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Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 17-28, 20230000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427271


Introducción: En las personas que viven con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (PVVIH) se han descripto desregulaciones metabólicas que podrían vincularse a un mayor riesgo cardiovascular.Objetivo: Evaluar el espesor del tejido adiposo epicárdico (ETAE) y la relación del mismo con parámetros clínicos y bioquímicos de riesgo cardiovascular en adultos que viven con VIH, comparados con controles seronegativos.Materiales y métodos: Observacional, inclusión prospectiva. Se incluyeron PVVIH >18 años y controles seronegativos para VIH, a los cuales se les midió el espesor de TAE en dos ejes por ecocardiograma transtorácico, así como el espesor de íntima media carotídea por ecografía doppler color.Resultados: 75 pacientes, 58,7% del sexo masculino, edad de 36 años (RIQ 22). 50,7% con VIH (CD4+: 512 cél/mm3 RIQ 382; 80% indetectables). IMC de 25,2 kg/m2 (RIQ 5,3) y circunferencia de cintura de 88,5 cm (DS 12,4), sin diferencias. Las PVVIH tuvieron menor HDL, mayor proteína C reactiva, mayor dímero D y mayor glucemia en ayunas. El ETAE fue mayor en las PVVIH (4,05 vs. 3,49 mm p=0,021), y se correlacionó con la edad, glucemia en ayunas y dímero D. En las PVVIH, se correlacionó con insulinemia, índice HOMA2-IR, HDL-c y dímero D. El tratamiento con Efavirenz se asoció a un mayor ETAE.Conclusión: Las PVVIH presentaron mayor inflamación sistémica de bajo grado y un mayor espesor de TAE que los controles sanos, el cual se asoció en este grupo a insulinorresistencia

Introduction: For people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV), metabolic deregulations have been described, which could be related to a higher cardiovascular risk.Objective: To assess the epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), and the relationship between this value and clinical and biochemical parameters of cardiovascular risk in adults living with HIV, if compared to a healthy control group. Methods: Observational, with prospective inclusion. It included PLHIV >18 years and seronegative controls. All of them had their EAT measured in two axes by transthoracic echocardiogram, as well as the carotid intima-media thickness determined by color doppler ultrasound.Results: 75 patients, 58.7% male, age of 36 years (RIQ 22). 50.7% patients with HIV (CD4+ of 512 cells/mm3; and 80% undetectable). BMI was of 25.2 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 88.5 cm, without between-groups differences. PLHIV had lower HDL, higher C reactive protein, higher D-dimer and higher fasting blood glucose. EATT was higher in PLHIV (4.05 vs 3.49 mm, p=0.021), and this correlated with age, fasting blood glucose and D-dimer. In PLHIV, it correlated with insulinemia, HOMA2-IR index, HDL-c ; and D-dimer. Treatment with Efavirenz was associated with a higher EATT.Conclusion: PLHIV presented increased systemic inflammation of low grade and higher EATT than the seronegative control group. EATT was associated in PLHIV to insulin resistance

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , HIV/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 241-247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981001


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of vascular walls with a complex etiology. In recent years, the incidence of atherosclerosis continues to increase with obesity and diabetes as major risk factors. As an important metabolic organ in the body, adipose tissue also has a powerful endocrine function. In the case of obesity and diabetes, various cytokines and exosomes derived from adipose tissue mediate organ-organ/cell-cell crosstalk, and are involved in the occurrence and development of various diseases. As an important intercellular communicator, exosomes regulate the pathological process of various cardiovascular diseases and are closely related to atherosclerosis. In this paper, we reviewed the mechanism of adipose-derived exosomes in atherosclerosis with focus on endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory response, lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, hoping to provide reference for the research, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.

Humans , Exosomes/metabolism , Atherosclerosis , Obesity/complications , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Insulin Resistance
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980994


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term ketogenic diet on the low temperature tolerance of mice and the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: normal diet (WT+ND) group and ketogenic diet (WT+KD) group. After being fed with normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The changes in core temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure of mice under low temperature condition were detected, and the protein expression levels of PPARα and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were detected by Western blot. PPARα knockout mice were divided into normal diet (PPARα-/-+ND) group and ketogenic diet (PPARα-/-+KD) group. After being fed with the normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The above indicators were also detected. The results showed that, at room temperature, the protein expression levels of PPARα and UCP1 in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group were significantly up-regulated, compared with those of WT+ND group. Under low temperature condition, compared with WT+ND, the core temperature and blood glucose of WT+KD group were increased, while mean arterial pressure was decreased; The ketogenic diet up-regulated PPARα protein expression in brown adipose tissue, as well as UCP1 protein expression in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group. Under low temperature condition, compared to WT+ND group, PPARα-/-+ND group exhibited decreased core temperature and down-regulated PPARα and UCP1 protein expression levels in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. Compared to the PPARα-/-+ND group, the PPARα-/-+KD group exhibited decreased core temperature and did not show any difference in the protein expression of UCP1 in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the ketogenic diet promotes UCP1 expression by up-regulating PPARα, thus improving low temperature tolerance of mice. Therefore, short-term ketogenic diet can be used as a potential intervention to improve the low temperature tolerance.

Animals , Mice , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , PPAR alpha/pharmacology , Diet, Ketogenic , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Temperature , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1670-1683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981162


Overexpression of Krüppel like factor 2 (Klf2) or Klf7 inhibits adipocyte formation. However, it remains unclear whether Klf2 regulates klf7 expression in adipose tissue. In this study, oil red O staining and Western blotting were employed to study the effect of Klf2 overexpression on the differentiation of chicken preadipocytes. The results showed that Klf2 overexpression inhibited the differentiation of chicken preadipocytes induced by oleate and the expression of pparγ, while promoted klf7 expression in chicken preadipocytes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to study the correlation between the expression data of klf2 and klf7 in the adipose tissue of both human and chicken. The results showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of klf2 and klf7 in adipose tissues (r > 0.1). Luciferase reporter assay showed that overexpression of Klf2 significantly promoted the activity of chicken klf7 promoter (-241/-91, -521/-91, -1 845/-91, -2 286/-91, -1 215/-91; P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of klf7 promoter (-241/-91) reporter in chicken preadipocytes was significantly positively correlated with the amount of klf2 overexpression plasmid transfected (Tau=0.917 66, P=1.074×10-7). Moreover, Klf2 overexpression significantly promoted the mRNA expression of klf7 in chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, upregulation of klf7 expression might be one of the pathways that Klf2 inhibits chicken adipocyte differentiation, and the sequence from -241 bp to -91 bp upstream chicken klf7 translation start site might mediate the regulation of Klf2 on klf7 transcription.

Animals , Humans , Chickens/genetics , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1502-1513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981150


Skeletal muscle is one of the most important organs in animal, and the regulatory mechanism of skeletal muscle development is of great importance for the diagnosis of muscle-related diseases and the improvement of meat quality of livestock. The regulation of skeletal muscle development is a complex process, which is regulated by a large number of muscle secretory factors and signaling pathways. In addition, in order to maintain steady-state and maximum use of energy metabolism in the body, the body coordinates multiple tissues and organs to form the complex and sophisticated metabolic regulation network, which plays an important role for the regulation of skeletal muscle development. With the development of omics technologies, the underlying mechanism of tissue and organ communication has been deeply studied. This paper reviews the effects of crosstalk among adipose tissue, nerve tissue and intestinal tissue on skeletal muscle development, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis for targeted regulation of skeletal muscle development.

Animals , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Signal Transduction
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 30-30, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939849


Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a promising cell type for bone tissue regeneration. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been shown to play a critical role in regulating various cell differentiation and involve in mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis. However, how circRNAs regulate hASCs in osteogenesis is still unclear. Herein, we found circ_0003204 was significantly downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Knockdown of circ_0003204 by siRNA or overexpression by lentivirus confirmed circ_0003204 could negatively regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. We performed dual-luciferase reporting assay and rescue experiments to verify circ_0003204 regulated osteogenic differentiation via sponging miR-370-3p. We predicted and confirmed that miR-370-3p had targets in the 3'-UTR of HDAC4 mRNA. The following rescue experiments indicated that circ_0003204 regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via miR-370-3p/HDAC4 axis. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the silencing of circ_0003204 increased the bone formation and promoted the expression of osteogenic-related proteins in a mouse bone defect model, while overexpression of circ_0003204 inhibited bone defect repair. Our findings indicated that circ_0003204 might be a promising target to promote the efficacy of hASCs in repairing bone defects.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Circular/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stem Cells/metabolism
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 67-75, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283594


BACKGROUND: Adipogenesis and fibrogenesis can be considered as a competitive process in muscle, which may affect the intramuscular fat deposition. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPb) plays an important role in adipogenesis, which is well-characterized in mice, but little known in bovine so far. RESULTS: In this study, real-time qPCR revealed that the level of C/EBPb was increased during the developmental stages of bovine and adipogenesis process of preadipocytes. Overexpression of C/EBPb promoted bovine fibroblast proliferation through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a necessary process for initiating adipogenesis, by significantly downregulating levels of p21 and p27 (p < 0.01). Also, the PPARc expression was inhibited during the MCE stage (p < 0.01). 31.28% of transfected fibroblasts adopted lipid-laden adipocyte morphology after 8 d. Real-time qPCR showed that C/EBPb activated the transcription of early stage adipogenesis markers C/EBPa and PPARc. Expression of ACCa, FASN, FABP4 and LPL was also significantly upregulated, while the expression of LEPR was weakened. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded C/EBPb can convert bovine fibroblasts into adipocytes without hormone induction by initiating the MCE process and promoting adipogenic genes expression, which may provide new insights into the potential functions of C/EBPb in regulating intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle.

Cattle/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Clone Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mitosis , Muscles
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 71-81, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088771


ABSTRACT Objective Provide a comprehensive view of the events surrounding the sugar consumption, under conditions of energy equivalence; through the analysis of behavioral aspects of intake, and of biochemical, metabolic and physiological parameters, as well as the effect of this nutrient on the plasticity of adipose tissue. Materials and methods Newly weaned male Wistar rats were classified in two groups and subjected to the following normocaloric diets: standard chow diet or to high-sugar diet (HSD) ad libitum for 18 weeks. Results The animals submitted to the HSD were associated with a lower caloric intake during the 18 weeks of experimentation. However, the HSD induced a significant increase in body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, Lee index, and the levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition, it induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and compensatory increase of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. Also increased heart rate and induced hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue. In the liver, the HSD was associated with increased hepatic lipid content (i.e., triglycerides and cholesterol) and hepatomegaly. Conclusion The post-weaning consumption of HSD induces an adaptive response in metabolism; however, such an event is not enough to reverse the homeostatic imbalance triggered by the chronic consumption of this macronutrient, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, irrespective of caloric intake. These findings corroborate recent evidence indicating that sugar is a direct contributor to metabolic diseases independent of a positive energy balance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):71-81

Animals , Male , Rats , Energy Intake , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Dietary Sugars/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sugars/adverse effects , Dietary Sugars/blood , Metabolic Diseases/blood
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(1): 3-14, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153223


Resumen En las últimas décadas, la prevalencia de la obesidad ha aumentado a escala mundial y ha provocado complicaciones metabólicas tales como diabetes de tipo 2, esteatosis, problemas cardiovasculares, entre otras. Su desarrollo puede estar influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales, incluyendo la microbiota intestinal. En México, el 33.3% de la población adulta padece de este problema. La obesidad involucra un incremento excesivo del tejido adiposo que produce su disfunción. Se ha demostrado que la remodelación del tejido adiposo, dada por angiogénesis, hipoxia e inflamación, otorga susceptibilidad a desarrollar obesidad y conlleva a modificaciones metabólicas. La cirugía bariátrica ha sido el procedimiento más utilizado y más exitoso para tratar la obesidad mórbida en cuanto a la pérdida de peso corporal a largo plazo y a la remisión de comorbilidades como la diabetes tipo 2. En este artículo se revisan los aspectos moleculares por medio de los cuales la cirugía bariátrica provoca cambios metabólicos que se reflejan en la pérdida de peso y las mejoras metabólicas. Por lo tanto, se resumen aspectos genéticos, de microbioma y moleculares (remodelación del tejido adiposo) que influyen en el desarrollo de la obesidad. También se explican los aspectos moleculares a través de los cuales se puede modular la pérdida de peso y la mejoría de comorbilidades metabólicas.

Abstract Obesity prevalence has increased in the last decades worldwide leading to metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes, steatosis, cardiovascular disease, among others; its development is influenced by genetic factors and environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiome. In Mexico, 33.3% of the adults present this disease. Obesity is defined as an excessive adipose tissue accumulation, provoking its dysfunction. Adipose tissue remodeling, which involves angiogenesis, hypoxia and inflammation, is implicated in the developing of obesity and metabolic modifications. Bariatric surgery is the most used and successful intervention to control morbid obesity, leading a maintained loss of weight and remission of some of its comorbidities as type 2 diabetes. Here, we review some of the molecular aspects of the metabolic changes provoked by bariatric surgery and its impact in weight loss and comorbidities remission. In summary, this article reviews the genetic aspects, microbiome and molecular facts (adipose tissue remodeling) that are involved in obesity development. In addition, some of the molecular aspects about bariatric surgery are described and the mechanisms that are regulated to control obesity and its comorbidities.

Adult , Animals , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Weight Loss , Prevalence , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Obesity/surgery , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(1): 43-50, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092627


Abstract Objective The present article aims to evaluate the impact of testosterone treatment on the expansion of visceral, subcutaneous and intramedullary adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats and the visceral and subcutaneous fat expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) gamma. Methods In total 48 female Wistar rats were castrated and randomly divided into 6 treatment groups: group E2 was submitted to estradiol 5 μg/day; group T, to testosterone 5 μg/day; group E2+ T, to estradiol 5 μg/day + testosterone 5 μg/day; group TT, to testosterone 30 μg/day; group E2+ TT, to estradiol 5 μg/day+ testosterone 30 μg/day; and placebo was administered to group P. After 5 weeks, the rats were euthanized, the inguinal and visceral adipose tissues were harvested, weighted, and had their PPAR gamma expression evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR). The right femurs were harvested and histologically prepared to performthe number count of the intramedullary adipocytes. Results The expansion of visceral fat tissue was much higher in the TT group when compared with other treated groups (p < 0.001). The TT group also showed a higher expansion of inguinal fat (p < 0.01), and groups E2 +T and E2+ TT presented lower growth compared to the P group (p < 0.01). The number of femur intramedullary adipocytes only showed significant differences between groups TT and E2 + TT (p < 0.05). The expression of PPAR gamma showed no differences among the groups. Conclusion The use of testosterone in high doses leads to an important expansion in both visceral and inguinal adipose tissues. Association with estradiol exerts an expansion-repressive effect on the visceral and inguinal adipose tissues.

Resumo Objetivo Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o impacto do tratamento com testosterona na expansão dos tecidos adiposos visceral, subcutâneo e intramedular de ratas ovariectomizadas e a expressão de receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissoma (RAPPs) gama nas gorduras visceral e subcutânea. Métodos No total, 48 ratas Wistar foram castradas e divididas aleatoriamente em 6 grupos de tratamento: o grupo E2 recebeu estradiol 5 μg/dia; o grupo T, testosterona 5 μg/dia; o grupo E2 + T, estradiol 5 μg/dia + testosterona 5 μg/dia; o grupo TT, testosterona 30 μg/dia; o grupo E2 + TT, estradiol 5 μg/dia + testosterona 30 μg/dia; e o grupo P recebeu placebo. Após 5 semanas, as ratas foram submetidas a eutanásia, o tecido adiposo inguinal e visceral foi coletado, pesado, e se avaliou a expressão dos RAPP gama por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa quantitativa (RCP-TRq). Os ossos do fêmur direito foram colhidos e processados histologicamente para contagem de números de adipócitos intramedulares. Resultados A expansão do tecido adiposo visceral foi muito maior no grupo TT quando comparado a outros grupos tratados (p < 0,001). O grupo TT também apresentou maior expansão da gordura inguinal (p < 0,01), e os grupos E2 +T e E2 + TT apresentaram menor crescimento em relação ao grupo P (p < 0,01). O número de adipócitos intramedulares no fêmur mostrou apenas diferenças significativas entre os grupos TT e E2 + TT (p < 0,05). A expressão de RAPP gama não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão O uso de testosterona emaltas doses leva a uma importante expansão nos tecidos adiposos visceral e inguinal. A associação com o estradiol exerce um efeito repressivo de expansão nos tecidos adiposos visceral e inguinal.

Animals , Female , Rats , Testosterone/pharmacology , Menopause , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Testosterone/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-10, 20200101. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130010


Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros morfométricos e a quantidade de tecidos adiposos de ratos alimentados com resíduos da lichia. Métodos: na etapa 1, os animais foram divididos em grupo C (controle) e grupo H (dieta hipercalórica); enquanto, na etapa 2, os animais do grupo C permaneceram neste grupo, e os demais foram divididos no grupo H, grupo HCL (10% de farinha da casca de lichia), e o grupo HSL (10% de farinha da semente de lichia). Avaliaram-se os Índices de Massa Corporal (IMC) e de Lee; o consumo alimentar, o Coeficiente de Eficiência Alimentar e a Digestibilidade Aparente; os Índices Hepato-Somático, de Gordura Visceral e de Gordura Epididimal. Compararam-se os dados pelo Teste de Tukey a 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença estatística quanto o peso corporal, o IMC, o consumo alimentar, e o Índice Hepato-Somático. O grupo HCL não diferiu do grupo C quanto ao Coeficiente de Eficiência Alimentar e à quantidade dos tecidos adiposos (visceral e epididimal). Os grupos que receberam as farinhas de lichia não diferiram do grupo C quanto ao ganho de peso e ao Índice de Lee; entretanto, apresentaram menor Índice de Gordura Epididimal que o grupo H e maior que o grupo C, embora o grupo controle (C) apresentasse menor Digestibilidade Aparente das dietas nas duas avaliações. Conclusão: a farinha da casca de lichia apresentou os melhores resultados, uma vez que não diferiu do grupo controle (C) para alguns parâmetros morfométricos e a quantidade dos tecidos adiposos, sugerindo que as fibras e os polifenóis dessa farinha promoveram os efeitos identificados neste estudo.

Objective: to evaluate the morphometric parameters and the amount of adipose tissue of rats fed lychee residues. Methods: in stage 1, the animals were divided into group C (control) and group H (hypercaloric diet); while in stage 2, the animals from group C remained in this group, and the others were divided into group H, group LPF (10% lychee peel flour), and group LSF (10% lychee seed flour). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Lee Index; dietary intake, Food Efficiency Coefficient and Apparent Digestibility; Hepato-Somatic, Visceral Fat (VFI) and Epididymal Fat Indexes (EFI) were evaluated. The data were compared by the Tukey Test at 5%. Results: there was no statistical difference regarding body weight, BMI, food intake, and Hepato-Somatic Index. The LPF group did not differ from group C (p>0.05) regarding the Food Efficiency Coefficient and the amount of adipose tissues (visceral and epididymal). The groups that received the lychee flours did not differ from group C regarding weight gain and Lee Index, however they presented lower Epididymal Fat Index than group H and higher than group C, and the control group (C) presented lower Apparent Dietary Digestibility in both evaluations. Conclusion: lychee peel flour showed the best results, since it did not differ from the control group (C) for some morphometric parameters and the amount of adipose tissues, suggesting that the fibers and polyphenols of this flour promoted the effects identified in this study.

Body Mass Index , Litchi , Rats , Waste Products , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diet , /methods
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2019017, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136727


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the hydration of obese and non-obese adolescents by vectorial bioimpedance analysis, in addition to verifying the associations between obesity and bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis (BIVA) parameters. Methods: A cross-sectional study with adolescents between 14 and 18 years old (n=489, 300 boys and 189 girls). Electric bioimpedance (BIA; Quantum_II, RJL system, Rome, Italy) provided resistance and reactance parameters to calculate phase angle (PA), fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat (%BF). The confidence ellipses were compared, and the construction of the tolerance ellipses allowed individual and qualitative evaluation of the vectors and classification in dehydrated, normohydrated and hyperhydrated. Results: 78 obese and 411 eutrophic adolescents participated. Resistance (p<0.001) and reactance (p<0.001) and their normalization by stature (p<0.001) were reduced in the obese, whereas the PA was higher (p=0.003). %BF was 11.3% higher in obese adolescents. The main vector of the obese, both male (D=1.38; p<0.001) and female (D=1.49; p<0.001), indicated greater hydration. The ellipse of tolerance of the total sample showed that 25 (32.1%) were hyperhydrated and 02 (2.6%) vectors positioned in the sense of dehydration. A total of 17 (53.2%) girls and 16 (34.8%) boys were hyperhydrated. Logistic regression showed an inverse relation of BMI with resistance (p<0.001), reactance (p<0.001) and both normalized by stature. Adolescents with increased PA (p<0.001) were twice as likely to present obesity. Conclusions: Obese adolescents were hyperhydrated and there was an inverse relationship of BMI with resistance and direct with PA.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a hidratação de adolescentes obesos e não obesos por meio dos gráficos da análise vetorial por bioimpedância (BIVA), além de verificar as associações entre a obesidade e os parâmetros da BIVA. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com adolescentes entre 14 e 18 anos (n=489, 300 meninos e 189 meninas). A bioimpedância elétrica (BIA; Quantum_II, RJL system, Roma, Itália) ofereceu os parâmetros de resistência e reactância para calcular o ângulo de fase (AF), a massa livre de gordura (MLG) e a gordura corporal (GC). As elipses de confiança foram comparadas e a construção das elipses de tolerância permitiu a avaliação individual e a qualitativa dos vetores e, ainda, a classificação em desidratados, normohidratados e hiper-hidratados. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 78 adolescentes obesos e 411 eutróficos. A resistência (p<0,001), a reactância (p<0,001) e a normalização desses pela estatura (p<0,001) estavam reduzidas nos obesos, enquanto o AF foi superior (p=0,003). O percentual de gordura corporal (%GC) foi 11,3% maior nos adolescentes obesos. O vetor principal dos obesos, tanto masculino (Distância de Mahalanobis (D)=1,38; p<0,001) quanto feminino (D=1,49; p<0,001), indicou maior hidratação. A elipse de tolerância da amostra total mostrou que 25 adolescentes (32,1%) estavam hiper-hidratados e dois (2,6%) vetores posicionados no sentido de desidratação. Dezessete (53,2%) meninas e 16 (34,8%) meninos estavam hiper-hidratados. A regressão logística mostrou relação inversa do índice de massa corpórea (IMC) com a resistência (p<0,001) e a reactância (p<0,001), ambas normalizadas pela estatura. Os adolescentes com aumento do AF (p<0,001) apresentaram duas vezes mais chances de serem classificados como obesos. Conclusões: Os adolescentes obesos estavam hiper-hidratados e houve relação inversa do IMC com a resistência e direta com o AF.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition/physiology , Anthropometry/methods , Organism Hydration Status/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electric Impedance , Dehydration/metabolism , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Obesity/epidemiology
Motriz (Online) ; 26(4): e10200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143315


Abstract Aim: To investigate the effect of moderate-intensity swimming training on bone mineral density under a 20% food restriction (FR) schedule for 12 weeks in female rats. Methods: Forty female Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (CG), exercised (EG), food restriction (FRG), and food restriction/exercised (FREG). At 95 days. the animals were subjected to aquatic adaptation and then performed the critical load test to individually determine the critical load intensity (CLi, % of body mass). Exercised groups swam 5 days a week, 30 minutes daily with weekly adjustment of the load equivalent to 80% of the CLi. The FR schedule was 20% in relation to CG and started concomitantly with physical training (PT). After 12 weeks, visceral fat weight was recorded and the femur was collected for biophysical and biomechanical analysis. Results: FR and exercise training promoted visceral fat reduction (p<0.01). FR reduced bone mineral density (p<0.01), while exercise training prevented such reduction. On the other hand, FR and exercise training did not promote significant changes in biomechanical parameters of the femur. Conclusion: Exercise training at moderate intensity was efficient in preserving bone mineral density despite long term of FR at 20%.

Animals , Rats , Exercise/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Caloric Restriction
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 601-608, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038743


ABSTRACT Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.

RESUMO Objetivo: A inflamação hipotalâmica e a superexpressão da proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) em astrócitos são bem descritas em animais obesos, assim como déficits cognitivos e de memória. Como o hipocampo desempenha importante papel na consolidação de informações, esta investigação teve como objetivo observar a função da memória e a expressão astrocitária da GFAP no hipocampo de ratos que receberam dieta hipercalórica ou normocalórica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos adultos receberam dieta rica em gordura (cafeteria) ou dieta padrão por 60 dias. No 61º dia, os ratos foram submetidos ao teste de reconhecimento de objetos (NOR) 3 e 24 horas após o primeiro contato com os objetos, para avaliação da memória de curto e de longo prazo, respectivamente. Após, os ratos foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos coletados para pesquisa imuno-histoquímica da expressão astrocitária de GFAP no hipocampo (áreas CA1, CA2 e CA3) e no hipotálamo (núcleos periventricular e arqueado). A reatividade astrocitária foi avaliada por morfometria. Diferentes depósitos de tecido adiposo branco e marrom foram pesados para calcular o índice de adiposidade. Resultados: A dieta hipercalórica aumentou o ganho de peso corporal, o índice de adiposidade, o peso do tecido adiposo branco (epididimal, subcutâneo e retroperitoneal) e marrom. Ratos alimentados com dieta hipercalórica apresentaram prejuízos na memória de curto e longo prazo no teste NOR e aumento da expressão de GFAP em astrócitos de todas as áreas hipotalâmicas e hipocampais analisadas. Conclusão: Esta astrogliose sugere que a resposta neuroinflamatória também ocorre no hipocampo, podendo estar envolvida nas perdas de memória observadas em animais obesos/com sobrepeso.

Animals , Male , Astrocytes/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/cytology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 165-168, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989437


Abstract Neotropical nectar-feeding bats consume large amounts of sugar and use most of their energy-rich diet directly from the bloodstream, suggesting an adaptation towards lower body energy reserves. Here we tested the hypothesis that bats Glossophaga soricina spare the energy costs of storing energy reserves, even if this would represent a risky susceptibility during fasting. Blood glucose concentrations in 18 h fasted bats showed a 40% decrease. Breast muscle and adipose tissue lipids, as well as carcass fatty acids and liver glycogen, were also decreased following fasting. The inability to keep normoglycemia following a short-term fasting (i.e. 28 h) confirm that nectar bats invest little on storing energy reserves and show a severe fasting susceptibility associated to this pattern. Our study also support the general hypothesis that evolutionary specializations towards nectar diets involve adaptations to allow a decreased body mass, which reduces the energy costs of flight while increases foraging time.

Resumo Morcegos nectarívoros que ocorrem na região Neotropical consomem grandes quantidades de carboidratos, e usam a energia obtida da dieta diretamente, a partir da glicose na circulação sanguínea. Esta adaptação sugere que morcegos nectarívoros tenham evoluído no sentido de apresentar adaptações fisiológicas que permitam o baixo armazenamento de reservas energéticas corporais. Nós testamos a hipótese de que morcegos Glossophaga soricina poupam o gasto energético envolvido com a formação de reservas energéticas teciduais, mesmo que isso represente uma arriscada suscetibilidade da espécie frente ao jejum. As concentrações de glicose apresentaram uma diminuição de 40% após 18 h de jejum. As concentrações de lipídios do músculo peitoral e do tecido adiposo, bem como as de ácidos graxos da carcaça e glicogênio hepático também diminuíram após 18 h de jejum. A incapacidade de manter a normoglicemia observada após o jejum de curto-prazo confirma que morcegos nectarívoros desta espécie não investem na formação de reservas energéticas, e apresentam, consequentemente, uma severa susceptibilidade ao jejum. Este estudo suporta a hipótese de que adaptações evolucionárias da espécie envolvem diminuição da massa corporal, reduzindo o custo energético do voo e aumentado o tempo de forrageamento.

Animals , Chiroptera/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Plant Nectar/metabolism , Blood Glucose/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/chemistry , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Feeding Behavior
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(4): 1299-1308, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001777


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal e verificar a associação entre a insatisfação pela magreza e pelo excesso de peso e componentes da aptidão física relacionada à saúde em adolescentes. Participaram 1.058 adolescentes (570 moças e 488 rapazes), com média de idade de 16,3(± 1,0) anos. As variáveis investigadas foram a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (escala de silhuetas), e as relativas à aptidão física relacionada à saúde: adiposidade corporal (dobras cutâneas), força muscular (preensão manual) e aptidão cardiorrespiratória (teste mCAFT). A associação entre a imagem corporal e as variáveis de aptidão física foi testada por meio da Regressão Multinomial. A prevalência de insatisfação corporal foi de 75,2% (moças = 79,5%; rapazes = 70,3%). Moças e rapazes com adiposidade corporal elevada tiveram menor chance de insatisfação pela magreza e maior chance de insatisfação pelo excesso de peso. Os que necessitavam melhorar a força muscular e a aptidão cardiorrespiratória tiveram maior chance de insatisfação pela magreza e pelo excesso de peso, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a aptidão física relacionada à saúde esteve associada à imagem corporal, sendo que os adolescentes com níveis menos saudáveis dos diferentes componentes foram os mais insatisfeitos.

Abstract The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and verify the association between dissatisfaction with thinness or with overweight and health-related physical fitness components among adolescents. Participants included 1058 adolescents (570 girls and 488 boys), with mean age of 16.3 (±1.0) years. The investigated variables were dissatisfaction with body image (Figure Rating Scale), and health-related physical fitness: body fat (skin folds), muscle strength (handgrip strength) and cardiorespiratory fitness (mCAFT test). The association of body image and the health-related physical fitness variables was tested by Multinomial Regression analysis. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 75.2% (girls = 79.5%; boys = 70.3%). Girls and boys with high body fat were less likely to be dissatisfied with thinness and more likely to be dissatisfied with overweight. Those who needed to improve muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were more likely to be dissatisfied with thinness and with overweight, respectively. In conclusion, physical fitness was associated with body image, with the adolescents with less healthy conditions of the components being more dissatisfied.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Thinness/psychology , Body Image/psychology , Physical Fitness/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Thinness/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180088, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975894


Abstract Obesity is considered a risk factor for periodontal health due to the low- grade inflammation promoted by the increased adipose tissue. Objective: This study aimed to determine correlations and associations between gingival inflammation (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and Gingival Index), salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and salivary parameters (salivary flow and osmolality) in normal-weight and overweight/obese children. Material and Methods: Ninety-one children, aged 6 to 12 years old (8.6±1.9 years), were divided into two groups according to their body mass index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold measurements and body fat percentage: normal- weight group (NWG; n =50) and overweight/obese group (OG; n =41). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, and salivary collection. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association tests ( p <0.05). Results: OG presented statistically higher s-IgA values compared with NWG, especially among the obese children ( p <0.05). Significant positive correlations between s-IgA and salivary osmolality in OG ( p <0.05), and between s-IgA and BMI values ( p <0.05) and body fat percentage ( p <0.05) were observed among all the children. Effect size varied from moderate for s-IgA values ( d =0.57) to large for BMI ( d =2.60). Conclusion: Gingival inflammation and salivary parameters were similar for NWG and OG; however, s-IgA presented higher values in OG, with correlations between BMI and body fat percentage.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Saliva/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Overweight/blood , Pediatric Obesity/blood , Gingivitis/blood , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Periodontal Index , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Overweight/complications , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Gingivitis/etiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e8150, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974270


High caloric intake promotes chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, which may be prevented by food restriction (FR). The effect of FR on expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and brain was compared. Male Swiss mice were submitted to FR (FR group) or had free access to food (control group) during 56 days. The liver, gastrocnemius muscle, brain, and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) were collected for analysis of gene expressions. FR attenuated inflammation in the liver, brain, and gastrocnemius muscle but did not markedly change inflammatory gene expression in epididymal WAT. We concluded that adipose tissue was less responsive to FR in terms of gene expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Liver/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Gene Expression , Cholesterol/blood
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 81 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425293


No presente estudo, avaliamos o impacto da deficiência de vitamina D em camundongos fêmeas ovariectomizadas. A hipótese do nosso estudo é que a deficiência de vitamina D aumenta a inflamação no tecido adiposo e promove acúmulo de gordura hepática em modelo de menopausa. Camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas, com três meses de idade, foram ovariectomizados ou não, e divididos em grupos controle (C, alimentado com dieta padrão), ovariectomizados (Ovx, alimentado com dieta padrão), controle sem vitamina D (C (D-), alimentado com dieta padrão sem vitamina D) e ovariectomizados sem vitamina D (Ovx (D-), alimentados com dieta padrão sem vitamina D) por doze semanas. Como resultados, no grupo Ovx (D-), houve resistência à insulina e intolerância à glicose, além do aumento da massa corporal. No fígado, houve aumento da esteatose hepática, com consequente aumento da lipogênese e inflamação, fatores que foram comprovados pelo aumento na expressão de genes e proteínas responsáveis pelo metabolismo lipídico. Além disso, houve redução da beta-oxidação de ácidos graxos. No tecido adiposo periovariano, a ovariectomia aumentou a área média dos adipócitos e a expressão proteica e gênica de citocinas pró-inflamatórias. Associado aos achados supracitados, houve aumento do metabolismo local da vitamina D, como forma de compensar a deficiência dessa vitamina. Em conclusão, os achados experimentais atuais são robustos e demonstram que a ovariectomia e a restrição dietética de vitamina D em camundongos têm efeitos adversos aditivos que levam a um aumento da massa corporal, da esteatose hepática e resistência à insulina. Esses achados estão ligados ao aumento dos marcadores de lipogênese e diminuição da beta-oxidação, predispondo ao acúmulo de gordura no fígado, assim como o aumento da inflamação no tecido adiposo periovariano.

In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of vitamin D deficiency in ovariectomized female mice. The hypothesis of our study is that vitamin D deficiency increases the inflammation in adipose tissue and promotes accumulation of hepatic fat in the menopause model. Female C57BL / 6 mice, three months old, were ovariectomized or not, and divided into control (C, fed control diet), ovariectomized (Ovx fed control diet), control without vitamin D (D-), fed control diet without vitamin D) and ovariectomized without vitamin D (Ovx (D-), fed control diet without vitamin D) for twelve weeks. As a result, in Ovx (D-) group there was insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, as well as an increase in body mass. In the liver, there was an increase in hepatic steatosis, with consequent increase in lipogenesis and inflammation due to the increase in the expression of genes and proteins of lipid metabolism. In addition, there was a reduction of beta-oxidation and reduction of fatty acid oxidation. In periovarian adipose tissue, ovariectomy increased the mean area of adipocytes and protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Associated with the findings, there was increase in the local vitamin D metabolism, to compensate the deficiency of this vitamin. In conclusion, that current experimental findings are robust showing that ovariectomy and vitamin D dietary restriction in mice have additive adverse effects that lead to increased body mass, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. These findings are linked to increase of lipogenesis markers and decreased of beta-oxidation, predisposing to accumulation of fat in the liver, as well as increased inflammation in periovarian adipose tissue.

Animals , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Menopause , Vitamin D , Insulin Resistance , Ovariectomy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced , Diet/methods , Fatty Liver/metabolism
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(12): 4129-4142, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974766


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre maus-tratos na família e excesso de peso, de gordura corporal e de gordura abdominal dos adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo transversal que utiliza dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção à Saúde de Adolescentes, realizado em 2007, pelo município do Rio de Janeiro. A amostra foi composta por 1.628 escolares de 13 a 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, cursando o 9˚ ano do ensino fundamental. O excesso de peso, de gordura corporal e de gordura abdominal (desfechos) e os maus-tratos familiares (a agressão física e verbal) foram avaliados. A associação entre os maus-tratos e os desfechos foi realizada via modelos de regressão logística. Os maus-tratos apresentaram uma relação inversa com o excesso de peso e o de gordura para as meninas, mas somente a agressão física se associou significativamente com o excesso de peso (RC = 0,499; IC = 0,212-0,951). Já para os meninos, os resultados apontaram para o excesso de peso e de gordura mas sem significância estatística. Políticas de saúde devem considerar as diferenças existentes entre os gêneros no enfrentamento às experiências de violência que possam influenciar a saúde e o bem-estar do adolescente.

Abstract This study sought to investigate the relationship between domestic maltreatment and excess weight, body fat and abdominal fat among adolescents from the public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study using data from the Risk Factor Surveillance System and Protection of Health of Adolescents, held in 2007 by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The sample consisted of 1628 students aged 13 to 19 years, of both sexes, in the 9th year of school. Excess weight, body fat and abdominal fat (outcome variables) and domestic maltreatment (physical and verbal aggression) were evaluated. The association between domestic maltreatment and outcome variables was conducted via logistic regression models. Domestic maltreatment showed an inverse relationship to excess weight and fat for girls, but only physical aggression was significantly associated with excess weight (OR = 0.499, CI = 0.212 to 0.951). As for the boys, the results pointed to excess weight and fat but without statistical significance. Health policies must consider the differences between the genders in coping with experiences of violence that may influence the health and well-being of adolescents.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adiposity , Obesity/epidemiology , Schools , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abdominal Fat/metabolism