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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 300-309, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355226

ABSTRACT

La administración crónica de cafeína evita la alteración de la glucosa postprandial en ratas. El aumento en el consumo de la cafeína alrededor del mundo no es discutible, es así como su investigación se ha vuelto extensa en sus diferentes campos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de la administración crónica de cafeína en ratas alimentadas con dieta de cafetería, a través de evaluar índices de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de cafetería es un modelo dietético equivalente a las características de la dieta occidental típica que origina síndrome metabólico en humanos. En esta investigación se realizó la administración crónica vía intraperitoneal de cafeína por ocho semanas a ratas adultas macho Wistar alimentadas con dieta de cafetería. Dada la poca evidencia acerca de los efectos biológicos y comportamentales de la administración crónica de dicha sustancia frente a un modelo de dieta de cafetería se evaluaron parámetros de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Resultados. La dieta de cafetería ocasionó anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico; no obstante, la administración de cafeína en las ratas alimentadas con esa dieta resultó ser un factor protector en la glucosa postprandial, más no en la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa o perfil lipídico. Conclusiones. La cafeína permitió proteger los niveles de glucosa postprandial al término del experimento y un descenso en el peso corporal y consumo de alimento solo en la primera semana. Sin embargo, no se observaron mejoras significativas en el perfil de lípidos, adiposidad, tolerancia a la glucosa y glucosa plasmática(AU)


Chronic caffeine administration prevents postprandial glucose disturbance in rats. The increase in caffeine consumption is not debatable, this is how his research has become extensive in his different fields. Objective. To analyze the effects of chronic administration of caffeine in rats fed a cafeteria diet, by evaluating consumption, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Previous studies refer to administering caffeine in diets high in carbohydrates and / or in fat that induce obesity or symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Material and methods. The cafeteria diet is a dietary model equivalent to the characteristics of the typical western diet that causes metabolic syndrome in humans. In this research, chronic intraperitoneal administration of caffeine was performed for 8 weeks to adult male Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet. Given the little evidence about the biological and behavioral effects of the chronic administration of this substance against a cafeteria diet model, consumption, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results. After eight weeks it was found that the cafeteria diet given to the controls caused abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome; regarding the administration of caffeine in the rats fed this diet, the treatment turned out to be a protective factor in postprandial glucose, but not in the alteration of glucose tolerance or lipid profile. Conclusions. Caffeine allowed to protect postprandial glucose levels at the end of the experiment and a decrease in body weight and food consumption only in the first week. However, no significant improvements were seen in lipid profile, adiposity, glucose tolerance, and plasma glucose(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Body Weight , Caffeine/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Postprandial Period , Reference Parameters , Glucose/analysis , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Adenosine , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Receptors, Leptin , Obesity
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 837-839, oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351057

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ticagrelor es un antiagregante plaquetario que actúa a través de la unión reversible a los receptores P2Y12 de la adenosina-difosfato. En el síndrome coronario agudo, ha demostrado reducir el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares mayores como infarto de miocardio, accidente cerebrovascular y muerte. Si bien se han descripto en detalle ciertas complicaciones hemorrágicas, renales, hepáticas y respiratorias por el uso del ticagrelor, otros efectos adversos menos frecuentes de la droga no han sido adecuadamente escla recidos. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con un síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica secundario al uso de ticagrelor.


Abstract Ticagrelor is anantiplatelet agent which acts through reversible binding to the P2Y12 adenosine-diphosphate recep tors. In acute coronary syndromes it has been shown to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Although some hemorrhagic, kidney, liver and respiratory complications have been described in detail with the use of ticagrelor, other less frequent adverse effects are not so well clari fied. We report the case of a patient with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome secondary to the use of ticagrelor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/chemically induced , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction , Adenosine/adverse effects , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/chemically induced , Ticagrelor/adverse effects
3.
Brasília; CONITEC; ago. 2021.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1349271

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: No dia 12 de março de 2021 a ANVISA concedeu o registro para comercialização de rendesivir no Brasil como primeiro e único medicamento com indicação aprovada em bula, para tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19 com pneumonia e necessidade de suplementação de oxigênio (baixo ou alto fluxo e ventilação mecânica não invasiva). A autorização fornecida pela ANVISA para uso do medicamento no Brasil, diverge da recomendação da OMS que desaconselha o uso do rendesivir para tratamento de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, independente de sua gravidade usando como base os resultados interinos do estudo Solidarity (14). Este estudo revelou que o uso do rendesivir, assim como outros antivirais analisados, não foi capaz de reduzir de forma significativa a mortalidade geral ou de nenhum subgrupo estudado, nem retardar o início da ventilação mecânica ou reduzir o tempo de hospitalização. A redução do tempo de internação para a ANVISA foi um critério importante para o contexto brasileiro devido a constante falta de leitos disponíveis para o tratamento dos pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19. TECNOLOGIA: Remdesivir (Veklury®). PERGUNTA: O uso do rendesivir é eficaz e seguro para tratamento de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 e que necessitam de suplementação de oxigênio (de baixo ou alto fluxo e ventilação mecânica não invasiva)? EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: As evidências avaliadas baseiam-se em quatro ensaios clínicos randomizados, onde dois compararam rendesivir com placebo e outros dois comparando rendesivir com cuidado padrão. Foram obtidos resultados favoráveis ao rendesivir com maior probabilidade de recuperação no 29º dia (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1,29, 95%IC 1,12-1,49, p<0,001) em um dos estudos. Para o desfecho mortalidade no 29º dia, os resultados do mesmo ensaio foram significativos apenas para o subgrupo de pacientes que necessitavam de suplementação de oxigênio de baixo ou alto fluxo (HR = 0,30, 95%IC 0,14- 0,64). Ao sumarizar os dados dos quatro estudos observou-se que em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19, o uso do rendesivir comparado com o grupo controle não resultou em diferenças estatisticamente significativas tanto quanto os desfechos de mortalidade (Risco Relativo [RR]: 0,98, 95%IC 0,84-1,14); necessidade de ventilação mecânica (RR: 0,77, 95%IC 0,48-1,22) e recuperação (RR: 1,09, 95%IC 1,03-1,15), segundo três estudos. O rendesivir comparado com placebo e cuidado padrão pode reduzir em 25% o risco da ocorrência de eventos adversos sérios (RR: 0,75, 95%IC 0,63-0,90). AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Os resultados do modelo econômico apresentado pelo demandante têm limitações que tornam incertos os resultados do modelo econômico apresentado, de forma que a sua utilização para tomada de decisão sobre a tecnologia é duvidosa. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: O impacto orçamentário incremental após a proposta de redução de preço pelo demandante foi estimado em aproximadamente 28 bilhões de reais, como melhor cenário. MONITORAMENTO DO HORIZONTE TECNOLÓGICO: Foram identificadas oito tecnologias potenciais para a indicação clínica. O opaganib consiste no primeiro agente de uma nova classe farmacológica, a dos inibidores de esfingosina-quinases. Outro potencial medicamento para a indicação a ser administrado por via oral e em combinação ao cuidado padrão (não especificado no protocolo do estudo), é o fostamatinib. O reparixin é um análogo do ibuprofeno e sua eficácia para o tratamento de pacientes com pneumonia grave acometidos por COVID-19 está sendo avaliada. O BDB-001 e o ravulizumab têm como alvo farmacológico o fator C5a do sistema complemento. Os anticorpos monoclonais canaquinumab, mavrilimumab e tocilizumabe também estão em desenvolvimento. Além disso, foram identificados três depósitos de patentes relacionados ao rendesivir no Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Intelectual. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: O balanço entre os aspectos positivos e negativos do rendesivir foi desfavorável ao seu uso no tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19. Apesar do baixo risco de eventos adversos, houve uma baixa confiança na eficácia do medicamento, uma vez que os resultados dos estudos são discrepantes e baseados em uma análise de subgrupo de apenas um estudo. O impacto orçamentário estimado foi considerado elevado. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Diante do exposto, a Conitec, em sua 98ª Reunião Ordinária, realizada no dia 10 de junho de 2021, deliberou que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em consulta pública com recomendação preliminar desfavorável à incorporação no SUS do rendesivir para o tratamento da doença causada pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID19), em pacientes adultos com pneumonia que requerem suplementação de oxigênio de baixo ou alto fluxo. Foi discutido, emplenária, que a evidência disponívelsobre a tecnologia emavaliação foi baseada emestudos adaptativos heterogêneos, com importantes limitações metodológicas, que podem se traduzir em resultados devidos apenas ao acaso. Além disso, o perfil de segurança do rendesivir, quando comparado aos medicamentos de cuidado padrão, mostrou que o medicamento está associado a um risco aumentado de bradicardia em pacientes diagnosticados com COVID-19. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Foram recebidas 90 contribuições, sendo 34 contribuições técnico-científicas e 56 de experiência e opinião. Diante das argumentações apresentadas, o plenário da Conitec entendeu que não houve argumentação suficiente para mudança de entendimento acerca de sua recomendação preliminar, com base nas evidências científicas apresentadas, tampouco na redução de preço proposta pelo fabricante. Desse modo, a Comissão, diante das incertezas quanto à eficácia do medicamento, manteve a posição desfavorável à incorporação do rendesivir para o tratamento dos pacientes hospitalizados com pneumonia provocada pelo COVID-19 com necessidade de suplementação de oxigênio. DELIBERAÇÃO FINAL: O Plenário da Conitec, em sua 100ª Reunião Ordinária, no dia 05 de agosto de 2021, deliberou por unanimidade recomendar a não incorporação do rendesivir para o tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19 com necessidade de suplementação de oxigênio (baixo ou alto fluxo, ventilação não invasiva) no âmbito do SUS, com base nas incertezas quanto à eficácia do medicamento. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberaçã nº 651/2021. DECISÃO: Não incorporar o rendesivir para tratamento de pacientes com Covid-19 hospitalizados com pneumonia e necessidade de suplementação de oxigênio, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS, conforme a Portaria nº 60, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 171, seção 1, página 77, em 9 de setembro de 2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Adenosine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Unified Health System , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922777

ABSTRACT

An eco-friendly and fast HPLC method was developed for the determination of adenosine, inosine, guanosine and uridine in Cordyceps and related products (fermented mycelia of Hirsutella sinensis andPaecilomyces hepiali). The sample was ultrasonically extracted using 0.5% phosphoric acid solutions for 2.5 min. Sample separation was performed on a Poroshell SB-Aq column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) using eco-friendly mobile phase consisting of formic acid and ammonium formate aqueous solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Nucleosides
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1972-1976, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922234

ABSTRACT

There are more than 150 types of chemical modifications in RNA, mainly methylation, which are widely distributed in all kinds of RNA, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, non-coding small RNA and long non-coding RNA. In recent years, the identification of RNA methylation modification enzymes and the development of high-throughput sequencing technology at transcriptome level laid a foundation for revealing the expression and function of genes regulated by chemical modification of RNA. In this review, the most recent advances of RNA methylation, especially N6-methyladenosine (m


Subject(s)
Adenosine/metabolism , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Methylation , RNA/metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880692

ABSTRACT

RNA methylation is of great significance in the regulation of gene expression, among which the more important methylation modifiers are N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and 5-methylcytosine (m5C). The methylation process is mainly regulated by 3 kinds of proteins: methyltransferase, demethylase, and reader. m6A, m5C, and their related proteins have high abundance in the brain, and they have important roles in the development of the nervous system and the repair and remodeling of the vascular system. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a unit of brain structure and function composed of neurons, capillaries, astrocytes, supporting cells, and extracellular matrix. The local microenvironment for NVU has an important role in nerve cell function repair, and the remodeling of NVU is of great significance in the prognosis of various neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
5-Methylcytosine , Adenosine/metabolism , Methylation , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 131-146, 20201201.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177997

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19, causada por SARS-CoV-2, es considerara la mayor emergencia sanitaria en un siglo. Clínicamente, la mayoría de los pacientes tienen síntomas leves a moderados. Sin embargo, pacientes de edad avanzada o con comorbilidades pueden desarrollar una de las complicaciones más severas de COVID-19, es decir, el síndrome de tormenta de citoquinas. Actualmente, no existen tratamientos aprobados para SARS-CoV-2. Mientras tanto, las estrategias terapéuticas se basan en la experiencia previa con otros virus. En este artículo se revisarán los diferentes agentes terapéuticos propuestos para el tratamiento de COVID-19 basados en el bloqueo e inhibición del ciclo de vida viral de SARS-CoV-2, y para el tratamiento del síndrome de tormenta de citoquinas. Se realizó una revisión narrativa mediante búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed. Entre los principales objetivos terapéuticos contra el SARS-CoV-2 están la proteína estructural principal Spike y las enzimas virales proteasa similar a la 3-quimotripsina, la proteasa viral similar a la papaína y la ARN-polimerasa dependiente de ARN. Remdesivir, un antiviral análogo a la adenosina que inhibe a la ARN-polimerasa dependiente de ARN, es considerado el fármaco más prometedor en el tratamiento de COVID-19. No obstante, su eficacia aún no se ha determinado. En el síndrome de tormenta de citoquinas, la lesión tisular causada por el virus puede inducir la producción exagerada de citoquinas proinflamatorias como la interleucina-6. Tocilizumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal que bloquea receptores de interleucina-6 y corticosteroides como la metilprednisolona pueden ser opciones terapéuticas en el tratamiento de la severidad del síndrome.


The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is considered as the major health emergency in a century. Clinically, most patients have mild to moderate symptoms. Nevertheless, elderly or with comorbidities patients may develop one of the most severe complication of COVID-19, that is, the cytokine storm syndrome. Currently, there are no approved treatments for SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, therapeutic strategies are based on previous experience with other viruses. This article will review the different therapeutic agents proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the blocking and inhibition of the viral life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, and for the treatment of cytokine storm syndrome. A narrative review was performed by searching in the PubMed database. Among the main therapeutic target against SARS-CoV-2 are the major structural protein Spike and viral enzymes 3-chymotrypsin-like protease, viral papain-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Remdesivir, an adenosine analogue antiviral that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is considered the most promising drug in the treatment of COVID-19. Nonetheless, its efficacy has not yet been determined. In the cytokine storm syndrome, the tissue injury caused by the virus may induce the exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks interleukin-6 receptors, and corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone may be therapeutic options in treating the severity of the syndrome.


Subject(s)
RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , RNA , Methylprednisolone , Adenosine , Cytokines , Interleukin-6 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Pandemics , Goals , Life Cycle Stages
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 617-623, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acupuncture has been widely used for alleviating pain. However, its mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. Objective: In the present study, we focused on whether the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture is related to its regulation on adenosine and substance P expression. Methods: We established chronic inflammatory pain model in rats through a single injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant, and then we treated animals using daily electroacupuncture. We applied seven bilateral sessions of electroacupuncture (ST36 and BL60, 0.5 to 1.5 mA, initial strength of 0.5 mA, increased by 0.5 mA every 10 minutes, for 30 minutes per session, one section per day) to Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats for seven days. The analgesic effect of electroacupuncture was evaluated by measuring paw withdrawal threshold in rats that received mechanical and thermal stimulation. Results: Daily electroacupuncture stimulation effectively increased paw withdrawal threshold in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats. Electroacupuncture increased the adenosine level in zusanli. A further study showed that electroacupuncture could decrease substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and CD68 levels in dorsal root ganglion. Interestingly, direct injection of adenosine A1 or substance P receptor antagonists, or dorsal nerve root transection could significantly impair electroacupuncture induced analgesic actions in Complete Freund's Adjuvant rats could and reduce the levels of substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and CD68. Finally, we confirmed that direct injection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist replicated the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture. Conclusion: Our results indicate regulation of adenosine-mediated substance P secretion. Substance P-mediated pathway may be involved in the analgesia process by electroacupuncture in rats.


RESUMO Introdução: A acupuntura tem sido amplamente utilizada para alívio de dor. No entanto, seus mecanismos são muito pouco conhecidos. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre o efeito analgésico da eletroacupuntura e a regulação da expressão de adenosina e de substância P. Métodos: Utilizou-se um modelo de dor inflamatória crônica em ratos por injeção única do Adjuvante Completo de Freund e, em seguida, os animais foram tratados com eletroacupuntura diariamente. Foram aplicadas sete sessões bilaterais de eletroacupuntura (ST36 e BL60, 0,5 a 1,5 mA, força inicial de 0,5 mA, aumentada em 0,5 mA a cada 10 minutos, 30 minutos por sessão, uma sessão por dia) em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund, por sete dias. O efeito analgésico da eletroacupuntura foi avaliado pela medida do limiar de retirada da pata em ratos que receberam estimulações mecânica e térmica. Resultados: A estimulação diária com eletroacupuntura aumentou efetivamente o limiar de retirada da pata em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund. A eletroacupuntura aumentou o nível de adenosina na região zusanli. Estudos posteriores mostraram que a eletroacupuntura poderia diminuir os níveis de substância P, receptor de neurocinina-1, fator de necrose tumoral-alpha, interleucina-1β, interleucina-6 e CD68 nos gânglios da raiz dorsal. Curiosamente, a injeção direta de antagonistas do receptor de adenosina A1 ou de substância P, ou a transecção da raiz do nervo dorsal, podem prejudicar significativamente as ações analgésicas induzidas pela eletroacupuntura em ratos com Adjuvante Completo de Freund e reduzir os níveis de substância P, receptor de neurocinina-1, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-1β, interleucina-6 e CD68. Por fim, confirmamos que a injeção direta de um agonista do receptor da adenosina A1 reproduziu os efeitos analgésicos da eletroacupuntura. Conclusão: Nossos resultados indicam a regulação da secreção da substância P mediada pela adenosina. A via mediada pela substância P pode estar envolvida no processo de analgesia por eletroacupuntura em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Substance P/chemistry , Electroacupuncture , Adenosine/chemistry , Pain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Buenos Aires; IECS; 8 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1099569

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La Enfermedad por el Coronavirus 2019 (COVID­19, por su sigla en inglés Coronavirus Disease 2019) es una enfermedad respiratoria de humanos producida por un nuevo coronavirus identificado con la sigla SARS-CoV-2. El 11 de marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaro la COVID-19 como una pandemia. Desde ese momento hasta este 01 de abril su circulación se ha reportado en 205 países reportándose más de 800.000 casos y la muerte 40.000 personas. TECNOLOGÍA: Remdesivir (GS-5734) es un profármaco análogo de la adenosina que compite preferentemente por el ATP viral y se incorpora como falso nucleósido a la nueva cadena del ARN viral. Al incorporarse a las cadenas de ARN virales durante su replicación da como resultado la terminación prematura de la misma. La dosis de inicio recomendada es de 200 mg administrada de manera endovenosa el primer día, seguido de 100mg una vez al día durante 9 días. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia, seguridad y aspectos relacionados a las políticas de cobertura del uso de remdesivir para el tratamiento de la COVID­19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas, guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y políticas de cobertura de diferentes sistemas de salud. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un ECA, un estudio observacional, y nueve GPC sobre el tratamiento de pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID­19. CONCLUSIONES: Evidencia de baja calidad proveniente de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, detenido prematuramente sugiere que el uso de remdesivir no estaría asociado a una disminución de la mortalidad, o del tiempo a la mejoría clínica en pacientes con COVID-19. Múltiples ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en pacientes con cuadros moderados o severos se encuentran en curso. Actualmente las principales guías de práctica clínica y recomendaciones de las principales sociedades internacionales, organismos gubernamentales o consensos de expertos no lo mencionan ni lo recomiendan para el tratamiento de estos pacientes, siendo su uso restringido a estudios de investigación. No se encontraron estudios de costo-efectividad o de impacto presupuestario en Latinoamérica.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Therapeutic Index
11.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(2): 124-127, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1003827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adenosine-induced asystole is a technique that prevents and controls the intraoperative rupture of cerebral aneurysm, facilitating temporary, and/or definitive clipping of the aneurysm. This is the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent clipping of 7 intracranial aneurysms, who was induced asystole with adeno-sine 3 times and developed atrial fibrillation with hemodynamic instability after the last dose. Adenosine has been shown to be useful and safe, however, its use should be planned and possible cardiological complications should be considered.


Resumen La asistolia inducida por adenosina es una técnica que previene y controla la ruptura intraoperatoria de aneurisma cerebral, facilitando el clipaje temporal y/o definitivo del mismo. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 58 años intervenida para clipaje de 7 aneurismas intracraneales, a quien se le indujo asistolia con adenosina en 3 oportunidades y desarrolló fibrilación auricular con inestabilidad hemodinámica tras la última dosis. La adenosina ha demostrado ser útil y segura, sin embargo, debe planificarse su uso y considerar eventuales complicaciones cardiológicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation , Adenosine , Heart Arrest/chemically induced , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurosurgery
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Manuka honey has anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative action with a high concentration of methylglyoxal compound. It is also effective in killing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and effective for the acute exacerbation of chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-fibrotic effect of manuka honey in nasal polyp fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Primary nasal fibroblasts were isolated from nasal polyps and treated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). To determine the anti-fibrotic effect of manuka honey, fibroblasts were pre-treated with various concentration of the honey. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were then performed to determine α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression and protein production in nasal polyp fibroblasts. Phosphorylated Smad (pSmad) 2/3 and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) were then determined by western blotting. RESULTS: TGF-β1 stimulation increased α-SMA, collagen type I, and MMP-9 mRNA expression and protein production in nasal polyp fibroblasts. Manuka honey effectively suppressed α-SMA, collagen type I, and MMP-9 mRNA expression and protein production. Its inhibitory role on TGF-β1 induced myofibroblast differentiation and its extracellular matrix production was associated with Smad2/3 and AMPK pathway. CONCLUSION: Manuka honey can inhibit TGF-β1 induced myofibroblast differentiation, collagen type I, and MMP-9 production in nasal fibroblasts. These results suggest that manuka honey might be a useful candidate for the inhibition of nasal polyp formation if further studies in vivo were accompanied.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Biofilms , Blotting, Western , Collagen Type I , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Homicide , Honey , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Methods , Myofibroblasts , Nasal Polyps , Protein Kinases , Pyruvaldehyde , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Staphylococcus aureus , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors increase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production by inhibiting re-uptake of adenosine and may potentiate nitric oxide (NO) activity. This study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of PDE inhibitors on trabecular outflow in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMCs). METHODS: Primary HTMC cultures were exposed to 0, 20, and 50 µM dipyridamole (DPD) or theophylline (TPN). Permeability through the HTMC monolayer was assessed using carboxyfluorescein. The production of NO was assessed using the Griess assay and MMP-2 levels were measured via Western blotting. RESULTS: DPD significantly increased permeability accompanied with increased nitrite concentration and MMP-2 levels (all p 0.05). When treated with DPD and TPN together, both permeability and nitrite production were increased; however, MMP-2 levels showed no difference compared to DPD exposure alone (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DPD increased trabecular permeability accompanied with increased nitrite production and MMP-2 levels. PDE inhibitors may increase trabecular outflow by increasing MMP-2 levels and by potentiating NO activity through cyclic GMP in HTMC.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Blotting, Western , Cyclic GMP , Dipyridamole , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Nitric Oxide , Permeability , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Theophylline , Trabecular Meshwork
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pain-relief properties of tricyclic antidepressants can be attributed to several actions. Recent observations suggest that adenosine is involved in the antinociceptive effect of amitriptyline. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is the only adenosine subtype overexpressed in inflammatory and cancer cells. This study was performed to investigate the role of A3AR in the anti-nociceptive effect of amitriptyline. METHODS: Spinal nerve-ligated neuropathic pain was induced by ligating the L5 and L6 spinal nerves of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The neuropathic rats were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups (8 per group): a neuropathic pain with normal saline group, a neuropathic pain with amitriptyline group, and a neuropathic pain with amitriptyline and 3-ethyl-5-benzyl- 2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS) group. Amitriptyline or saline was administered intraperitoneally and 3-ethyl-5-benzyl-2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS-1191), an A3AR antagonist, was injected subcutaneously immediately before amitriptyline administration. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase P44/42 (ERK1/2), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed using immunoblotting or reverse-transciption polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Amitriptyline increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the neuropathic rats. The level of phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-CREB proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines produced by spinal nerve ligation were significantly reduced by amitriptyline administration. However, the use of MRS-1191 before amitriptyline administration not only reduced the threshold of mechanical allodynia, but also increased the signaling protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels, which were reduced by amitriptyline. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the anti-nociceptive effect of amitriptyline involves the suppression of ERK1/2 and CREB signaling proteins, and A3AR activation also affects the alleviation of the inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Amitriptyline , Animals , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cytokines , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Immunoblotting , Ligation , Male , Neuralgia , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Purinergic P1 , Spinal Nerves
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766613

ABSTRACT

Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different novel pharmacologic agents for its treatment, as well as their mechanisms. Most glaucoma patients require lifelong care and individualized treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is regulated by aqueous humor production, outflow via the trabecular meshwork (parasympathomimetics only) and uveoscleral outflow pathways, is currently the only treatable target for glaucoma treatment. Conventional glaucoma medications are categorized as β blockers, α agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, and prostaglandin analogues. The development of basic research-derived novel classes of pharmacologic agents features novel action mechanisms, which are different from those of conventional medications. New classes of recently approved or clinical trial-tested medications include Rho-kinase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, adenosine agonists, and prostaglandin analogs targeting E-type prostanoid receptors, etc. Their integration and future development will facilitate the expansion and customization of therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Aqueous Humor , Axons , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors , Glaucoma , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Nitric Oxide Donors , Ocular Hypertension , Optic Disk , Parasympathomimetics , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , rho-Associated Kinases , Trabecular Meshwork , Visual Fields
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. METHODS: Protein and mRNA levels were determined by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in primary rat VSMCs treated with CQ and HCQ, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry and cell counting. Mice carotid arteries were ligated and treated with CQ or HCQ every other day for 3 weeks. Pathological changes of carotid arteries were visualized by both microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: CQ and HCQ increase AMPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Both CQ and HCQ decrease platelet-derived growth factor-induced VSMC proliferation and cell cycle progression in an AMPK-dependent manner. In addition, CQ and HCQ inhibit Smad3 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation induced by transforming growth factor-β1. Moreover, CQ and HCQ diminished neointimal proliferation in a mouse model of carotid artery ligation-induced neointima formation. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that CQ and HCQ inhibit cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMCs via the AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Carotid artery ligation-induced intima thickness was reduced in mouse arteries treated with CQ or HCQ, suggesting a role for antimalarial drugs in treating atherosclerosis and restenosis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Antimalarials , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Chloroquine , Flow Cytometry , Hydroxychloroquine , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Microscopy , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Neointima , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Rats , RNA, Messenger
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763042

ABSTRACT

Luteolin, a widespread flavonoid, has been known to have neuroprotective activity against various neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, little information is available regarding the hypnotic effect of luteolin. In this study, we evaluated the hypnotic effect of luteolin and its underlying mechanism. In pentobarbital-induced sleeping mice model, luteolin (1, and 3 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time. Through electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording, we demonstrated that luteolin increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time and decreased wake time. To evaluate the underlying mechanism, we examined the effects of various pharmacological antagonists on the hypnotic effect of luteolin. The hypnotic effect of 3 mg/kg of luteolin was not affected by flumazenil, a GABAA receptor-benzodiazepine (GABAAR-BDZ) binding site antagonist, and bicuculine, a GABAAR-GABA binding site antagonist. On the other hand, the hypnotic effect of 3 mg/kg of luteolin was almost completely blocked by caffeine, an antagonist for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor (A1R and A2AR), 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), an A1R antagonist, and SCH-58261, an A2AR antagonist. From the binding affinity assay, we have found that luteolin significantly binds to not only A1R but also A2AR with IC₅₀ of 1.19, 0.84 μg/kg, respectively. However, luteolin did not bind to either BDZ-receptor or GABAAR. From these results, it has been suggested that luteolin has hypnotic efficacy through A1R and A2AR binding.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Animals , Binding Sites , Caffeine , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Eye Movements , Flumazenil , Hand , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Luteolin , Mice , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptor, Adenosine A2A , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762686

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: ATP-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) is a well-documented and validated technology that can individualize chemotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of ATP-CRA in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 136 patients with curative resection between January 2006 and April 2014 were evaluated using ATP-CRA. Patients received either the FOLFOX or Mayo clinic regimen chemotherapy following assay results. The sensitive-group (S-group) was defined as a drug-producing ≥ 40% reduction in ATP, and the resistant-group (R-group) as an ATP reduction of < 40%. These 2 groups were further subdivided to produce 4 subgroups: the FOLFOX sensitive subgroup (the FS subgroup [n = 65]), the Mayo sensitive subgroup (the MS subgroup [n = 40]), the FOLFOX resistant subgroup (the FR subgroup [n = 10]), and the Mayo resistant subgroup (the MR subgroup [n = 21]). Clinical responses and survival results were compared for both treatment regimens. RESULTS: The FS and MS subgroups showed a better disease-free survival rate (29% vs. 40%, 35% vs. 47.6%) and overall survival rate (92.3% vs. 80.0%, 87.5% vs. 76.2%) than FR and MR subgroups. The FS and MS subgroups showed a longer time to relapse (20.2 months vs. 9.5 months, 17.6 months vs. 16.4 months) than the FR and MR subgroups. CONCLUSION: ATP-CRA tailored-chemotherapy has the potential to provide a survival benefit in resectable advanced CRC.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drug Therapy , Humans , Recurrence , Survival Rate
19.
Immune Network ; : e23-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764023

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has been introduced into cancer treatment methods, but different problems have restricted the efficacy of these protocols in clinical trials such as the presence of various immunomodulatory factors in the tumor microenvironment. Adenosine is an immunosuppressive metabolite produced by the tumor to promote growth, invasion, metastasis, and immune evasion. Many studies about adenosine and its metabolism in cancer have heightened interest in pursuing this treatment approach. It seems that targeting the adenosine pathway in combination with immunotherapy may lead to efficient antitumor response. In this review, we provide information on the roles of both adenosine and CD73 in the immune system and tumor development. We also describe recent studies about combination therapy with both purinergic inhibitors and other immunotherapeutic methods.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Immune Evasion , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 775-783, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771332

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) can be modified by more than 100 chemical modifications. Among these modifications, N6-methyladenosine (m⁶A) is one of the most prevalent modifications. During the processes of cells differentiation, embryo development or stress, m⁶A can be modified on key mRNAs and regulate the progress of cells through modulating mRNA metabolism and translation. Other mRNA modifications, including N1-methyladenosine (m¹A), 5-methylcytosine (m⁵C) and pseudouridine, together with m⁶A form the epitranscriptome of mRNA that accurately modulate the mRNA translation. Here we review the types and characteristic of mRNA epigenetic modifications, especially the recent progresses of the function of m⁶A, we also expect the main research direction of m⁶A epigenetic modification in the future.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Embryonic Development , Genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism
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