou competições fornecem dados importantes das suas respostas fisiológicas e metabólicas em relação ao tipo específico de exercício em uma modalidade esportiva. No presente estudo, o status hídrico e o perfil fisiológico-bioquímico de equinos foram avaliados durante treinamento de três tambores, em três tempos (T): em repouso, antes do início da atividade física (T0); imediatamente após 10 minutos de aquecimento ao trote seguido de duas corridas na pista de tambor, intervaladas em 10 minutos (T1); e após uma hora de descanso do segundo percurso (T2). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura corporal (BT) e cor da mucosa; o tempo de enchimento capilar (TEC), volume globular ou hematócrito (VG), proteínas plasmáticas totais (TPP), creatinina sérica (Cre) e a ureia (Ure) foram avaliados e utilizados para inferir o estado hídrico dos animais; a osmolaridade plasmática (Osm) também foi mensurada; as concentrações dos eletrólitos sódio (Na), potássio (K), cloreto (Cl), cálcio total (tCa), magnésio total (tMg) e fósforo (P), e das enzimas musculares foram mensurados no soro, e as de glicose (Gli) e lactato (Lac) no plasma. Os dados das variáveis estudadas foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Após o exercício (T1), a FC, FR, TC, VG, TPP, Gli, Lac, Cre aumentaram. O P também aumentou (P<0,05), mas não alcançou nível de hiperfosfatemia, e o K diminuiu (P<0,05), mas não ao nível de hipocalemia. Embora com médias menores, a FC, FR, TC, VG, K e o Lac não retornaram aos níveis basais (T0) após o repouso (T2), apenas a Gli, enquanto o fósforo diminuiu (P<0,05). A Osm, ureia, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK e AST não variaram entre os tempos (P>0,05). Concluiu-se que, o exercício de intensidade máxima realizado em dois percursos de três tambores causou leve hemoconcentração, não alterou a osmolaridade plasmática nem importantes concentrações de eletrólitos e de enzimas musculares dos equinos, porém, causou hiperlactatemia, sem completa recomposição da concentração do lactato após uma hora de descanso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Exercise Test/veterinary , Respiratory Rate , Horses/physiology , Muscles , Biochemistry
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 1-12, nov. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential waste canola oil-degrading ability of the cold-adapted Antarctic bacterial strain Rhodococcus sp. AQ5-07 was evaluated. Globally, increasing waste from food industries generates serious anthropogenic environmental risks that can threaten terrestrial and aquatic organisms and communities. The removal of oils such as canola oil from the environment and wastewater using biological approaches is desirable as the thermal process of oil degradation is expensive and ineffective. RESULTS: Rhodococcus sp. AQ5-07 was found to have high canola oil-degrading ability. Physico-cultural conditions influencing its activity were studied using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and statistical optimisation approaches. Considerable degradation (78.60%) of 3% oil was achieved by this bacterium when incubated with 1.0 g/L ammonium sulphate, 0.3 g/L yeast extract, pH 7.5 and 10% inoculum at 10°C over a 72-h incubation period. Optimisation of the medium conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in a 9.01% increase in oil degradation (87.61%) when supplemented with 3.5% canola oil, 1.05 g/L ammonium sulphate, 0.28g/L yeast extract, pH 7.5 and 10% inoculum at 12.5°C over the same incubation period. The bacterium was able to tolerate an oil concentration of up to 4.0%, after which decreased bacterial growth and oil degradation were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These features make this strain worthy of examination for practical bioremediation of lipid-rich contaminated sites. This is the first report of any waste catering oil degradation by bacteria originating from Antarctica.


Subject(s)
Rhodococcus/physiology , Rapeseed Oil/metabolism , Waste Products , Biodegradation, Environmental , Adaptation, Physiological , Cold Temperature , Waste Water , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Antarctic Regions
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2060-2067, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148068

ABSTRACT

The dual-purpose wheat stands out as a complementary alternative for forage supply during the winter period. Therefore, this work had the objective of evaluate the performance characteristics in five genotypes of dual-purpose wheat submitted to different sowing densities and different clipping managements. The experiment was carried out during the 2016 and 2017 harvests. The experimental design was a randomized block design, organized in a factorial scheme, with five dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu, BRS Figueira, BRS Guatambu and BRS 277) x five sowing densities (75, 150, 225, 300 and 375 seeds m²) x four clipping operations (zero, one, two and three clippings), arranged in three replicates. The measuring of characters were number of fertile tillers, seeds yield, angle of flag leaf, chlorophyll content and flowering. The genotype BRS Tarumâ is superior in number of fertile tillers and chlorophyll index for all the sowing densities, as well, the flowering is influenced direct by clipping managements. The sowing density of 75 seeds m-2 is not indicated for dual-purpose wheat independent of the clipping management. The seeds yield is amplified thought the increase in sowing density, however, advancing in clipping levels there is a decrease in forage yield.


O trigo de duplo propósito se destaca como uma alternativa complementar para o fornecimento de forragem durante o período de inverno. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características de desempenho de cinco genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito submetidos a diferentes densidades de semeadura e diferentes manejos de corte. O experimento foi realizado durante as safras de 2016 e 2017. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, organizado em esquema fatorial, com cinco genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito (BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu, BRS Figueira, BRS Guatambu e BRS 277) x cinco densidades de semeadura (75, 150, 225, 300 e 375 m² de sementes) x quatro operações de clipagem (zero, um, dois e três recortes), dispostos em três repetições. As medidas dos caracteres foram número de perfilhos férteis, rendimento de sementes, ângulo de folha de bandeira, teor de clorofila e floração. O genótipo BRS Tarumâ é superior em número de perfilhos férteis e índice de clorofila para todas as densidades de semeadura, assim como o florescimento é influenciado diretamente pelos manejos de corte. A densidade de semeadura de 75 sementes m-2 não é indicada para trigo de dupla finalidade independente do manejo de corte. O rendimento das sementes é amplificado pelo aumento da densidade de semeadura, entretanto, avançando nos níveis de recorte, há uma diminuição no rendimento de forragem.


Subject(s)
Triticum , Adaptation, Physiological
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1039-1046, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124894

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of stretching exercise on soleus muscle histomorphology and histomorphometry of young and aged rats. Thirty-eight female rats were divided into young control group (YCG, n=10;274±50 g); young stretching group (YSG, n=8;274±12 g); aged control group (ACG, n=10;335±39 g); and aged stretching group (ASG, n=10;321±32g). A mechanical apparatus was used to stretch muscle in 4 repetitions, 60 s each, 30 s interval between repetitions in each session, 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last stretching session, soleus muscle was removed for micromorphology and immunostaining analysis. Data analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, or Kruskal-Wallis tests for parametric and nonparametric, respectively (p≤0.05). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (MFCSA) of ACG was lower (18 %) compared to the YCG. Stretching increased MFCSA comparing YSG to YCG (5,681.15± 1,943.61 µm2 vs 5,119.84±1,857.73 µm2, p=0.00), but decreased comparing ASG to ACG (3,919.54± 1,694.65 µm2 vs 4,172.82±1,446.08 µm2, p=0.00). More serial sarcomere numbers were found in the YSG than YCG (12,062.91±1,564.68 vs 10,070.39±1,072.38, p=0.03). Collagen I and collagen III were higher in YSG than ASG (7.44±7.18 % vs 0.07±0.09 %, p=0.04) and (14.37 %± 9.54 % vs 5.51 %±5.52 %, p=0.00), respectively. TNF-a was greater in ASG than YSG (43.42 %±40.19 % vs 1.72 ± 2.02 %, p=0.00). Epimysium was larger in the YSG compared to YCG (201.83±132.07 % vs 181.09±147.04 %, p=0.00). After 3-week stretching the soleus muscles from aged rats were smaller than their younger counter-parts. Interestingly, while stretching appeared to positively affect young soleus muscle, the opposite was detected in the muscle of the aged rats.


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos crónicos del ejercicio de estiramiento sobre la histomorfología e histomorfometría del músculo sóleo de ratas jóvenes y envejecidas. Se dividieron 38 ratas hembras en un grupo control joven (YCG, n = 10; 274 ± 50 g); grupo de estiramiento joven (YSG, n = 8; 274 ± 12 g); grupo control de edad (ACG, n = 10; 335 ± 39 g); y grupo estiramiento envejecido (ASG, n = 10; 321 ± 32 g). Se usó un aparato mecánico para estirar el músculo en 4 repeticiones, 60 s cada una, intervalo de 30 s entre repeticiones en cada sesión, 3 veces por semana, durante 3 semanas. Veinticuatro horas después de la última sesión de estiramiento, se extrajo el músculo sóleo para análisis de micromorfología e inmunotinción. Los análisis de datos se realizaron con pruebas ANOVA de una vía, Tukey post-hoc o Kruskal-Wallis para pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas, respectivamente (p≤0,05). El área de la sección transversal de fibra muscular (MFCSA) de GCE fue menor (18 %) en comparación con el GCJ. El estiramiento aumentó ASTFM comparando GEJ con GCJ (5.681,15 ± 1.943,61 µm2 vs 5.119,84 ± 1.857,73 µm2, p = 0,00), pero disminuyó comparando GEE con GCE (3.919,54 ± 1.694,65 µm2 vs 4.172,82 ± 1.446,08 µm2, p = 0,00). Se encontraron más sarcómeros en serie en el GEJ que en el GCJ (12.062,91 ± 1.564,68 vs 10.070,39 ± 1,072.38, p = 0,03). El colágeno I y el colágeno III fueron más numerosos en GEJ que en GEE (7,44 ± 7.18 % vs 0,07 ± 0,09 %, p = 0,04) y (14,37 % ± 9,54 % vs 5,51 % ± 5,52 %, p = 0,00), respectivamente. TNF-α fue mayor en GEE que GEJ (43,42 % ± 40,19 % vs 1,72 ± 2,02 %, p = 0,00). El epimisio fue mayor en el GEJ en comparación con el GCJ (201,83 ± 132,07 % vs 181,09 ± 147,04 %, p = 0,00). Después de 3 semanas de estiramiento, los músculos sóleo de las ratas envejecidas eran más pequeños que sus contrapartes más jóvenes. Curiosamente, si bien el estiramiento pareció afectar positivamente el músculo sóleo joven, se detectó lo contrario en el músculo de las ratas envejecidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Adaptation, Physiological , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar
7.
Biol. Res ; 53: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089077

ABSTRACT

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Wine/microbiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Vitis/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Vitis/microbiology
8.
Biol. Res ; 53: 08, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rice is the staple food of many people around the world. However, most rice varieties, especially widely grown indica varieties and hybrids, are sensitive to cold stress. In order to provide a basis for the utilization of a common wild rice (CWR, Oryza rufipogon Griff.) named 'Chaling' CWR in cold-tolerant rice breeding and deepen the understanding of rice cold tolerance, the cold tolerance of ratoon 'Chaling' CWR was studied under the stress of the natural low temperature in winter in Changsha, Hunan province, China, especially under the stress of abnormal natural low temperature in Changsha in 2008, taking other ratoon CWR accessions and ratoon cultivated rice phenotypes as control. RESULTS: The results showed that ratoon 'Chaling' CWR can safely overwinter under the natural conditions in Changsha (28° 22' N), Hunan province, China, which is a further and colder northern place than its habitat, even if it suffers a long-term low temperature stress with ice and snow. In 2008, an extremely cold winter appeared in Changsha, i.e., the average daily mean temperature of 22 consecutive days from January 13 to February 3 was - 1.0 °C, and the extreme low temperature was - 4.7 °C. After subjected to this long-term cold stress, the overwinter survival rate of ratoon 'Chaling' CWR was 100%, equals to that of ratoon 'Dongxiang' CWR which is northernmost distribution in the word among wild rice populations, higher than those of ratoon 'Fusui' CWR, ratoon 'Jiangyong' CWR, and ratoon 'Liujiang' CWR (63.55-83.5%) as well as those of ratoon 'Hainan' CWR, ratoon 'Hepu' CWR, and all the ratoon cultivated rice phenotypes including 3 japonica ones, 3 javanica ones, and 5 indica ones (0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that ratoon 'Chaling' CWR possesses strong cold tolerance and certain freezing tolerance.


Subject(s)
Oryza/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Cold Temperature , Cold-Shock Response/physiology , Phenotype , Seasons
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The leishmaniases are complex neglected diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmania braziliensis is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. In recent studies, genomic changes such as chromosome and gene copy number variations (CNVs), as well as transcriptomic changes have been highlighted as mechanisms used by Leishmania species to adapt to stress situations. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term minor temperature shifts in the genomic and transcriptomic responses of L. braziliensis promastigotes in vitro. METHODS Growth curves, genome and transcriptome sequencing of L. braziliensis promastigotes were conducted from cultures exposed to three different temperatures (24ºC, 28ºC and 30ºC) compared with the control temperature (26ºC). FINDINGS Our results showed a decrease in L. braziliensis proliferation at 30ºC, with around 3% of the genes showing CNVs at each temperature, and transcriptomic changes in genes encoding amastin surface-like proteins, heat shock proteins and transport proteins, which may indicate a direct response to temperature stress. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence that L. braziliensis promastigotes exhibit a decrease in cell density, and noticeable changes in the transcriptomic profiles. However, there were not perceptible changes at chromosome CNVs and only ~3% of the genes changed their copies in each treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Profile
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e8763, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132529

ABSTRACT

Upper limb performance is affected by diabetes mellitus (DM). Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a key structure to understand the relationship between performance and morphology in DM. The aim of the study was to analyze NMJ plasticity due to DM in an animal model and its relationship with the function of forelimbs in rats. Twelve Wistar rats were divided into control (C) and DM groups. Animals were trained to perform a grasping task, following procedures of habituation, shaping, and reaching task. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Forelimb neuromuscular performance for dexterity was evaluated one day before DM induction and five weeks following induction. After that, biceps, triceps, and finger flexors and extensors were removed. Connective tissue and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. NMJ was assessed by its morphometric characteristics (area, perimeter, and maximum diameter), using ImageJ software. Motor performance analyses were made using single pellet retrieval task performance test. Student's t-test was used for comparisons between groups. A significant decrease in all NMJ morphometric parameters was observed in the DM group compared with the C group. Results showed that DM generated NMJ retraction in muscles involved in a reaching task. These alterations are related to signs of muscular atrophy and to poor reaching task performance. In conclusion, induced DM caused NMJ retraction and muscular atrophy in muscles involved in reaching task performance. Induced DM caused significantly lower motor performance, especially in the final moments of evaluation, when DM compromised the tropism of the muscular tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Task Performance and Analysis , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Neuromuscular Junction/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Junction/physiopathology
11.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 6(2): 8-24, dic. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088699

ABSTRACT

Revisión de nuestros hallazgos experimentales sobre la relación entre audición y control motor del equilibrio en usuarios de implantes cocleares (UIC). Se realizó posturografía en 34 UIC en dos condiciones sensoriales:1- Implante encendido (ON). 2- Implante apagado (OFF) Se usó como medida el consumo de energía (CE) de la señal del centro de presión corporal. La marcha se analizó mediante la prueba de 10 m, implementada con: A - implante ON y ruido ambiental (EN), B - Implante ON, EN y Tarea dual cognitiva (DT) y C-implante OFF. Se registró la velocidad de marcha (GV) usando acelerómetros en los pies y la región retrosacra. Estadística: Se utilizaron las pruebas de Wilcoxon y Mann-Whitney y el nivel de significación fue p = 0.05. El análisis de la postura en la adolescencia mostró un ajuste adaptativo, disminuyendo la CE con el IC-ON.p = < 0,05, mientras con el CI-OFF no hubo disminución p => 0,05. En adultos, CI- OFF tuvieron valores más altos de CE en edades mayores, mientras que el CE no se incrementó con la edad con el CI-ON. En la marcha, la GV con el implante ON en EN solo disminuyó en UIC solo en aquellos que estaban implantado después de los 3 años. La UIC implantada antes de esta edad mostró un comportamiento de la marcha similar en comparación con los sujetos con audición normal como control. La información auditiva interviene en la postura y el comportamiento motor de la marcha, hechos que se analizan en esta revisión.


Review of publications of our group about the relationship between the auditory input and the balance motor control in subjects with profound hearing loss and cochlear implant users (UIC). A population of 34 UIC in which posturography in two different sensory information was performed, 1-Implant turned on (ON) giving acoustic information. 2-Implant turned off (OFF) and without auditory input. Energy consumption (CE) of the body center of pressure signal was used as measurement. Gait assessment was analyzed by the 10 m test, implemented with: A- Implant turned ON and environmental noise (EN). B- Implant ON, EN and cognitive dual task (DT) and C- Implant OFF with accelerometers in the feet and sacrum region to measure the gait velocity (GV). Statistics: Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test were used and significance level was p=0.05. Posture analysis for different ages in adolescence showed an adaptive adjustment, decreasing the EC significantly when the CI is ON (p<0.05). With the implant turned OFF, changes were not significant (p>0.05). In adults, (implant OFF) had higher values of CE related with age, while the CE did not show increment of CE with age when receiving auditory input with the implant ON. UIC implanted after being 3 years old showed a significant decrease in GV. The UIC implanted before this age showed similar gait behavior compared to normal hearing subjects as control. The auditory information intervenes in posture and gait motor behavior, facts which are analyzed in this review.


Revisão de publicações de nosso grupo sobre a relação entre a entrada auditiva e o controle motor do equilíbrio em indivíduos com perda auditiva profunda e usuários de implante coclear (UIC). Uma população de 34 UIC em que foi realizada a posturografia em duas informações sensoriais diferentes, o 1-Implant ativado (ON) fornece informações acústicas. 2-O implante foi desativado (OFF) e sem entrada auditiva. O consumo de energia (CE) do sinal do centro de pressão corporal foi utilizado como medida. A avaliação da marcha foi analisada pelo teste de 10 m, implementado com: A- Implante ligado e ruído ambiental (EN). B- Implante ON, EN e tarefa dupla cognitiva (TD) e C- Implante OFF com acelerômetros na região dos pés e sacro para medir a velocidade da marcha (GV). Estatísticas: Foram utilizados os testes de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney e o nível de significância foi de p = 0,05. A análise da postura para diferentes idades na adolescência mostrou um ajuste adaptativo, diminuindo significativamente a CE quando o IC está ligado (p <0,05). Com o implante desligado, as alterações não foram significativas (p> 0,05). Nos adultos, o (implante OFF) apresentou maiores valores de EC relacionados à idade, enquanto o CE não apresentou incremento do CE com a idade ao receber entrada auditiva com o implante ON. A UIC implantada após os 3 anos de idade mostrou uma diminuição significativa no GV. A UIC implantada antes dessa idade mostrou comportamento de marcha semelhante em relação aos indivíduos com audição normal como controle. As informações auditivas intervêm no comportamento motor da postura e da marcha, fatos analisados nesta revisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acoustic Stimulation/psychology , Cochlear Implants , Persons With Hearing Impairments/rehabilitation , Postural Balance/physiology , Gait Analysis , Adaptation, Physiological , Controlled Before-After Studies , Walking Speed/physiology , Standing Position
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1072-1081, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial compliance reduction has been associated with aging and hypertension in supine position. However, the dynamic effects of orthostatism on aortic distensibility has not been defined. Objective: We sought to determine the orthostatic influence and the interference of age, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) on the great arteries during gravitational stress. Methods: Ninety-three healthy volunteers (age 42 ± 16 years). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assumed as aortic stiffness was assessed in supine position (basal phase), during tilt test (TT) (orthostatic phase) and after return to supine position (recovery phase). Simultaneously with PWV acquisition, measures of BP and HR rate were recorded. Results: PWV during TT increased significantly compared to the basal and recovery phases (11.7 ± 2.5 m/s vs. 10.1 ± 2.3 m/s and 9.5 ± 2.0 m/s). Systolic BP (r = 0.55, r = 0.46 and r = 0.39) and age (r = 0.59, r = 0.63 and r = 0.39) correlated with PWV in all phases. The significance level for all tests was established as α = 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a permanent increase in PWV during orthostatic position that was returned to basal level at the recovery phase. This dynamic pattern of PWV response, during postural changes, can be explained by an increase in hydrostatic pressure at the level of abdominal aorta which with smaller radius and an increased elastic modulus, propagates the pulse in a faster way. Considering that it could increase central pulse reflection during the orthostatic position, we speculate that this mechanism may play a role in the overall adaptation of humans to gravitational stress.


Resumo Fundamento: A redução da complacência arterial tem sido associada ao envelhecimento e à hipertensão na postura supina. Entretanto, os efeitos dinâmicos do ortostatismo na distensibilidade aórtica não foram definidos. Objetivo: Determinar a influência ortostática e a interferência da idade, pressão arterial (PA) e frequência cardíaca (FC) sobre as grandes artérias durante o estresse gravitacional. Métodos: Noventa e três voluntários saudáveis (idade de 42 ± 16 anos). A velocidade da onda de pulso carotídeo-femoral (VOP), assumida como rigidez aórtica, foi avaliada na posição supina (fase basal) durante o teste de inclinação (TT) (fase ortostática) e após o retorno à posição supina (fase de recuperação). Simultaneamente à aquisição da PWV, registrou-se as medidas de PA e FC. Resultados: A VOP durante o TT aumentou significativamente em comparação com as fases basal e de recuperação (11,7 ± 2,5 m/s vs. 10,1 ± 2,3 m/se 9,5 ± 2,0 m/s). PA sistólica (r = 0,55, r = 0,46 e r = 0,39) e idade (r = 0,59, r = 0,63 e r = 0,39) correlacionaram-se com a VOP em todas as fases. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi estabelecido como = 0,05. Conclusão: Observou-se um aumento permanente da VOP durante a postura ortostática, que retornou ao nível basal na fase de recuperação. Esse padrão dinâmico de resposta da VOP, durante as alterações posturais, pode ser explicado pelo aumento da pressão hidrostática no nível da aorta abdominal que, com raio menor e aumento do módulo de elasticidade, propaga o pulso de maneira mais rápida. Considerando-se que poderia aumentar a reflexão do pulso central durante a posição ortostática, podemos especular que esse mecanismo pode desempenhar um papel na adaptação global do humano ao estresse gravitacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Arteries/physiology , Baroreflex/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Posture , Stress, Physiological , Blood Flow Velocity , Adaptation, Physiological , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Body Mass Index , Gravitation
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 88-94, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087247

ABSTRACT

Background: In industrial yeasts, selection and breeding for resistance to multiple stresses is a focus of current research. The objective of this study was to investigate the tolerance to multiple stresses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through an adaptive laboratory evolution strategy involving a repeated liquid nitrogen freeze­thaw process coupled with multi-stress shock selection. We also assessed the related resistance mechanisms and very high-gravity (VHG) bioethanol production of this strain. Results: Elite S. cerevisiae strain YF10-5, exhibiting improved VHG fermentation capacity and stress resistance to osmotic pressure and ethanol, was isolated following ten consecutive rounds of liquid nitrogen freeze­thaw treatment followed by plate screening under osmotic and ethanol stress. The ethanol yield of YF10-5 was 16% higher than that of the parent strain during 35% (w/v) glucose fermentation. Furthermore, there was upregulation of three genes (HSP26, HSP30, and HSP104) encoding heat-shock proteins involved in the stress response, one gene (TPS1) involved in the synthesis of trehalose, and three genes (ADH1, HXK1, and PFK1) involved in ethanol metabolism and intracellular trehalose accumulation in YF10-5 yeast cells, indicating increased stress tolerance and fermentative capacity. YF10-5 also showed excellent fermentation performance during the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of VHG sweet potato mash, producing 13.40% (w/ v) ethanol, which corresponded to 93.95% of the theoretical ethanol yield. Conclusions: A multiple-stress-tolerant yeast clone was obtained using adaptive evolution by a freeze­thaw method coupled with stress shock selection. The selected robust yeast strain exhibits potential for bioethanol production through VHG fermentation.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Ethanol/chemical synthesis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Stress, Physiological , Trehalose , Yeasts , Breeding , Adaptation, Physiological , Hypergravity , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Freezing , Heat-Shock Proteins
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1111-1117, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012405

ABSTRACT

La carrera descalza ha sido ampliamente estudiada últimamente, pero poco se sabe de cambios anatómicos que produce en el pie. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar estos cambios producidos de forma aguda y a largo plazo en sujetos que entrenan a pie descalzo. 29 sujetos divididos en dos grupos: Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) y Shod (SGr) (n=12), realizaron un protocolo de efecto agudo consistente en correr durante 20 min sobre treadmill a 3.1 m/s y un protocolo de entrenamiento de 8 semanas de carrera de resistencia con aumento progresivo de volumen. BFGr realizó todas las sesiones a pie descalzo. Al finalizar cada protocolo se midió Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI) y Maximum Surface (MS). Se efectuó ANOVA 3x2 para comprobar los efectos que el tiempo y la condición de calzado produjo. La condición de calzado produjo efectos significativos sobre todas las variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983) y el factor tiempo sobre AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) y MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). Hubo interacción significativa Tiempo x Condición en FW (p=0.036, η2p= 0.116) y NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS aumentó luego del protocolo de efecto agudo (p=0.000) y a largo plazo (p=0.001) en BFGr. El porcentaje de sujetos con pie normal aumentó en BFGr y con pie plano aumentó en SGr. El entrenamiento de carrera a pie descalzo produce efectos, principalmente luego de un período de adaptación de 8 semanas, tendientes a un aumento armónico en la superficie de apoyo plantar con tendencia a una disminución relativa del área del mediopié, lo cual se tradujo en una disminución de sujetos con arco plantar de tipología plana.


Barefoot running has been studied extensively recently, but little is known of the anatomical changes that take place in the foot. The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic changes that are produced in subjects who train barefoot. 29 subjects divided into two groups, Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) and Shod (SGr) (n=12), followed an acute effect protocol which consisted in running during 20 min on a treadmill at 3.1 m/s, and an eight-week long chronic effect protocol covering eight weeks of resistance running with progressively increasing volume. BFGr did all the sessions barefoot. At the end of each protocol Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI), and Maximum Surface (MS) were measured. ANOVA 3x2 was run to verify the effects caused by time and the shod condition produced. Shod/ Unshod factor caused significant effects on all the variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983), and the time factor on AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) and MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). There was a significant Time x Condition interaction in FW (p=0.036, η2p=0.116) and NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS increased after the acute (p=0.000) and the chronic (p=0.001) protocols in the BFGr. The percentage of subjects with normal feet increased in the BFGr and that with flat feet increased in SGr. Barefoot running training causes effects, mainly after an adaptation period of eight weeks, tending to a harmonic surface increase on the support plantar area, with a relative decrease of the midfoot area, which meant a decrease of subjects with plantar arch of flat type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Pressure , Running/physiology , Foot/anatomy & histology , Shoes , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Anthropometry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 806-817, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048660

ABSTRACT

Soybeans sowing in different plants' spatial distribution can influence the phytosanitary management of this crop and, consequently, impact on grains yield. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of plants arrangements on infestation and control of caterpillars, the deposition of spray syrup as well as assess the agronomic performance of soybean cultivated in the Brazilian Cerrado. The assay was performed during two consecutive seasons in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soybean cultivation was implemented in 0.50 m spacing between rows, crossed (0.50 m x 0.50 m), twin rows (0.25 m / 0.75 m), and narrow (0.25 m). In the reproductive stage of plants, both crossed and narrow arrangements showed higher caterpillars' incidence. There was a more evident risk of caterpillar incidence in arrangements that promoted better equidistance among plants. This risk was mitigated when taking into account both control and overlap of syrup, which could be incremented into inferior canopy with the enhancement of application rate. The increase in application rate from 75 to 150 L ha-1 promoted superior spray deposition volumes. Increases in grain yield was noted in the narrow arrangement.


A semeadura da soja em diferentes distribuições espaciais de plantas pode influenciar no manejo fitossanitário da cultura e consequentemente impactar na produtividade de grãos. Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de arranjos de plantas na infestação e controle de lagartas, deposição de calda pulverizada e no desempenho agronômico da soja cultivada no Cerrado brasileiro. Por dois anos agrícolas consecutivos, conduziu-se um ensaio de campo em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, com o cultivo da soja em espaçamento 0,50 m de entrelinhas de semeadura, cruzado (0,50 m x 0,50 m) em fileiras duplas (0,25 m / 0,75 m) e adensado (0,25 m). Em estádio reprodutivo das plantas, arranjos em linhas de semeadura adensadas e cruzadas foram superiores quanto a incidência de lagartas. Em igual população, há maior risco de incidência de lagartas em arranjos que proporcionem melhor equidistância entre plantas. Este risco é minimizado devido a igualdade de controle e sobreposição de calda, a qual pode ser incrementada no dossel inferior com aumento da taxa de aplicação. O aumento da taxa de aplicação de 75 para 150 L ha-1promoveu aumento na deposição no terço inferior das plantas. O arranjo em linhas adensadas mostra-se promissor para cultivo de soja.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Adaptation, Physiological
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763253

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study sought to develop the Breastfeeding Adaptation Scale-Short Form(BFAS-SF) for use at 4 weeks postpartum, to test its validity and reliability, and to examine its measurement invariance. The latent mean score of the BFAS-SF across multiple groups was also compared. METHODS: This methodological research study was conducted to develop a short form of the BFAS and to test its psychometric properties and measurement invariance. Data were collected twice for measurement invariance testing. The sample included 431 and 272 breastfeeding mothers at 2 weeks and 4 weeks postpartum, respectively. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported six dimensions of the BFAS-SF at 4 weeks postpartum. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed evidence for invariance of the BFAS-SF according to employment status, parity, delivery mode, and the postpartum period. There were statistically significant latent mean differences. Mothers who were unemployed and who had a vaginal delivery showed significantly higher scores for breastfeeding confidence, sufficient breast milk, and baby's satisfaction with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The BFAS-SF is valid, reliable, and an appropriate instrument for assessing mothers' breastfeeding adaptation. It can be used to compare mean scores according to employment status and delivery mode.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Adaptation, Psychological , Breast Feeding , Breast , Employment , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , Mothers , Parity , Postpartum Period , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1986-2002, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771738

ABSTRACT

In industrial fermentation processes, bacteria have to adapt environmental stresses. Sometimes, such a self-adaption does not work and will cause fermentation failures, although such adaptation also can generate unexpected positive effects with improved fermentation performance. Our review introduces cell self-adaption to environmental variations or stress, process optimization based on such self-adaptions, with heterologous proteins production by Pichia pastoris and butanol fermentation as examples. Our review can sever as reference for fermentation optimization based on cell self-adaption.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Butanols , Metabolism , Environment , Fermentation , Pichia , Cell Biology , Metabolism
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766582

ABSTRACT

The human capacity for physiologic adaptation to cold is minimal. A cold environment can be a threat to the skin, leading to a subsequent fall in core body temperature. Many physiologic, behavioral, and environmental factors predispose to the global effects of cold injuries. Physical injuries caused by cold have two forms: systemic forms such as hypothermia and localized forms such as frostbite. Reduced temperature directly damages the tissue, as in frostbite and cold immersion foot. Vasospasm of vessels perfusing the skin induces chilblain, acrocyanosis, and frostbite. The degree of damage caused by cold is related to four factors: temperature, exposure time, wind intensity (temperature sensation), and high altitude.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Altitude , Body Temperature , Chilblains , Cold Injury , Frostbite , Humans , Hypothermia , Immersion Foot , Skin , Wind
19.
Biol. Res ; 52: 46, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most extreme environments on our planet is the Maritime Antarctic territory, due to its low-water availability, which restricts the development of plants. Sanionia uncinata Hedw. (Amblystegiaceae), the main colonizer of the Maritime Antarctic, has effective mechanisms to tolerate this environment. It has been described that the tolerance to desiccation is mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), antioxidants systems, accumulation of compatible solutes and proteins of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA). However, to date, these mechanisms have not been described in S. uncinata. Therefore, in this work, we postulate that the tolerance to desiccation in the Antarctic moss S. uncinata is mediated by the accumulation of ABA, the osmolytes proline and glycine betaine, and dehydrins (an LEA class 11 proteins). To demonstrate our hypothesis, S. uncinata was subjected to desiccation for 24 h (loss in 95% of water content), and the effects on its physiological, photosynthetic, antioxidant and biochemical parameters were determined. RESULTS: Our results showed an accumulation of ABA in response to water loss, and the activation of protective responses that involves an increment in levels of proline and glycine betaine, an increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, APX and POD, and the accumulation of dehydrins proteins. CONCLUSION: The results showed, suggest that S. uncinata is a desiccation-tolerant moss, property mediated by high cellular plasticity regulated by ABA.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis/physiology , Bryopsida/physiology , Desiccation , Antioxidants/analysis , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Bryopsida/classification , Bryopsida/chemistry , Antarctic Regions
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eRB4733, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Healthy aging is partly related to appropriate function of the immune system. As already reported, some changes in this system are observed, including reduced number and repertoire of T cells due to thymic involution, accumulation of memory T cells by chronic infections, homeostatic proliferation compensating for the number of naïve T cells, decreased proliferation of T cells against a stimulus, telomere shortening, replicative senescence of the T cells, and inflammaging, besides the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The purpose of this article is to clarify each of these changes, aiming to minimize limitations of immunosenescence. If such associations can be established, these cells may be used as early and less invasive markers of aging-related diseases, as well as to indicate interventions, evaluate the efficacy of interventions and be a tool to achieve longevity with quality of life.


RESUMO O envelhecimento saudável está relacionado, pelo menos em parte, com a função adequada do sistema imunológico. Isso porque já foi relatado que, com o envelhecimento, algumas mudanças desse sistema são observadas, como a diminuição da percentagem e do repertório de células T pela involução tímica, acúmulo de células T de memória por infecções crônicas, compensação do número de células T naïve por proliferação homeostática, diminuição da capacidade de proliferação das células T frente a um estímulo, encurtamento dos telômeros, senescência replicativa das células T, e inflammaging, além do acúmulo de células mieloides supressoras. Este artigo visa esclarecer cada uma das mudanças, mencionadas, com o intuito de buscar meios de minimizar as limitações da imunosenescência. Caso seja possível estabelecer tais relações, essas células podem ser utilizadas como marcadores precoces e pouco invasivos de doenças relacionadas ao envelhecimento, além da possibilidade de serem utilizadas para indicar intervenções, avaliar a eficácia das intervenções e como ferramenta para alcance da longevidade com qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/physiology , Immunosenescence/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology
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