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Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-9, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362620


Background: A Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 24.9 Kg/m2 promotes chronic inflammation due to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Consuming fruits rich in bioactive compounds such as berries is a promising strategy to counteract this effect. Objectives: Determine the effect of osmo-dehydrated Andean Berry consumption on inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL- 6, IL-1ß, and adiponectin) and plasma antioxidant capacity in overweight and obese adults after 21 days. Methods: Andean Berry was osmo-dehydrated in 70% sucrose syrup. Antioxidant activity, proximal composition, phenolic content, microbiological analysis, and sensory analysis of the product were determined. Twenty-five obese and overweight subjects consumed 35g of osmo-dehydrated berry for 21 days. Inflammatory biomarkers and antioxidant capacity in plasma were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Osmo-dehydrated Andean Berry presented a total phenolic content of 692.7 ± 47.4 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g. All biomarkers evaluated in the subjects showed statistically significant differences (p> 0.05), except for CRP, before and after the study. IL-6 presented the more significant reduction among all pro-inflammatory adipokines with an effect size of 18.4 Conclusions: Regular consumption of osmo-dehydrated Andean Berry contributes to decreasing pro-inflammatory biomarkers and improves the plasma antioxidant capacity of overweight and obese adults

Antecedentes: un índice de masa corporal (IMC) superior a 24.9 kg/m2 promueve la inflamación crónica debido al aumento en la secreción de adipocinas proinflamatorias. El consumo de frutas ricas en compuestos bioactivos como las bayas es una estrategia prometedora para contrarrestar este efecto. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del consumo de agraz osmodeshidratado en biomarcadores inflamatorios (TNF-α, IL- 6, IL-1ß y adiponectina) y capacidad antioxidante plasmática de adultos con sobrepeso y obesidad después de 21 días. Métodos: El agraz fue osmo-deshidratado en jarabe de sacarosa al 70%. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante, composición proximal, contenido fenólico, análisis microbiológico y análisis sensorial del producto. Veinticinco sujetos obesos y con sobrepeso consumieron 35 g de agraz osmodeshidratado durante 21 días. Se evaluaron biomarcadores inflamatorios y capacidad antioxidante en plasma al inicio y al final del estudio. Resultados: El agraz osmodeshidratado presentó un contenido fenólico total de 692.7 ± 47.4 mg GAE / 100 g. Todos los biomarcadores evaluados en los sujetos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p> 0.05), a excepción de la PCR, antes y después del estudio. La IL-6 presentó la mayor reducción entre todas las adipocinas proinflamatorias con un tamaño del efecto de 18.4 Conclusiones: El consumo regular de agraz osmodeshidratado contribuye a disminuir los biomarcadores proinflamatorios y mejora la capacidad antioxidante plasmática de adultos con sobrepeso y obesidad

Humans , Adipose Tissue , Adipokines , Fruit , Inflammation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878709


Adipokines,the bioactive polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue,are related to the occurrence and development of obesity,metabolic syndrome,renal insufficiency,cardiovascular disease,diabetes mellitus and other diseases.They may be the disease intervention targets and a breakthrough in the study of disease pathogenesis.In this paper,we summarize the latest research progress of the adipokines omentin,chemerin and nesfatin.

Adipokines , Adipose Tissue , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Metabolic Syndrome , Obesity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888489


OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.

Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Lectins/metabolism , Lipids , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Proteinuria
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 300-305, Apr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135622


Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to insulin resistance. For this study body composition, markers of inflammation and of insulin resistance in dogs before and after weight loss were compared to those of lean dogs. Eleven client-owned obese adult dogs underwent a weight loss program with commercial dry food for weight loss and reached an ideal body condition score (BCS) six months after the beginning of the weight loss program. A Control Group of nine dogs with ideal BCS were selected for the comparison. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test for normality, Mann Whitney were used for non-normally distributes data, and Student t-test was used for normally distributed parameters. In the Obese Group body fat decreased from 41.6% (30.7-58.6) to 29.1% (18.6-46.3) (P<0.01) and dogs maintained lean body mass throughout the weight loss program (P>0.05). Obese dogs presented higher concentration of fructosamine, triglycerides, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin than the Control Group before weight reduction (P<0.05). Serum concentrations of triglycerides, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, insulin, leptin and IGF-1 decreased after weight loss (P<0.01), and these concentrations were similar to the Control Group (P>0.05), except for leptin (P<0.001). No alteration on peptide YY was found. Leptin (r=0.60, P=0.01), fructosamine (r=0.44, P=0.02) and triglycerides (r=0.40, P=0.04) concentrations correlated with the reduction of body fat. Weight loss reduced the concentrations of inflammatory and insulin resistance markers and most parameters became similar to dogs that have always been lean, reinforcing the importance of weight loss in small animal practice.(AU)

A inflamação crônica de baixo grau na obesidade é caracterizada pela produção aumentada de citocinas pró-inflamatórias que contribuem para a resistência à insulina. Para este estudo a composição corporal e os marcadores de inflamação e de resistência à insulina em cães antes e após a perda de peso foram comparados aos de cães magros. Onze cães adultos obesos pertencentes a tutores foram incluídos em um programa de perda de peso com ração comercial hipocalórica e alcançaram escore de condição corporal (ECC) ideal seis meses após o início do regime. Um Grupo Controle de nove cães com ECC ideal foi selecionado para a comparação. O teste de Shapiro-Wilk foi usado para testar a normalidade, Mann Whitney foi usado para análise dos dados que não atenderam distribuição normal e o teste t de Student foi usado para parâmetros que atenderam a normalidade. No Grupo Obesidade, a gordura corporal diminuiu de 41,6% (30,7-58,6) para 29,1% (18,6-46,3) (P<0,01) e os cães mantiveram massa magra ao longo do programa de perda de peso (P>0,05). Cães obesos apresentaram maior concentração de frutosamina, triglicérides, insulina, IGF-1 e leptina do que o Grupo Controle antes da redução de peso (P<0,05). As concentrações séricas de triglicerídeos, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, insulina, leptina e IGF-1 diminuíram após a perda de peso (P<0,01) e, essas concentrações foram semelhantes ao Grupo Controle (P>0,05), com exceção da leptina (P<0,001). Nenhuma alteração no peptídeo YY foi encontrada. As concentrações de leptina (r=0,60; P=0,01), frutosamina (r=0,44; P=0,02) e triglicerídeos (r=0,40; P=0,04) correlacionaram-se com a redução da gordura corporal. A perda de peso reduziu as concentrações de marcadores inflamatórios e de resistência à insulina e a maioria dos parâmetros tornaram-se semelhante aos dos cães que sempre foram magros, reforçando a importância da perda de peso na prática clínica de pequenos animais.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Insulin Resistance , Weight Loss , Diet, Reducing/veterinary , Inflammation/veterinary , Obesity/veterinary , Cytokines , Adipokines
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 300-306, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136211


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To compare the serum concentrations of adipokines resistin and chemerin in children and adolescents with eutrophic and overweight and to evaluate their relationship with anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure variables. METHODS a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with 234 students enrolled in public elementary schools in the city of Juiz de Fora / MG. Anthropometric evaluation, biochemistry, and blood pressure measurement were performed. Statistical analyzes included the Student-t or Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson or Spearman correlation, used according to the distribution of the variables, and linear regression analysis, by means of the evaluation of the effect of the independent variables on the serum levels of chemerin and resistin, adjusted for age and sex. For the data analysis, SPSS® software version 21.0 and STATA® version 10.1 were used, assuming a significance level of 5%. RESULTS the concentrations of chemerin were higher in eutrophic individuals than in those with excess weight (p> 0.05). In contrast, levels of resistin were higher in the young with excess weight than in the eutrophic ones (p <0.05). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the levels of chemerin were associated with the values of resistin, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure. Resistance levels maintained association only with BMI and chemerin values. CONCLUSION the adipokines analyzed presented a distinct profile in the groups of children and adolescents with eutrophic and overweight.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS Comparar as concentrações séricas das adipocinas resistina e quemerina em crianças e adolescentes com eutrofia e excesso de peso e avaliar sua relação com as variáveis antropométricas, bioquímicas e a pressão arterial. MÉTODOS Estudo epidemiológico transversal realizado com 234 estudantes matriculados em escolas públicas do ensino fundamental no município de Juiz de Fora/MG. Realizou-se avaliação antropométrica, bioquímica e aferição da pressão arterial. As análises estatísticas compreenderam os testes t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, correlação de Pearson ou Spearman, utilizados de acordo com a distribuição das variáveis, e análise de regressão linear, realizada por meio da avaliação do efeito das variáveis independentes nos níveis séricos de quemerina e resistina, ajustado por idade e sexo. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados os softwares SPSS® versão 21.0 e Stata® versão 10.1, admitindo-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS As concentrações de quemerina foram maiores nos indivíduos eutróficos do que nos com excesso de peso (p>0,05). Em contrapartida, os níveis de resistina estiveram maiores nos jovens com excesso ponderal do que nos eutróficos (p<0,05). Na análise de regressão linear múltipla, os níveis de quemerina apresentaram associação com os valores de resistina, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. Os níveis de resistina mantiveram associação apenas com os valores de IMC e quemerina. CONCLUSÃO As adipocinas analisadas apresentaram perfil distinto nos grupos de crianças e adolescentes com eutrofia e com excesso de peso.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Chemokines/blood , Overweight/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Resistin/blood , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Overweight/complications , Overweight/metabolism , Adipokines
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880767


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effects of high-fat (HF) diet and exercise on the expressions of asprosin and CTRP6 in adipose tissues in different regions of rats during mid-gestation.@*METHODS@#Pregnant SD rats were fed on a standard chow diet or a high-fat (60% fat content) diet for 14 days starting on gestation day (GD) 1. Starting from GD3, the rats fed either on normal or high-fat diet in the exercise groups (CH-RW and HF-RW groups) were allowed access to the running wheels for voluntary running, and those in sedentary groups (CH-SD and HF-SD groups) remained sedentary. At the end of the 14 days, adipose tissues were sampled from different regions of the rats for detecting the mRNA and protein expressions of asprosin and CTRP6 using RT-qPCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA expression of asprosin in retroperitoneal adipose tissues was significantly higher in HF-RW group than in the other 3 groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#High-fat diet and exercise during mid-gedtation can affect the expression levels of asprosin and CTRP6 in adipose tissues of rats in a site-specific manner.

Adipokines , Animals , Blood Glucose , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Female , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 379-394, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816679


It is now recognized that the heart can behave as a true endocrine organ, which can modulate the function of other tissues. Emerging evidence has shown that visceral fat is one such distant organ the heart communicates with. In fact, it appears that bi-directional crosstalk between adipose tissue and the myocardium is crucial to maintenance of normal function in both organs. In particular, factors secreted from the heart are now known to influence the metabolic activity of adipose tissue and other organs, as well as modulate the release of metabolic substrates and signaling molecules from the periphery. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding primary cardiokines and adipokines involved in heart-fat crosstalk, as well as implications of their dysregulation for cardiovascular health.

Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adipose Tissue , Heart , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781695


OBJECTIVE@#To study the changes in the serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) in the acute stage after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and related clinical significance.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 children who were diagnosed with KD from January 2015 to April 2019 were enrolled as subjects. Forty healthy children and 40 children with acute infectious diseases were enrolled as the healthy control group and the infection control group respectively. According to the sensitivity to IVIG treatment, the children with KD were divided into an IVIG sensitive group with 51 children and a non-IVIG sensitive group with 9 children. According to the presence or absence of coronary artery lesion, the children with KD were divided into a CAL group with 13 children and a non-CAL group with 47 children. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of Omentin-1 and Chemerin before and after the treatment.@*RESULTS@#The children with KD had significantly higher serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 than the healthy control and infection control groups before treatment (P0.05). Before treatment, the non-IVIG sensitive group had a significantly higher serum level of Chemerin than the IVIG sensitive group (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#High serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 may play an important role in the development and progression of KD. Chemerin may be involved in the development of CAL in children with KD. The serum level of Chemerin may be used as a new index for predicting the sensitivity to IVIG treatment.

Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Coronary Artery Disease , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 596-599, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136257


SUMMARY AIMS Omentin is an adipokine primarily produced by visceral adipose tissue and its reduced levels have been shown to be associate with worse metabolic outcomes. We aimed to study the effects of preoperative ibuprofen on postoperative omentin levels in rats after surgery. METHODS Forty-eight albino Wistar rats, 6 in each of 8 groups according to the surgical procedure (laparotomy, laparotomy plus ibuprofen (IBU), nephrectomy, nephrectomy plus IBU, hepatectomy, hepatectomy plus IBU, splenectomy and splenectomy plus IBU). The Omentin levels of the groups were postoperatively analyzed. RESULTS The mean omentin was significantly higher in the laparotomy plus IBU group compared to the laparotomy group (p<0.001). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the hepatectomy plus IBU group compared to the hepatectomy group (p=0.01). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the nephrectomy plus IBU group compared to the nephrectomy group (p=0.001). CONCLUSION We suggest that preoperative ibuprofen may enhance circulating levels of Omentin, which has beneficial effects in trauma and inflammation settings in subjects that undergo minor or major abdominal surgery.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS A omentina é uma adipocina produzida principalmente pelo tecido adiposo visceral e níveis reduzidos dela foram associados a piores desfechos metabólicos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar os efeitos do uso pré-operatório do ibuprofeno nos níveis pós-operatórios da omentina em ratos. METODOLOGIA Quarenta e oito ratos Wistar albinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (6 em cada), de acordo com o procedimento cirúrgico: laparotomia, laparotomia e ibuprofeno (IBU), nefrectomia, nefrectomia e IBU, hepatectomia, hepatectomia e IBU, esplenectomia, e esplenectomia e IBU. Os níveis de omentina dos grupos foram analisados após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de laparotomia e IBU do que no grupo de laparotomia (p<0,001). A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de hepatectomia e IBU do que no grupo de hepatectomia (p = 0,01). A omentina média foi significativamente maior no grupo de nefrectomia e IBU do que no grupo de nefrectomia (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO Sugerimos que o uso pré-operatório de ibuprofeno pode aumentar os níveis circulantes de omentina, que têm efeitos benéficos em um contexto de trauma e inflamação em indivíduos submetidos cirurgia abdominal.

Humans , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Lectins/blood , Splenectomy , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Wistar , Adipokines , Inflammation
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 6(2): 49-60, jun.-dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117911


Recientemente se ha descubierto que el tejido adiposo (TA) tiene una crucial influencia sobre diversos procesos fisiológicos a través de la secreción de múltiples factores endocrinos, paracrinos y autocrinos, conocidos como adipoquinas. Desde su descubrimiento, a gran parte de las adipoquinas se les ha atribuido un importante papel en el metabolismo energético, regulando el almacenaje y producción de triglicéridos y colesterol. Uno de los descubrimientos más importantes sobre las funciones del tejido adiposo es como el aumento de su tamaño estimula la secreción de citocinas con carácter pro-inflamatorio, influyendo así en el control de su propia celularidad, la angiogénesis y la migración de células inmunes. Estudios recientes han mostrado como, ante cambios en la homeostasia, el tejido adiposo puede modificar los procesos de coagulación y fibrinólisis. La participación del tejido adiposo en la vascularización y la angiogénesis ha dado nuevos y reveladores resultados, centrados en nuevas adipoquinas como la quemerina y la monobutirina. El estudio de las adipoquinas y su gama de efectos sobre el organismo amplían cada vez más el panorama de las funciones del tejido adiposo y su importancia en el control del metabolismo y la homeostasia. Considerando toda la nueva información disponible, esta revisión bibliográfica busca enumerar, describir y analizar las principales funciones endocrinas del TA. La metodología utilizada para ello consistió en una revisión bibliográfica de tipo descriptivo realizada mediante la revisión sistemática de artículos científicos, consultando diversas bases de datos. Finalmente, se seleccionaron 30 artículos de los útimos cinco años, en español e inglés...(AU)

Humans , Adipose Tissue , Endocrine System/physiopathology , Triglycerides , Adipokines
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1958-1967, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049176


Chemerin is an adipokine secreted by adiopose tissue and has a role in obesity and hypertension. This study aims at assessing the level of the adipokine chemerin in obesity and/or hypertension and correlating its level with the inflammatory marker hs-CRP and predictors of atherosclerosis as lipid profile, insulin resistance, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).Volunteers were divided into 4 equal groups according to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure: normal weight group (BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2), overweight group (BMI = 25.0 ­ 29.9 kg/m2), normotensive obese group (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and hypertensive obese group (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Chemerin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FI) were evaluated in the mentioned groups.The results showed that there were significant increases of chemerin, hs-CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL), SBP and DBP in hypertensive obese group compared to normotensive obese , overweight and normal weight groups. Moreover the only significant positive correlation between chemerin and hs-CRP was observed in the obese hypertensive group. The normotensive obese group showed significant increases of hs-CRP, LDL, triglyceride (TG), FBG, FI and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) compared to the overweight and normal weight groups. Regarding the overweight group, there were significant increases in chemerin, hs-CRP, cholesterol, LDL, TG compared to the normal weight group, while the HDL levels were significantly lower compared to the two obese groups. These results revealed that the pro-inflammatory adipokine chemerin increases in obesity associated with hypertension, leading to the suggestion that there is a definite dysregulation of the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory parameters towards the pro-inflammatory when hypertension and obesity are associated.

A chemerin é uma adipocina secretada pelo tecido adiposo e tem papel na obesidade e na hipertensão. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o nível da adipocina chemerina na obesidade e / ou hipertensão e correlacionar seu nível com o marcador inflamatório hs-PCR e os preditores de aterosclerose como perfil lipídico, resistência à insulina, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) Os voluntários foram divididos em 4 grupos iguais de acordo com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e pressão arterial: grupo com peso normal (IMC ≤ 24,9 kg / m2), grupo com sobrepeso (IMC = 25,0 - 29,9 kg / m2), grupo obeso normotenso (IMC ≥ 30,0 kg / m2) e grupo obeso hipertenso (IMC ≥ 30,0 kg / m2). Chemerin, proteína C-reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), perfil lipídico, glicemia de jejum (FBG) e insulina de jejum (FI) foram avaliados nos grupos mencionados. Os resultados mostraram que houve aumentos significativos de chemerina, hs- CRP, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL), PAS e PAD no grupo obeso hipertenso em comparação com obesos normotensos, com sobrepeso e com peso normal. Além disso, a única correlação positiva significativa entre chemerin e hs-CRP foi observada no grupo de hipertensos obesos. O grupo obeso normotenso apresentou aumentos significativos de PCR-as, LDL, triglicérides (TG), FBG, FI e o modelo de avaliação da homeostase - índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) comparado aos grupos com sobrepeso e peso normal. Em relação ao grupo com excesso de peso, houve aumento significativo de chemerina, PCR-as, colesterol, LDL, TG em relação ao grupo com peso normal, enquanto os níveis de HDL foram significativamente menores em comparação aos dois grupos obesos. Esses resultados revelaram que a pró-inflamatória adipocina chemerina aumenta na obesidade associada à hipertensão, levando à sugestão de que há uma desregulação definida dos parâmetros pró-inflamatórios e anti-inflamatórios em relação ao pró-inflamatório quando a hipertensão e a obesidade estão associadas.

Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Adipokines , Hypertension , Obesity
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 622-625, oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042703


Obesity is characterized by an abnormal production of adipocytokines, generating chronic inflammation associated in turn with endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. On the other hand, it is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, thus establishing an inverse relationship between the plasma levels of this nutrient and acute phase proteins with low vitamin D levels, being able to boost the inflammatory response in obesity. In this context, the correction of poor vitamin D status could be an effective addition to the treatment of obesity; however, evidence of future trials that can support the regulatory effects of supplementation is required. The objective of this review is to analyze the existing evidence and establish the relationship between plasma levels of vitamin D and chronic inflammation associated with obesity. The methodology consists of a sensitive search in the PubMed and Trip Database, limiting the search to articles in English and Spanish published through January 2019. Priority was given to clinical trials, original articles and systematic reviews, from which other relevant research was identified.

La obesidad se caracteriza por la producción anormal de adipocitocinas, generando inflamación crónica asociada a su vez a disfunción endotelial, aterosclerosis y resistencia a insulina. Por otra parte, es un factor de riesgo de déficit de vitamina D, estableciéndose una relación inversa entre los niveles plasmáticos de dicho nutriente y proteínas de fase aguda, pudiendo potenciar la respuesta inflamatoria en obesidad. En este contexto la corrección del mal estado de vitamina D podría ser una adición efectiva al tratamiento de la obesidad, sin embargo se requiere evidencia de futuros ensayos que se puedan respaldar los efectos reguladores de la suplementación. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la evidencia existente y establecer la relación entre los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina D y la inflamación crónica asociada con la obesidad. La metodología consiste en una búsqueda sensible en las bases de datos PubMed y Trip Database, limitándose la búsqueda a artículos en inglés y español hasta enero 2019. Se priorizó por ensayos clínicos, artículos originales y revisiones sistemáticas, a partir de los cuales se identificaron otras investigaciones relevantes.

Humans , Vitamin D Deficiency , Inflammation , Obesity , Adipokines
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 531-537, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040366


Abstract Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Method: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). Results: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p < 0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho = −0.41; p = 0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho = 0.28; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.

Resumo: Objetivos: A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há disfunção endotelial nas crianças com peso normal ou excesso de peso e se o perfil metabólico, as adipocinas e a disfunção endotelial seriam mais fortemente associados à aptidão física ou aos níveis de atividade física. Método: Estudo transversal que envolve crianças de 5-12 anos. A avaliação incluiu pletismografia de oclusão venosa, níveis séricos de adiponectina, leptina, insulina e lipidograma, escore de atividade física (questionário PAQ-C) e avaliação da aptidão física (teste Yo-yo). Resultados: Um total de 62 crianças participou deste estudo. Com base no índice de massa corporal, 27 eram eutróficos, 10 estavam acima do peso e 25 estavam obesos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos, colesterol LDL, HOMA-RI e leptina estavam mais elevados nas crianças obesas e com excesso de peso que o grupo de eutróficos (p < 0,01). Os níveis de colesterol HDL e adiponectina estavam mais elevados no grupo de eutróficos em comparação ao grupo de obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,01). A vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo após hiperemia foi maior no grupo de eutróficos em comparação aos indivíduos obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,05). Não houve nenhuma diferença nos níveis de atividade física entre os grupos medidos pelo PAQ-C. O teste de ida e volta foi significativamente associado ao colesterol HDL (ró = −0,41; p = 0,01) e essa associação continuou após ajustar o escore z do índice de massa corporal (ró = 0,28; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a disfunção endotelial já está presente nas crianças obesas, sugeriu uma predisposição à doença aterosclerótica. Além disso, os níveis de colesterol HDL foram correlacionados à aptidão física, independentemente do índice de massa corporal.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Adipokines/blood , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 383-389, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001276


Abstract Background: There is evidence that subclinical systemic inflammation is present in resistant hypertension (RHTN). Objective: The aim of the study was to develop an integrated measure of circulating cytokines/adipokines involved in the pathophysiology of RHTN. Methods: RHTN (n = 112) and mild to moderate hypertensive (HTN) subjects (n=112) were studied in a cross-sectional design. Plasma cytokines/adipokines (TNF-alpha, interleukins [IL]-6, -8, -10, leptin and adiponectin) values were divided into tertiles, to which a score ranging from 1 (lowest tertile) to 3 (highest tertile) was assigned. The inflammatory score (IS) of each subject was the sum of each pro-inflammatory cytokine scores from which anti-inflammatory cytokines (adiponectin and IL-10) scores were subtracted. The level of significance accepted was alpha = 0.05. Results: IS was higher in RHTN subjects compared with HTN subjects [4 (2-6) vs. 3 (2-5); p = 0.02, respectively]. IS positively correlated with body fat parameters, such as body mass index (r = 0.40; p < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0.30; p < 0.001) and fat mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.31; p < 0.001) in all hypertensive subjects. Logistic regression analyses revealed that IS was an independent predictor of RHTN (OR = 1.20; p = 0.02), independent of age, gender and race, although it did not remain significant after adjustment for body fat parameters. Conclusion: A state of subclinical inflammation defined by an IS including TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin is associated with obese RHTN. In addition, this score correlates with obesity parameters, independently of hypertensive status. The IS may be used for the evaluation of conditions involving low-grade inflammation, such as obesity-related RHTN. Indeed, it also highlights the strong relationship between obesity and inflammatory process.

Resumo Fundamento: Evidências indicam que a inflamação sistêmica subclínica está presente na hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR). Objetivo: Desenvolver uma medida que integra citocinas envolvidas na fisiopatologia da HAR. Métodos: Indivíduos com HAR (n = 112) e indivíduos com hipertensão leve a moderada (HT) (n = 112) foram estudados em delineamento transversal. Valores de citocinas/adipocinas plasmáticas [TNF-alfa, interleucinas (IL)-6, -8, -10, leptina e adiponectina] foram divididos em tercis, e lhes atribuído um escore variando de 1 (tercil mais baixo) a 3 (tercil mais alto). O escore inflamatório (EI) de cada participante foi calculado como a soma do escore de cada citocina pró-inflamatória da qual subtraiu-se o escore de cada citocina anti-inflamatória (adiponectina e IL-10). O nível de significância aceito foi alfa = 0,05. Resultados: O EI foi mais alto nos indivíduos com HAR em comparação a indivíduos com HT [4 (2-6) vs. 3 (2-5); p = 0,02, respectivamente]. O EI correlacionou-se positivamente com parâmetros de gordura corporal, tais como índice de massa corporal (r = 0,40; p < 0,001), circunferência da cintura (r = 0,30; p < 0,001) e massa gorda avaliada por bioimpedância (r = 0,31; p < 0,001) em todos os indivíduos hipertensos. Análises de regressão logística mostraram que o EI foi um preditor independente de HAR (OR = 1,20; p = 0,02), independentemente de idade, sexo e raça; porém, o modelo perdeu significância estatística após ajuste para os parâmetros de gordura corporal. Conclusão: Um estado de inflamação subclínica definida pelo EI incluindo TNF-alfa, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, leptina e adiponectina está associado com indivíduos obesos com HAR. Além disso, o escore correlaciona-se com parâmetros de obesidade, independentemente do grau de hipertensão. O EI pode ser usado na avaliação de condições que envolvem inflamação subclínica, tal como HAR relacionada à obesidade. O estudo também destaca a forte relação entre obesidade e inflamação.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cytokines/blood , Adipokines/blood , Hypertension/blood , Reference Standards , Severity of Illness Index , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Adipose Tissue , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763691


Obesity results in an inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, leading to the deterioration of tissue protective mechanisms. Although recent studies suggested the importance of type 2 immunity in an anti-inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, the regulatory effects of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines on systemic metabolic regulation are not fully understood. Recently, we identified the roles of the Th2 cytokine (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-13)-induced adipokine, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), in adipose tissue in regulating systemic glucose metabolism via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation. Moreover, we showed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is required to maintain these macrophage-regulating autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways via Th2 cytokine-induced secretion of GDF15. In this review, we discuss how the type 2 immune response and Th2 cytokines regulate metabolism in adipose tissue. Specifically, we review the systemic regulatory roles of Th2 cytokines in metabolic disease and the role of mitochondria in maintenance of type 2 responses in adipose tissue homeostasis.

Adipokines , Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Glucose , Growth Differentiation Factor 15 , Homeostasis , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Obesity , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Paracrine Communication , STAT6 Transcription Factor
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763654


Adipose tissue inflammation is considered a major contributing factor in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. However, the cause of adipose tissue inflammation is presently unclear. The role of mitochondria in white adipocytes has long been neglected because of their low abundance. However, recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in white adipocytes. In a series of recent studies, we found that mitochondrial function in white adipocytes is essential to the synthesis of adiponectin, which is the most abundant adipokine synthesized from adipocytes, with many favorable effects on metabolism, including improvement of insulin sensitivity and reduction of atherosclerotic processes and systemic inflammation. From these results, we propose a new hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes is a primary cause of adipose tissue inflammation and compared this hypothesis with a prevailing concept that “adipose tissue hypoxia” may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Recent studies have emphasized the role of the mitochondrial quality control mechanism in maintaining mitochondrial function. Future studies are warranted to test whether an inadequate mitochondrial quality control mechanism is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and adipose tissue inflammation.

11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases , Adipocytes , Adipocytes, White , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Hypoxia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Homeostasis , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Nitric Oxide , Obesity , Quality Control
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761802


Obesity causes inflammation and impairs thermogenic functions in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The adipokine lipocalin 2 (LCN2) has been implicated in inflammation and obesity. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of caloric restriction (CR) on LCN2-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in the BAT of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were fed a HFD for 20 weeks and then either continued on the HFD or subjected to CR for the next 12 weeks. CR led to the browning of the white fat-like phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Increased expressions of LCN2 and its receptor in the BAT of HFD-fed mice were significantly attenuated by CR. Additionally, HFD+CR-fed mice had fewer neutrophils and macrophages expressing LCN2 and iron-positive cells than HFD-fed mice. Further, oxidative stress and mitochondrial fission induced by a HFD were also significantly attenuated by CR. Our findings indicate that the protective effects of CR on inflammation and oxidative stress in the BAT of obese mice may be associated with regulation of LCN2.

Adipokines , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Animals , Caloric Restriction , Diet, High-Fat , Inflammation , Lipocalins , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Obese , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neutrophils , Obesity , Oxidative Stress , Phenotype
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786117


PURPOSE: Sprouts of evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata, OL) were reported to have high contents of flavonoids and potent antioxidant activity. This study examined the antioxidant and antiobesity activities of OL sprouts to determine if they could be a natural health-beneficial resource preventing obesity and oxidative stress.METHODS: OL sprouts were extracted with 50% ethanol, evaporated, and lyophilized (OLE). The in vitro antioxidant activity of OLE was examined using four different tests. The antiobesity activity and in vivo antioxidant activity from OLE consumption were examined using high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice.RESULTS: The IC₅₀ for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of OLE were 26.2 µg/mL and 327.6 µg/mL, respectively. OLE exhibited the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity of 56.7 µg ascorbic acid eq./mL at 100 µg/mL, and an increased glutathione level by 65.1% at 200 µg/mL compared to the control in the hUC-MSC stem cells. In an animal study, oral treatment with 50 mg or 100 mg of OLE/kg body weight for 14 weeks reduced the body weight gain, visceral fat content, fat cell size, blood leptin, and triglyceride levels, as well as the atherogenic index compared to the high fat diet control group (HFC) (p < 0.05). The blood malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the catalase and SOD-1 activities in adipose tissue were reduced significantly by the OLE treatment compared to HFC as well (p < 0.05). In epididymal adipose tissue, the OLE treatment reduced the mRNA expression of leptin, PPAR-γ and FAS significantly (p < 0.05) compared to HFC while it increased adiponectin expression (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: OLE consumption has potent antioxidant and antiobesity activities via the suppression of oxidative stress and lipogenesis in DIO mice. Therefore, OLE could be a good candidate as a natural resource to develop functional food products that prevent obesity and oxidative stress.

Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Body Weight , Catalase , Diet, High-Fat , Ethanol , Flavonoids , Functional Food , Glutathione , In Vitro Techniques , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Leptin , Lipogenesis , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Obese , Natural Resources , Obesity , Oenothera biennis , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides