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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 821-831, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on biomarkers of inflammation and their relationship with fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations in women with overweight and obesity. Subjects and methods: Thirty-one women were enrolled in a 12-week interdisciplinary weight loss program delivered by a team comprising an endocrinologist, nutritionist and exercise physiologist. Body composition; anthropometric measures; metabolic and inflammatory markers including adiponectin, leptin, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were assessed at baseline and post-therapy. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the homeostasis model assessment of adiponectin (HOMA-AD) were calculated. The participants were divided into two groups: those with increased FGF21, and those with decreased FGF21. Results: The sample comprised women aged 32 ± 5 years with a body mass index of 33.64 ± 3.49 kg/m2. Body weight, waist circumference and leptin concentration were decreased in the whole sample after therapy. However, only the group with an increase in FGF21 concentration presented significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Moreover, although there was a reduction of leptin in both groups, it was greater in the increased FGF21 groups. There was a reduction in ANP in the decreased FGF21 group. Conclusions: Changes in FGF21 concentrations were different among the women participating in the weight loss program, with some having increased levels and some reduced levels. Furthermore, improvements in adiponectin and the adiponectin/leptin ratio were found only in the group with increased FGF21 concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity/therapy , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Leptin , Adiponectin , Fibroblast Growth Factors/blood
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 429-435, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341141

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate serum levels of adiponectin in pregnant adolescents between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 67 normal pregnant women between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and eutrophic (body mass index [BMI]: 18.5-25 kg/m2), of which 36 were adolescents (< 20 years old) and 31 adults (≥ 20 years old). Serum adiponectin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The t-student or Mann-Whitney tests were used for intergroup comparison. Results Pregnant adolescents showed significantly higher serum adiponectin concentrations comparedwith pregnant adults (p=0.04). No differences were observed in adiponectin levels in younger pregnant adolescents (< 16 years old) compared with older pregnant adolescents (≥ 16 years old). Adiponectin values were divided into 3 subgroups:<3,000 ng/mL, between 3,000 and 5,000 ng/mL, and>5,000 ng/mL. Birthweight was significantly higher in women>5,000 ng/mL when compared with<3,000 ng/mL in the adolescent group. No association between pregestational adiponectin levels and BMI, gestational weight gain, and gestational age was observed; however, there was a positive relation with birthweight (p=0.0239). Conclusion Serum adiponectin values in pregnant adolescents between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation were higher compared with pregnant adults; however, no differences between younger and older pregnant adolescents were observed.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os níveis séricos de adiponectina em gestantes adolescentes entre 30 e 36 semanas de gestação. Métodos Estudo prospectivo e transversal incluindo 67 gestantes normais entre 30 a 36 semanas e eutróficas (índice de massa corporal [IMC]: 18,5-25 kg/m2), sendo 36 adolescentes (< 20 anos) e 31 adultas (≥ 20 anos). Os níveis séricos de adiponectina foram avaliados por teste imunoenzimático (ELISA, na sigla em inglês). Para a comparação entre os grupos, utilizou-se os testes t-Student ou Mann-Whitney. Resultados As gestantes adolescentes apresentaram significativamente maiores concentrações séricas de adiponectina do que as adultas (p=0,04). Não houve diferenças nos níveis de adiponectina quando comparadas as gestantes adolescentes precoces (< 16 anos) às tardias (≥ 16 anos). Os valores de adiponectina foram subdivididos em3 grupos:<3.000 ng/mL, entre 3.000 e 5.000 ng/mL e>5.000 ng/mL. O peso do recém-nascido foi significantemente maior nas mulheres com>5.000 ng/mL, quando comparadas as com<3.000 ng/mL no grupo das adolescentes. Não foi observada associação entre os níveis de adiponectina e o IMC pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional e a idade gestacional, porém houve relação positiva com o peso do recém-nascido (p=0,0239). Conclusão Os valores séricos de adiponectina em gestantes adolescentes entre 30 e 36 semanas de gestação foram maiores do que os das gestantes adultas; contudo, sem diferenças entre gestantes adolescentes precoces e tardias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy in Adolescence/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Pregnancy in Adolescence/physiology , Social Class , Birth Weight , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Gestational Weight Gain
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921873

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to assess the protective value of adiponectin (APN) in pancreatic islet injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) group, CIH group, and CIH with APN supplement (CIH+APN) group. After 5 weeks of CIH exposure, we conducted oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and insulin released test (IRT), examined and compared the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, enzymes gene expression levels of


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/genetics , Animals , Hypoxia , Islets of Langerhans , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Rats , Rats, Wistar
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 300-306, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136211

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To compare the serum concentrations of adipokines resistin and chemerin in children and adolescents with eutrophic and overweight and to evaluate their relationship with anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure variables. METHODS a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with 234 students enrolled in public elementary schools in the city of Juiz de Fora / MG. Anthropometric evaluation, biochemistry, and blood pressure measurement were performed. Statistical analyzes included the Student-t or Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson or Spearman correlation, used according to the distribution of the variables, and linear regression analysis, by means of the evaluation of the effect of the independent variables on the serum levels of chemerin and resistin, adjusted for age and sex. For the data analysis, SPSS® software version 21.0 and STATA® version 10.1 were used, assuming a significance level of 5%. RESULTS the concentrations of chemerin were higher in eutrophic individuals than in those with excess weight (p> 0.05). In contrast, levels of resistin were higher in the young with excess weight than in the eutrophic ones (p <0.05). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the levels of chemerin were associated with the values of resistin, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure. Resistance levels maintained association only with BMI and chemerin values. CONCLUSION the adipokines analyzed presented a distinct profile in the groups of children and adolescents with eutrophic and overweight.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Comparar as concentrações séricas das adipocinas resistina e quemerina em crianças e adolescentes com eutrofia e excesso de peso e avaliar sua relação com as variáveis antropométricas, bioquímicas e a pressão arterial. MÉTODOS Estudo epidemiológico transversal realizado com 234 estudantes matriculados em escolas públicas do ensino fundamental no município de Juiz de Fora/MG. Realizou-se avaliação antropométrica, bioquímica e aferição da pressão arterial. As análises estatísticas compreenderam os testes t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, correlação de Pearson ou Spearman, utilizados de acordo com a distribuição das variáveis, e análise de regressão linear, realizada por meio da avaliação do efeito das variáveis independentes nos níveis séricos de quemerina e resistina, ajustado por idade e sexo. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados os softwares SPSS® versão 21.0 e Stata® versão 10.1, admitindo-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS As concentrações de quemerina foram maiores nos indivíduos eutróficos do que nos com excesso de peso (p>0,05). Em contrapartida, os níveis de resistina estiveram maiores nos jovens com excesso ponderal do que nos eutróficos (p<0,05). Na análise de regressão linear múltipla, os níveis de quemerina apresentaram associação com os valores de resistina, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. Os níveis de resistina mantiveram associação apenas com os valores de IMC e quemerina. CONCLUSÃO As adipocinas analisadas apresentaram perfil distinto nos grupos de crianças e adolescentes com eutrofia e com excesso de peso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Chemokines/blood , Overweight/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Resistin/blood , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Overweight/complications , Overweight/metabolism , Adipokines
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811150

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial medicine is increasingly discussed as a promising therapeutic approach, given that mitochondrial defects are thought to contribute to many prevalent diseases and their complications. In individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), defects in mitochondrial structure and function occur in many organs throughout the body, contributing both to the pathogenesis of DM and complications of DM. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) is increasingly recognized as an underlying cause of increased heart failure in DM, and several mitochondrial mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the development of DbCM. Well established mechanisms include myocardial energy depletion due to impaired adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and mitochondrial uncoupling, and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. A variety of upstream mechanisms of impaired ATP regeneration and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have been proposed, and recent studies now also suggest alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy, impaired mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uptake, decreased cardiac adiponectin action, increased O-GlcNAcylation, and impaired activity of sirtuins to contribute to mitochondrial defects in DbCM, among others. In the current review, we present and discuss the evidence that underlies both established and recently proposed mechanisms that are thought to contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in DbCM.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adiponectin , Autophagy , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Regeneration , Sirtuins
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876102

ABSTRACT

@#Objective. This study determined the relationship between plasma adiponectin level and corrected QT interval (QTc) in smokers and non-smokers. Methodology.This cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. Plasma adiponectin level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The QT interval was measured by routine 12-lead ECG with Lead II rhythm and QTc was calculated. Results. Mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly lower in smokers (27.89±15 μg/ml) than that of non-smokers (52.13±21.57μg/ml) (p<0.001). Mean QTc interval was significantly longer in smokers than that of non-smokers (415.37±29.9 versus 395.63±26.13 ms, p<0.01). Higher risk of low adiponectin level (odds ratio [OR],8.1; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.61-40.77) and QTc interval prolongation (OR,6; 95%CI,1.17-30.73) were observed in smokers. There was weak significant negative correlation between plasma adiponectin level and QTc interval in the study population (n=60, r=-0.407, p=0.001). Moreover, low plasma adiponectin level was significantly associated with prolonged QTc interval in the study population (n=60, Fisher's exact p value<0.05). Risk of QTc interval prolongation was 4.3 times higher in subjects with low plasma adiponectin level (OR,4.27; 95% CI,1.05-17.46). Conclusion. Smokers have greater risk for low plasma adiponectin level and prolonged QTc interval. There is a relationship between plasma adiponectin level and QTc interval.


Subject(s)
Smokers , Adiponectin
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study insulin sensitivity and the serum level of adiponectin in infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and the effect of breastfeeding on the insulin sensitivity through a follow-up study.@*METHODS@#A total of 106 full-term IUGR infants who were hospitalized from October 2014 to October 2018 were enrolled as the IUGR group, and 90 full-term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants who were born during the same period of time were enrolled as the AGA group. Birth weight and body length were recorded. Serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin were measured on day 7 after birth. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. According to the feeding pattern, the IUGR group was further divided into a breastfeeding group with 37 infants and a formula feeding group with 42 infants. The above serum indices and growth indices were also measured at the age of 3 and 6 months.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the AGA group, the IUGR group had significantly increased levels in serum insulin and HOMA-IR and a significantly decreased level of adiponectin (P0.05). In the breastfeeding group, serum insulin and HOMA-IR decreased and adiponectin level increased over the time of breastfeeding (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Insulin sensitivity decreases in the early stage after birth in IUGR infants, and breastfeeding can improve insulin sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Fetal Growth Retardation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Insulin , Insulin Resistance
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW5160, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133762

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Adiponectin, among other diverse adipokines, is produced in greater quantity and has an effect on the adipose tissue and other tissues in the body. Adiponectin plays three main roles: regulatory metabolic and sensitizing function of insulin in the liver and muscles; it acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and in vascular protection, besides important cardiac protection in the presence of ischemia-reperfusion syndrome. Since many situations resulting from traumatic accidents or pathologies are due to cell damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, it is relevant to study new therapeutic alternatives that will contribute to reducing these lesions. The objective of this study is to carry out a literature review on the role of adiponectin in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome.


RESUMO A adiponectina, em meio a outras diversas adipocinas, é a produzida em maior quantidade e exerce efeitos no próprio tecido adiposo e em outros diversos tecidos do organismo. Dentre suas funções, a adiponectina apresenta três principais papéis: função metabólica regulatória e sensibilizadora da insulina no fígado e nos músculos atua como citocina anti-inflamatória e vasculoprotetora, além de exercer importante fator cardioprotetor na presença da síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão. Visto que inúmeras situações decorrentes de acidentes traumáticos ou patologias recaem no dano celular causado pela síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão, observa-se a importância de estudar novas alternativas terapêuticas que venham a contribuir para a diminuição dessas lesões. O objetivo do presente estudo é realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre o papel da adiponectina na síndrome de isquemia e reperfusão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury , Adiponectin/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Metabolic Syndrome
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17291, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132047

ABSTRACT

Obesity represents a major challenge to the pharmaceutical community due to the minimal availability of anti-obesity drugs and the drawbacks of current weight-loss agents. The study described herein presents lupine oil, in two pharmaceutical formulations, as a potential anti-obesity agent via its effect on different physiological, biochemical, and hormonal parameters. Rats were divided into two groups; one group was continued on a standard commercial rodent diet and served as the non-obese control. The other group was fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks to prepare an obese rat model. Then, the obese rats were divided into groups to receive 100 mg/kg of the crude lupine oil or nanoemulsion for 10 or 20 days. Lupine oil showed a potent body weight-reducing effect and improved insulin resistance. The oil altered obesity-induced hyperlipidemia and it enhanced the leptin/adiponectin/AMPK hormonal system in epididymal fat, serum, and liver, to which all the above physiological activities could be attributed. The nanoemulsion formulation of lupine oil significantly amplified the activity for all the above physiological and hormonal parameters when compared to the crude oil formulation. Lupine oil nanoemulsion could be used as a potential drug against diet-induced obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Obesity Agents/adverse effects , Lupinus/adverse effects , Diet/classification , Obesity/classification , Phosphotransferases/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adenosine Monophosphate/agonists , Adiponectin/pharmacology
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 76 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1147558

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A inflamação crônica, sistêmica e de baixa intensidade, para a qual a dieta é um importante fator de risco, está presente na fisiopatologia de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, as quais figuram entre as principais causas de morte no mundo. Além da dieta isolada, a interação entre os padrões dietéticos e o genoma pode explicar variações na resposta inflamatória entre indivíduos. Objetivo: Verificar a associação de padrões alimentares e de polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNP) presentes nos genes da adiponectina, do receptor do tipo Toll (TLR)-4, da interleucina (IL)-1ß, da IL-6, da IL-10, do fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-α, da quimiocina ligante de C-C motif (CCL)-2 e da proteína C reativa (PCR) com um escore de inflamação sistêmica. Métodos: Dados secundários de 269 indivíduos adultos (20 a 59 anos) e 172 idosos (60 a 75 anos) do estudo de base populacional ISA-capital, edição de 2008, e 284 adultos e 217 idosos do ISA-capital de 2015 foram utilizados pelo presente estudo. A coleta dos dados dietéticos foi realizada por meio de recordatório de 24 horas, aplicado em duplicata e um questionário de frequência alimentar. A partir do plasma, foram determinadas as concentrações plasmáticas de adiponectina, PCR, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-12p70, CCL-2, molécula de adesão intercelular solúvel (sICAM)-1 e molécula de adesão celular vascular solúvel (sVCAM)-1, os quais compõem o escore de inflamação sistêmico. A partir do DNA genômico foi realizada a genotipagem de 31 SNP dos genes ADIPOQ, TLR4, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, CCL2 e CRP pelo sistema Taqman Open Array. Os padrões dietéticos analisados foram o índice de qualidade da dieta revisado (IQD-R) e o padrão empírico de inflamação da dieta (EDIP), o qual foi adaptado para uso na população do ISA-capital (EDIP-SP). Resultados: O escore de inflamação foi associado com perfil lipídico plasmático, glicemia e pressão arterial sistêmica. São fatores associados ao escore de inflamação, em um modelo múltiplo, ter maior índice de massa corporal; ter mais de 50 anos de idade; fazer menos de 150 min/semana de atividade física como meio de transporte; ter menor IQD-R, ter maior EDIP-SP, ser homozigoto selvagem para o SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A e para o SNP ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T após ajuste para uso de medicamento, super- e sub-relato da ingestão energética e fumo. O EDIP-SP, composto por "carnes processadas", "frutas e hortaliças" e "arroz e feijão", foi replicado em uma amostra independente apenas em homens. Nenhuma interação foi encontrada entre os SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A e ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T e os padrões dietéticos IQD-R e EDIP-SP. Conclusão: Maiores escores para o IQD-R, e menores valores para o padrão alimentar EDIP-SP, estão inversamente associados à inflamação sistêmica e de baixa intensidade, independente de outros fatores de risco, na população de adultos da cidade de São Paulo. Os genótipos GG para os SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A e ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T predispõem essa população a maior inflamação sistêmica e de baixa intensidade. Os padrões dietéticos e polimorfismos genéticos não são capazes de modificar os efeitos uns dos outros sobre a inflamação.


Introduction: Chronic and systemic low-grade inflammation, for which diet is an important risk factor, is present in the pathophysiology of chronic non-communicable diseases that are among the main causes of death worldwide. Besides diet, the interaction between dietary patterns and the genome can explain variations in the inflammatory response across individuals. Objective: To verify the association of dietary patterns and single nucleotide polymorphism in the genes of adiponectin, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-2 and C-reactive protein (PCR) with a systemic inflammation score. Methods: Secondary data of 269 adults (20 to 59 y.o.) and 172 elderly (60 to 75 y.o.) from the population-based study Health Survey of Sao Paulo (HS-SP), 2008 edition, and 284 adults and 217 elderly individuals from HS-SP 2015 edition were used in the present study. Dietary assessment was done through two 24-hour recalls and one validated food frequency questionnaire. From the blood, plasma concentration of adiponectin, CRP, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-12p70, CCL-2, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 were determined, all of which composed the systemic inflammation score. From extracted DNA, 31 SNPs in ADIPOQ, TLR4, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, CCL2 e CRP genes were genotypes using the Taqman Open Array system. The two analyzed dietary patterns were the Brazilian Health Eating Index-revised (IQD-R) and the Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern (EDIP), which was further adapted to be used in the Sao Paulo population (EDIP-SP). Results: The systemic inflammation score was associated with blood lipid levels, glycemia and blood pressure. The systemic inflammatory score independently associated factors were: having higher BMI; being in the highest category of age (> 50 years); doing less than 150min/week of commuting physical; having lower IQD-R and higher EDIP-SP, being GG homozygous for SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A e and SNP ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T, even after adjustments for medication use, misreporting of energy intake and smoking status. EDIP-SP, composed of "processed meat", "fruits and vegetables" and "rice and beans" groups, was replicated only in men. No interaction was observed between SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A and ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T and the dietary patterns, IQD-R and EDIP-SP. Conclusion: Higher score for IQD-R, and a lower score for EDIP-SP, were inversely associated with systemic low-grade inflammation, independently of confounders, in the Sao Paulo population. The GG genotype for SNP TLR4 rs5030728 G>A and for ADIPOQ rs1501299 G>T predispose this population to systemic low-grade inflammation. Neither the dietary patterns nor the SNP modify the effect of one another on inflammation.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Diet , Adiponectin , Inflammation
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1741-1744, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038676

ABSTRACT

Em seres humanos, a adiponectinemia está associada à obesidade e ao risco aumentado a uma ampla variedade de cânceres. Embora o papel dessa adipocina esteja bem documentado na patogênese do câncer em humanos, tal associação permanece a ser determinada em cães. Nesses animais, a relação da adiponectina com a carcinogênese parece ser ainda meramente especulativa. Nesse contexto, buscou-se nesta investigação comparar os níveis séricos de adiponectina em fêmeas hígidas e em portadoras de carcinomas mamários com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma mamário tubular simples estágio 4, com comprometimento de linfonodos, porém sem metástases a distância detectadas. Foi observado que as cadelas diagnosticadas com carcinoma mamário tiveram níveis séricos de adiponectina significativamente menores (média de 3,72±1,54µg/mL, P<0,05) em relação às fêmeas consideradas hígidas (média de 5,61±2,18µgl/mL), sugerindo associação entre câncer e hipoadiponectinemia similar à encontrada em humanos. Em relação à idade e ao peso corporal dos animais do estudo, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados encontrados nas cadelas portadoras de carcinoma mamário do presente estudo corroboram a associação já descrita em humanos entre ocorrência de carcinogênese e baixos níveis de adiponectina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Adenocarcinoma/blood , Adenocarcinoma/veterinary , Adiponectin , Obesity/complications , Obesity/veterinary
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1061-1066, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041062

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of foot pain and plasmatic adipocytes as physiological biomarkers of childhood obesity with the incidence of flatfoot in a cohort of Egyptian school children aged 6 -12 years. METHODS A total of 550 Egyptian schoolchildren (220 boys and 330 girls) aged 6-12 years were randomly invited to participate in this descriptive survey analysis. For all children, we assessed the diagnosis and severity of flatfoot as well as plasma adipocytes, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α, using the Dennis method and immunoassay techniques respectively. Foot pain was assessed by using a standard VAS of 100 mm and Faces Pain Scale, respectively. RESULTS Flat foot was predicted in 30.4% of school-age children, most of them showed a higher frequency of overweight (33.3%) and obesity (62.5%). Boys showed higher ranges of flat foot than girls. Foot pain significantly correlated with flat foot and obesity among the studied populations. In overweight-obese children, plasmatic adipocyte variables, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNF-α.; showed significant correlations with foot stance, especially in boys. Also, the studied adipocyte variables along with BMI, age, gender explained about~65% of the variance of flatfoot with pain among our school-age students. CONCLUSION Foot pain showed an association with flat foot and childhood obesity in 30.4% of school-age students (6-12 years). Foot pain was shown to correlate positively with the incidence of flat foot and changes in adiposity markers, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, Il-6, TNF-α


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a potencial associação de dor no pé e adipócitos plasmáticos como biomarcadores fisiológicos da obesidade infantil com incidência de pé plano em uma coorte de escolares egípcios de 6 a 12 anos. MÉTODOS Um total de 550 escolares egípcios (220 meninos e 330 meninas) com idades entre 6 e 12 anos foram convidados aleatoriamente para participar desta análise descritiva. Para todas as crianças, diagnóstico e gravidade do flatfoot, bem como adipócitos plasmáticos; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; foram avaliados pelo método de Dennis e técnicas de imunoensaio, respectivamente. A dor no pé foi avaliada usando uma EVA padrão de 100 mm e a Faces Pain Scale, respectivamente. RESULTADOS O pé plano foi predito em 30,4% das crianças em idade escolar; a maioria apresentou maior frequência de sobrepeso (33,3%) e obesidade (62,5%). Os meninos apresentaram maiores faixas de pé plano do que as meninas. A dor no pé correlacionou-se significativamente com pé plano e obesidade entre as populações estudadas. Em crianças obesas com sobrepeso, variáveis adipocitárias plasmáticas; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; apresentaram correlação significativa com a postura do pé, em meninos e meninas. Além disso, as variáveis estudadas dos adipócitos, juntamente com o IMC, idade e sexo, explicaram cerca de 65% da variância do pé plano com a dor entre os nossos alunos em idade escolar. CONCLUSÃO A dor no pé mostrou associação com pé plano e obesidade infantil em 30,4% dos estudantes em idade escolar (6-12 anos). A dor no pé se correlacionou positivamente com a incidência de pé plano e a mudança nos marcadores de adiposidade; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6, TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged, 80 and over , Pain/blood , Flatfoot/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Adipocytes/chemistry , Obesity/blood , Pain/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Pain Measurement , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flatfoot/complications , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Resistin/blood , Obesity/complications
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 172-177, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019461

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Considering the high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) related deaths, many studies have investigated variables that can affect survival, with the aim of prolonging survival. The nutritional status can also be predict survival in patients with CRC. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate if BMI, %FAT, PhA, PG-SGA, adiponectin levels, and vitamin D levels are relevant to the characterization and differentiation of patients with advanced CRC and patients with a history of CRC. METHODS: The study was carried out by patients with advanced colorectal cancer (Group 1) and patients in follow-up after colorectal cancer treatment (Group 2). Nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index, body fat percentage, phase angle from bioelectrical impedance, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score. Adiponectin concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and vitamin D levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Groups 1 and 2 consisted of 23 and 27 patients, respectively. The body mass index, body fat percentage, phase angle, vitamin D and adiponectin levels were not significantly different between the groups. The mean Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly higher in group 1 compared with group 2, and was significantly correlated with the long-term mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Among the nutritional status parameters, only the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly different between the groups and was an important predictor of survival in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Considerando a alta incidência de óbitos devido ao câncer coloretal (CCR), estudos investigaram variáveis que podem afetar a sobrevida, com objetivo de prolongar a sobrevida. O estado nutricional desses pacientes também pode predizer a sobrevida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar se o índice de massa corporal (IMC), a porcentagem de gordura, os níveis séricos de adiponectina e de vitamina D são relevantes para a caracterização e diferenciação de pacientes com CCR avançado e pacientes com histórico de CCR. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado por pacientes com câncer colorretal avançado (Grupo 1) e pacientes em acompanhamento após o tratamento do CCR (Grupo 2). O estado nutricional foi avaliado por meio do IMC, percentual de gordura corporal, ângulo de fase da bioimpedância elétrica, escore de Avaliação Global Subjetiva Gerada pelo Paciente. As concentrações de adiponectina foram determinadas por ELISA e os níveis de vitamina D foram medidos por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta performance. RESULTADOS: Os grupos 1 e 2 consistiram de 23 e 27 pacientes, respectivamente. O IMC, percentual de gordura corporal, ângulo de fase, níveis de vitamina D e adiponectina não foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos. O escore médio da Avaliação Global Subjetiva Gerada pelo Paciente foi significativamente maior no grupo 1 em comparação com o Grupo 2, e foi significativamente correlacionado com o risco de mortalidade a longo prazo. CONCLUSÃO: Entre os indicadores do estado nutricional, apenas o escore da Avaliação Global Subjetiva Gerada pelo Paciente foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos e foi um importante preditor de sobrevida em pacientes com câncer colorretal avançado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitamin D/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Nutritional Status , Adiponectin/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Body Mass Index , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(2): 77-83, Jun. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1007096

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar el cambio en la concentración de adiponectina circulante en plasma en 23 mujeres obesas premenopáusicas de la ciudad de Lima luego de la reducción de la masa corporal como resultado de un programa de actividad física aeróbica y una dieta baja en calorías.Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio analítico y cuasi-experimental con el grupo de mujeres obesas. Adicionalmente, 24 mujeres se consideraron como control o de referencia de la concentración de adiponectina y otros marcadores bioquímicos. La cuantificación de adiponectina se realizó mediante la prueba de ELISA. La concentración de glucosa en ayunas en sangre, colesterol, lipoproteína de alta densidad y triglicéridos fueron cuantificados mediante análisis clínicos de rutina.Resultados: Antes del programa el grupo control mostró altos valores de adiponectina (mediana: 8,54 µg/mL; rango: 6,14 µg/mL a 13,49 µg/mL) en comparación con el grupo obesidad (mediana: 7,03 µg/mL, rango: 3;77 µg/mL a 17,23 µg/mL); sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (P = 0.0563). Luego de la finalización del programa se observó que el grupo obesidad presentó una reducción estadísticamente significativa del índice de masa corporal (P = 5.98e-08) y de la circunferencia abdominal (P = 1.55e-08) así como un incremento estadísticamente significativo de los niveles de adiponectina (mediana, 8.79 µg/mL; rango, 5.50 µg/mL a 19.37 µg/mL) (P = 0.0127). Conclusiones: Basándonos en los resultados, concluimos que en mujeres obesas premenopáusicas la concentración de adiponectina se incrementa cuando la masa corporal se reduce como resultado de actividad física aeróbica y una dieta baja en calorías.


Objective: To investigate the changes in the plasma-circulating adiponectin concentration in 23 premenopausal obese women living in Lima after a body mass reduction as a result of an aerobic physical activity program and a low-calorie diet.Materials and methods: An analytical and quasi-experimental study was conducted in a group of obese women. In addition, another 24 women were considered as control or reference group for comparing their adiponectin concentration and other biochemical markers. The quantification of adiponectin was carried out using the ELISA test. Fasting blood glucose concentration, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were quantified by routine clinical analysis.Results: Before beginning the program, the control group showed high adiponectin levels (median, 8.54 µg/mL; range, 6.14 µg/mL to 13.49 µg/mL) compared to the obesity group (median, 7.03 µg/mL; range, 3.77 µg/mL to 17.23 µg/mL). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.0563). Once the program was finished, the obesity group showed a statistically significant reduction in the body mass index (P = 5.98e-08) and abdominal circumference (P = 1.55e-08), and a statistically significant increase in the adiponectin levels (median, 8.79 µg/mL; range, 5.50 µg/mL to 19.37 µg/mL) (P = 0.0127). Conclusions: Based on the results, we conclude that the adiponectin concentration in premenopausal obese women increases when the body mass is reduced as a result of aerobic physical activity and a low-calorie diet.


Subject(s)
Female , Adiponectin , Body Mass Index , Diet, Reducing , Weight Reduction Programs , Motor Activity
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 127-138, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996722

ABSTRACT

A nutrigenômica representa uma ciência emergente que estuda a relação entre os nutrientes e os genes humanos. Dessa forma, as necessidades de alimentos, compostos bioativos e nutrientes variam entre os indivíduos, por conta dos polimorfismos gênicos, principalmente os de nucleotídeo único, podendo resultar no desenvolvimento de diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNTs). Este artigo objetiva conhecer as mais recentes informações sobre a nutrigenômica e os principais polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às DCNTs, bem como o impacto dos nutrientes na modulação da expressão gênica e prevenção destas patologias. Para o levantamento bibliográfico, optou-se pela busca de artigos nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, nos idiomas Português e Inglês. Aplicou-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "nutrigenômica e necessidades nutricionais", "nutrigenômica e obesidade", "nutrigenômica e diabetes mellitus tipo 2", "nutrigenômica e câncer" e "nutrigenômica e doença inflamatória intestinal". Evidências indicam que diversos tipos de polimorfismos estão associados à incidência, progressão e gravidade de doenças como a obesidade, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), câncer e doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DIIs). Os principais polimorfismos encontrados que se relacionam com as DCNTs são: rs9939609 do fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 do Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu do receptor ß-adrenérgico 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn do receptor de leptina (LEPR), -174C/G da interleucina 6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma gama 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 da lipina 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 no gene da adiponectina, rs10920533 em adiponectina receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 da Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), alelo G para o polimorfismo -11377C>G, alelo A para o polimorfismo 11391 G>A, Cdx2 do receptor de vitamina D (RVD), genes de selenoproteínas sob baixas concentrações de selênio (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPX-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS e TXNRD2) e alelo G do rs12212067 do Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3). É fundamental entender as interações gene-nutriente nestas doenças e as diferentes respostas metabólicas envolvidas, para que assim se possa orientar a alimentação de cada indivíduo conforme a sua herança genética. Enfim, os estudos não são conclusivos sobre o papel de cada fator na alteração dos genes, e a nutrigenômica é um fator importante e complexo que precisa avançar com a ciência nutricional.


Nutrigenomics represents an emerging science that studies the relation between nutrients and the human genes. Thus, the need for food, bioactive composts and nutrients vary from person to person due to genic polymorphisms, mainly single nucleotide polymorphism, which can result in the developing of many Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). This article aims at making a scientific literature review regarding the most recent information on nutrigenomics and the main polymorphisms related to the NCDs, as well as the impact of nutrients on the modulation of the genic expression and prevention of those pathologies. For the literature survey, a search was performed in PubMed and SciELO databases, in Portuguese and English using the combination of the following descriptors: "nutrigenomics and nutritional requirements", "nutrigenomics and obesity", "nutrigenomics and diabetes mellitus, type 2", "nutrigenomics and cancer", and "nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel disease". Evidence has shown that many types of polymorphisms are associated with the incidence, progression and severity of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The main polymorphisms found to be related to NCDs are: rs9939609 of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 of the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu of the ß-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn of the leptin receptor (LEPR), -174 G/C of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 of lipin 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 in the adiponectin gene, rs10920533 in adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 of Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), G allele of the -11377C>G polymorphism, allele A of the 11391 G>A polymorphism, Cdx2 of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), selenoprotein genes under low selenium concentrations (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPx-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS and TXNRD2), and G allele of the Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) rs12212067. It is fundamental to understand the interaction between gene-nutrients in these diseases and the different metabolic answers involved to guide the eating habits of each person according to their genetic heritage. Finally, the studies are not conclusive on the role of each factor in the alteration of the genes, and nutrigenomics is an important and complex factor that needs to advance with nutritional science.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Nutrigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Obesity/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Selenium , Vitamin D , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/prevention & control , Gene Expression , Nutrients , Apoptosis , Leptin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Alleles , Adiponectin , Selenoproteins , Nutritional Sciences , Genes , Neoplasms
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 192-197, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001127

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and obesity are somewhat related to a low-grade systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To determine leptin and adiponectin levels in psoriasis patients compared to control patients matched for weight. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, evaluating 113 psoriasis patients and 41 controls with other dermatologic diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 33% in cases and 21.9% in controls. All evaluated comorbidities were more prevalent among cases. When stratified by weight, the comorbidities were more frequent in overweight patients. We found no correlation between being overweight (p=0.25), leptin (p=0.18) or adiponectin (p=0.762) levels and psoriasis severity. When overweight cases and controls were compared, we found differences in the adiponectin values (p= 0.04). The overweight cases had lower adiponectin levels than the overweight controls. We found no differences in the leptin dosage between cases and controls. The overweight cases had higher leptin values than the normal weight cases (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Several patients used systemic anti-inflammatory medication. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity among psoriasis cases (33%) was higher than in the general population (17.4%). We did not find any correlation between severity of psoriasis and inflammatory cytokines and the condition of being overweight. The overweight cases had lower values of adiponectin than the overweight controls. It seems, therefore, that there is a relationship between adiponectin and psoriasis, but this relationship depends on the presence of obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Psoriasis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cytokines/blood , Overweight/blood , Obesity/blood
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 220-228, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Obesity is defined as a chronic and excessive growth of adipose tissue. It has been associated with a high risk for development and progression of obesity-associated malignancies, while adipokines may mediate this association. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokines, with significant anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-proliferative properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature is closely correlated with development of several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Recent studies have shown that prostate cancer patients have lower serum adiponectin levels and decreased expression of adiponectin receptors in tumor tissues, which suggests plasma adiponectin level is a risk factor for prostate cancer. Furthermore, exogenous adiponectin has exhibited therapeutic potential in animal models. In this review, we focus on the potential role of adiponectin and the underlying mechanism of adiponectin in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Exploring the signaling pathways linking adiponectin with tumorigenesis might provide a potential target for therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Receptors, Adiponectin/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adipose Tissue , Risk Factors , Disease Progression , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity/complications
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(1 (Supl)): 82-87, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015135

ABSTRACT

Há uma estreita relação entre os níveis circulantes de adiponectina, resistência à insulina e risco cardiovascular. As evidências disponíveis que avaliaram a relação entre adiponectina e exercício físico apresentam algumas controvérsias. Estudos recentes mostraram que o treinamento aeróbico não altera os níveis de adiponectina sem que haja redução significativa no peso corporal; outros estudos mostram que uma modesta perda de peso, em conjunto com treinamento aeróbico, melhora de forma importante os níveis dessa proteína ­ inclusive se não houver alteração no peso. Por outro lado, foi documentado que o treinamento aeróbico aumenta níveis de adiponectina até mesmo se houver ganho de peso. Motivado por tais discordâncias, o objetivo desta revisão narrativa foi apresentar e discutir a relação entre adiponectina e doenças cardiovasculares, bem como a possível influência do exercício físico nas concentrações sanguíneas de adiponectina e a sua associação com a melhora do estado glicêmico


There is a close relationship between circulating levels of adiponectin, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. The available evidence that evaluated the relationship between adiponectin levels and physical exercise is somewhat controversial. Recent studies have shown that aerobic training does not alter adiponectin levels without significant reduction in body weight; other studies show that modest weight loss, along with aerobic training, significantly improves the levels of this protein ­ even if there is no change in weight. On the other hand, it has been documented that aerobic training increases levels of adiponectin even if there is weight gain. Motivated by such inconsistencies, the purpose of this narrative review was to present and discuss the relationship between adiponectin and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the possible influence of physical exercise on blood concentrations of adiponectin and its association with improved glycemic status


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Adiponectin , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue , Risk Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Endothelial Cells , Obesity
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