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Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 286-296, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430539


SUMMARY: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and colorectal cancer is the only cancer that has shown a sustained increase in mortality in the last decade. In the search for new chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, extremophilic microorganisms have shown to be a potential source to obtain molecules of natural origin and with selective cytotoxic action towards cancer cells. In this work we analyzed the ability of a collection of Antarctic soil bacteria, isolated on Collins Glacier from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv plant, to secrete molecules capable of inhibiting cell proliferation of a colorectal cancer tumor line. Our results demonstrated that culture supernatants from the Antarctic bacteria K2I17 and MI12 decreased the viability of LoVo cells, a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the Antarctic bacteria showed that they were taxonomically related and nucleotide identity analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium K2I17 as a species belonging to the genus Bacillus.

El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y el cáncer colorrectal es el único que presenta un aumento sostenido de la mortalidad en la última década. En la búsqueda de nuevos agentes quimioterapeúticos contra el cáncer, se ha propuesto a los microorganismos extremófilos como una fuente potencial para obtener moléculas de origen natural y con acción citotóxica selectiva hacia las células cancerígenas. En este trabajo analizamos la capacidad de una colección de bacterias de suelo antártico, aisladas en el glaciar Collins desde rizosfera de la planta de Deschampsia antarctica Desv, de secretar moléculas capaces de inhibir la proliferación celular de una línea tumoral de cáncer colorrectal. Nuestros resultados demostraron que los sobrenadantes de cultivo de las bacterias antárticas K2I17 y MI12 disminuyeron la viabilidad de la línea celular de adenocarcinoma colorrectal LoVo, en un ensayo de reducción metabólica de MTT. La caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de las bacterias antárticas, demostró que estaban relacionadas taxonómicamente y el análisis de la identidad nucleotídica en base a la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S identificó a la bacteria K2I17 como una especie perteneciente al género Bacillus.

Humans , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phenotype , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Genotype , Antarctic Regions
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939779


Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide and definitive therapeutics for treating cancer are not yet available despite extensive research efforts. The key challenges include limiting factors connected with traditional chemotherapeutics, primarily drug resistance, low response rates, and adverse side-effects. Therefore, there is a high demand for novel anti-cancer drugs that are both potent and safe for cancer prevention and treatment. Gallic acid (GA), a natural botanic phenolic compound, can mediate various therapeutic properties that are involved in anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer activities. More recently, GA has been shown to exert anti-cancer activities via several biological pathways that include migration, metastasis, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, angiogenesis, and oncogene expression. This review discusses two aspects, one is the anti-cancer potential of GA against different types of cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms, the other is the bibliometric analysis of GA in cancer and tumor research. The results indicated that lung cancer, prostate cancer, stomach cancer, and colon adenocarcinoma may become a hot topic in further research. Overall, this review provides evidence that GA represents a promising novel, potent, and safe anti-cancer drug candidate for treating cancer.

Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Colonic Neoplasms , Gallic Acid/therapeutic use
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1616, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355520


ABSTRACT Background: Gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma are responsible for approximately 13.5% of cancer-related deaths. Given the fact that these tumors are not typically detected until they are already in the advanced stages, neoadjuvancy plays a fundamental role in improving long-term survival. Identification of those with complete pathological response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a major challenge, with effects on organ preservation, extent of resection, and additional surgery. There is little or no information in the literature about which endoscopic signs should be evaluated after NAC, or even when such re-evaluation should occur. Aim: To describe the endoscopic aspects of patients with gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas who underwent NAC and achieved pCR, and to determine the accuracy of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in predicting the pCR. Methods: A survey was conducted of the medical records of patients with these tumors who were submitted to gastrectomy after NAC, with anatomopathological result of pCR. Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified who achieved pCR after NAC within the study period. Endoscopic responses were used to classify patients into two groups: G1-endoscopic findings consistent with pCR and G2-endoscopic findings not consistent with pCR. Endoscopic evaluation in G1 was present in an equal percentage (47.4%; p=0.28) in Borrmann classification II and III. In this group, the predominance was in the gastric body (57.9%; p=0.14), intestinal subtype with 42.1% (p=0.75), undifferentiated degree, 62.5% (p=0.78), Herb+ in 73.3% (p=0.68). The most significant finding, however, was that the time interval between NAC and EGD was longer for G1 than G2 (24.4 vs. 10.2 days, p=0.008). Conclusion: EGD after NAC seems to be a useful tool for predicting pCR, and it may be possible to use it to create a reliable response classification. In addition, the time interval between NAC and EGD appears to significantly influence the predictive power of endoscopy for pCR.

RESUMO Racional: O adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica é responsável por aproximadamente 13,5% das mortes relacionadas ao câncer. Dado que esses tumores não são normalmente detectados até que já estejam em estágios avançados, a neoadjuvância desempenha um papel fundamental na melhoria da sobrevida em longo prazo. A identificação daqueles com resposta patológica completa (pCR) após a quimioterapia neoadjuvante (NAC) é um grande desafio, com efeitos na preservação do órgão, extensão da ressecção e cirurgia adicional. Há pouca ou nenhuma informação na literatura sobre quais sinais endoscópicos devem ser avaliados após a NAC, ou mesmo quando essa reavaliação deve ocorrer. Objetivo: Descrever os aspectos endoscópicos de pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica que foram submetidos à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e alcançaram pCR, e determinar a acurácia da esofagogastroduodenoscopia (EGD) em predizer a pCR. Métodos: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal e total após NAC, com resultado anatomopatológico de pCR. Resultados: Vinte e nove pacientes que alcançaram pCR após NAC foram identificados no período estudado. As respostas endoscópicas foram usadas para classificar os pacientes em dois grupos: G1- achados endoscópicos consistentes com pCR, G2 - achados endoscópicos não consistentes com pCR. A avaliação endoscópica no G1 esteve presente em igual percentual (47,4%; p=0,28) na classificação de Borrmann II e III. Nesse grupo, a predominância foi no corpo gástrico (57,9%; p=0,14), subtipo intestinal com 42,1% (p=0,75), grau indiferenciado, 62,5% (p=0,78), Herb+ em 73,3% (p=0,68). O achado mais significativo, no entanto, foi que o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD foi maior para G1 do que G2 (24,4 vs. 10,2 dias, p=0,008). Conclusão: A EGD após NAC, nessa pesquisa, sugeriu ser método útil para prever pCR, mediante uma classificação de resposta confiável. Além disso, o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD parece influenciar significativamente a sua capacidade preditiva de diagnosticar a pCR.

Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Endoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction , Neoplasm Staging
West Indian med. j ; 69(3): 148-153, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341890


ABSTRACT The concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations in lung adenocancers are very rare scenarios. Until now, 42 cases described in the literature have all been treated by different drugs. There is no overall consensus regarding the treatment for this adenocarcinoma subgroup. We report here a case of lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and ALK rearrangement in primary tumour, EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and no ALK rearrangement in its synchronous metastasis. We treated this patient with crizotinib as the second-line therapy (after the first line docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy), but no response was obtained. The therapeutic choice for the lung adenocancer patients with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is unclear. Examination of c-ros oncogene 1 mutation can be used as an indicator in the prediction of the crizotinib treatment success. The ALK mutation may not responsible for the resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and EGFR-TKI can be initiated to EGFR and ALK dual mutant patients as the first treatment.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Genes, erbB-1/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Exons/genetics , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Crizotinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285652


Juniperus communis (JCo) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been used to treat wounds, fever, swelling, and rheumatism. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of JCo extract on colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the anticancer effects of JCo extract in vitro and in vivo as well as the precise molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and cell apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. The in vivo activity of the JCo extract was evaluated using a xenograft BALB/c mouse model. The tumors and organs were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that JCo extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity against CRC cells than against normal cells and showed synergistic effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil. JCo extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase via regulation of p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 and induced cell apoptosis via the extrinsic (FasL/Fas/caspase-8) and intrinsic (Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9) apoptotic pathways. In vivo studies revealed that JCo extract suppressed tumor growth through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, there was no obvious change in body weight or histological morphology of normal organs after treatment. JCo extract suppressed CRC progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of JCo extract in the treatment of CRC.

Animals , Rabbits , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Juniperus , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Mice, Inbred BALB C
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 112-119, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134966


ABSTRACT Purpose Standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. This study identified predictive factors for tumour response in our series. Patients and methods Between January 2005 and December 2018, 292 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemo-radiation before surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation dose was 50.4 Gy with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy regimens. Patients-tumour and treatment-factors were tested for influence on tumour down staging and regression grade using Mandard scoring system on surgical specimens (TRG). Results Median age was 69 years (range 39-87); 33.9% of patients was Stage II and 54.5% Stage IIIB. Tumour down staging occurred in 211 patients (73%), including 63 patients (21.6%) with ypT0 (documented T0 at surgery) and 148 patients (50.7%) with a satisfactory tumour regression grade defined as TRG2­3. Upper rectal tumours were identified to predictive factors for pathologic complete response by univariate analysis (p = 0.002). TRG1­3 was associated with intervals from chemo-radiation to surgery (p = 0.004); TRG1­3 rates were higher with longer intervals: 1.71% in ≤ 5 weeks, 23.63% in 6-8 weeks and 46.9% in ≥ 9 weeks; and PTV 50.4 ≥ 800cc (p = 0.06); 3 and 5 years survivals were 85% and 90% for the group as a whole. Among ypT0 cases, the overall survival was 91.1% without significantly different (p = 0.25) compared with the remaining group, 87.2%. Among ypT0 cases, the relapse-free survival was 94.5%, with significantly different (p = 0.03) compared with the remaining group 78.2%. There were no treatment-associated fatalities. Thirty-two patients (10.96%) experienced Grade III/IV toxicities (proctitis, ephitelitis and neutropenia). Conclusions Tumour localization was identified as predictive factors of pathologic complete response for locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemo-radiation. Upper rectal tumours are more likely to develop complete responses. Delay in surgery was identified as a favorable predictive factor for TRG1­3. The relapse-free survival in pathologic complete response group was higher compared with non-pathologic complete response.

RESUMO Objetivo O tratamento padrão para o câncer retal localmente avançado é a quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante, seguida de cirurgia. Este estudo identificou fatores preditivos de resposta tumoral em nossa série. Pacientes e métodos Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2018, 292 pacientes com câncer retal localmente avançado, tratados com quimiorradiação pré-operatória, foram retrospectivamente analisados. O tratamento quimioterápico foi à base de fluoropirimidina e a dose de radiação foi de 50,4 Gy. Os tumores dos pacientes e os fatores do tratamento foram testados quanto à influência no estadiamento do tumor e no grau de regressão usando o sistema de classificação de Mandard em espécimes cirúrgicos (TRG). Resultados A mediana das idades foi 69 anos (variação de 39 a 87); 33,9% dos pacientes estavam no estágio II e 54,5% no estágio IIIB. O estadiamento do tumor ocorreu em 211 pacientes (73%), incluindo 63 pacientes (21,6%) com ypT0 (T0 documentado na cirurgia) e 148 pacientes (50,7%) com grau satisfatório de regressão do tumor, definido como TRG1­3. Os tumores retais superiores foram identificados como fatores preditivos de resposta patológica completa por análise univariada p = 0,002. TRG1­3 foi associado aos intervalos entre a quimioterapia e a cirurgia p = 0,004; As taxas de TRG1­3 foram maiores com intervalos mais longos: 1,71% em ≤ 5 semanas, 23,63% em 6-8 semanas e 46,9% em ≥ 9 semanas; e PTV 50,4 ≥ 800cc (p = 0,06); as sobrevidas de 3 e 5 anos foram de 85% e 90% para o grupo em geral. Entre os casos de ypT0, a sobrevida global foi de 91,1%, sem diferença significativa (p = 0,25) na comparação com o grupo restante (87,2%). Entre os casos de ypT0, a sobrevida livre de recidiva foi de 94,5%, com diferença significativa (p = 0,03) na comparação com o grupo restante (78,2%). Não houve fatalidades associadas ao tratamento. Trinta e dois pacientes (10,96%) apresentaram toxicidade de grau III/IV (proctite, efitelite e neutropenia). Conclusões A localização do tumor foi identificada como fator preditivo de resposta patológica completa para o câncer retal localmente avançado tratado com quimiorradiação pré-operatória. Os tumores retais superiores têm mais probabilidade de desenvolver respostas completas. O atraso da cirurgia foi identificado como um fator preditivo favorável para o TRG1­3. A sobrevida livre de recidiva no grupo com resposta patológica completa à quimiorradioterapia pré-operatória foi maior comparado ao grupo com resposta patológica incompleta.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049323


Introduction: Three vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, in their anion forms, were prepared and their in vitro cytotoxicity toward human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) are reported. Objective: Describe the synthesis and characterization of new vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, and test its antitumor activity against HepG2 and Caco-2. Method: The complexes were formulated as VO (oro), VO (α-glu) and VO (γ-glu) based on chemical, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectra. Results: Resazurin assay demonstrates its cytotoxicity against the HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines with the IC50 ranging from 7.90 to 44.56 µmol.L-1. The cytotoxicity profiles indicate that the tumoral lines show more activity than the cells MRC-5, with selectivity indexes ranging from 1.58 to 8.96. Conclusion: The three complexes had better in vitro activity than cisplatin for both normal and cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are two to six times better for the cancer cell ines and five to seven times better for the normal cell lines. This study indicates that the complexes obtained are promising candidates for antitumor drugs.

Introdução: Foram preparados três complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico, em suas formas aniônicas, e foi testada sua citotoxicidade in vitro para fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) e adenocarcinoma colorretal humano (Caco-2). Objetivo: Descrever a síntese e caracterização de novos complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico e testar sua atividade antitumoral contra HepG2 e Caco-2. Método: Os complexos foram formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) e VO (γ-glu) com base em análises químicas, termogravimétricas e espectros no infravermelho. Resultados: O ensaio de resazurina demonstrou sua citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares HepG2 e Caco-2 com o IC50 variando de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Os perfis de citotoxicidade indicam que as linhas tumorais apresentam maior atividade que as células MRC-5, com índices de seletividade variando de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusão: Os três complexos tiveram melhor atividade in vitro do que a cisplatina, tanto para linhagens celulares normais como cancerosas. Os valores de IC50 são de duas a seis vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares cancerosas e de cinco a sete vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares normais. Este estudo indica que os complexos obtidos são promissores candidatos a fármacos antitumorais.

Introducción: Tres complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico, en sus formas aniónicas, fueram preparados. Su citotoxicidad in vitro hacia los fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), el carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) y el adenocarcinoma colorrectal humano (Caco-2) son reportados. Objetivo: Los principales objetivos de este trabajo son describir la síntesis y caracterización de nuevos complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico y probar su actividad antitumoral contra el HepG2 y el Caco-2. Método: Los complejos fueron formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) y VO (γ-glu) basados en análisis químicos, termogravimétricos y espectros infrarrojos. El ensayo de resazurina demuestra su citotoxicidad contra las líneas celulares HepG2 y Caco-2 con el IC50 que van de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Los perfiles de citotoxicidad indican que las líneas tumorales presentan mayor actividad que los MRC-5, con índices de selectividad que van de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusión: Los tres complejos tuvieron mejor actividad in vitro que el cisplatino, tanto para líneas celulares normales como para líneas celulares cancerosas. Los valores del IC50 son de dos a seis veces mejores para las líneas celulares de cáncer y de cinco a siete veces mejores para las líneas celulares normales. Este estudio indica que los complejos obtenidos son candidatos prometedores para fármacos antitumorales.

Humans , Orotic Acid/pharmacology , Vanadium Compounds/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(4): 25-34, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1146572


BackgroundBreast cancer has been considered a public health problem and homeopathic treatments are becoming increasingly recommended due to its ways of action and absence of adverse effects. MCF-7 is an adenocarcinoma of human breast cell line useful as preclinicalmodel to screen therapeutic agents such as ultra-diluted Viscum album, an European plant which extract is commonly used in cancer therapy. AIMS MCF-7 and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were used to evaluate the in vitrocytotoxicity of homoeopathic Viscum album 1x10-3(VA3X). Methodscells were cultured for 24 hours in controlled environment (37.5oC and 5% CO2) in 96-well plates. After this time, VA3X was added to the culture medium in concentrations varying from 10 to 100 L/mL.A control group was maintained with culture medium only. Cells were cultivated for 48 hours in these conditions for evaluation of cell viability by MTT assay. ResultsHigher cytotoxicity was observed in MCF-7 when compared to MSC, as the lower concentration of VA3X was capable of inducing tumor cell death and not healthy cell death. The MTT assay results were that 42 L/mL of VA3X reduced MCF-7 cells viability to 50% and 62 L/mL reduced MSC cells to the same percentage, what means that tumor cells are more sensible to VA3X than heathy cells. ConclusionViscum albumpresented higher cytotoxic action on human breast cancer cell line culture than on mesenchymal stem cells. This medicine is extensively used against cancer, and the use of the homoeopathic form of it brings new possibilities as no or fewer adverse effects would be present.(AU)

Humans , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Viscum album/toxicity , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , MCF-7 Cells/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Count , Cell Survival , Cell Culture Techniques
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900305, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989062


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of the EtOAc extract of U. longissima which is uninvestigated previously on esophagogastric cancer induced in rats with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin (MNNG). Methods: The anticancer activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima was examined in the esophagogastric adenocarcinoma models induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima, 50 and 100 mg/kg oral doses were administered once daily for six months. MNNG induced differentiated and undifferentiated type adenocarcinomas in the esophageal and gastric tissues of rats. Results: EtOAc extract of U. longissima obtained from U. longissima prevented gastric and esophageal cancerogenesis induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima did not have a lethal effect at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. The prominent anticarcinogenic activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima 50 and 100 mg/kg suggests that it is not toxic and it is selective to the cancer tissue. Conclusion: This information may shed light on clinical implementation of EtOAc extract of U. longissima in future.

Animals , Male , Rats , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Usnea/chemistry , Acetates/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(1): e2077, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990368


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a expressão do Fator de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular (VEGF), seu receptor (VEGFR-2), idade e tipo histológico de carcinomas avançados de colo uterino com relação à resposta clínica à quimioterapia neoadjuvante. Métodos: foram incluídas 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma de colo uterino (IB2 e IVA), com biópsias prévias ao tratamento. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e avaliadas quanto à resposta clínica e à expressão do VEGF. Considerou-se boa resposta clínica uma regressão tumoral total ou maior do que 50%. Resultados: em relação à resposta à quimioterapia, 18 pacientes (45%) apresentaram boa resposta e 22 (55%), má resposta. Quanto à expressão do VEGF, em 16 pacientes foi considerada positiva e em 24, negativa. Quando os casos foram analisados separadamente em relação à resposta à quimioterapia, somente a expressão positiva de VEGF foi associada à boa resposta clínica (p=0,0157). Conclusão: a expressão de VEGF mostrou ser isoladamente, um importante marcador de boa resposta ao tratamento quimioterápico neoadjuvante das pacientes com carcinoma avançado de colo uterino.

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), its receptor (VEGFR-2), age and histological type of advanced cervical carcinomas with respect to the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: we studied 40 patients with cervical carcinoma (IB2 and IVA) diagnosed by biopsies prior to treatment. All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and evaluation for clinical response and expression of VEGF. We considered a tumor regression greater than 50% as a good clinical response. Results: eighteen patients (45%) had good response to chemotherapy, and 22 (55%), poor response. VEGF expression was positive in 16 patients and negative in 24. When analyzed separately for response to chemotherapy, only the positive expression of VEGF was associated with good clinical response (p=0.0157). Conclusion: VEGF expression alone was an important marker of good response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced carcinoma of the cervix.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Cervix Uteri , Prospective Studies , Cisplatin , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/surgery , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(6): e1998, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976941


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar os fatores associados ao não fechamento de ileostomia protetora após ressecção anterior do reto com excisão total do mesorreto por câncer retal, a morbidade associada ao fechamento destas ileostomias e a taxa de estomia permanente em pacientes com adenocarcinoma retal. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo de 174 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de tumores retais, dos quais 92 foram submetidos à ressecção anterior do reto com intenção curativa, anastomose coloanal ou colorretal e ileostomia de proteção. Foi realizada análise multivariada visando a determinar os fatores associados à permanência definitiva da estomia, assim como o estudo da morbidade nos que se submeteram à reconstrução do trânsito. Resultados: no período de seguimento de 84 meses, 54 dos 92 pacientes avaliados (58,7%) tiveram a ileostomia fechada e 38 (41,3%) permaneceram com a estomia. Entre os 62 pacientes que tiveram a ileostomia fechada, 11 (17,7%) apresentaram algum tipo de complicação pós-operatória: três com deiscência de anastomose ileal, cinco com obstrução intestinal, dois com infecção de ferida operatória e um com pneumonia. Oito destes pacientes necessitaram de um novo estoma. Conclusão: de acordo com a análise multivariada, os fatores associados à permanência da estomia foram fístula de anastomose, presença de metástases e fechamento da ileostomia durante quimioterapia.

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the factors associated with non-closure of protective ileostomy after anterior resection of the rectum with total mesorectum excision for rectal cancer, the morbidity associated with the closure of ileostomies and the rate of permanent ileostomy in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study with 174 consecutive patients diagnosed with rectal tumors, of whom 92 underwent anterior resection of the rectum with coloanal or colorectal anastomosis and protective ileostomy, with curative intent. We carried out a multivariate analysis to determine the factors associated with definite permanence of the stoma, as well as studied the morbidity of patients who underwent bowel continuity restoration. Results: In the 84-month follow-up period, 54 of the 92 patients evaluated (58.7%) had the ileostomy closed and 38 (41.3%) remained with the stoma. Among the 62 patients who had the ileostomy closed, 11 (17.7%) presented some type of postoperative complication: three had ileal anastomosis dehiscence, five had intestinal obstruction, two had surgical wound infection, and one, pneumonia. Eight of these patients required a new stoma. Conclusion: according to the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with stoma permanence were anastomotic fistula, presence of metastases and closure of the ileostomy during chemotherapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Gastrointestinal Transit , Ileostomy/methods , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Proctectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Time Factors , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Ileostomy/adverse effects , Ileostomy/rehabilitation , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/rehabilitation , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rectal Fistula/complications , Treatment Outcome , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Proctectomy/rehabilitation , Middle Aged
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 37(4): 379-386, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991284


La presente comunicación, describe el primer caso en el Instituto Regional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas "Luis Pinillos Ganoza" IREN Norte en la que una paciente con carcinoma gástrico avanzado ha mostrado respuesta histopatológica completa a neoadyuvancia. Se presenta una paciente mujer de 70 años con diagnóstico histopatológico de adenocarcinoma gástrico tubular moderadamente diferenciado, localmente avanzado con imágenes de adenopatías perigástricas asociadas y pérdida de la interfase entre tumoración gástrica, hilio hepático y vesícula biliar. Luego de 6 cursos de quimioterapia neoadyuvante con esquema FOLFOX - 4 al 80%, se obtiene una respuesta casi completa desde el punto de vista tomográfico; por ello a la paciente se le realiza gastrectomía subtotal distal más linfadenectomía D2 más gastroyeyunoanastomosis Billroth II término lateral tipo Hofmeister Finsterer, verificándose, al examen microscópico de la pieza operatoria, sólo gastritis crónica y aguda con áreas mucosas y cambios reactivos. No se observa neoplasia maligna viable. Ganglios linfáticos: 0/33. Paciente evoluciona favorablemente. A propósito del caso se hace una revisión de la literatura médica relevante actualizada

This communication describes the first case in the Regional Institute of Neoplastic Diseases "Luis Pinillos Ganoza" IREN North in which a patient with advanced gastric carcinoma showed complete response to neoadjuvant histopathologic. We describe the case of a patient woman of 70 years old with histopathologic diagnosis of moderately differentiated tubular gastric adenocarcinoma, locally advanced associated with images of perigastric lymphadenopathy and loss of the interface between gastric tumor, hepatic hilum and gallbladder. After 6 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX scheme - 4 to 80%, an almost complete response from the point of tomographic view is obtained, so the patient is underwent to distal subtotal gastrectomy lymphadenectomy D2 more gastrojejunoanastomosis Billroth II termino lateral type Hofmeister Finsterer verifying on microscopic examination of surgical specimen only acute and chronic gastritis with mucous areas and reactive changes. No feasible malignancy is observed. Lymph nodes: 0/33. Commenting on the case, a review of recent relevant literature is realized

Aged , Female , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Remission Induction , Gastroenterostomy , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Gastrectomy/methods , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Invasiveness
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 243-250, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837691


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the expression of EGFR, KRAS genes, microRNAs-21 and 203 in colon and rectal cancer samples, correlated with their age at diagnosis, histological subtype, value of pretreatment CEA, TNM staging and clinical outcome. Methods: Expression of genes and microRNAs by real time PCR in tumor and non-tumor samples obtained from surgical treatment of 50 patients. Results: An increased expression of microRNAs-21 and 203 in tumor samples in relation to non-tumor samples was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes and microRNAs when compared to age at diagnosis and histological subtype. The EGFR gene showed higher expression in relation to the value of CEA diagnosis. The expression of microRNA-203 was progressively lower in relation to the TNM staging and was higher in the patient group in clinical remission. Conclusions: The therapy of colon and rectum tumors based on microRNAs remains under investigation reserving huge potential for future applications and clinical interventions in conjunction with existing therapies. We expect, based on the exposed data, to stimulate the development of new therapeutic possibilities, making the treatment of these tumors more effective.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Gene Expression , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/analysis , Genes, ras , Genes, erbB-1 , MicroRNAs/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Staging
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 24-28, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840301


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on fatigue intensity and quality of life of patients during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 24 patients on chemotherapy for colorectal adenocarcinoma in a tertiary care public hospital. The study patients received zinc capsules 35mg (Zinc Group, n=10) or placebo (Placebo Group, n=14) orally, twice daily (70mg/day), for 16 weeks, from the immediate postoperative period to the fourth chemotherapy cycle. Approximately 45 days after surgical resection of the tumor, all patients received a chemotherapeutic regimen. Before each of the four cycles of chemotherapy, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale was completed. We used a linear mixed model for longitudinal data for statistical analysis. Results The scores of quality of life and fatigue questionnaires were similar between the groups during the chemotherapy cycles. The Placebo Group presented worsening of quality of life and increased fatigue between the first and fourth cycles of chemotherapy, but there were no changes in the scores of quality of life or fatigue in the Zinc Group. Conclusion Zinc supplementation prevented fatigue and maintained quality of life of patients with colorectal cancer on chemotherapy.

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral de zinco sobre a intensidade da fadiga e a qualidade de vida de pacientes durante a quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal. Métodos Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego conduzido em um hospital universitário público terciário, com 24 pacientes em regime quimioterápico para adenocarcinoma colorretal. Os pacientes receberam cápsulas de zinco 35mg (Grupo Zinco, n=10) ou placebo (Grupo Placebo, n=14) por via oral, duas vezes ao dia (70mg/dia), durante 16 semanas, desde o período pós-operatório imediato até o quarto ciclo de quimioterapia. Todos os pacientes receberam quimioterapia por aproximadamente 45 dias após a ressecção cirúrgica do tumor. A escala Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue foi preenchida antes de cada um dos quatro ciclos de quimioterapia. Utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear misto para dados longitudinais para análise estatística. Resultados Os escores de qualidade de vida e de fadiga foram semelhantes entre os grupos de estudo durante os ciclos de quimioterapia. O Grupo Placebo apresentou piora da qualidade de vida e da fadiga entre o primeiro e o quarto ciclos de quimioterapia, mas não houve mudança nos escores de qualidade de vida e fadiga no Grupo Zinco. Conclusão A suplementação com zinco previne a fadiga e preserva a qualidade de vida de pacientes em quimioterapia para neoplasia colorretal.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Zinc/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue/prevention & control , Time Factors , Zinc/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Linear Models , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Fatigue/physiopathology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 9-18, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222311


PURPOSE: Rearrangement of the proto-oncogene rearranged during transfection (RET) has been newly identified potential driver mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Clinically available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target RET kinase activity, which suggests that patients with RET fusion genes may be treatable with a kinase inhibitor. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents remain largely unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) trigger RET inhibitor resistance in LC-2/ad cells with CCDC6-RET fusion genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of EGF and HGF on the susceptibility of a CCDC6-RET lung cancer cell line to RET inhibitors (sunitinib, E7080, vandetanib, and sorafenib) were examined. RESULTS: CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells were highly sensitive to RET inhibitors. EGF activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and triggered resistance to sunitinib, E7080, vandetanib, and sorafenib by transducing bypass survival signaling through ERK and AKT. Reversible EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) resensitized cancer cells to RET inhibitors, even in the presence of EGF. Endothelial cells, which are known to produce EGF, decreased the sensitivity of CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells to RET inhibitors, an effect that was inhibited by EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA), anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab), and EGFR-TKI (Iressa). HGF had relatively little effect on the sensitivity to RET inhibitors. CONCLUSION: EGF could trigger resistance to RET inhibition in CCDC6-RET lung cancer cells, and endothelial cells may confer resistance to RET inhibitors by EGF. E7080 and other RET inhibitors may provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of RET-positive lung cancer patients.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cetuximab/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , Gene Rearrangement , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mutation , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/metabolism
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(10): 1356-1359, oct. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845452


Maximum androgen blockade is the standard endocrine treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Interstitial lung disease in different degrees of severity, with low mortality and excellent response to treatment may appear with its use. We report a 77 years old patient with advanced prostate cancer who developed severe and progressive respiratory failure associated to bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, attributed to the direct effect of maximum androgen blockade. Despite the therapeutic efforts, the patient died. Lung pathology revealed Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

Humans , Male , Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Antinematodal Agents/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tosyl Compounds/adverse effects , Biopsy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Disease Progression , Anilides/adverse effects , Nitriles/adverse effects
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 286-293, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781334


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of letrozole (Ltz) in carcinogen+estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS: BALB/c female mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each receiving an intrauterine dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and weekly subcutaneous injections of estradiol hexaidrobenzoate (EHB), except for group I(control). The groups were divided in I (control), II (ENU+EHB), III (ENU+EHB+MPA) and IV (ENU+EHB+Ltz). Group III also received intramuscular injections of MPA (medroxy progesterone acetate) every four weeks, while group IV received oral doses of Ltz daily. At the end of 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels. Uterine histological sections were made to evaluate the presence of endometrial proliferative lesions. Differences between groups were evaluated with student's t test, ANOVA and chi-square test. RESULTS: Groups ENU+EHB, ENU+EHB+MPA and ENU+EHB+Ltz showed varying degrees of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of hyperplasia in groups ENU+EHB and ENU+EHB+Ltz was higher and more severe than in group ENU+EHB+MPA. Control group showed lower levels of serum estradiol than the other groups. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that letrozole could act as an antiestrogenic drug in the development of endometrial proliferative lesions.

Animals , Female , Triazoles/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Endometrial Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Progesterone/blood , Time Factors , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endometrial Neoplasms/etiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endometrial Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Endometrial Hyperplasia/pathology , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Ethylnitrosourea , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitriles/therapeutic use
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2016; 62 (January): 65-76
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180261


Backgrounds: Natural remedies were used for cancer treatments, particular breast cancer. Also, the consumption of food products containing high amount of flavonoids and antioxidants had reported to lower the risk of various cancers. Bee venom [BV] and propolis were produced by honey bee. They were characterized by naturopathic formulation, affordability and containing high amount of antioxidants. Moreover, they were used safely since ancient times globally. Although that, there is no information about the synergistic or antagonistic anticancer effects of their combination. This study was designed to evaluate cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of BV, propolis, and their combination on breast cancer [MCF-7] cells

Materials and Methods: As preliminary study, MCF-7 cells were treated with BV [5, 10, and 20micro g/ml] and propolis [50, 150, and 450micro g/ml] to specify the desired combination doses of each treatment with no anticancer effect individually. Consequently, doses of [5micro g/ml BV+ 50micro g/ml propolis and 5micro g/ml BV+ 150micro g/ml propolis] were chosen to evaluate the possible synergistic anticancer potential between them. All groups in this study were examined at 2, 4, and 12 hours intervals. The morphological changes were evaluated by acridine orange/ ethidium bromide dual fluorescent staining and Giemsa staining to reveal the formation of apoptotic bodies or nuclear condensation and cytoplasmic blebbing, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay was also carried out to record the reduction in DNA content and apoptosis. Bcl-2 expression, cytoplasmic anti-apoptotic marker, was used to prove the apoptotic properties, and autophagic cell death by florescent microscopy was evaluated also

Results: Morphological observation by inverted and florescent microscopy revealed apoptotic cell death under exposure to BV [10 and 20micro g/ml] and propolis [450micro g/ml]. On the other hand, the results of combined treatments revealed significant morphological alterations after fluorescent and Giemsa staining. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was clearly observed and Bcl-2 recoded significant down regulation which proved the apoptotic properties of combined treatments. Additionally, autophagic degradation results also supported the occurrence of stress on treated cells leading finally to cell death. All results of powerful anticancer potential were obvious among all combined-treated groups in dose and time dependent manner. This clear that, the combined treatments have possible synergistic effect which, propose it as potential candidates to be used in development of chemotherapy

Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bee Venoms/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100612


OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective study aimed at clarifying the details of recurrence patterns and sites in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: Data were analyzed from consecutive patients, admitted to the University of Tokyo Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between 2001 and 2013, who had received definitive RT, with or without chemotherapy, for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB-IVA cervical cancer. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven patients formed the patient cohort. The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 57.0 months. A complete response was achieved in 121 patients (88%). Of these, 36 (30%) developed a cancer recurrence during follow-up. The first sites of recurrence were located in intra-RT fields in nine, outside RT fields in 20, and both in seven patients. In the intra-RT field group, all patients showed a local recurrence, while no one experienced an isolated pelvic lymph node (PLN) recurrence. In the outside RT field group, the most frequent site of recurrence was lung (60%), and three-quarters of patients were free from intra-RT field recurrence until the last follow-up. Of the entire cohort, including 48 PLN-positive patients, only seven patients (5.1%) developed PLN persistence or recurrence, all in the common iliac, internal iliac, and/or obturator nodes, and all with another synchronous relapse. CONCLUSION: Local disease was a major type of intra-RT field recurrence, while PLN control was favorable even in initially PLN-positive patients. The predominance of outside RT field recurrence alone highlights issues concerning distant control, including the intensity enhancement of systematic therapy.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Brachytherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Pelvis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy