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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

ABSTRACT

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Telencephalon , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Cattle , Adaptation, Physiological , Neuroglobin
2.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-8, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1397107

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a produção da pós-graduação brasileira relacionada à aplicação da teoria de Callista Roy. Métodos: Revisão integrativa, de cunho bibliométrico, com dados de 78 teses e dissertações brasileiras, organizados por ano e tipo de publicação; local geográfico, instituição de ensino e autoria; fomento; especialidade; produção de artigos; especialidade e foco de aplicação. Resultados: Setenta e cinco porcento das teses e dissertações estão disponíveis na íntegra; 27,0% geraram artigos; 39,7% receberam fomento, predominando bolsas; 58,9% são do Nordeste; 37,0% são direcionadas para estomaterapia e pediatria; 48,8% têm como foco o processo de enfermagem e 32,0%, a pessoa em diferentes ciclos da vida. Conclusão: A importante produção da pós-graduação brasileira sobre o tema poderia ser mais visível em artigos. As pesquisas da pós-graduação brasileira oferecem sustentação ao processo de enfermagem direcionado às necessidades de adaptação das pessoas, em distintos ciclos da vida e processo saúde-doença. (AU)


Objective: To analyze the Brazilian graduate production related to the application of Callista Roy's theory. Methods: Integrative review, biblimetric in nature, with data from 78 Brazilian theses and dissertations, organized by year and type of publication; geographic location, educational institution and authorship; promotion; specialty; production of articles; specialty and application focus. Results: Seventy-five percent of theses and dissertations are available in full; 27.0% generated articles; 39.7% received funding, predominantly scholarships; 58.9% are from the Northeast; 37.0% are directed to stomatherapy and pediatrics; 48.8% focus on the nursing process and 32.0%, the person in different life cycles. Conclusion: The important production of Brazilian graduate studies on the subject could be more visible in articles. Brazilian graduate research supports the nursing process aimed at people's adaptation needs, in different life cycles and the healthdisease process. (AU)


Objetivo: Analizar la producción de graduación brasileña relacionada con la aplicación de la teoría de Callista Roy. Métodos: Revisión integradora, de carácter biblimétrico, con datos de 78 tesis y disertaciones brasileñas, organizadas por año y tipo de publicación; ubicación geográfica, institución educativa y autoría; promoción; especialidad; producción de artículos; especialidad y enfoque de aplicación. Resultados: El setenta y cinco por ciento de las tesis y disertaciones están disponibles en su totalidad; 27,0% artículos generados; El 39,7% recibió financiación, predominantemente becas; 58,9% son del Nordeste; El 37,0% se orienta a estomaterapia y pediatría; El 48,8% se centra en el proceso de enfermería y el 32,0%, la persona en diferentes ciclos de vida. Conclusión: La importante producción de estudios de posgrado brasileños sobre el tema podría ser más visible en los artículos. La investigación de posgrado brasileña apoya el proceso de enfermería dirigido a las necesidades de adaptación de las personas, en los diferentes ciclos de vida y el proceso salud-enfermedad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Models, Nursing , Nursing Theory , Adaptation, Physiological , Adaptation, Psychological , Bibliometrics
3.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e181942, fev. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363107

ABSTRACT

The project is based on a test of a thoracic vibration vest prototype, adapted to equines by the Expector® vest's company, on healthy animals. Ten (10) equines were used in the project, male or female, adults, healthy, belonging to FMVZ-USP or private owners. Each animal went through two phases: A and B. Phase A consisted of the placement of the vest without turning on the vibrators, evaluating the animal's acceptability, facility, adaptation to the animal's body, and discomfort due to the vest's use. Phase B included the placement of the vest and turning on the vibrators, evaluating the animal's acceptability, reaction to the vibrators, and, if present, to which velocity/type of vibration, and the presence of adverse effects. Both phases were done three times on separate days. The behavioral parameters: "placement facility" and "adaptation to the animal's body" were observed. In phase B, the response to the vibration was classified from 0 to 5. The answer was evaluated on low and high intensities for the four vibration types. The heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were also evaluated at the beginning and end of each repetition. The animals' HR was kept on normal, except for one animal on one day of the test. Concerning the RR, most animals presented moments of tachypnea. On the experiment's first day, 100% of grade Great to "facility of placement" and "adaptation to the animal's body" was obtained, but on days 2 and 3 this value dropped to 90% due to alterations in one animal's responses. Regarding vibration's responses, 77.3% were evaluated as no discomfort (grade 0), 17.1% little discomfort (grade 1), 3.3% medium discomfort (grade 2), 0.4% great discomfort (grade 3), 0.21% extreme discomfort (grade 4), and 1.6% non-acceptance of the vest (grade 5). Some possible changes on the prototype were also verified to be suggested to the manufacturer, such as the change of the buckle and the use of wireless control. Vest use appears promising for equine respiratory physiotherapy, considering the acceptability was good, and its efficiency on the expectoration of diseased animals must be tested.


O projeto consistiu no teste de um protótipo de colete de vibração torácica, adaptado aos equinos pela empresa do colete Expector®, em animais saudáveis. Foram utilizados 10 equinos, machos ou fêmeas, adultos, saudáveis, pertencentes à FMVZ-USP e a proprietários particulares. Cada animal passou por duas fases: A e B. A Fase A consistiu na colocação do colete sem ligar os vibradores, avaliando-se a aceitabilidade do animal; facilidade; adaptação ao corpo do animal e incômodo do mesmo à sua presença. Já a Fase B contava com a colocação do colete e funcionamento dos vibradores, avaliando-se a aceitabilidade do animal; reação aos vibradores e, se presente, a qual velocidade/tipo de vibração; presença de reações ou efeitos adversos. As duas fases foram realizadas em triplicata em dias separados. Foram observados os parâmetros comportamentais "facilidade de colocação" e "adaptação ao corpo do animal". Na fase B, a resposta à vibração foi classificada de 0 a 5. A resposta foi avaliada nas intensidades baixa e alta para os quatro diferentes tipos de vibração. Foram avaliadas também as frequências cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (FR) no início e final de cada repetição. A FC dos animais se manteve dentro do intervalo de normalidade, com exceção de um animal em um dia de avaliação. Em relação à FR, a maioria apresentou momentos de taquipneia. No primeiro dia de experimento obteve-se 100% de avaliação Ótima para "facilidade de colocação" e "adaptação ao corpo do animal", mas nos dias 2 e 3 esse valor caiu para 90% devido à alteração na resposta de um animal. Em relação à resposta à vibração, 77,3% das respostas foram avaliadas como nenhum incômodo (nota 0), 17,1% pouco incômodo (nota 1), 3,3% médio incômodo (nota 2), 0,4% muito incômodo (nota 3), 0,21% incômodo extremo (nota 4) e 1,6% não aceitação do colete (nota 5). Foram também verificadas algumas possíveis mudanças no protótipo a serem sugeridas ao fabricante, como mudança do tipo de fivela e uso de controle sem fio. A utilização do colete parece ser muito promissora para a fisioterapia respiratória em equinos, visto que a aceitabilidade foi muito boa, devendo-se agora realizar a avaliação de sua eficácia na expectoração de animais enfermos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological , Physical Therapy Modalities/veterinary , Equipment Design , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Horses/physiology
4.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 495-500, ago.2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A corrente interferencial é uma modalidade bastante utilizada, porém, apresenta como fator limitante a quantidade de acomodações, o que é comum em eletroestimulação. Apesar de possuir alguns recursos que visam reduzir a adaptação fisiológica, não é totalmente eficaz; neste sentido, pode haver diferenças devido à técnica de uso. Assim, o presente estudo pretendeu analisar se há diferenças na adaptação para as formas bipolar ou tetrapolar em indivíduos com dor lombar crônica não específica. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico cruzado, composto por 15 voluntárias com dor lombar crônica não específica, as quais receberam terapia bipolar ou tetrapolar em semanas subsequentes. Foi explicado sobre a adaptação à corrente e o que deveria avisar quando ocorresse, e, desta forma, foi computado o número de vezes em que o fenômeno ocorreu, o tempo necessário até ocorrer a primeira adaptação, a intensidade inicial da corrente utilizada e o quanto aumentou-se após a primeira adaptação. RESULTADOS: Para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas, foi observada diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: As técnicas analisadas não mostraram diferenças na adaptação em mulheres jovens com dor lombar não específica.


INTRODUCTION: The interferential current is a widely used modality; however, it presents as a limiting factor the amount of accommodation, which is common in electrostimulation. Despite having some resources that aim to reduce physiological adaptation, it is not fully effective in this sense, but there may be differences due to the technique of use. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze whether there are differences in the accommodation for bi- or tetrapolar forms in individuals with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHODS: Crossover clinical study, consisting of 15 volunteers with chronic nonspecific low back pain, who received bipolar or tetrapolar therapy in subsequent weeks. They were explained about the current accommodation and that they should be told when it occurred, and in this way, the number of times that the phenomenon occurred, the time needed until the first accommodation occurred, the initial intensity of the current used, and how much it increased after the first accommodation were computed. RESULTS: None of the variables analyzed had a significant difference between the two techniques (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The techniques analyzed showed no differences in accommodation in young women with nonspecific low back pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Adaptation, Physiological , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Low Back Pain/therapy , Chronic Disease , Longitudinal Studies
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 390-394, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Basketball sports will effect on the morphology and structure of the hand bones and joints. Objective: The article selected nine professional basketball players (basketball group) and 11 non-basketball players (control group) in the provincial youth team. A 64-row spiral computed tomography scan was used to scan the wrist and three-dimensional reconstruction. The volume of each carpal bone and the computed tomography value (bone density) were measured. Methods: To explore the influence of basketball sports on the hand bones and joints' morphological structure, the paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the computed tomography images of young male basketball players' wrist bones. Results: Compared with the carpal bones in the control group, the volume of the right navicular bone and the small polygonal bone, the left-hand navicular bone, the large triangular bone, and the small polygonal bone in the basketball group increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Basketball can increase the volume of the part of the wrist bones of adolescent male athletes and reduce the bone density; the morphological structure of the non-smashing wrist bones of basketball players has similar changes to that of the spikers. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O basquetebol afetará a morfologia e a estrutura dos ossos e articulações da mão. Objetivo: o artigo selecionou nove jogadores profissionais de basquete (grupo de basquete) e 11 não jogadores de basquete (grupo de controle) da equipe juvenil da província. Uma tomografia computadorizada espiral de 64 linhas foi usada para digitalizar o punho e a reconstrução tridimensional. O volume de cada osso do carpo e o valor da tomografia computadorizada (densidade óssea) foram medidos. Métodos: Para explorar a influência dos esportes de basquete sobre os ossos da mão e a estrutura morfológica das articulações, o artigo analisa as características estruturais das imagens de tomografia computadorizada de ossos do punho de jovens jogadores de basquete do sexo masculino. Resultados: Em comparação com os ossos do carpo no grupo de controle, o volume do osso navicular direito e o osso poligonal pequeno, o osso navicular esquerdo, o osso triangular grande e o osso poligonal pequeno no grupo de basquete aumentaram significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusões: O basquete pode aumentar o volume dos ossos do punho de atletas adolescentes do sexo masculino e reduzir a densidade óssea; a estrutura morfológica dos ossos do pulso que não se quebram em jogadores de basquete tem mudanças semelhantes às dos espigões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: el baloncesto afectará la morfología y la estructura de los huesos y articulaciones de la mano. Objetivo: El artículo seleccionó nueve jugadores de baloncesto profesionales (grupo de baloncesto) y 11 jugadores no baloncesto (grupo de control) en el equipo juvenil provincial. Se utilizó una tomografía computarizada en espiral de 64 filas para escanear la muñeca y la reconstrucción tridimensional. Se midieron el volumen de cada hueso del carpo y el valor de la tomografía computarizada (densidad ósea). Métodos: Para explorar la influencia de los deportes de baloncesto en la estructura morfológica de los huesos de la mano y las articulaciones, el artículo analiza las características estructurales de las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de los huesos de la muñeca de los jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto. Resultados: En comparación con los huesos del carpo en el grupo de control, el volumen del hueso navicular derecho y el hueso poligonal pequeño, el hueso navicular izquierdo, el hueso triangular grande y el hueso poligonal pequeño en el grupo de baloncesto aumentaron significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusiones: El baloncesto puede aumentar el volumen de los huesos de la muñeca de los deportistas varones adolescentes y reducir la densidad ósea; la estructura morfológica de los huesos de las muñecas que no se rompen de los jugadores de baloncesto tiene cambios similares a los de los atacantes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Basketball , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/physiology , Athletes , Wrist Joint/growth & development , Algorithms , Adaptation, Physiological , Carpal Bones/growth & development , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210054, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351163

ABSTRACT

Gymnogeophagus labiatus and G. lacustris have been long recognized as sister species exhibiting different ecological requirements. Gymnogeophagus labiatus occurs in rock bottom rivers in the hydrographic basins of Patos Lagoon (HBP) and Tramandaí River (HBT), while G. lacustris is exclusive from sand bottom coastal lagoons of the HBT. In this study, we used molecular markers, morphological measurements and data from nuptial male coloration to investigate the evolutionary relationship between these species in each hydrographic basin. We found, for all data sets, a closer relationship between G. labiatus and G. lacustris from the HBT than between G. labiatus populations from HBT and HBP. In particular, lip area had a large intraspecific plasticity, being uninformative to diagnose G. lacustris from G. labiatus. Molecular clock-based estimates suggest a recent divergence between species in the HBT (17,000 years ago), but not between G. labiatus from HBP and HBT (3.6 millions of years ago). Finally, we also found a divergent G. labiatus genetic lineage from the Camaquã River, in the HBP. These results show that the current taxonomy of G. labiatus and G. lacustris does not properly represent evolutionary lineages in these species.(AU)


Gymnogeophagus labiatus e G. lacustris vêm sendo consideradas espécies irmãs que possuem diferentes exigências ecológicas. Gymnogeophagus labiatus ocorre em rios de fundo de pedra nas bacias hidrográficas da Laguna dos Patos (HBP) e do rio Tramandaí (HBT), enquanto G. lacustris é exclusivo da HBT, ocorrendo em lagoas costeiras de fundo de arenoso. Nesse estudo, foram usados marcadores moleculares, medidas morfológicas e dados sobre a coloração nupcial em machos para investigar a relação evolutiva entre estas espécies em cada bacia hidrográfica. Para todos os conjuntos de dados foi observada uma relação mais próxima entre G. labiatus e G. lacustris da HBT do que entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT. Em particular, a área do lábio teve uma grande plasticidade intraespecífica, não sendo informativa para diagnosticar G. lacustris de G. labiatus. Estimativas baseadas no relógio molecular sugeriram uma divergência recente entre as espécies da HBT (17.000 anos atrás), mas não entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT (3,6 milhões de anos atrás). Finalmente, também foi encontrada uma linhagem genética de G. labiatus divergente no rio Camaquã, na HBP. Esses resultados mostram que a taxonomia atual de G. labiatus e G. lacustris não representa adequadamente as linhagens evolutivas nessas espécies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Weights and Measures , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Adaptation, Physiological , Hydrography , Cichlids
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 992-1001, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155031

ABSTRACT

Studies on biochemical constituents and hydration of horses in training or competitions are essential for the knowledge of their adaptive physiological and metabolic responses to the type of exercise inherent to the sport. The present research evaluated the effects of exercise on hydric status and physiologic and biochemical profiles in Quarter Horses during a barrel race training session. The design consisted of three evaluation times (T): at rest, before the start of physical activity (T0); immediately after a 10-minute warm-up trot and then running the barrel race courses twice with a 10-minute interval (T1); and after one hour's rest after the second course (T2). The parameters analyzed were: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature (BT) and mucose color; the capillary refill time (CRT), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma proteins (TPP), serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were evaluated and used to infer water status; plasma osmolarity (Osm) was measured; the electrolytes sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), total calcium (tCa), total magnesium (tMg) and phosphorus (P), plasma glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac) and the muscle enzymes creattine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) completed the evaluated parameters. The data for the variables studied were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test at 5% probability. After exercise (in T1), HR, RR, BT, PCV, TPP, Glu, Lac, Cre increased (P<0.05), there was also increase in phosphorus and decrease in K (P<0.05), but there was no hypophosphatemia and hipokalemia, respectively. After rest (in T2), only glucose returned to baseline levels (T0) and, with lower mean values, HR, RR, BT, PCV, K and Lac did not return to baseline levels (T0), while P decreased (P<0.05). Osm, BUN, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK and AST did not change between times (P>0.05). It was concluded that the maximum intensity exercise performed on two barrel race courses caused mild hemoconcentration, did not changed plasma osmolality or concentrations of important electrolytes and muscle enzymes of horses, but caused hyperlactatemia without the plasma lactate concentrations being fully recomposed after resting.(AU)


O perfil bioquímico e o status de hidratação de equinos em treinamentos ou competições fornecem dados importantes das suas respostas fisiológicas e metabólicas em relação ao tipo específico de exercício em uma modalidade esportiva. No presente estudo, o status hídrico e o perfil fisiológico-bioquímico de equinos foram avaliados durante treinamento de três tambores, em três tempos (T): em repouso, antes do início da atividade física (T0); imediatamente após 10 minutos de aquecimento ao trote seguido de duas corridas na pista de tambor, intervaladas em 10 minutos (T1); e após uma hora de descanso do segundo percurso (T2). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura corporal (BT) e cor da mucosa; o tempo de enchimento capilar (TEC), volume globular ou hematócrito (VG), proteínas plasmáticas totais (TPP), creatinina sérica (Cre) e a ureia (Ure) foram avaliados e utilizados para inferir o estado hídrico dos animais; a osmolaridade plasmática (Osm) também foi mensurada; as concentrações dos eletrólitos sódio (Na), potássio (K), cloreto (Cl), cálcio total (tCa), magnésio total (tMg) e fósforo (P), e das enzimas musculares foram mensurados no soro, e as de glicose (Gli) e lactato (Lac) no plasma. Os dados das variáveis estudadas foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Após o exercício (T1), a FC, FR, TC, VG, TPP, Gli, Lac, Cre aumentaram. O P também aumentou (P<0,05), mas não alcançou nível de hiperfosfatemia, e o K diminuiu (P<0,05), mas não ao nível de hipocalemia. Embora com médias menores, a FC, FR, TC, VG, K e o Lac não retornaram aos níveis basais (T0) após o repouso (T2), apenas a Gli, enquanto o fósforo diminuiu (P<0,05). A Osm, ureia, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK e AST não variaram entre os tempos (P>0,05). Concluiu-se que, o exercício de intensidade máxima realizado em dois percursos de três tambores causou leve hemoconcentração, não alterou a osmolaridade plasmática nem importantes concentrações de eletrólitos e de enzimas musculares dos equinos, porém, causou hiperlactatemia, sem completa recomposição da concentração do lactato após uma hora de descanso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Exercise Test/veterinary , Respiratory Rate , Horses/physiology , Muscles , Biochemistry
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2060-2067, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148068

ABSTRACT

The dual-purpose wheat stands out as a complementary alternative for forage supply during the winter period. Therefore, this work had the objective of evaluate the performance characteristics in five genotypes of dual-purpose wheat submitted to different sowing densities and different clipping managements. The experiment was carried out during the 2016 and 2017 harvests. The experimental design was a randomized block design, organized in a factorial scheme, with five dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu, BRS Figueira, BRS Guatambu and BRS 277) x five sowing densities (75, 150, 225, 300 and 375 seeds m²) x four clipping operations (zero, one, two and three clippings), arranged in three replicates. The measuring of characters were number of fertile tillers, seeds yield, angle of flag leaf, chlorophyll content and flowering. The genotype BRS Tarumâ is superior in number of fertile tillers and chlorophyll index for all the sowing densities, as well, the flowering is influenced direct by clipping managements. The sowing density of 75 seeds m-2 is not indicated for dual-purpose wheat independent of the clipping management. The seeds yield is amplified thought the increase in sowing density, however, advancing in clipping levels there is a decrease in forage yield.


O trigo de duplo propósito se destaca como uma alternativa complementar para o fornecimento de forragem durante o período de inverno. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características de desempenho de cinco genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito submetidos a diferentes densidades de semeadura e diferentes manejos de corte. O experimento foi realizado durante as safras de 2016 e 2017. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, organizado em esquema fatorial, com cinco genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito (BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu, BRS Figueira, BRS Guatambu e BRS 277) x cinco densidades de semeadura (75, 150, 225, 300 e 375 m² de sementes) x quatro operações de clipagem (zero, um, dois e três recortes), dispostos em três repetições. As medidas dos caracteres foram número de perfilhos férteis, rendimento de sementes, ângulo de folha de bandeira, teor de clorofila e floração. O genótipo BRS Tarumâ é superior em número de perfilhos férteis e índice de clorofila para todas as densidades de semeadura, assim como o florescimento é influenciado diretamente pelos manejos de corte. A densidade de semeadura de 75 sementes m-2 não é indicada para trigo de dupla finalidade independente do manejo de corte. O rendimento das sementes é amplificado pelo aumento da densidade de semeadura, entretanto, avançando nos níveis de recorte, há uma diminuição no rendimento de forragem.


Subject(s)
Triticum , Adaptation, Physiological
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 1-12, nov. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential waste canola oil-degrading ability of the cold-adapted Antarctic bacterial strain Rhodococcus sp. AQ5-07 was evaluated. Globally, increasing waste from food industries generates serious anthropogenic environmental risks that can threaten terrestrial and aquatic organisms and communities. The removal of oils such as canola oil from the environment and wastewater using biological approaches is desirable as the thermal process of oil degradation is expensive and ineffective. RESULTS: Rhodococcus sp. AQ5-07 was found to have high canola oil-degrading ability. Physico-cultural conditions influencing its activity were studied using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and statistical optimisation approaches. Considerable degradation (78.60%) of 3% oil was achieved by this bacterium when incubated with 1.0 g/L ammonium sulphate, 0.3 g/L yeast extract, pH 7.5 and 10% inoculum at 10°C over a 72-h incubation period. Optimisation of the medium conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in a 9.01% increase in oil degradation (87.61%) when supplemented with 3.5% canola oil, 1.05 g/L ammonium sulphate, 0.28g/L yeast extract, pH 7.5 and 10% inoculum at 12.5°C over the same incubation period. The bacterium was able to tolerate an oil concentration of up to 4.0%, after which decreased bacterial growth and oil degradation were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These features make this strain worthy of examination for practical bioremediation of lipid-rich contaminated sites. This is the first report of any waste catering oil degradation by bacteria originating from Antarctica.


Subject(s)
Rhodococcus/physiology , Rapeseed Oil/metabolism , Waste Products , Biodegradation, Environmental , Adaptation, Physiological , Cold Temperature , Waste Water , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Antarctic Regions
10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 274-283, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comprobar las diferencias morfológicas y funcionales del corazón en dos poblaciones latinoamericanas con distintas características raciales y condiciones de vida. Métodos: Mediante el ecocardiograma transtorácico se obtuvieron datos de 206 personas: 103 del poblado de Atahualpa, Ecuador (nivel del mar, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 53 mujeres) y 103 habitantes de la Ciudad de México (altitud de 2,300 m, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 52 mujeres). Resultados: Las diferencias significativas entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fueron frecuencia cardíaca, 66 vs. 80; diámetro diastólico ventricular izquierdo, 40.8 vs. 42.7; grosor del tabique, 9.8 vs. 11.6; pared posterior, 10.2 vs. 11.8; volumen-latido en centímetros cúbicos, 53.0 vs. 46.6; volumen auricular Izquierdo, 25.8 vs. 33.6; presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar, 27.1 vs. 42.0; gasto cardíaco, 3.1 vs. 4.8; cociente E/Ea, 6.4 vs. 9.2; área mitral, 3.4 vs. 3.0. El comparativo de la función diastólica entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fue: tipo 0: 2 vs. 1; tipo 1: 96 vs. 81; tipo 2: 5 vs. 20; tipo 3: 0 vs. 1. Conclusión: Las características ecocardiográficas que identifican los cambios adaptativos del corazón en Atahualpa coinciden con personas que viven a nivel del mar y con buena actividad física y en México con los habitantes de grandes altitudes y expuestos a contaminación ambiental. La función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo fue similar en ambas poblaciones, lo que indica que los cambios adaptativos hacen posible que el corazón sea eficaz en diferentes circunstancias del ecosistema.


Abstract Objective: To compare morphological and functional differences of the heart in two Latin American populations with different ethnicity and living conditions. Methods: Using transthoracic echocardiogram we obtained data on 206 individuals: 103 from Atahualpa, Ecuador (living at sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 53 women) and 103 inhabitants from Mexico City (living at 2300 m above sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 52 women). Results: Significant differences between Atahualpa and Mexico were: Heart rate 66 versus 80 x’, left ventricular diastolic diameter 40.8 versus 42.7, septum thickness 9.8 versus 11.6, posterior wall 10.2 versus 11.8, stroke volume cc 53.0 versus 46.6, left atrial volume 25. 8 versus 33.6, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery 27.1 versus 42.0, cardiac output 3.1 versus 4.8, E/Ea ratio 6.4 versus 9.2, and mitral area 3.4 versus 3.0. Comparison of diastolic function between Atahualpa and Mexico was: Type 0; 2 versus 1. Type 1; 96 versus 81. Type 2; 5 versus 20 and Type 3; 0 versus 1. Conclusion: Echocardiographic characteristics that identify adaptive changes of the heart in Atahualpa are coincident with people living at sea level and with good physical activity, and Mexico City, with inhabitants living at high altitudes and exposed to environmental pollution. The systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in both populations, indicating that adaptive changes allow the heart to be effective in different circumstances of the ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Altitude , Mexico
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1039-1046, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124894

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of stretching exercise on soleus muscle histomorphology and histomorphometry of young and aged rats. Thirty-eight female rats were divided into young control group (YCG, n=10;274±50 g); young stretching group (YSG, n=8;274±12 g); aged control group (ACG, n=10;335±39 g); and aged stretching group (ASG, n=10;321±32g). A mechanical apparatus was used to stretch muscle in 4 repetitions, 60 s each, 30 s interval between repetitions in each session, 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last stretching session, soleus muscle was removed for micromorphology and immunostaining analysis. Data analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, or Kruskal-Wallis tests for parametric and nonparametric, respectively (p≤0.05). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (MFCSA) of ACG was lower (18 %) compared to the YCG. Stretching increased MFCSA comparing YSG to YCG (5,681.15± 1,943.61 µm2 vs 5,119.84±1,857.73 µm2, p=0.00), but decreased comparing ASG to ACG (3,919.54± 1,694.65 µm2 vs 4,172.82±1,446.08 µm2, p=0.00). More serial sarcomere numbers were found in the YSG than YCG (12,062.91±1,564.68 vs 10,070.39±1,072.38, p=0.03). Collagen I and collagen III were higher in YSG than ASG (7.44±7.18 % vs 0.07±0.09 %, p=0.04) and (14.37 %± 9.54 % vs 5.51 %±5.52 %, p=0.00), respectively. TNF-a was greater in ASG than YSG (43.42 %±40.19 % vs 1.72 ± 2.02 %, p=0.00). Epimysium was larger in the YSG compared to YCG (201.83±132.07 % vs 181.09±147.04 %, p=0.00). After 3-week stretching the soleus muscles from aged rats were smaller than their younger counter-parts. Interestingly, while stretching appeared to positively affect young soleus muscle, the opposite was detected in the muscle of the aged rats.


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos crónicos del ejercicio de estiramiento sobre la histomorfología e histomorfometría del músculo sóleo de ratas jóvenes y envejecidas. Se dividieron 38 ratas hembras en un grupo control joven (YCG, n = 10; 274 ± 50 g); grupo de estiramiento joven (YSG, n = 8; 274 ± 12 g); grupo control de edad (ACG, n = 10; 335 ± 39 g); y grupo estiramiento envejecido (ASG, n = 10; 321 ± 32 g). Se usó un aparato mecánico para estirar el músculo en 4 repeticiones, 60 s cada una, intervalo de 30 s entre repeticiones en cada sesión, 3 veces por semana, durante 3 semanas. Veinticuatro horas después de la última sesión de estiramiento, se extrajo el músculo sóleo para análisis de micromorfología e inmunotinción. Los análisis de datos se realizaron con pruebas ANOVA de una vía, Tukey post-hoc o Kruskal-Wallis para pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas, respectivamente (p≤0,05). El área de la sección transversal de fibra muscular (MFCSA) de GCE fue menor (18 %) en comparación con el GCJ. El estiramiento aumentó ASTFM comparando GEJ con GCJ (5.681,15 ± 1.943,61 µm2 vs 5.119,84 ± 1.857,73 µm2, p = 0,00), pero disminuyó comparando GEE con GCE (3.919,54 ± 1.694,65 µm2 vs 4.172,82 ± 1.446,08 µm2, p = 0,00). Se encontraron más sarcómeros en serie en el GEJ que en el GCJ (12.062,91 ± 1.564,68 vs 10.070,39 ± 1,072.38, p = 0,03). El colágeno I y el colágeno III fueron más numerosos en GEJ que en GEE (7,44 ± 7.18 % vs 0,07 ± 0,09 %, p = 0,04) y (14,37 % ± 9,54 % vs 5,51 % ± 5,52 %, p = 0,00), respectivamente. TNF-α fue mayor en GEE que GEJ (43,42 % ± 40,19 % vs 1,72 ± 2,02 %, p = 0,00). El epimisio fue mayor en el GEJ en comparación con el GCJ (201,83 ± 132,07 % vs 181,09 ± 147,04 %, p = 0,00). Después de 3 semanas de estiramiento, los músculos sóleo de las ratas envejecidas eran más pequeños que sus contrapartes más jóvenes. Curiosamente, si bien el estiramiento pareció afectar positivamente el músculo sóleo joven, se detectó lo contrario en el músculo de las ratas envejecidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Adaptation, Physiological , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar
12.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 87-95, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390989

ABSTRACT

Se describen las respuestas fisiológicas que el ser humano desarrolla en respuesta a la exposición a la altitud geográfica. Se describen no sólo las alteraciones debidas a una mala coordinación de los ajustes fisiológicos desencadenados durante la aclimatación a la altura sino también sus manifestaciones clínicas más relevantes. Se detallan los mecanismos moleculares subyacentes a tales respuestas y cómo su mejor conocimiento puede permitir aplicar la exposición intermitente a hipoxia como una herramienta útil para la resolución o alivio de determinadas alteraciones y patologías.


We depict the physiological responses developed by the human body in response to the exposure to geographic altitude. The main alterations due to a noncoordinated setup of the physiological adjustments triggered during the acclimatization at altitude are also described, as its most relevant clinical manifestations. The molecular mechanisms underlying such responses are detailed, and how a better knowledge of these processes can allow us to apply intermittent exposure to hypoxia programs as a useful tool for the resolution or relief of certain disorders and pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptation, Physiological , Altitude , Altitude Sickness , Brain Edema , Acclimatization , Hypoxia
13.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 97-106, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390995

ABSTRACT

Animals exposed to hypobaric hypoxia triggers a physiological hypoxia response via Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) proteins that functions as transcriptional complexes. As the South American camelids inhabit at high Andean altitudes we have asked if they have developed genetic adaptations to live at high altitudes. In the present study we investigate genetic structures of the HIF1A proteins carried by members of the superorder Cetartiodactyla. During our investigation we discovered the existence of a genetic event that caused the loss of most of the bHLH domain in the proteins borne by the Alpaca and other members of the Cetartiodactyla superorder; we designate them as bHLH short sequences. Further analysis at the nucleotide level revealed in the 12 short sequences included in the study the presence at the 5´end of the bHLH domains stop codons. Seven out of the 12 short HIF1A proteins, have an identical or almost identical nucleotide sequence at their 5´end with a same TAA stop codon and at the same position. As the mutations affects to both the Artiodactyls and Cetaceans, we postulate that the mutation(s) occurred before their divergence about 55 million years ago. The relevance of these findings for genetic adaptation of Alpacas to hypobaric hypoxia of high altitude conditions is discussed.


Los animales expuestos a hypoxia hipobárica generan una respuesta hipóxica fisiológica debido a unas proteinas de Factor-Hipoxia Inducible (HIF) que funcionan como complejos transcripcionales. Debido a que los camelidos Americanos habitan en las grandes alturas andinas, nos hemos preguntado si han desarrollado una adaptación genética para vivir a grandes alturas. Eneste estudio hemos investigado la estructura genética de las proteinas HIF1A que llevan consigo los miembros de la superorden de los cetartiodáctilos. Durante nuestra investigación, descubrimos la existencia de un evento genético que causó la perdida de la mayoría del dominio bHLH en las proteinas transmitidas por la alpaca y otros miembros de la superorden de los cetartiodáctilos; las hemos designado como secuencias cortas de bHLH. Análisis posteriores a nivel nucleótido revelaron que en la doceava secuencia corta incluida en el studio, hubo presencia de codones de terminación en el extreme 5' del dominio de bHLH. Siete de las doce proteinas cortas HIF1A, tiene una secuencia idéntica o casi idéntica de nucleotidos en su extremo 5', con el mismo codón de terminación TAA y en la misma posición. Debido a que la mutación afecta tanto a Artiodáctilos como Cetáceos, proponemos que la mutación(es) ocurrió antes de su divergencia hace unos 55 millones de años. Analizamos la relevancia de estos descubrimientos sobre la adaptación genética de las alpacas a la hipoxia hipobárica en condiciones de grandes alturas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Camelids, New World , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia
14.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 113-122, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391008

ABSTRACT

Los adaptados genéticamente a la altura son los tibetanos, sherpas y etíopes; los aymaras y quechuas están aclimatados (Bolivia, Perú y norte de Chile). En Bolivia el mal crónico de montaña afecta 10% de la población masculina. El objetivo fue determinar la función ventricular derecha en residentes sanos y con mal crónico de montaña mediante ecocardiografía transtoráxica. Se utilizaron participantes sanos y con mal crónico de montaña admitidos por el IBBA, desde el año 2012 al 2013. Las variables tomadas son: demográficas, espirometria forzada, gasometría arterial en reposo e hiperoxia, ECG y ECCTT. Los controles (n 40), la edad promedio (44,13±9,69 años), predominio masculino y sobrepeso (IMC 26,27±6,68kg /m2), procedentes de La Paz 3.600 msnm (54%), Potosí 4.000 msnm (22%), El Alto 4.100 msnm (15%) y Oruro 3.800 msnm (9%), el promedio de Hematocrito 51,34±2,91%, hemoglobina 17,15±0,89gr/ dl, Espirometria forzada y Gasometría arterial en reposo e hiperoxia normales, la ECCTT muestra hipertensión pulmonar leve (35,85±3,64mmHg), aumento de grosor del VD (0,51±0,08), TAPSE (2,94±3,85mmHg) y el índice de Tei (0,44±0,22) normales. Los casos (n 40), la edad promedio (48,43±8,08 años), predominio masculino y sobrepeso (IMC 29,54±3,41kg / m2), procedente de La Paz 3.600 msnm (56%), Potosí 4.000 msnm (24%), El Alto 4.100 msnm (13%) y Oruro 3.800 msnm (7%), Hematocrito 63,08±6,2%, Hemoglobina 21,01±2,01gr/dl con eritrotrocitosis, espirometría forzada normal, gasometría arterial en reposo con hipoxemia moderada (PaO2 51,73±4,68mmHg), hipocapnia (PaCO2 27,62±2,04mmHg) y gradiente Alveolo-arterial aumentado (7,61±3,15). Gasometría arterial en hiperoxia descarta shunt (PaO2 308,9±52,58mmHg), el ECG muestra 2 de 11 criterios de crecimiento VD, la ECCTT con hipertensión pulmonar moderada (PSAP 45,22±5,69mmHg), aumento de grosor del VD (0,73±0,22), TAPSE (2,08±0,18cm), normal e índice de Tei (0,51±0,10) ligeramente aumentado. Se concluyó que la función ventricular derecha se encuentra conservada, a pesar de tener hipertensión pulmonar leve (controles) y moderada (casos), con aumento del grosor del ventrículo derecho.


Those genetically adapted to the height are the Tibetans, Sherpas, and Ethiopians; the Aymara and Quechuas are acclimatized (Bolivia, Peru, and northern Chile). In Bolivia, chronic mountain sickness affects 10% of the male population. The objective was to determine the right ventricular function in healthy residents with chronic mountain sickness using transthoracic echocardiography. Use the healthy and chronically ill mountain participants admitted by the IBBA, from 2012 to 2013. The variables taken are demographic, forced spirometry, arterial blood gas at rest and hyperoxia, ECG, and ECCTT. Controls (n 40), average age (44.13 ± 9.69 years), male predominance and overweight (BMI 26.27 ± 6.68kg / m2), frequency from La Paz 3,600 masl (54%), Potosí 4,000 masl (22%), El Alto 4,100 masl (15%) and Oruro 3,800 masl (9%), the average Hematocrit 51.34 ± 2.91%, hemoglobin 17.15 ± 0.89gr / dl, Forced spirometry y Resting arterial blood gas and normal hyperoxia, ECCTT shows mild pulmonary hypertension (35.85 ± 3.64 mmHg), increased RV thickness (0.51 ± 0.08), TAPSE (2.94 ± 3.85 mmHg ) and the Tei index (0.44 ± 0.22) normal. The cases (n 40), the average age (48.43 ± 8.08 years), male predominance and overweight (BMI 29.54 ± 3.41kg / m2), derived from La Paz 3,600 masl (56%), Potosí 4,000 masl (24%), El Alto 4,100 masl (13%) and Oruro 3,800 masl (7%), Hematocrit 63.08 ± 6.2%, Hemoglobin 21.01 ± 2.01gr / dl with erythrocytosis, normal forced spirometry , resting arterial blood gas with moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 51.73 ± 4.68mmHg), hypocapnia (PaCO2 27.62 ± 2.04mmHg) and increased Alveolo-arterial gradient (7.61 ± 3.15). Arterial blood gas in hyperoxia rules out shunt (PaO2 308.9 ± 52.58mmHg), ECG shows 2 of 11 RV growth criteria, ECCTT with moderate pulmonary hypertension (PSAP 45.22 ± 5.69mmHg), increased RV thickness (0.73 ± 0.22), TAPSE (2.08 ± 0.18cm), normal and Tei index (0.51 ± 0.10) slightly increased. It was concluded that the right ventricular function is preserved, a weight of having mild pulmonary hypertension (controls) and moderate (cases), with increased thickness of the right ventricle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Altitude Sickness , Reference Values , Spirometry/methods , Blood Gas Analysis , Bolivia , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Indigenous Peoples
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The leishmaniases are complex neglected diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmania braziliensis is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. In recent studies, genomic changes such as chromosome and gene copy number variations (CNVs), as well as transcriptomic changes have been highlighted as mechanisms used by Leishmania species to adapt to stress situations. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term minor temperature shifts in the genomic and transcriptomic responses of L. braziliensis promastigotes in vitro. METHODS Growth curves, genome and transcriptome sequencing of L. braziliensis promastigotes were conducted from cultures exposed to three different temperatures (24ºC, 28ºC and 30ºC) compared with the control temperature (26ºC). FINDINGS Our results showed a decrease in L. braziliensis proliferation at 30ºC, with around 3% of the genes showing CNVs at each temperature, and transcriptomic changes in genes encoding amastin surface-like proteins, heat shock proteins and transport proteins, which may indicate a direct response to temperature stress. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence that L. braziliensis promastigotes exhibit a decrease in cell density, and noticeable changes in the transcriptomic profiles. However, there were not perceptible changes at chromosome CNVs and only ~3% of the genes changed their copies in each treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Profile
16.
Biol. Res ; 53: 02, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089077

ABSTRACT

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Wine/microbiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Vitis/metabolism , Fermentation , Nitrogen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Vitis/microbiology
17.
Biol. Res ; 53: 08, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rice is the staple food of many people around the world. However, most rice varieties, especially widely grown indica varieties and hybrids, are sensitive to cold stress. In order to provide a basis for the utilization of a common wild rice (CWR, Oryza rufipogon Griff.) named 'Chaling' CWR in cold-tolerant rice breeding and deepen the understanding of rice cold tolerance, the cold tolerance of ratoon 'Chaling' CWR was studied under the stress of the natural low temperature in winter in Changsha, Hunan province, China, especially under the stress of abnormal natural low temperature in Changsha in 2008, taking other ratoon CWR accessions and ratoon cultivated rice phenotypes as control. RESULTS: The results showed that ratoon 'Chaling' CWR can safely overwinter under the natural conditions in Changsha (28° 22' N), Hunan province, China, which is a further and colder northern place than its habitat, even if it suffers a long-term low temperature stress with ice and snow. In 2008, an extremely cold winter appeared in Changsha, i.e., the average daily mean temperature of 22 consecutive days from January 13 to February 3 was - 1.0 °C, and the extreme low temperature was - 4.7 °C. After subjected to this long-term cold stress, the overwinter survival rate of ratoon 'Chaling' CWR was 100%, equals to that of ratoon 'Dongxiang' CWR which is northernmost distribution in the word among wild rice populations, higher than those of ratoon 'Fusui' CWR, ratoon 'Jiangyong' CWR, and ratoon 'Liujiang' CWR (63.55-83.5%) as well as those of ratoon 'Hainan' CWR, ratoon 'Hepu' CWR, and all the ratoon cultivated rice phenotypes including 3 japonica ones, 3 javanica ones, and 5 indica ones (0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that ratoon 'Chaling' CWR possesses strong cold tolerance and certain freezing tolerance.


Subject(s)
Oryza/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Cold Temperature , Cold-Shock Response/physiology , Phenotype , Seasons
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e8763, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132529

ABSTRACT

Upper limb performance is affected by diabetes mellitus (DM). Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a key structure to understand the relationship between performance and morphology in DM. The aim of the study was to analyze NMJ plasticity due to DM in an animal model and its relationship with the function of forelimbs in rats. Twelve Wistar rats were divided into control (C) and DM groups. Animals were trained to perform a grasping task, following procedures of habituation, shaping, and reaching task. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Forelimb neuromuscular performance for dexterity was evaluated one day before DM induction and five weeks following induction. After that, biceps, triceps, and finger flexors and extensors were removed. Connective tissue and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured. NMJ was assessed by its morphometric characteristics (area, perimeter, and maximum diameter), using ImageJ software. Motor performance analyses were made using single pellet retrieval task performance test. Student's t-test was used for comparisons between groups. A significant decrease in all NMJ morphometric parameters was observed in the DM group compared with the C group. Results showed that DM generated NMJ retraction in muscles involved in a reaching task. These alterations are related to signs of muscular atrophy and to poor reaching task performance. In conclusion, induced DM caused NMJ retraction and muscular atrophy in muscles involved in reaching task performance. Induced DM caused significantly lower motor performance, especially in the final moments of evaluation, when DM compromised the tropism of the muscular tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Task Performance and Analysis , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Neuromuscular Junction/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Junction/physiopathology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1072-1081, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial compliance reduction has been associated with aging and hypertension in supine position. However, the dynamic effects of orthostatism on aortic distensibility has not been defined. Objective: We sought to determine the orthostatic influence and the interference of age, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) on the great arteries during gravitational stress. Methods: Ninety-three healthy volunteers (age 42 ± 16 years). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assumed as aortic stiffness was assessed in supine position (basal phase), during tilt test (TT) (orthostatic phase) and after return to supine position (recovery phase). Simultaneously with PWV acquisition, measures of BP and HR rate were recorded. Results: PWV during TT increased significantly compared to the basal and recovery phases (11.7 ± 2.5 m/s vs. 10.1 ± 2.3 m/s and 9.5 ± 2.0 m/s). Systolic BP (r = 0.55, r = 0.46 and r = 0.39) and age (r = 0.59, r = 0.63 and r = 0.39) correlated with PWV in all phases. The significance level for all tests was established as α = 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a permanent increase in PWV during orthostatic position that was returned to basal level at the recovery phase. This dynamic pattern of PWV response, during postural changes, can be explained by an increase in hydrostatic pressure at the level of abdominal aorta which with smaller radius and an increased elastic modulus, propagates the pulse in a faster way. Considering that it could increase central pulse reflection during the orthostatic position, we speculate that this mechanism may play a role in the overall adaptation of humans to gravitational stress.


Resumo Fundamento: A redução da complacência arterial tem sido associada ao envelhecimento e à hipertensão na postura supina. Entretanto, os efeitos dinâmicos do ortostatismo na distensibilidade aórtica não foram definidos. Objetivo: Determinar a influência ortostática e a interferência da idade, pressão arterial (PA) e frequência cardíaca (FC) sobre as grandes artérias durante o estresse gravitacional. Métodos: Noventa e três voluntários saudáveis (idade de 42 ± 16 anos). A velocidade da onda de pulso carotídeo-femoral (VOP), assumida como rigidez aórtica, foi avaliada na posição supina (fase basal) durante o teste de inclinação (TT) (fase ortostática) e após o retorno à posição supina (fase de recuperação). Simultaneamente à aquisição da PWV, registrou-se as medidas de PA e FC. Resultados: A VOP durante o TT aumentou significativamente em comparação com as fases basal e de recuperação (11,7 ± 2,5 m/s vs. 10,1 ± 2,3 m/se 9,5 ± 2,0 m/s). PA sistólica (r = 0,55, r = 0,46 e r = 0,39) e idade (r = 0,59, r = 0,63 e r = 0,39) correlacionaram-se com a VOP em todas as fases. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi estabelecido como = 0,05. Conclusão: Observou-se um aumento permanente da VOP durante a postura ortostática, que retornou ao nível basal na fase de recuperação. Esse padrão dinâmico de resposta da VOP, durante as alterações posturais, pode ser explicado pelo aumento da pressão hidrostática no nível da aorta abdominal que, com raio menor e aumento do módulo de elasticidade, propaga o pulso de maneira mais rápida. Considerando-se que poderia aumentar a reflexão do pulso central durante a posição ortostática, podemos especular que esse mecanismo pode desempenhar um papel na adaptação global do humano ao estresse gravitacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Arteries/physiology , Baroreflex/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Posture , Stress, Physiological , Blood Flow Velocity , Adaptation, Physiological , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Body Mass Index , Gravitation
20.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 6(2): 8-24, dic. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088699

ABSTRACT

Revisión de nuestros hallazgos experimentales sobre la relación entre audición y control motor del equilibrio en usuarios de implantes cocleares (UIC). Se realizó posturografía en 34 UIC en dos condiciones sensoriales:1- Implante encendido (ON). 2- Implante apagado (OFF) Se usó como medida el consumo de energía (CE) de la señal del centro de presión corporal. La marcha se analizó mediante la prueba de 10 m, implementada con: A - implante ON y ruido ambiental (EN), B - Implante ON, EN y Tarea dual cognitiva (DT) y C-implante OFF. Se registró la velocidad de marcha (GV) usando acelerómetros en los pies y la región retrosacra. Estadística: Se utilizaron las pruebas de Wilcoxon y Mann-Whitney y el nivel de significación fue p = 0.05. El análisis de la postura en la adolescencia mostró un ajuste adaptativo, disminuyendo la CE con el IC-ON.p = < 0,05, mientras con el CI-OFF no hubo disminución p => 0,05. En adultos, CI- OFF tuvieron valores más altos de CE en edades mayores, mientras que el CE no se incrementó con la edad con el CI-ON. En la marcha, la GV con el implante ON en EN solo disminuyó en UIC solo en aquellos que estaban implantado después de los 3 años. La UIC implantada antes de esta edad mostró un comportamiento de la marcha similar en comparación con los sujetos con audición normal como control. La información auditiva interviene en la postura y el comportamiento motor de la marcha, hechos que se analizan en esta revisión.


Review of publications of our group about the relationship between the auditory input and the balance motor control in subjects with profound hearing loss and cochlear implant users (UIC). A population of 34 UIC in which posturography in two different sensory information was performed, 1-Implant turned on (ON) giving acoustic information. 2-Implant turned off (OFF) and without auditory input. Energy consumption (CE) of the body center of pressure signal was used as measurement. Gait assessment was analyzed by the 10 m test, implemented with: A- Implant turned ON and environmental noise (EN). B- Implant ON, EN and cognitive dual task (DT) and C- Implant OFF with accelerometers in the feet and sacrum region to measure the gait velocity (GV). Statistics: Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test were used and significance level was p=0.05. Posture analysis for different ages in adolescence showed an adaptive adjustment, decreasing the EC significantly when the CI is ON (p<0.05). With the implant turned OFF, changes were not significant (p>0.05). In adults, (implant OFF) had higher values of CE related with age, while the CE did not show increment of CE with age when receiving auditory input with the implant ON. UIC implanted after being 3 years old showed a significant decrease in GV. The UIC implanted before this age showed similar gait behavior compared to normal hearing subjects as control. The auditory information intervenes in posture and gait motor behavior, facts which are analyzed in this review.


Revisão de publicações de nosso grupo sobre a relação entre a entrada auditiva e o controle motor do equilíbrio em indivíduos com perda auditiva profunda e usuários de implante coclear (UIC). Uma população de 34 UIC em que foi realizada a posturografia em duas informações sensoriais diferentes, o 1-Implant ativado (ON) fornece informações acústicas. 2-O implante foi desativado (OFF) e sem entrada auditiva. O consumo de energia (CE) do sinal do centro de pressão corporal foi utilizado como medida. A avaliação da marcha foi analisada pelo teste de 10 m, implementado com: A- Implante ligado e ruído ambiental (EN). B- Implante ON, EN e tarefa dupla cognitiva (TD) e C- Implante OFF com acelerômetros na região dos pés e sacro para medir a velocidade da marcha (GV). Estatísticas: Foram utilizados os testes de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney e o nível de significância foi de p = 0,05. A análise da postura para diferentes idades na adolescência mostrou um ajuste adaptativo, diminuindo significativamente a CE quando o IC está ligado (p <0,05). Com o implante desligado, as alterações não foram significativas (p> 0,05). Nos adultos, o (implante OFF) apresentou maiores valores de EC relacionados à idade, enquanto o CE não apresentou incremento do CE com a idade ao receber entrada auditiva com o implante ON. A UIC implantada após os 3 anos de idade mostrou uma diminuição significativa no GV. A UIC implantada antes dessa idade mostrou comportamento de marcha semelhante em relação aos indivíduos com audição normal como controle. As informações auditivas intervêm no comportamento motor da postura e da marcha, fatos analisados nesta revisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acoustic Stimulation/psychology , Cochlear Implants , Persons With Hearing Impairments/rehabilitation , Postural Balance/physiology , Gait Analysis , Adaptation, Physiological , Controlled Before-After Studies , Walking Speed/physiology , Standing Position
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