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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5113-5121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008709

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been identified as a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and a key risk factor for diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and malignancies, and has become an urgent global health burden. Adipose tissue macrophages play a significant role in adipose immune homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Under different conditions, they can be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In obese individuals, there is abnormal polarization of macrophages in adipose tissue, leading to an imbalance in the M1/M2 phenotype dynamic equilibrium and the development of pathological inflammation. Therefore, restoring the balance of M1/M2 macrophage polarization is an important potential target for the treatment of chronic inflammation in obesity. Studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can positively modulate macrophage polarization and produce beneficial effects on obesity. Based on existing evidence, this paper systematically reviewed the potential mechanisms of TCM in improving chronic inflammation in obesity from the perspective of macrophage polarization, in order to provide evidence for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammation in obesity with TCM and offer new insights for related research design and the development of new TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Obesity/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098314

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adipocytes, Beige/drug effects , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Obesity , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Diet , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000403, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130637

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To collect data capable of pointing out the effects of the ultracavitation treatment on the liver of rabbits after adipose tissue application, by means of histological analyses of the liver and hematological and biochemical exams. Methods This is an experimental study with 12 albino rabbits as sample, which were divided into 3 groups and submitted to a hypercaloric diet for one month. Subsequently, subjects underwent UCV treatment: 3 minutes, 30 W, continuous mode at 100%, every 2 ERAS = 441.02 J/cm2, intensity of 10w/cm2. They were then euthanized and underwent biopsy after 24 hours. Results After 48 hours from the ultracavitation treatment, the animals' livers presented greater amount of fat infiltration if compared to the amount presented 96 hours after the treatment. However, laboratory tests showed no alterations. Values were maintained within normal parameters of cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Conclusions This study has identified that infiltrates may appear on livers after the treatment, despite high hematological and biochemical tests results. The fat infiltrates reduction 96 h after treatment suggests lower risks to animal health, if the period between applications is respected.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/pathology , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation/methods , Lipodystrophy/pathology , Lipodystrophy/therapy , Liver/pathology , Rabbits , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Alanine Transaminase/blood , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation/adverse effects , Hematocrit , Lipodystrophy/blood
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 821-827, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058610

ABSTRACT

Background: A simple and inexpensive method is required to assess fatty infiltration of the liver non-invasively. Aim: To develop and compare different methods to quantify liver fat by magnetic resonance and compare it against ultrasound. Material and Methods: Three algorithms were implemented: region growing (RG), graph cuts (GC) and hierarchical (HR), all based on the IDEAL method to obtain water and fat images. Using these images, the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The three methods were tested in phantoms with known fat percentages and later on we acquired images from 20 volunteers with an ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver disease in different stages. For everyone, the PDFF of the nine liver segments was determined. Results: In phantoms, the mean error between the real fat percentage and the value obtained through the three methods was −1,26, −1 and −0,8 for RG, GC and HR, respectively. The hierarchical method was more precise and efficient to obtain PDFF. The results in volunteers revealed that ultrasound showed errors categorizing the severity of hepatic steatosis in more than 50% of volunteers. Conclusions: We developed a tool for magnetic resonance, which allows to quantify fat in the liver. This method is less operator dependent than ultrasound and describes the heterogeneity in the fat distribution along the nine hepatic segments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Ultrasonography , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 41-47, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of epicardial fat thickness (EFT) in CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) score risk groups. Methods: A total of 158 consecutive patients (75 females, 83 males, mean age 70.8±6.3 years) admitted routinely for cardiologic control were divided into two groups according to their CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores 0 and 1 were regarded as low risk, and score ≥2 as high risk). One hundred twenty-five of 158 patients had a high-risk score. Results: Mean EFT was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (4.34±0.62 vs. 5.37±1.0; P<0.001). EFT was positively correlated with CHA2DS2-VASc score (r=0.577, P<0.001). According to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, EFT value of 4.4 mm was found to be predictive of high risk in CHA2DS2-VASc score with 80% of sensitivity and 79% of specificity (C-statistic = 0.875, P<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76-0.90). And according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, EFT was an independent predictor of high thromboembolic risk in terms of CHA2DS2-VASc score. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that echocardiographic EFT measurement could provide additional information on assessing cardiovascular risks, such as thromboembolic events, and individuals with increased EFT should receive more attention to reduce unfavorable cardiovascular risk factors and the development of future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pericardium/pathology , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Logistic Models , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/complications , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 615-618, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951590

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim Obesity during pregnancy is one of the most established risk factors for negative long-term programming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on the weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterolemia in neonatal rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to the mother's diet during pregnancy and lactation: Control group (CG, n = 12) were the offspring of rats fed a standard diet (4% lipid) and the Test group (TG, n = 12) were pups rats fed on a high fat diet (23% lipid). The weight of the animals was measured on alternate days until the 22nd day of life, when collected visceral adipose tissue and blood were collected for biochemical analysis. For statistical analysis the Student t test, Sidak´s teste and two way ANOVA was used, with p <0.05. Results the test group showed differences in weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and higher cholesterol. Conclusion a maternal exposure to a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can promote changes in weight gain, hypercholesterolemia and an increase in adipose tissue in neonatal rats.


Resumo Objetivo A obesidade durante a gestação é um dos fatores de risco mais estabelecidos para uma programação negativa em longo prazo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos do consumo materno de uma dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação no aumento do peso, do tecido adiposo visceral e colesterolemia em ratos neonatos. Métodos Ratos Wistar foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a dieta da mãe durante a gestação e lactação: grupo controle (GC, n=12) composto por filhotes de ratas alimentadas com uma dieta padrão (lipídios 4%) e o grupo teste (GT, n=12) composto de filhotes de ratas alimentadas com dieta hiperlipídica (lipídios 23%). O peso dos animais foi aferido em dias alternados até o 22° dia de vida, quando foi coletado sangue para análises bioquímicas. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se os seguintes testes: two way ANOVA, teste de Sidak e teste t de Student, com p< 0,05. Resultados O grupo teste mostrou diferença no ganho de peso, no tecido adiposo visceral e nos níveis de colesterol. Conclusão Uma exposição materna a uma dieta hiperlipídica durante a gestação e lactação pode promover maior ganho ponderal, hipercolesterolemia e um aumento do tecido adiposo em ratos neonatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Lactation/physiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/blood , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Animals, Newborn/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Pregnancy, Animal/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Lipids/blood , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Obesity/pathology
9.
Clinics ; 73: e49, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The number of pancreatic transplants has decreased in recent years. Pancreatic grafts have been underutilized compared to other solid grafts. One cause of discard is the macroscopic appearance of the pancreas, especially the presence of fatty infiltration. The current research is aimed at understanding any graft-related association between fatty tissue infiltration of the pancreas and liver steatosis. METHODS: From August 2013 to August 2014, a prospective cross-sectional clinical study using data from 54 multiple deceased donor organs was performed. RESULTS: Micro- and macroscopic liver steatosis were significantly correlated with the donor body mass index ([BMI]; p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Positive gamma associations between pancreatic and liver macroscopic and microscopic findings (0.98; confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1 and 0.52; CI 0.04-1, respectively) were observed. Furthermore, comparisons of liver microscopy findings showed significant differences between severe versus absent (p<0.001), severe versus mild (p<0.001), and severe versus moderate classifications (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.94 for the diagnosis of steatosis by BMI evaluation using a cut-off BMI of 27.5 kg/m2, which yielded 100% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association of macroscopic and microscopic histopathological findings in steatotic livers with adipose infiltration of pancreatic grafts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pancreas/pathology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fatty Liver/pathology , Liver/pathology , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Biopsy , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue/transplantation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pancreas Transplantation , Area Under Curve , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Liver/ultrastructure
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 820-825, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887113

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease associated with excessive inflammatory response to various triggers. Although some studies have supported the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in rosacea, it has not been completely accepted. Objective: We aimed to investigate epicardial fat thickness and carotid intima-media thickness as cardiovascular risk predictors in rosacea patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 rosacea patients and 40 controls. Demographic data, epicardial fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness, lipid parameters, biochemical parameters, presence of insulin resistance, and presence of metabolic syndrome of the participants were recorded. Results: Forty rosacea patients (31 female and 9 male) and 40 controls (30 female and 10 male) were enrolled in the study. Rosacea patients had significantly higher epicardial fat thickness and carotid intima-media thickness volumes than controls (P<0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, epicardial fat thickness was independently related to presence of rosacea (P<0.001, OR=13.31). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the epicardial fat thickness was independently associated with rosacea (β= 0.47, P<0.001), carotid intima-media thickness (β= 0.36, P<0.001), and systolic blood pressure (β=0.19, P=0.015) and the carotid intima-media thickness was independently associated with epicardial fat thickness (β= 0.6, P<0.001). The epicardial fat thickness levels were correlated with carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.63, P<0.001), LDL (r=0.23, P=0.037), systolic blood pressure (r=0.45, P<0.001), and diastolic blood pressure levels (r=0.37, P=0.001). The carotid intima-media thickness levels were correlated with epicardial fat thickness (r=0.63, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.04, P<0.001), and diastolic blood pressure levels (r=0.27, P=0.016). Study limitations: The small number of participants. Conclusions: Examination and follow-up of rosacea patients for cardiovascular diseases may be recommended practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pericardium/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Rosacea/complications , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Pericardium/physiopathology , Reference Values , Insulin Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Rosacea/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5630, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839244

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Cyclobutanes/pharmacology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects , Obesity/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Obesity/pathology
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(10): 668-674, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate if the association of fat grafts and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improves graft viability in female rats. METHODS: This is an experimental, randomized and blinded study, which involved 47 rats. Fat was harvested from the inguinal region and grafted to the cranial region. The experimental group consisted of PRP-enriched fat grafts (n=22) whilst the control group consisted of fat graft only (n=25). After a 100-day period, the animals were euthanised and the fat grafts were analyzed using scores from 0 (absent) to 4 (abundant), in optical microscopy by two independent and blinded pathologists. RESULTS: Regarding fat graft cell viability, the PRP group scored moderate/abundant in 63% of cases and the fat graft only group scored absent/slight in 72% of cases (p=0.03). The PRP group also presented lower fat necrosis scores when compared to the fat graft only group (p=0.03). Tumors (dermoid cysts) within the fat grafts were observed in three animals in which the grafts were mixed with PRP. CONCLUSION: Platelet-rich plasma improves the viability and integration of fat grafts in rats, but more studies are needed to fully understand the exact mechanisms that lead to this improvement and assess the safety of the method for use in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Skull/surgery , Adipose Tissue/transplantation , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Graft Survival/physiology , Reference Values , Skull/pathology , Random Allocation , Cell Survival/physiology , Adipose Tissue/blood supply , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 684-691, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787055

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to evaluate the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on adipose tissue, pancreatic islets and liver in mice fed high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were fed one of two diets: standard chow (Lean group - LE) or a high-fat diet (Obese group ­ OB). After the first 12-weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained (LE-NT and OB-NT), trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and started the exercise protocol. The HIIT protocol in the trained animals (LE-T and OB-T) compared to their counterparts (LE-NT and OB-NT) led to a reduction in size of the pancreatic islets (LE-T vs. LE-NT -40 %, OB-T vs. OB-NT -22 %) and to an increase in insulin immunodensity in pancreatic islet (LE-T vs. LE-NT +35 %, OB-T vs. OB-NT +31 %). Apart from the above results, in adipose tissue, a decrease of the diameter of adipocytes (LE-T vs. LE-NT -23 %, OB-T vs. OB-NT -12 %), a reduction in adiposity index (LE-T vs. LE-NT -49 %, OB-T vs. OB-NT -24 %) and in the liver, a decrease in the context of hepatic steatosis (LE-T vs. LE-NT -57 %, OB-T vs. OB-NT -77 %). These metabolic changes characterize a benefits performance of the HIIT protocol in swimming. HIIT is able to mitigate the bad effects caused by high-fat diet, even with continued intake of this diet in an animal model. HIIT has the advantage of requiring only a few weekly sessions with short duration in each session. These benefits are important to motivate people who nowadays live with a lack of time condition for these activities.


El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del entrenamiento con intervalos de alta intensidad (EIAI) sobre el tejido adiposo, el hígado y los islotes pancreáticos en ratones alimentados con dieta alta en grasas. Ratones C57BL/6, machos fueron alimentados con una de dos dietas: dieta estándar (grupo magro - MA) o una dieta alta en grasas (grupo obeso - OB). Después de las primeras 12 semanas, los animales fueron divididos en dos grupos, no entrenados (MA-NE y OB-NE) y grupos entrenados (MA-E y OB-E), y comenzaron el protocolo de ejercicio. El protocolo de IEAI en los animales entrenados (MA-E y OB-E) en comparación con sus contrapartes (MA-NE y OB-NE) condujo a una reducción en el tamaño de los islotes pancreáticos (MA-E vs. MA-NE -40 %, OB-E vs. OB-NE -22 %) y al aumento de la inmunodensidad de insulina en los islotes pancreáticos (MA-E vs. MA-NE +35 %, OB-E vs. OB-NE +31 %). Además, en el tejido adiposo se detectó una disminución del diámetro de los adipocitos (MA-E vs. MA-NE -23 %, OB-E vs. OB-NE -12 %), una reducción en el índice de adiposidad (MA-E vs. MA-NE -49 %, OB-E vs. OB-NE -24 %) y en el hígado una disminución de la esteatosis (MA-E vs. MA-NE -57 %, OB-E vs. OB-NE -77 %). Estos cambios metabólicos caracterizan una actuación beneficiosa del protocolo de EIAI en la natación. El EIAI es capaz de mitigar los efectos negativos causados por la dieta alta en grasas, incluso con la ingesta continuada de esta dieta en el modelo animal. La EIAI tiene la ventaja de requir sólo unas pocas sesiones semanales con corta duración de cada sesión. Estos beneficios son importantes para motivar a la personas en las condiciones de falta de tiempo que tienen en la actualidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Exercise Therapy/methods , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/therapy , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Liver , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Liver/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 31(3): 424-427, 2016. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2315

ABSTRACT

Paciente do sexo feminino, saudável, meia-idade e com história prolongada de massas com crescimento lento localizadas bilateralmente e simetricamente nos membros superiores e inferiores, próximas às principais articulações. Exames de imagem e patológicos após excisão das massas revelaram massas constituídas por gordura subcutânea normal. Não houve evidências de lipomas bem-circunscritos. Na revisão de literatura, destacaram-se diversos distúrbios lipo-hipertróficos, com possível apresentação simétrica. As características das afecções encontradas não eram, porém, totalmente concordantes com as características de nossa paciente. Embora não de modo absoluto, a doença que mais estreitamente se assemelhou ao caso foi lipodistrofia simétrica rara, conhecida como doença de Madelung. Dos 150 casos relatados, em apenas 3 foi descrito comprometimento dos membros inferiores, como ocorreu em nosso caso. Este relato apresenta descrição detalhada do caso, seu manejo e seguimento no pós-operatório. Os tipos distintos de lipodistrofias simétricas também são discutidos.


A middle-aged healthy woman who presented with longstanding history of slow growing masses located bilaterally and symmetrically on the upper and lower extremities closed to major joints. Imaging and pathology tests following excision of masses revealed normal subcutaneous fat. There was no evidence of well-circumscribed lipomas. A review of the literature identified a number of lipohypertrophic disorders, which may be present in a symmetrical fashion. The characteristics of the disorders, however, did not fully agree with characteristics observed in our patient. Although not absolute, the closest disease found to fit our case is a rare symmetrical lipodystrophy known as Madelung's disease. Of 150 reported cases, only 3 described involvement of lower extremities as seen in our case. We report a detailed description of a case, its management and post-operative follow-up. Different types of symmetrical lipodytrophies are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical , Diagnostic Imaging , Review Literature as Topic , Adipose Tissue , Lower Extremity , Subcutaneous Fat , Lipid Metabolism , Lipodystrophy , Lipoma , Lipomatosis , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical/surgery , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical/pathology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Lower Extremity/surgery , Lower Extremity/pathology , Subcutaneous Fat/surgery , Subcutaneous Fat/growth & development , Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Lipoma/surgery , Lipoma/pathology , Lipomatosis/surgery , Lipomatosis/pathology
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 31(2): 281-286, 2016. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1581

ABSTRACT

A síndrome de Barraquer-Simons é uma lipodistrofia caracterizada por progressiva atrofia do tecido celular subcutâneo limitada à parte superior do corpo. Seu acometimento costuma ser simétrico e com evolução craniocaudal, podendo atingir até as coxas. Também é conhecida como lipodistrofia céfalo-torácica ou lipodistrofia parcial progressiva. É uma doença rara, de origem obscura, que geralmente se manifesta no começo da segunda década de vida e tem predominância no sexo feminino. O presente trabalho objetiva trazer uma revisão da literatura e relatar um caso desta rara patologia e sua condução terapêutica, comparando-a a outras modalidades de tratamento disponíveis atualmente. Durante o período de um ano e três meses de seguimento, foram realizadas quatro sessões de enxertia de gordura seguindo os princípios da lipoenxertia estruturada. Por meio desta modalidade terapêutica, foi possível obter uma melhora importante do contorno facial com desaparecimento quase completo das depressões e irregularidades características da doença e preservação do resultado durante o tempo de acompanhamento. Diversos tipos de tratamentos foram descritos como efetivos para as lipodistrofias: uso de materiais aloplásticos, enxertos autólogos, retalhos locais e microcirúrgicos. Cada um deles possui suas vantagem e desvantagens e a escolha dependerá da experiência do cirurgião e da disponibilidade de recursos e materiais específicos em cada centro. A lipoenxertia se mostrou uma forma de tratamento eficaz, simples, segura e de baixo custo para tratamento da síndrome de Barraquer-Simons.


Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a type of lipodystrophy characterized by progressive atrophy of the subcutaneous tissue limited to the upper body. Its involvement is usually symmetrical with craniocaudal evolution, reaching down to the thighs. This syndrome is also known as cephalo-thoracic lipodystrophy or progressive partial lipodystrophy. It is a rare disease of unknown origin that usually manifests at the beginning of the second decade of life and has predominance among women. We report a case and literature review of this rare disease, its therapeutic management, and a comparison with other treatment modalities currently available. During one year and three months follow-up, four sessions of facial fat grafting were performed following the principles of structural fat grafting. The use of this therapeutic modality, improved significantly facial contour, and almost complete disappearance of depressions and irregularities, and preservation were achieved during follow-up time. A number of treatments have been described as effective for lipodystrophy, such as: use of alloplastic materials, autologous grafts, local and microsurgical flaps. Each treatment has advantages and disadvantages. Decision depends on the surgeon's experience, availability of resources, specific materials in each center.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Surgical Flaps , Biological Dressings , Adipose Tissue , Review , Journal Article , Rare Diseases , Lipid Metabolism Disorders , Face , Lipodystrophy , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Biological Dressings/adverse effects , Biological Dressings/standards , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Rare Diseases/surgery , Rare Diseases/pathology , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/surgery , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/pathology , Face/surgery , Face/pathology , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Lipodystrophy/pathology
17.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 56(3): 38-44, sept.-dic.2015. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795841

ABSTRACT

No existen modelos que evalúen los cambios morfológicos musculares en roturas crónicas del aparato extensor de la rodilla. Objetivos: 1) Describir un nuevo modelo experimental de lesión crónica de tendón patelar; y 2) evaluar macroscópica e histológicamente la evolución, a través del tiempo, de la degeneración del cuádriceps con este modelo. Hipótesis: Existe fibrosis e infiltración grasa progresiva del cuádriceps a través del tiempo. Materiales y método: Se realiza transección del tendón patelar en 20 ratones BKS, machos, adultos, divididos en 4 grupos de 5 animales cada uno, siendo sacrificados a la 1era, 2da, 4ta y 12va semanas. A todos los ratones sacrificados se les extrajo el cuádriceps derecho (intervención) e izquierdo (control). Se realizó evaluación macroscópica, análisis morfométrico e histológico por 2 patólogos independientes y ciegos. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente con Test T de Student y Test de Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Resultados: Macroscopia: tejido amarillento en grupo intervenido con variables morfométricas alteradas progresivamente de manera significativa desde la 2da semana. Histología: infiltración grasa con atrofia numérica de fibras musculares, progresiva en el tiempo, significativa desde la 4ta semana, llegando a infiltración grasa severa a las 12 semanas con porcentaje de fibrosis menor al 6 por ciento en todos los casos.Conclusiones: Este nuevo modelo de lesión de tendón patelar se asocia a pérdida de continuidad persistente del aparato extensor con cambios estructurales del cuádriceps. Estos cambios incluyen atrofia muscular macroscópica e infiltración grasa con atrofia numérica de fibras musculares progresiva, significativa a partir de la 2da semana...


There are no models that evaluate the morphological changes of the muscles in chronic ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee. Objectives: 1) To describe a new model of chronic rupture of the patellar tendon; and 2) To macroscopically and histologically evaluate progressive quadriceps muscle degeneration. Hypothesis: There is progressive fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the quadriceps muscle. Materials and method: A complete transection was performed on the right patellar tendon of 20 male, adult, BKS mice, divided into 4 groups of 5 animals. The animals were sacrificed at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 12th week after the indicated procedure. After sacrificing the animals, both quadriceps muscles were resected and evaluated macroscopically, morphometrically, and histologically by 2 independent, blinded pathologists. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test, and Wilcoxon's test (P<.05). Results:Macroscopy yellowish muscle tissue with significant progressive morphological changes beginning at week 2. Histology: progressive fatty infiltration with numerous atrophies of the muscle fibres, becoming significant after the 4th week, reaching severe fatty infiltration at week 12, with little fibrous tissue in less than 6 percent of the muscle. Conclusions: This new model of patellar tendon chronic rupture is associated with persistent discontinuity of the knee extensor mechanism and structural changes of the quadriceps muscle. These changes include muscle atrophy and progressive fatty infiltration beginning at the 2nd week after the injury...


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Adiposity , Patellar Ligament/injuries , Quadriceps Muscle/pathology , Tendon Injuries , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Quadriceps Muscle/surgery , Rupture , Time Factors , Adipose Tissue/pathology
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(4): 519-522, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759221

ABSTRACT

AbstractBACKGROUND:Hair follicle nevus is a rare, congenital hamartoma with follicular differentiation characterized histologically by numerous, tiny, mature hair follicles. Trichofolliculoma, the histopathological features of which are quite similar to those of hair follicle nevus, is also a hamartoma that differs from hair follicle. Accessory tragus is a relatively common, benign congenital abnormality of the external ear with an incidence rate of 1 to 10 per 1,000 live births.OBJECTIVE:This study seeks to assess the discriminatory value of currently available, histological criteria in the differential diagnosis of hair follicle nevus, accessory tragi and trichofolliculoma.METHODS:Twenty-one patients comprising 9 cases of hair follicle nevus, 8 accessory tragi patients and 4 trichofolliculoma cases, were recruited to perform the study.RESULTS:There were 10 males and 11 females in the study group. No significant difference was observed between the three study groups in terms of age, gender or histopathological parameters such as density of hair follicles, subcutaneous fat score and presence of connective tissue framework. Cartilaginous component was seen in 8 cases that were diagnosed as accessory tragi, while central cyst and radiating hair follicles were seen in 4 cases which were diagnosed as trichofolliculoma.CONCLUSION:The results of our study showed that diagnostic discrimination of these diseases could be made only with the clinicopathologic correlation because of their clinical and histopathological similarities.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ear, External/abnormalities , Ear, External/pathology , Follicular Cyst/pathology , Hair Diseases/pathology , Hair Follicle/pathology , Hamartoma/pathology , Neoplasms, Basal Cell/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Elastic Cartilage/pathology , Nevus/pathology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 666-669, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47845

ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old man underwent computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Two months later he underwent partial nephrectomy. Histology revealed a 30-mm clear cell renal cell carcinoma, up to Fuhrman grade 3. An area of the capsule was interrupted, which corresponded to a hemorrhagic area on the cortical surface. Under microscopy, this area showed a tongue of tumor tissue protruding through the renal capsule. A tumor deposit was found in the perinephric fat. These features suggest that tumor seeding may have occurred during the needle biopsy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Image-Guided Biopsy/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Seeding , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/secondary
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