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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 67-75, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283594


BACKGROUND: Adipogenesis and fibrogenesis can be considered as a competitive process in muscle, which may affect the intramuscular fat deposition. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPb) plays an important role in adipogenesis, which is well-characterized in mice, but little known in bovine so far. RESULTS: In this study, real-time qPCR revealed that the level of C/EBPb was increased during the developmental stages of bovine and adipogenesis process of preadipocytes. Overexpression of C/EBPb promoted bovine fibroblast proliferation through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a necessary process for initiating adipogenesis, by significantly downregulating levels of p21 and p27 (p < 0.01). Also, the PPARc expression was inhibited during the MCE stage (p < 0.01). 31.28% of transfected fibroblasts adopted lipid-laden adipocyte morphology after 8 d. Real-time qPCR showed that C/EBPb activated the transcription of early stage adipogenesis markers C/EBPa and PPARc. Expression of ACCa, FASN, FABP4 and LPL was also significantly upregulated, while the expression of LEPR was weakened. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded C/EBPb can convert bovine fibroblasts into adipocytes without hormone induction by initiating the MCE process and promoting adipogenic genes expression, which may provide new insights into the potential functions of C/EBPb in regulating intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle.

Cattle/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Clone Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mitosis , Muscles
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 73-78, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280080


ABSTRACT Myoblasts fuse into multinucleated muscle fibers to form and promote the growth of skeletal muscle. In order to analyze the role of myostatin (MSTN) in body fat, skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and energy metabolism, this study will use the antisense RNA technology of gene chip technology to study it. The results showed that the MSTN gene regulated the growth and proliferation of myoblasts and affected the development of skeletal muscle by affecting the expression of Cdc42, bnip2, p38 and other genes; knockout or overexpression of the MSTN gene would lead to a trend of fat-related genes from fat synthesis to fat decomposition; after the MSTN gene was knocked down, the expression levels of cpti-b, PPARG and other genes in the cells were corresponding after MSTN overexpression, the relative expression of the PPARG gene decreased. It is suggested that the knockout or overexpression of MSTN may affect lipid accumulation, and cpti-b and PPARG may directly regulate lipid level. It is hoped that this experiment can provide a reference for the study of MSTN effect on fat deposition.

RESUMO Os mioblastos se fundem eM fibras musculares multinucleadas para formar e promover o crescimento do músculo esquelético. A fim de analisar o papel da miostatina (MSTN) na gordura corporal, proliferação de células musculares esqueléticas e diferenciação e metabolismo energético, este estudo utilizará a tecnologia anti-RNA de chips genéticos para estudá-la. Os resultados mostraram que o gene MSTN regulava o crescimento e a proliferação de mioblastos e afetava o desenvolvimento do músculo esquelético, afetando a expressão de Cdc42, bnip2, p38 e outros genes; a eliminação ou sobrexpressão do gene MSTN conduziria a uma tendência de os genes adiposos sintetizarem a gordura até sua decomposição; após a eliminação do gene MSTN, os níveis de expressão de cpti-b, PPARG e outros genes nas células mostraram-se correspondentes após a sobrexpressão do gene MSTN, e a expressão relativa do gene PPARG diminuiu. Sugere-se que a eliminação ou sobrexpressão da MSTN possa afetar a acumulação de lipídeos, e o cpti-b e o PPARG podem regular diretamente o nível lipídico. Espera-se que esta experiência possa fornecer uma referência para o estudo do efeito da MSTN sobre a deposição de gordura.

RESUMEN Los mioblastos se funden en fibras musculares multinucleadas para formar y promover el crecimiento del músculo esquelético. A fin de analizar el papel de la miostatina (MSTN) en la grasa corporal, proliferación de células musculares esqueléticas y diferenciación y metabolismo energético, este estudio utilizará la tecnología anti-RNA de chips genéticos para estudiarla. Los resultados mostraron que el gen MSTN regulaba el crecimiento y la proliferación de mioblastos y afectaba el desarrollo del músculo esquelético, afectando la expresión de Cdc42, bnip2, p38 y otros genes; la eliminación o sobreexpresión del gen MSTN conduciría a una tendencia de que los genes adiposos sinteticen la grasa hasta su descomposición; después de la eliminación del gen MSTN, los niveles de expresión de cpti-b, PPARG y otros genes en las células se mostraron correspondientes después de la sobreexpresión del gen MSTN, y la expresión relativa del gen PPARG disminuyó. Se sugiere que la eliminación o sobreexpresión de la MSTN pueda afectar la acumulación de lipídos, y el cpti-b y el PPARG pueden regular directamente el nivel lipídico. Se espera que esta experiencia pueda proveer una referencia para el estudio del efecto de la MSTN sobre el depósito de grasa.

Animals , Cattle , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Myoblasts, Skeletal/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Energy Metabolism , Myostatin/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 85-91, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742500


PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid has been reported to have an adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, while evidence also suggests that ascorbic acid reduces body weight in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of ascorbic acid on adipogenesis and the balance of lipid accumulation in ovariectomized rats, in addition to long-term culture of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and ovariectomized rats were treated with ascorbic acid at various time points. In vitro adipogenesis was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, and in vivo body fat was measured by a body composition analyzer using nuclear magnetic resonance. RESULTS: When ascorbic acid was applied during an early time point in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, adipogenesis and fat mass gain significantly increased, respectively. However, lipid accumulation in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant reduction when ascorbic acid was applied after differentiation (10 days after induction). Also, oral ascorbic acid administration 4 weeks after OVX in rats significantly reduced both body weight and subcutaneous fat layer. In comparison to the results of ascorbic acid, which is a well-known cofactor for an enzyme of collagen synthesis, and the antioxidant ramalin, a potent antioxidant but not a cofactor, showed only a lipolytic effect in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, not an adipogenic effect. CONCLUSION: Taking these results into account, we concluded that ascorbic acid has both an adipogenic effect as a cofactor of an enzymatic process and a lipolytic effect as an antioxidant.

3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Body Composition/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Female , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Lipolysis/drug effects , Mice , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 507-511, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891425


ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling pathway that controls lipid metabolism, and adipocyte formation and maintenance. Curiously, mTORC1 is also involved in the control of nonshivering thermogenesis and recruitment as well as browning of white adipose tissue. In this review, we explored mTORC1 functions in adipocytes and presented evidence, suggesting that mTORC1 may either increase or reduce adiposity, depending on the conditions and activation levels.

RESUMO A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da massa de tecido adiposo, estando associada à maior incidência de diversas doenças metabólicas crônicas, como diabetes tipo 2. Sua crescente prevalência é uma questão de saúde pública, e faz-se importante compreender melhor sua etiologia, para desenvolver novas estratégias terapêuticas. As evidências acumuladas por muitos anos indicam que a obesidade está associada à significativa ativação no tecido adiposo do complexo 1 da proteína alvo mecanístico da rapamicina (mTORC1), uma via de sinalização que regula o metabolismo de lipídeos, bem como a formação e manutenção de adipócitos. Curiosamente, mTORC1 também está envolvido no controle da termogênese, independente do tremor muscular, e no recrutamento e browning de tecido adiposo branco. Nesta revisão, exploramos as diferentes funções do mTORC1 em adipócitos e apresentamos evidências que sugerem que o mTORC1 pode aumentar ou reduzir a adiposidade, dependendo das condições e de seu nível de ativação.

Humans , Animals , Adiposity/physiology , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Thermogenesis/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5409, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787387


Due to the presence of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in tissues and its specific influence on white adipose tissue, fat cells are possible targets of pharmacological RAS blockers commonly used as anti-hypertensive drugs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different RAS blockers on fat cell metabolism, more specifically on lipolysis, lipogenesis and oxidation of energy substrates. Isolated primary adipocytes were incubated with different RAS blockers (aliskiren, captopril and losartan) in vitro for 24 h and lipolysis, lipogenesis and glucose oxidation capacities were determined in dose-response assays to a β-adrenergic agonist and to insulin. Although no change was found in lipolytic capacity, the RAS blockers modulated lipogenesis and glucose oxidation in a different way. While captopril decreased insulin-stimulated lipogenesis (−19% of maximal response and −60% of insulin responsiveness) due to reduced glucose derived glycerol synthesis (−19% of maximal response and 64% of insulin responsiveness), aliskiren increased insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation (+49% of maximal response and +292% of insulin responsiveness) in fat cells. Our experiments demonstrate that RAS blockers can differentially induce metabolic alterations in adipocyte metabolism, characterized by a reduction in lipogenic responsiveness or an increase in glucose oxidation. The impact of RAS blockers on adipocyte metabolism may have beneficial implications on metabolic disorders during their therapeutic use in hypertensive patients.

Animals , Male , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Adipocytes/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Adipocytes/metabolism , Losartan/pharmacology , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fumarates/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Glycerol/metabolism , Lipolysis/drug effects
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-11, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950864


BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipo-genic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: We analysed chemical constituents in ethanolic extract of C. vulgaris (EECV) by LC-MS. Results revealed that the EECV contains few triterpenoids and saponin compounds. Further, the effect of EECV on lipid accumulation along with genes and proteins expressions which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis were evaluated using oil red O staining, qPCR and western blot techniques. The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. These increases were associated with up-regulation of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP-α, adiponectin, FAS, and leptin mRNA and protein expressions. Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ agonist that stimulates the PPAR-y2, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expressions. Similarly, EECV treatments significantly upregulated PPAR-γ, adiponectin, GLUT-4 expressions and glucose utilization. Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. CONCLUSION: The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway.

Animals , Mice , Seaweed/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , 3T3-L1 Cells/drug effects , Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry , Time Factors , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , 3T3-L1 Cells/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Adiponectin/analysis , Adiponectin/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 4/analysis , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 352-360, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747162


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the scientific literature on home-based family care of people with severe mental illness. METHOD: integrative review of 14 databases (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI COnNECT, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, and Scopus) searched with the key words "family caregivers", "severe mental illness", and "home" between 2003 and 2013. RESULTS: of 787 articles retrieved, only 85 met the inclusion criteria. The articles appeared in 61 journals from different areas and disciplines, mainly from nursing (36%). The countries producing the most scientific literature on nursing were Brazil, the UK, and the US, and authorship predominantly belonged to university centers. A total of 54.12% of the studies presented quantitative designs, with descriptive ones standing out. Work overload, subjective perspectives, and resources were the main topics of these papers. CONCLUSIONS: the international scientific literature on home-based, informal family care of people with severe mental disorder is limited. Nursing research stands out in this field. The prevalent topics coincide with the evolution of the mental health system. The expansion of the scientific approach to family care is promoted to create evidence-based guidelines for family caregivers and for the clinical practice of professional caregivers. .

OBJETIVO: analisar a produção científica sobre o cuidado familiar de pessoas com transtorno mental grave em casa. MÉTODO: revisão integrativa de 14 bases de dados (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI Connect, LILACS, PsycInfo e PubMed, SciELO, e Scopus), com as palavras-chave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" (transtornos mentais graves ) e "casa", realizada entre 2003 e 2013. RESULTADOS: dos 787 artigos retornados, somente 85 atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os artigos vieram de 61 periódicos de diferentes áreas e disciplinas, principalmente de enfermagem (36%). Os países com maior produção científica sobre enfermagem foram o Brasil, o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos, e a autoria era predominantemente de centros universitários. Um total de 54,12% dos estudos apresentou delineamento quantitativo, e os descritivos se destacaram. Os principais temas desses trabalhos foram sobrecarga de trabalho, perspectivas subjetivas e recursos. CONCLUSÕES: a produção cientifica internacional sobre o cuidado familiar informal de pessoas com doenças mentais graves em casa é limitada. A pesquisa em enfermagem se destaca nesse campo. Os temas prevalentes coincidem com a evolução do sistema de saúde mental. Estimula-se a expansão da abordagem científica do cuidado familiar de modo a encontrar evidências para criar guias para cuidadores familiares e para a prática clínica de cuidadores profissionais. .

OBJETIVO: analizar la producción científica sobre el cuidado familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave en el hogar familiar. MÉTODO: revisión integradora en 14 bases de datos (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, IME, ISOC, JBI ConNECT, LILACS, PsycInfo, PubMed, SciELO y Scopus), con las palabras clave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" y "hogar"; realizada entre 2003 y 2013. RESULTADOS: de 787 artículos recuperados, sólo 85 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los artículos procedieron de 61 revistas de diferentes áreas y disciplinas destacando la disciplina de enfermería (36%). Los países con mayor producción científica sobre enfermería fueron Brasil, Reino Unido y EEUU. En la autoría predominaron los centros universitarios. El 54,12% de los estudios presentó diseño cuantitativo, sobresaliendo los descriptivos. Las temáticas destacadas fueron sobrecarga, perspectivas subjetivas y recursos. CONCLUSIONES: la producción científica internacional sobre el cuidado informal familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave, en el contexto del hogar familiar, es limitada. En este campo, destaca la investigación de enfermería. Las temáticas prevalentes coinciden con la evolución del sistema de salud mental. Se estimula la ampliación del abordaje científico del cuidado familiar con el fin de encontrar evidencias para la elaboración de guías de cuidadores familiares y para la práctica clínica de cuidadores profesionales. .

Humans , Female , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adult Stem Cells/physiology , Androgens/physiology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Testosterone/physiology , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens/pharmacology , /metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Flutamide/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Testosterone/pharmacology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(8): 833-837, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729797


Objective The present study aimed to examine the effects of thyroid hormone (TH), more precisely triiodothyronine (T3), on the modulation of TH receptor alpha (TRα) mRNA expression and the involvement of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in adipocytes, 3T3-L1, cell culture. Materials and methods: It was examined the involvement of PI3K pathway in mediating T3 effects by treating 3T3-L1 adipocytes with physiological (P=10nM) or supraphysiological (SI =100 nM) T3 doses during one hour (short time), in the absence or the presence of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). The absence of any treatment was considered the control group (C). RT-qPCR was used for mRNA expression analyzes. For data analyzes ANOVA complemented with Tukey’s test was used at 5% significance level. Results T3 increased TRα mRNA expression in P (1.91±0.13, p<0.001), SI (2.14±0.44, p<0.001) compared to C group (1±0.08). This increase was completely abrogated by LY294002 in P (0.53±0.03, p<0.001) and SI (0.31±0.03, p<0.001). To examine whether TRα is directly induced by T3, we used the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX). The presence of CHX completely abrogated levels TRα mRNA in P (1.15±0.05, p>0.001) and SI (0.99±0.15, p>0.001), induced by T3. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway has a role in T3-mediated indirect TRα gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. .

Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os efeitos do hormônio tireoidiano (HT), triiodotironina (T3), na modulação da expressão de mRNA do receptor alfa (TRα) de HT e o envolvimento da via de sinalização da via fosfatidilinositol 3-quinase (PI3K) em adipócitos, 3T3-L1. Materiais e métodos: Foi examinado o envolvimento da via PI3K nos efeitos do T3 nos tratamentos de adipócitos, 3T3-L1, nas doses fisiológica (P=10nM) ou suprafisiológica (SI =100 nM) durante uma hora (tempo curto), na ausência ou na presença do inibidor da PI3K (LY294002). A ausência de qualquer tratamento foi considerada o grupo controle (C). RT-qPCR foi utilizado para analisar a expressão do mRNA. Para as análises dos dados, utilizou-se ANOVA complementada com o teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Resultados O T3 aumentou a expressão de mRNA de TRα em P (1,91±0,13, p<0,001) e SI (2,14±0,44, p<0,001) em comparação com o grupo C (1±0,08). Esse aumento foi completamente abolido por LY294002 em P (0,53±0,03, p<0,001) e SI (0,31±0,03, p<0,001). Para examinar se a expressão de TRα foi diretamente induzida pelo T3, utilizou-se o inibidor de tradução, ciclohexamida (CHX). A presença de CHX reduziu os níveis de mRNA de TRα em P (1,15±0,05, p>0,001) e SI (0,99±0,15, p>0,001), induzidos pelo T3. Conclusão Esses resultados demonstram que a ativação da via de sinalização de PI3K tem um papel importante na expressão do gene TRα mediada indiretamente pelo T3, em adipócitos 3T3-L1. .

Animals , Mice , Adipocytes/drug effects , /metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha/metabolism , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Chromones/pharmacology , Gene Expression/genetics , Genes, erbA/drug effects , Morpholines/pharmacology , Time Factors , Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha/genetics
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(3): 319-323, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-711


O lipoblastoma é um tumor mesenquimal raro, composto de lipoblastos que continuam sua proliferação após o período pós-natal e que acometem, predominantemente, a população pediátrica. Apresenta prognóstico excelente, apesar do potencial de invasão local e do crescimento rápido. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente pediátrica portadora de volumosa lesão em antebraço direito, ocasionando importante comprometimento funcional do membro acometido. Aspectos relevantes no diagnóstico diferencial e manejo são discutidos neste trabalho, visto tratar-se de lesão com potencial risco incapacitante futuro, caso não manejada corretamente.

Lipoblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor occurring primarily in pediatric patients and formed by lipoblasts that proliferate after the postnatal period. Despite its potential for local invasion and rapid growth, its prognosis is excellent. In this study, we report the case of a pediatric patient with a ponderous lesion in the right forearm that caused considerable functional impairment of the affected limb. We also discuss the relevant aspects concerning the differential diagnosis and management of the disease, as it has the potential to cause incapacity without proper treatment.

Humans , Female , Infant , History, 21st Century , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Surgery, Plastic , Wounds and Injuries , Review Literature as Topic , Adipose Tissue , Adipocytes , Evaluation Study , Lipoma , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/surgery , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Adipose Tissue/embryology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipocytes/physiology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Lipoblastoma , Lipoblastoma/surgery , Lipoblastoma/pathology , Lipoma/surgery , Lipoma/pathology
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 7(2): 56-59, abr.2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779319


Obesity is a condition in which there is excessive accumulation of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and dedicated solely to energy storage. For more than a decade is considered in an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) and cytokine pro - and anti -inflammatory (TNF - alpha 945;, IL-4, IL-6, etc.). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is therefore an under lying condition for the appearance of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. These adipokines, behave, according to each physiological state, such as a metabolic disrupter. The environment (diet and sedentary lifestyle) have significantly changed the constitution of this adipose tissue, so that patterns of good nutrition and lifestyle play a critical role in the growth of the adipose tissue...

Humans , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(3): 192-205, 03/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704621


Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipogenesis/physiology , Adipose Tissue, White/physiology , Lipolysis/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Adipokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Leptin/metabolism , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Resistin/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(5): 368-374, jul. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680624


OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of different doses of triiodothyronine (T3) on mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors, TRα and TRβ, at different times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with T3 (physiological dose: F; supraphysiological doses: SI or SII), or without T3 (control, C) for 0.5, 1, 6, or 24h. TRα and TRβ mRNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: F increased TRβ mRNA levels at 0.5h. After 1h, TRα levels increased with F and SI and TRβ levels decreased with SII compared with C, F, and SI. After 6h, both genes were suppressed at all concentrations. In 24h, TRα and TRβ levels were similar to those of C group. CONCLUSIONS: T3 action with F began at 1h for TRα and at 0.5h for TRβ. These results suggest the importance of knowing the times and doses that activate T3 receptors in adipocytes.

OBJETIVO: Examinar o efeito de diferentes doses de triiodotironina (T3) sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores TRα e TRβ em diferentes tempos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Adipócitos, 3T3-L1, foram incubados com T3 nas doses fisiológica (F, 10nM) e suprafisiológicas (SI, 100nM ou SII, 1000nM) ou veículo (controle, C) durante 0,5, 1, 6 ou 24h. mRNA dos TRs foram detectados utilizando PCR em tempo real. RESULTADOS: Níveis de TRβ aumentaram em F em 0,5h. Após 1h, níveis de TRα aumentaram em F e SI comparado ao C, enquanto TRβ diminuiu no SII comparado com C, F, e SI. Após 6h, ambos os genes foram suprimidos em todas concentrações. Em 24h, níveis de TRα e TRβ retornaram aos do C. CONCLUSÕES: Ação do T3 em F iniciou-se em 1h para TRα e 0,5h para TRβ. Esses resultados são importantes para determinar tempo inicial e dose de T3 em que os receptores de HT são ativados em adipócitos.

Animals , Adipocytes/drug effects , Antigenic Modulation/immunology , Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha/metabolism , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/metabolism , Triiodothyronine/administration & dosage , Adipocytes/metabolism , Cell Line , Drug Administration Schedule , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(7): 435-440, Oct. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-654272


OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho objetiva compreender a possível relação do nível de expressão gênica do mRNA da proteína S100β em adipócitos com o diabetes melito do tipo 2, pela comparação de dados de portadores dessa doença com os de indivíduos normoglicêmicos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas amostras de tecido adiposo de oito pacientes da Seção de Coronárias do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (IDPC), sendo quatro do grupo diabetes e quatro do grupo de normoglicêmicos. Essas amostras foram submetidas à técnica de RT-PCR em tempo real. RESULTADOS: Por meio do Test-t de Student para os valores de diferença entre os ciclos threshold (ΔCt), observou-se que houve aumento de aproximadamente 15 vezes (p = 0,015) da expressão do mRNA da proteína S100β nos adipócitos dos indivíduos do grupo diabetes quando comparado aos do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados evidenciam, de forma inédita, coexistência entre o aumento da expressão do gene S100β e a patologia do diabetes melito do tipo 2.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the possible relationship between the expression level of S100β protein mRNA with diabetes mellitus type 2 in adipocytes from patients with this disease in comparison with normoglycemic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of adipose tissue of eight patients from the coronary section of the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), four in Group Diabetes and four of Normoglycemic group, were evaluated by RT-PCR real time. RESULTS: An increase around 15 times values, between the threshold cycle (ΔCt), of mRNA expression of S100β protein in adipocytes of the diabetes group was observed in comparison to the control group (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate, for the first time, that there is coexistence of increased expression of the S100β and the type 2 diabetes mellitus gene.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adipocytes/metabolism , /metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , /metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Nerve Growth Factors/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , /genetics
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 23(2): 136-144, Mar. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-707635


La obesidad se caracteriza por un aumento de la masa adiposa secundaria a un balance energético positivo mantenido en el tiempo. El incremento en el volumen del tejido adiposo se acompaña de otros cambios en las características biológicas habituales de éste, que se vuelve disfuncional. El depósito visceral de la grasa, la hipertrofia y cambio del perfil secretor de los adipocitos, junto con la infiltración del tejido adiposo por células inflamatorias son algunas de las características que determinan una comunicación alterada del tejido adiposo con otros órganos. Se ha planteado que la disfunción del tejido adiposo, explicaría parte de la etiopatogenia de las enfermedades metabólicas y cardiovasculares asociadas a obesidad; sujetos obesos que mantienen un tejido adiposo funcional no presentan las alteraciones metabólicas propias de la malnutrición por exceso. La modulación de las características biológicas del tejido adiposo permitiría tener un menor riesgo cardiovascular asociado a obesidad.

Obesity is characterized by an increase in the adipose mass, which is due to the deposit of the fatty acids surplus in adipose cells, due to a positive energy balance maintained over the time. Along with the increase in the volume of adipose tissue, there are changes in its normal physiology, driving it toward a dysfunctional tissue. Such changes involve adipocyte hypertrophy and changes in its secretory profile, visceral deposit of fat, increased immune cell infiltration, among others. Adipose tissue dysfunction possibly plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The understanding of these changes in adipose tissue function could provide a tool for modulating the metabolic and cardiovascular burden of obesity.

Humans , Adipokines , Adipose Tissue , Adipocytes/metabolism , Obesity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Metabolic Diseases
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. 110 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-671241


Fundamento: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva da rigidez vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso (VOP) e a pressão arterial (PA), variáveis antropométricas, metabólicas, inflamatórias e de disfunção endotelial em indivíduos adultos jovens. Método: Foram estudados 96 indivíduos (51 homens) do Estudo do Rio de Janeiro, em duas avaliações, A1 e A2, com intervalo de 17,69+-1,58 anos (16 a 21 anos). Em A1 foram avaliados em suas escolas (10-15 anos - média 12,42+-1,47 anos) e em A2 foram novamente avaliados em nível ambulatorial (26-35 anos - média 30,09+-1,92 anos). Em A1 foram obtidos pressão arterial (PA) e índice de massa corporal (IMC). Em A2 foram obtidos a velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP)-método Complior, PA, IMC, circunferência abdominal (CA), glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina, o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR, proteína C-Reativa ultrassensivel (PCRus) e as moléculas de adesão E-selectina, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1(VCAM-1) e Intercellular Achesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Foram obtidos, ainda, a variação da PA e do IMC entre as 2 avaliações. Em A2 os indivíduos foram estratificados segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. Resultados: 1) Os grupos foram constituídos da seguinte forma: Tercil 1:homens com VOP < 8,69 m/s e mulheres com VOP < 7,66 m/s; Tercil 2: homens com VOP >- 8,69 m/s e < 9,65m/s e mulheres com VOP >- 7,66 m/s e < 8,31 m/s; Tercil 3:homens com VOP >- 9,65 m/s e mulheres com VOP >- 8,31 m/s. 2) O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de PA sistólica (PAS) (p=0,005), PA diastólica (PAD) (p=0,007), PA média (PAM) (p=0,004), variação da PAD (p=0,032), variação da PAM (p=0,003), IMC (p=0,046), variação do IMC (p=0,020), insulina (p=0,019), HOMAR-IR (p=0,021), E-selectina (p=0,032) e menores médias de adiponectina (p=0,016), além de maiores prevalências de diabetes ...

Background: Data on non-invasive evaluation of vascular stiffness in the young and its relationship with cardiovascular (CV) risk variables are scarce. Objective: To assess the relationship between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure (BP), anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction variables in young adults. Methods: Ninety-six individuals (51 males) from The Rio de Janeiro Study cohort were studied in two evaluations, A1 and A2, with and interval of 17.69 +- 1.58 years (16-21 years). In A1 they were evaluated at their schools (10-15 years - aerage 12.42 +- 1.47 years) and in A2 they were all re-evaluated as outpatients (26-35 years - average 30.09 +- 1.92 years). In A1 BP and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. In A2 pulse wave velocity (PWV) by Complior method, BP, BMI, waist circunference (WC), glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, the HOMA-IR insulin resistance index, high sensitive C-Reactive protein (CRPhs) and E-selectin, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion molecules were obtained. The BP and BMI variation over the time interval between the two evaluations were also obtained. Subjects were stratified according to tertile of PWV for each sex in A2. Results: 1) The groups were constituted as follows: Tertile 1: males with PWV <8.69 m/s and females with PWV <7.66 m/s; Tertile 2: males with PWV >- 8.69 m/s and <9.65 m/s and females with PWV >- 7.66 m/s and <8.31 m/s; Tertile 3: males with PWV >- 9.65 m/s and females with PWV >- 8.31 m/s 2) The group with the highest PWV tertile showed higher values of systolic BP (SBP) (p=0.005), diastolic BP (DBP) (p=0.007), mean BP (MBP) (p=0.004), DBP variation (p=0.032), MBP variation (p=0.033), BMI (p=0.046), BMI variation (p=0.020), insulin (p=0.019), HOMA-IR (p=0.021), E-Selectin (p=0.032) and lower values of adiponectin (p=0.016), besides higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance ...

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Pulse , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Vascular Stiffness , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Anthropometry , Adipocytes/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Pulsatile Flow/physiology , Risk Factors
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. 103 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658807


Introdução - O exercício resistido (ER) agudo parece resultar em importantes efeitos sobre a liberação de substâncias vasoativas e sobre o controle endotélio-dependente do tônus vascular. Objetivos - O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos agudos de um ER isolado sobre a pressão arterial (PA), frequência cardíaca (FC), fluxo sanguíneo do antebraço (FSA), condutância vascular (CV), respostas endotelial e inflamatória de mulheres jovens com sobrepeso/obesidade (Sp/Ob). Materiais e Métodos - As voluntárias foram separadas em grupos: controle (n=16) e Sp/Ob (n=16). Ambos os grupos realizaram cinco séries de 10 repetições com 70% de uma repetição máxima (1-RM) no exercício de flexão unilateral do cotovelo. A PA, FC e o FSA (medido por pletismografia por oclusão venosa), foram avaliados em repouso e durante uma hora após o ER em ambos os grupos. Adipocitocinas e endotelina-1 (ET-1) foram avaliadas em repouso nos dois grupos e após o ER apenas no grupo Sp/Ob. Resultados - O grupo Sp/Ob apresentou massa corporal e IMC significativamente maiores que o controle (p<0,05). Surpeendentemente, o grupo Sp/Ob apresentou relação cintura-quadril significativamente menor (p<0,05). As diferenças entre grupos nas PAs diastólica e média observadas antes do ER (repouso) foram também observadas imediatamente e 20 minutos após a sessão de ER (p<0,05). Ambos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas na PA diastólica imediatamente após a sessão de ER (p<0,01). A PA média apresentou redução significativa imediatamente após a sessão de ER apenas no grupo controle (p<0,05). O grupo Sp/Ob apresentou valores de FSA significatimentente maiores que o controle em repouso (p<0,05), em 20 (p<0,01) e em 40 (p<0,01) minutos após o ER. A CV apresentou diferença em repouso, porém em 20 e 40 minutos após o ER, o grupo Sp/Ob apresentou valores significativamente maiores (p<0,01). Em repouso e imediatamente após a sessão de ER, não foram observadas diferenças entre o grupo controle ...

Introduction - Acute resistance exercise (RE) seems to have important effects on release of vasoactive substances and on endothelium-dependet control of vascular tone. Objectives - The aims of our study were to the acute effects of an isolated RE on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), forearm blood flow (FBF), vascular conductance (VC), endothelial and inflammatory responses of overweight/obese (Ow/Ob) young women. Materials and Methods - The volunteers were assigned in two groups: controls (n=16) and Ow/Ob (n=16). Both groups performed five sets of 10 repetitions with 70% of 1-RM in the unilateral elbow flexion exercise. BP, HR and FBF (determined by venous occlusion plethysmography) were evaluated at rest and along one hour after resistance exercise. Adipocytokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were evaluated at rest in both groups and after RE only in the Ow/Ob. Results - The Ow/Ob group presented significant higher body weight and BMI than controls. Of interest, the former group had significant lower waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). The significant differences between groups on diastolic and mean BP before resistance exercise (at resting) were observed immediately after and at 20 minutes post-exercise (P<0.05). Differences as a resultant of exercise in each group separately were noted and expressed as significant reduction in diastolic BP immediately post-exercise in both groups (p<0.01). Mean BP reduced immediately post-exercise only in controls (p<0.05). Significant higher basal FBF not only at resting (p<0.05) but also at 20 (p<0.01) and 40 minutes post-exercise (p<0.01) were evident in Ow/Ob group. Although basal FBF was different between groups at resting, basal VC was not. Of note, VC at 20 (p<0.01) and 40 minutes (p<0.01) post-exercise was higher in the Ow/Ob group compared to controls. At resting and immediately post-exercise, no differences between controls and Ow/Ob were observed in endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. We should emphasize ...

Humans , Female , Adipokines/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Exercise/physiology , Arterial Pressure , Forearm/blood supply , Heart Rate , Obesity , Overweight , Regional Blood Flow , Resistance Training
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17405


Leptin is an adipocytokine that regulates body weight, and maintains energy homeostasis by promoting reduced food intake and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin expression and secretion is regulated by various factors including hormones and fatty acids. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that acts as source of energy in humans. We determined whether this fatty acid can play a role in leptin expression in fully differentiated human adipocytes. Mature differentiated adipocytes were incubated with or without increasing concentrations of butyrate. RNA was extracted and leptin mRNA expression was examined by Northern blot analysis. Moreover, the cells were incubated with regulators that may affect signals which may alter leptin expression and analyzed with Northern blotting. Butyrate stimulated leptin expression, and stimulated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-CREB signaling in a time-dependent manner. Prior treatment of the cells with signal transduction inhibitors as pertusis toxin, Gi protein antagonist, PD98059 (a MAPK inhibitor), and wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) abolished leptin mRNA expression. These results suggest that butyrate can regulate leptin expression in humans at the transcriptional level. This is accomplished by: 1) Gi protein-coupled receptors specific for short-chain fatty acids, and 2) MAPK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways.

Adipocytes/metabolism , Azo Compounds , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , CREB-Binding Protein/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Leptin/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Staining and Labeling
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135514


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of unknown etiology. Insulin resistance is very common and plays a central pathogenic role in PCOS. During last decade several studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms contributing to the state of insulin resistance and insulin-induced hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. Insulin signaling pathways have been dissected in different insulin responsive tissues such as skeletal muscles, adipose tissues, fibroblasts as well as ovaries to elucidate the mechanism. These studies suggest a post receptor signaling defect where metabolic action of insulin is affected but not the steroidogenic and mitogenic actions. Despite advancement in these studies gaps exist in our understanding of the mechanism of insulin resistance as well as insulin-induced steroidogenesis in PCOS. The syndrome is now considered as a complex multigenic disorder. Efforts are ongoing to dissect the variants of genes from multiple logical pathways which are involved in pathophysiology of the syndrome. But still today no gene has been emerged as universally accepted susceptibility gene for PCOS. This review briefly describes the lacunae along with the current status of molecular events underlying insulin resistance and the contribution of insulin signaling pathway genes in pathogenesis of PCOS along with future researchable areas.

Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Female , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/physiology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Hyperandrogenism/complications , Hyperandrogenism/physiopathology , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Signal Transduction/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(12): 1163-1166, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532299


Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression may play a significant role in this process. A positive correlation between adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration has been reported. Furthermore, high serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and PAI-1 have been observed in obese children. The present study evaluates the impact of thyroid hormone treatment on white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression and its serum concentration. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were treated for three weeks with T4 (50 µg/day, Hyper) or with saline (control). Additionally, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated for 24 h with T4 (100 nM) or T3 (100 nM). PAI-1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, while the serum concentration of PAI-1 was measured by ELISA using a commercial kit (Innovative Research, USA). Both the serum concentration of PAI-1 and mRNA levels were similar between groups in retroperitoneal and epididymal white adipose tissue. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in vitro treatment with T4 and T3 increased the gene expression of PAI-1, suggesting non-genomic and genomic effects, respectively. These results demonstrate that thyroid hormones have different effects in vitro and in vivo on PAI-1 gene expression in adipocytes.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Adipose Tissue, White/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Messenger/metabolism