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1.
Diagn. tratamento ; 27(2): 48-54, abr-jun. 2022. tab, ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369112

ABSTRACT

Excesso de peso e obesidade têm aumentado no Brasil e no mundo causando grande impacto na saúde pública. O objetivo foi medir a associação do nível de atividade física, o comportamento sedentário e o tempo de sono com a composição corporal de escolares. Uma amostra por conveniência foi composta por 97 escolares participantes do Projeto Misto-Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento de Ilhabela, aparentemente saudáveis, 50 meninos e 47 meninas entre 9 e 11 anos (x 9,8 ± 0,7), com avaliação completa no período analisado (2015 e 2019) em estágio pré-púbere de maturação sexual. Variáveis analisadas: peso (kg); índice de massa corporal (kg/m2); adiposidade pela média de três dobras cutâneas: tríceps, subescapular e suprailíaca (mm); relação cintura quadril (cm). Nível de atividade física, comportamento sedentário e tempo de sono mensurados por acelerômetro (ActiGraph GT3X, analisado com Freedson 1998) dados em counts por minuto. Dados descritos em média (x) e desvio padrão. Normalidade dos dados obtida com o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e para as associações utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman Rho (SPSS-20.0). Nível de significância adotado P < 0,05. Houve associações significativas entre comportamento sedentário, atividades físicas leve, moderada/vigorosa e as variáveis da composição corporal. Nas meninas, as associações entre o comportamento sedentário e as variáveis da composição corporal foram de maior número e intensidade nas correlações encontradas. Verificamos que meninos realizaram atividade física leve apresentando menores valores na composição corporal. As meninas realizaram pouca atividade física de moderada a vigorosa necessitando aumento desta variável para diminuir adiposidade. O tempo de sono não apresentou associação significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adiposity , Life Style , Body Composition , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep Quality
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 33-45, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362669

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre o perfil de adesão e barreiras percebidas por estudantes universitários para permanência no Programa de Extensão "Yoga: Awaken ONE". Métodos: Foram realizados dois cortes transversais com universitários da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia. O primeiro foi composto por 16 indivíduos e investigou o perfil demográfico, socioeconômico, antropométrico, da aptidão física e da qualidade de vida dos universitários que ingressaram no Programa de Extensão. O segundo visou identificar as barreiras para permanência de 13 estudantes (dentre os 16 iniciais) que haviam se afastado do Programa após quatro meses do início. Resultados: Houve predominância de indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos cursos de graduação em Educação Física e Pedagogia e da classe socioeconômica C. A maioria dos participantes estava com indicadores adequados de gordura corporal. Observou-se grande proporção de indivíduos com indicadores baixos de flexibilidade e força muscular. Para a qualidade de vida, a menor mediana foi observada para o domínio meio ambiente e a maior para o domínio relações sociais. As principais barreiras percebidas para a prática de yoga pelos universitários foram "jornada de estudos extensa" e "jornada de trabalho extensa". Observou-se correlação do perfil sociodemográfico, indicadores de obesidade, variáveis hemodinâmicas, flexibilidade, força muscular e qualidade de vida com barreiras percebidas para permanência no Programa de Extensão universitária "Yoga: Awaken ONE". Conclusões: Estes achados sugerem que o perfil do público universitário pode ser determinante para a permanência ou evasão de programas de promoção de exercícios físicos e precisa ser considerado em propostas de programas de extensão universitária.


Objective: Investigate the relationship between the member adherence profile and barriers perceived by university students to remain in the "Yoga: Awaken ONE" Extension Program. Methods: Two cross-sections were carried out with university students from the Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia. The first was composed of 16 individuals and investigated the demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, physical fitness, and quality of life profile of university students joining the Extension Program. The second aimed at identifying the barriers to remain in the program faced by 13 students (out of the initial 16) who had withdrawn from the Program four months after the beginning. Results: There was a predominance of female individuals, from undergraduate courses in Physical Education and Pedagogy, and from the C socioeconomic class. Most participants had adequate body fat indexes. There was a large proportion of individuals with low flexibility and muscle strength. For quality of life, the lowest median was observed for the environment domain, while the highest could be noted for the social relationship domain. The main barriers perceived for the practice of yoga by university students were "long study hours" and "long work hours". There was a correlation between sociodemographic profile, obesity indicators, hemodynamic variables, flexibility, muscle strength, and QOL with the perceived barriers to stay in the "Yoga: Awaken ONE" university extension program. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the profile of the university audience can be a determinant for the permanence or dropout of programs that promote physical exercise and therefore, it should be taken into consideration in proposals for university extension programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students , Universities/organization & administration , Yoga , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life/psychology , Work Hours , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Student Health , Health Status Indicators , Range of Motion, Articular , Abdominal Fat , Adiposity , Muscle Strength , Arterial Pressure , Obesity/prevention & control
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 3-11, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze levels of proinflammatory biomarker interleukin-18 (IL-18) in healthy controls and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) focusing on its association with obesity, clinical, hormonal, and metabolic characteristics. Subjects and methods: Fifty-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled in the study fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria and were matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity with 30 healthy controls. Detailed anthropometric measurements, clinical investigations, hormonal and biochemical tests were obtained between the 3rd and 5th day of a menstrual cycle. A subanalysis of the PCOS group was performed separating patients into several groups according to a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), insulin resistance (IR), and free androgen index (FAI). Serum IL-18 levels were measured using the ELISA method. Results: Levels of IL-18 were similar between PCOS patients and controls. IL-18 was higher in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women when analyzing all participants together and separately PCOS or controls group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.01, respectively). Additionally, IL-18 levels were higher in high-WHtR and IR subgroups compared to low-WHtR (p < 0.001) and non-IR PCOS women (p < 0.001). PCOS women with high FAI had greater serum IL-18 levels than normal-FAI patients (p = 0.002). Levels of IL-18 correlated positively with most of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. In multiple linear regression, age, waist circumference, and fasting insulin were independently related factors with IL-18. Conclusion: Elevated levels of IL-18 were related to several indices of general and visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in PCOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-18 , Body Mass Index , Adiposity , Waist Circumference , Insulin
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(6): e00144521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374850

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies have supported the hypothesis that dietary calcium intake is protective for adiposity. This study aimed to estimate the association of dietary calcium with adiposity indicators during adolescence. This is a cohort study with high school adolescents (n = 962) from selected schools of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which were followed from 2010 to 2012. Calcium intake was assessed by a validated self-reported food frequency questionnaire. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of dietary calcium intake were performed regarding body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (%BF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). The analysis of variance was used for cross-sectional analysis with baseline data and linear mixed models applied to assess changes across the follow-up. At baseline, BMI, %BF, fat mass, and FMI (p for trend < 0.05) had lower means at the highest quintile of calcium intake whereas FFM and FFMI had higher means (p for trend < 0.05), especially for boys. During follow-up, boys had decreased FMI at the 4th and 5th quintiles of calcium intake (p < 0.05); among girls, only WC was significantly lower at the 4th quintile than in the 1st. These results support the hypothesis that low calcium intake increases adiposity among adolescents.


Estudos epidemiológicos têm sustentado a hipótese que a ingestão de cálcio na dieta pode proteger contra a adiposidade. O estudo teve como objetivo estimar a associação entre ingestão de cálcio e indicadores de adiposidade durante a adolescência. O estudo de coorte analisou adolescentes do Ensino Médio (n = 962) de escolas selecionadas na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil acompanhados entre 2010 e 2012. A ingestão de cálcio foi avaliada com um questionário validado de autorrelato de frequência alimentar. Foram realizadas análises transversais e longitudinais de ingestão de cálcio em relação ao índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência da cintura (CC), percentual de gordura corporal (%GC), massa gorda (MG), massa magra (MM), índice de massa gorda (IMG) e índice de massa magra (IMM). A análise transversal usou ANOVA com dados da linha de base, e modelos mistos lineares foram aplicados para avaliar as mudanças ao longo do seguimento. Na linha de base, foram observados valores médios mais baixos para IMC, %GC, MG e IMG (p para tendência < 0,05) no quintil mais alto de ingestão de cálcio, em que foram estimados valores médios mais altos de massa magra e índice de massa magra (p para tendência < 0,05), principalmente em meninos. Durante o seguimento, os meninos mostraram uma redução no IMG no quarto e quinto quintis de ingestão de cálcio comparado com o primeiro quintil (p < 0,05), enquanto nas meninas, apenas a CC foi significativamente mais baixa no quarto quintil de ingestão de cálcio comparado com o primeiro quintil. Os resultados corroboram a hipótese do papel da baixa ingestão de cálcio no aumento da adiposidade em adolescentes.


Los estudios epidemiológicos han apoyado la hipótesis de que la ingesta de calcio en la dieta puede ser protectora de la adiposidad. El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la asociación del calcio dietético con los indicadores de adiposidad durante la adolescencia. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte con adolescentes de secundaria (n = 962) de escuelas seleccionadas del Área Metropolitana de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, que fueron seguidas desde 2010 hasta 2012. La ingesta de calcio se evaluó mediante un cuestionario validado de frecuencia de alimentos autoinformado. Se realizaron análisis transversales y longitudinales de la ingesta de calcio en la dieta en relación con el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la circunferencia de la cintura (CC), el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), la masa grasa (MG), la masa libre de grasa (MLG), el índice de masa grasa (IMG) y el índice de masa libre de grasa (IMLG). Se utilizó el ANOVA para el análisis transversal, utilizando los datos de referencia y se aplicaron modelos lineales mixtos para evaluar los cambios a lo largo del seguimiento. En la línea de base, se observaron medias más bajas de IMC, %GC, MG e IMLG (p para tendencia < 0,05) en el quintil más alto de ingesta de calcio, para el que se estimaron medias más altas de MLG y IMLG (p para tendencia < 0,05), especialmente para los chicos. Durante el seguimiento, los chicos presentaron una reducción del IMLG en el 4º y 5º quintiles de ingesta de calcio (p < 0,05), mientras que entre las chicas, sólo la CC fue significativamente menor en el 4º quintil de ingesta de calcio en comparación con el 1º. Estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que la baja ingesta de calcio puede tener un papel en el aumento de la adiposidad entre los adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Calcium, Dietary , Adiposity , Body Composition , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Obesity
5.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 208 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397532

ABSTRACT

Introdução - A relação entre tipo de parto e crescimento infantil, composição corporal e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor tem sido estudada nos últimos anos, mostrando controvérsias quanto a relação do tipo de parto e os desfechos investigados. Objetivo - Investigar a relação entre o parto cesárea e crescimento, composição corporal e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de crianças até um ano de vida. Objetivos específicos, descritos nos artigos desta tese, foram: I) relacionar o tipo de parto com o crescimento da criança no primeiro ano de vida; II) relacionar o tipo de parto com a composição corporal da criança no primeiro ano de vida; III) relacionar o tipo de parto com o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor da criança no primeiro ano de vida. Métodos - Crianças nascidas na Maternidade Municipal foram acompanhadas até o primeiro ano de vida, provenientes do estudo do tipo coorte prospectivo Estudo Coorte Araraquara, em desenvolvimento no município de Araraquara, SP. Para avaliação do crescimento, ao nascimento foram utilizadas as curvas do Intergrowth e no primeiro ano de vida da criança a velocidade de ganho de peso (VGP) e velocidade de ganho de comprimento (VGC) e para avaliação da composição corporal ao nascimento foi utilizada a pletismografia, para as demais faixas etárias foi utilizado o índice de massa corporal (IMC). Na investigação do atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor (ADNPM) e socioemocional (LSPB) das crianças foi utilizada a escala Survey of Well being of Young Children - (SWYC). O impacto do tipo de parto no crescimento, composição corporal, ADNPM e LSPB da criança foi analisado através das Equações de Estimação Generalizada (GEE). Resultados- Os resultados descritos nos artigos desta tese, foram: I) As médias de VGP e VGC não diferiram segundo o tipo de parto (p=0,672; p= 0,378). Observou-se maiores médias de VGP nas crianças de mães com maior escolaridade, do sexo masculino, que não foram amamentados e que apresentaram diarreia (p<0,005), e menores médias de VGP nas com menor peso ao nascer (p<0,005). As maiores médias de VGC foram observados nas crianças não amamentadas e naquelas com mães de maior estatura, e menores médias de VGC nas com menor comprimento ao nascer (p<0,005). II) o parto cesárea se associou positivamente com o percentual de massa de gordura corporal ao nascer (% MG) (p=0,015). Os nascidos de mães brancas e os indivíduos do sexo masculino demostraram menores médias de % MG ao nascer (p <0,005). Observou-se associação positiva do peso ao nascer com o IMC, ter diarreia no primeiro ano de vida demostrou associação inversa com o IMC (p <0,005). III) o tipo de parto não demostrou associação com o ADNPM e LSPB. A prevalência de ADNPM com um ano de vida foi de 17,1%, e a LSPB foi de 45,3%. Observou-se associação positiva entre o ADNPM e sexo feminino (p=0,031) e com as crianças que conviviam com algum membro da família que era tabagista (p=0,020). Foram observadas associações positivas entre sexo feminino (p=0,010), depressão materna (p=0,016) e insegurança alimentar (p=0,020) com a LSPB, e associação inversa entre leitura e a LSPB (p=0,019). Conclusões- Dessa forma entende-se que a gama de fatores que influencia o crescimento, composição corporal e o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor no primeiro ano de vida não se associa com a via de parto nessa população.


Introduction - The relationship between type of delivery, child growth, body composition and neuropsychomotor development has been studied in recent years, showing controversies regarding the relationship between type of delivery and the investigated outcomes. Objective - To investigate the relationship between cesarean delivery and growth, body composition and neuropsychomotor development of children up to one year of age. Specific objectives, described in the articles of this thesis, were: I) to relate the type of delivery with the child's growth in the first year of life; II) relate the type of delivery with the child's body composition in the first year of life; III) relate the type of delivery with the child's neuropsychomotor development in the first year of life. Methods - Children born at the Municipal Maternity Hospital were followed up to the first year of life, from the prospective cohort study Araraquara Cohort Study, under development in the city of Araraquara, SP. To assess growth, the Intergrowth curves were used at birth and, in the first year of the child's life, the weight gain rate (WGR) and length growth rate (LGR) were used. plethysmography, for the other age groups the body mass index (BMI) was used. In the investigation of the delay in the neuropsychomotor (ADNPM) and socio-emotional (LSPB) development of children, the Survey of Well being of Young Children - (SWYC) scale was used. The impact of the type of delivery on the child's growth, body composition, ADNPM and LSPB was analyzed using Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE). Results- the results described in the articles of this thesis were: I) The means of WGR and LGR did not differ according to the type of delivery (p=0.672; p=0.378). Higher means of WGR were observed in children of mothers with higher education, male, who were not breastfed and who had diarrhea (p<0.005), and lower means of WGR in those with lower birth weight (p<0.005). The highest LGR means were observed in non-breastfed children and in those with taller mothers, and the lowest LGR means were observed in those with shorter birth lengths (p<0.005). II) cesarean delivery was positively associated with the percentage of body fat mass at birth (% FM) (p=0.015). Those born to white mothers and males showed lower mean % FM at birth (p < 0.005). There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI, having diarrhea in the first year of life showed an inverse association with BMI (p <0.005). III) the type of delivery showed no association with ADNPM and LSPB. The prevalence of PMDN at one year of life was 17.1%, and LSPB was 45.3%. A positive association was observed between the ADNPM and female sex (p=0.031) and with children who lived with a family member who was a smoker (p=0.020). Positive associations were observed between female sex (p=0.010), maternal depression (p=0.016) and food insecurity (p=0.020) with LSPB, and an inverse association between reading and LSPB (p=0.019). Conclusion- Thus, it is understood that the range of factors that influence growth, body composition and neuropsychomotor development in the first year of life is not associated with the mode of delivery in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Composition , Child Development , Parturition , Growth and Development , Adiposity , Cesarean Section , Natural Childbirth
6.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1129-1134, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the bone mass in prepubertal patients with Turner Syndrome (TS) according to height age (HA) and verify the influence of karyotype and adiposity. Methods: retrospective and analytical study of prepubertal TS patients. The variables analyzed were: karyotype, age at bone densitometry (BD), height, body mass index (BMI) and BD result. The result of the BD was corrected using HA. BMI and BD were calculated on Z score for chronological age (CA) and for HA. Results: thirty-seven prepubertal patients were selected and after exclusion criteria, 13 cases between 10 and 13 years old were included in the study. The BD for HA was significantly higher than for CA (0.39 ± 1.18 x −1.62 ± 1.32), without karyotype (p=0.369) and BMI (p=0.697) influence. Conclusion: prepubertal TS patients present normal BD when corrected for HA, without influence of karyotype and BMI.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a massa óssea de pacientes pré-púberes com Síndrome de Turner (ST) de acordo com a idade estatura (IE) e verificar a influência do cariótipo e da adiposidade. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo e analítico de pacientes pré-púberes com ST. As variáveis analisadas foram: cariótipo, idade na realização da densitometria óssea (DO); estatura, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e resultado da DO. Realizou-se a correção do resultado da DO utilizando a IE. O IMC e a DO foram calculados em Z score para idade cronológica (IC) e para IE. Resultados: foram selecionadas 37 pacientes pré-púberes e após critério de exclusão foram incluídas no estudo 13 casos entre 10 e 13 anos de idade. A DO para IE foi significativamente maior que para IC (0,39 ± 1,18 × −1,62 ± 1,32), sem influência do cariótipo (p=0,369) e do IMC (p=0,697). Conclusão: pacientes pré-púberes com ST apresentam DO normal quando corrigida para IE, sem influência do cariótipo e do IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Stature by Age , Karyotype , Retrospective Studies , Densitometry/methods , Adiposity
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 658-664, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between body adiposity and physical fitness with performance in the Supine-to-Stand test (STS-test) in sedentary adolescents. Methods: Sixty-two adolescents, of both sexes, between 10 and 16 years old, participated in the study. Body mass (BM), height, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), right and left handgrip strength (HGS-right, HGS-left), abdominal resistance (ABDO), flexibility (FLEX), and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), z-score BMI (BMI-z), tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The STS-test was applied to evaluate the STS-MC by the movement patterns in the execution of the test. The STS-time in seconds (s) was categorized into terciles: fast (FG < 2.0 s), intermediate (IG = 2.0-2.6 s) and slow (SG > 2.6 s). One-way ANOVA, Chi-square, Spearman's correlation coefficient as well as non-parametric tests were used, with significance p 0.05. Results: The SG presented higher BMI, BMI-z, TMI, WHtR, FM, %FM, as well as lower averages for %FFM, HGS-right, HGS-left, FLEX, ABDO, VO2peak, VO2peak relative to BM (VO2peakBM) in relation to GF. The BMI, BMI-z, TMI, WC, WHtR and FM showed moderate and direct correlations with STS-time and inverse with STS-MC (p < 0.01). HGS-right, HGS-left, ABDO, and VO2peakBM showed moderate and an inverse correlation with STS-time (p < 0.05). The VO2peakBM was moderate and with direct correlations to STS-MC (p < 0.01). Conclusion: It is concluded that excess fat and low physical fitness hamper STS-test performance. Therefore, the STS-test can be used for screening students to assess MC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hand Strength , Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Physical Fitness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 811-820, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349981

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and association of the hypertriglyceridemia-waist phenotype (HWP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with cardiometabolic risk factors (CR) in patients with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Materials and methods: The study is based on a cross-sectional design with 265 HD patients in two cities in northeastern Brazil. The VAI was calculated considering the variables body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). HWP was defined as the concomitant elevation of WC and TG. The Poisson Regression Model with robust variance estimation was adjusted considering a hierarchical approach for explanatory variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) were also estimated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: In our study HWP and VAI prevalence's were 29.82% and 58.49%, respectively. In the final model, there was an association between VAI and female gender (PR = 1.46; p < 0.0001) and high body fat (% BF) (PR = 1.33; p < 0.0019). HWP was associated with females (PR = 1.80; p = 0.002), alcohol consumption (PR = 1.58; p = 0.033), obesity (PR = 1.89; p = 0.0001), high %BF (PR = 1.76; p = 0.012) and reduced HDL-c (PR = 1.48; p = 0.035). Conclusion: The HWP stood out as the association with more CR factors, representing a promising method for tracking cardiometabolic risk in HD patients, mainly female.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Triglycerides , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Adiposity , Waist Circumference , Heart Disease Risk Factors
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(11): 5661-5670, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350462

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se analisar os efeitos diretos e indiretos da adiposidade e de fatores relacionados à qualidade de vida de adolescentes. Estudo transversal realizado com 635 adolescentes (10 a 16 anos), de escolas públicas da cidade de Montes Claros-MG. Coletaram-se dados antropométricos, de atividade física (AF), hábitos alimentares inadequados, imagem corporal e qualidade de vida (QV) dos adolescentes. Foi realizada a modelagem com equações estruturais. As variáveis tratadas como construto foram adiposidade e hábitos alimentares inadequados, as variáveis exploratórias foram AF e imagem corporal; a variável desfecho, QV. O efeito total da adiposidade mediada pela AF sobre a QV foi positivo e significativo (β=0,213; p<0,05), em contraste com o efeito total mediado pelos hábitos alimentares inadequados sobre a QV, que foi negativo e significativo (β=-0,150; p<0,05). O efeito direto da AF sobre a QV foi positivo e significativo (β=0,209; p<0,001). Não se observou efeitos relacionados à imagem corporal. Os efeitos da adiposidade tendem a melhorar a QV dos adolescentes, quando mediados pela prática de AF e a piorá-la, quando mediados pelos hábitos alimentares inadequados; os efeitos da AF tendem a melhorar a QV dos adolescentes.


Abstract This paper aimed to analyze the direct and indirect effects of adiposity and factors related to adolescents' quality of life. This is a cross-sectional study with 635 adolescents (10-16 years) from public schools in Montes Claros-MG, Brazil. Anthropometric data, physical activity (PA), inadequate dietary habits, body image, and quality of life (QoL) of adolescents were collected. A structural equation modeling was performed. The variables addressed as constructs were adiposity and inadequate dietary habits, the exploratory variables were PA and body image, and the outcome variable was QoL. The total effect of PA-mediated adiposity on QoL was positive and significant (β=0.213; p<0.05), in contrast to the total effect mediated by inadequate dietary habits on QoL, which was negative and significant (β=-0.150; p<0.05). The direct effect of PA on QoL was positive and significant (β=0.209; p<0.001). No body image-related effects were observed. The effects of adiposity on adolescents' QoL tend to improve when mediated by PA, and they worsen when mediated by inadequate dietary habits. The effects of PA tend to improve the QoL of adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Adiposity , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 189-198, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353209

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación de valores de presión arterial (PA) con parámetros de adiposidad y nivel de actividad física (NAF) en escolares y adolescentes en la región de la Araucanía en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y correlacional que consideró una muestra de 1.125 niños, niñas y adolescentes de 6 a 13 años. Se analizaron parámetros de adiposidad: índice de masa corporal, perímetro de cintura y del brazo, pliegue bicipital, tricipital, subescapular y suprailíaco y porcentaje de masa grasa, PA sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) y NAF. Resultados. 60,4% de la muestra esta normotenso; 23,6% pre HTA y 16,0% HTA, sin asociación significativa entre la PA con el sexo (p>0,05). Se encontró para el total de la muestra una correlación significativa entre la PAS con todos los parámetros de adiposidad estudiados (p<0,001; p<0,050). Para la PAD solo el grupo de 6 a 8 años presentó asociación significativa con todos estos parámetros (p<0,001; p<0,050). El NAF se asoció con la clasificación de la PA. Esta asociación tuvo significancia estadística en el grupo de 6 a 8 años (p<0,05). Conclusiones. Se evidencia una elevada frecuencia de PA alta en escolares de una región de Chile. Se identifican asociaciones significativas entre la PA con algunas medidas de adiposidad corporal y el NAF en la muestra de estudio. Esta información puede ser de gran importancia para la predicción de la hipertensión en la infancia en el contexto de atención primaria en salud(AU)


The objective of the study was to determine the association of blood pressure (BP) values with parameters of adiposity and level of physical activity (NAF) in schoolchildren and adolescents in the Araucanía region of Chile. Materials and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study that considered a sample of 1.125 subjects, boys and girls between 6 and 13 years old. Adiposity parameters were analyzed: body mass index, waist and arm circumference, bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac fold and% fat mass. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) and NAF were also analyzed. Results. 60.4% of the sample is normotensive; 23.6% preHTA and 16.0% HT, without significant association between BP and sex (p> 0.05). For the entire sample, there is a significant correlation between SBP and all the adiposity parameters studied (p <0.001; p <0.050). For DBP, only the 6 to 8-year-old group presented a significant association with all these parameters (p <0.001; p <0.050). The NAF was associated with the PA classification. This association is statistically significant in the 6 to 8-year-old group (p <0.050). Conclusions. A high frequency of high BP is evidenced in schoolchildren from a region of Chile. Significant associations were identified between BP with some measures of body adiposity and NAF in the study sample. This information can be of great importance for the prediction of hypertension in childhood in the context of primary health care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Arterial Pressure , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Exercise , Anthropometry , Adiposity , Waist-Height Ratio
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 420-425, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) as an associated factor for adiposity in children and adolescents aged 9-12 years. Methods This was a case-control study comparing overweight (cases) and eutrophic (controls) children and adolescents aged 9-12 years based on their body mass index in relation to human adenovirus 36 serology. Human adenovirus 36-specific neutralizing antibodies were assessed using the serum neutralization assay, and a questionnaire regarding the subjects' personal backgrounds, breastfeed history, age of starting daycare, and eating and exercise habits was also applied. Results A total of 101 (51, eutrophic; 50, overweight) children were included in the study. The Adv36 seropositivity rate was of 15.8%, which increased the chance of being overweight by 3.17 times (p = 0.049). Enrollment in a full-time daycare center before the age of 24 months increased the chance of being overweight by 2.78 times (p = 0.027). Metabolic parameters (total cholesterol and blood glucose) were insignificantly different among children who were seropositive or seronegative for human adenovirus 36. Conclusion This study concluded that excessive weight was positively associated with seropositivity for human adenovirus 36. Early enrollment in a full-time daycare was also an associated factor for obesity. Such data, confirmed in new studies, reinforces the role of human adenovirus 36 in the increase of childhood adiposity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adenoviruses, Human , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Adenoviridae , Adiposity
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 522-529, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347150

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Rhythm problems are the most observed complications following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the most common being postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF), with an incidence reaching 50% of the patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the predictive importance of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in predicting PoAF, which occurs after CABG accompanied by cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: Patients who underwent isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass between June 15 and October 15, 2019, were prospectively included in the study. Patients who did not develop in-hospital PoAF were identified as Group 1, and those who did constituted Group 2. Results: PoAF developed in 55 (27.6%) patients (Group 2). The mean age of the 144 patients included in Group 1 and 55 patients in Group 2 were 56.9±8.7 and 64.3±10.2 years, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis Model 1, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.084, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010-1.176, P=0.009), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 0.798, CI: 0.664-0.928, P=0.048), and PNI (OR: 1.052, CI: 1.015-1.379, P=0.011) were determined as independent predictors for PoAF. In Model 2, age (OR: 1.078, CI: 1.008-1.194, P=0.012), lymphocyte counts (OR: 0.412, CI: 0.374-0.778, P=0.032), and VAI (OR: 1.516, CI: 1.314-2.154, P<0.001) were determined as independent predictors for PoAF. Conclusion: In this study, we determined that low PNI, a simply calculable and cheap parameter, along with high VAI were risk factors for PoAF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Nutrition Assessment , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Adiposity , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 819-828, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389527

ABSTRACT

Background: Adiposity and education are two independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is limited evidence whether both education and adiposity are associated with T2D in an additive manner in the Chilean population. Aim: To investigate the joint association between adiposity and education with T2D in the Chilean adult population. Material and Methods: Analysis of data of the Chilean National Health Survey 2016-2017, which included 5,033 participants with a mean age of 43 years, (51% women). Poisson regression analyses with robust standard error were used to investigate the joint association of the education level and general and central adiposity with T2D. The results were reported as Prevalence Ratio and their 95% confidence intervals (PR, 95% CI). Results: Obesity was associated with a higher probability of having T2D in men than in women, however central adiposity was associated with a higher probability of having T2D in women than in men. Compared with men who had higher education (> 12 years) and had normal body weight, those with the same educational level and who were obese had 2.3-times higher probability of having T2D (PR: 2.35 [95% CI: 1.02; 5.39]). For women, having a low education and being obese was associated with 4.4-times higher probability of having T2D compared to those with higher education and normal body mass index (BMI) (PR: 4.47 [95% IC: 2.12; 9.24]). Similar results were observed when waist circumference was used as a marker of obesity rather than BMI. Conclusions: Women and men with higher BMI and low education had a higher risk of T2D. However, this risk was higher in women than in men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 269-276, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between plasma Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) levels and visceral fat area (VFA) among Chinese young men. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study involved 156 Chinese male subjects, aged 18-45 years, who visited the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao (Hebei, China) in 2014 for annual health check-up. Participants were categorized into: low (VFA < 75.57 cm2), medium (75.57 cm2 ≤ VFA<100.37 cm2), and high (VFA ≥ 100.37 cm2) (n = 52/group). We estimated VFA and plasma H2S levels by using bioelectrical impedance analysis and a fluorescence probe-based approach, respectively. The associations of H2S with VFA and obesity anthropometric measures were assessed. Results: In the high VFA group, the body mass index (BMI, 30.4 ± 2.45 kg/m2), total body fat (TBF, 27.9 ± 3.23 kg), plasma H2S (3.5 μmol/L), free fatty acid (FFA, 0.6 ± 0.24 mmol/L), triglyceride (TG, 2.0 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (TC, 5.5 ± 1.02 mmol/L) levels were significantly higher than that of those of the low and medium VFA groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Plasma H2S levels were found to be inversely correlated with VFA, TBF, waist circumference, BMI, FFA, LnFINS, LnHOMA-IR, LnTG, TC, and LDL-C (P < 0.05). Multiple backward stepwise regression analysis revealed an inverse correlation of plasma H2S levels with FFA (β = −0.214, P = 0.005) and VFA (β = −0.429, P < 0.001), independent of adiposity measures and other confounding factors. Conclusion: VFA was independently and inversely associated with plasma H2S levels among Chinese young men. Therefore, determining plasma H2S levels could aid in the assessment of abnormal VAT distribution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hydrogen Sulfide , Body Mass Index , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Adiposity
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 136-146, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154550

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Epicardial fat (EF) thickness is a marker of visceral adiposity and consequently considered an important predictive marker of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Objective To describe echocardiographic features of the heart in an elderly population and to study the correlation between EF thickness and clinical and anthropometric variables. Methods A sample of 34 individuals (25 women) aged between 65 and 92 years, who attended a private institution in the central region of Continental Portugal, was analyzed. A standardized sociodemographic questionnaire was applied, and anthropometric assessment, echocardiography and blood pressure measurement were performed in all subjects. A correlational analysis of EF thickness with anthropometric and clinical parameters was performed. The association between variables was tested by Pearson's correlation and point-biserial correlation. A value of p < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Results EF thickness was higher in males (6.0 ± 1.4 mm vs 5.2 ± 0.9 mm in females), and ranged from 4 to 9 mm. There were statistically significant correlations between EF thickness and weight (r = 0.4; p = 0.02), body surface area (r = 0.4; p = 0.02), lean mass (r = 0.4; p = 0.03), calf circumference (r = 0.5; p = 0.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (r = 0.3; p = 0.04). Conclusion EF thickness was higher in males and was significantly correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardium , Echocardiography/methods , Adiposity , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Body Weights and Measures , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1547, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156556

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal puede ser un indicador de utilidad durante el embarazo y después del parto, en la prevención de eventos cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir posibles asociaciones de la vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal con cambios de la presión arterial en el posparto a corto plazo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en el período enero 2017-agosto 2018, en 119 mujeres pertenecientes al policlínico Chiqui Gómez Lubián. Se aplicó la prueba de peso sostenido, se determinó la media y desviación estándar de la presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media calculada; en reposo y dos minutos después de la primera medición. Se analizaron los cambios cuantitativos de la presión arterial en reposo y con estimulación física posterior, según vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal, 18 meses después del parto. Se clasificaron las mujeres en tres grupos según su respuesta vascular ante la estimulación física, evaluada por los cambios de la presión arterial: normorreactivas, hiperreactivas y con respuesta hipertensiva. Se aplicó la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis para la comparación de muestras independientes. Resultados: Incremento de los valores medios de presión arterial en mujeres con VGlobal Extrema AGA/CA (PAD, PAS_2min, PAD_2min y PAM-2min) y con VAGI (TAS Y TAM). De las mujeres con respuesta hiperreactiva, 36,4 por ciento tenía VAGI y el 45,5 por ciento con VAGA. El único caso con respuesta hipertensiva tenía VGlobal Extrema AGA/CA. Conclusiones: La caracterización temprana de la vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal puede alertar sobre cambios en la reactividad vascular la cual conduce a eventos cardiovasculares posteriores(AU)


Introduction: Cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body fat can be a useful indicator during pregnancy and after delivery, in the prevention of cardiovascular events. Objective: To describe possible associations of cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body adiposity with changes in blood pressure in the short-term postpartum. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive observational study was carried out from January 2017 to August 2018, in 119 women at Chiqui Gómez Lubián community clinic. The sustained weight test was applied, the mean and standard deviation of the calculated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were determined at rest and two minutes after the first reading. The quantitative changes in blood pressure at rest and with subsequent physical stimulation were analyzed, according to cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body fat, 18 months after delivery. These women were classified into three groups according to their vascular response to physical stimulation, evaluated by changes in blood pressure: normoreactive, hyperreactive and with a hypertensive response. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for the comparison of independent samples. Results: Increase in mean blood pressure values in women with VGlobal Extrema AGA / CA (DBP, PAS_2min, DBP_2min and MAP-2min) and with VAGI (TAS and TAM). 36.4 percent of the women with a hyperreactive response, had VAGI and 45.5 percent had VAGA. The only case with a hypertensive response had VGlobal Extrema AGA / CA. Conclusions: The early characterization of cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body adiposity can alert about changes in vascular reactivity which leads to later cardiovascular events(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postpartum Period , Health Vulnerability , Adiposity , Arterial Pressure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
19.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1194, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251752

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ácidos grasos polinsaturados de cadena larga son esenciales en la nutrición del feto y del recién nacido. Objetivo: Examinar la importancia de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados durante el embarazo y la lactancia, para destacar los requerimientos, las recomendaciones y fuentes alimentarias. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura internacional de los últimos 15 años en bases de datos, en español y en inglés. Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras clave: embarazo, lactancia, ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, omega 3/6, fuentes y requerimientos. Se identificaron los aspectos más relevantes y controversiales. Resultados: El ácido araquidónico y docosahexaenoico influyen sobre el perfil lipídico, la sensibilidad a la insulina, la proliferación y diferenciación de los preadipocitos. Sus concentraciones durante la gestación resultan uno de los principales factores responsables de la programación fetal, que son las adaptaciones metabólicas que condicionan la evolución de la salud futura. Concentraciones óptimas de ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6 son vitales para el desarrollo neurológico del feto y del recién nacido. La funcionalidad de la placenta puede afectar la adiposidad y los niveles fetales de nutrientes clave, como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga. Conclusiones: La dieta es uno de los principales factores ambientales durante la gestación. La lactancia materna es la mejor alternativa nutricional durante el primer año de vida, por eso es fundamental promocionarla. Es importante ofrecer una asistencia adecuada y generar estrategias que estimulen el consumo de ácidos omega-3 como una herramienta de prevención a largo plazo(AU)


Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in the nutrition of the fetus and newborns. Objective: Examine the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation to highlight food requirements, recommendations and sources. Methods: A systematic review of the international literature of the last 15 years was carried out in databases, in Spanish and English, using the following keywords: pregnancy, lactation, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 3/6, sources and requirements. The most relevant and controversial aspects were identified. Results: Arachydonic and docosahexaenoic acid influence lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Their levels during gestation are one of the main factors responsible for fetal programming that are metabolic adaptations conditioning the evolution of future health. Optimal levels of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids are vital for the neurological development of the fetus and newborn. Placenta´s functionality can affect adiposity and fetal levels of key nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions: Diet is one of the main environmental factors during gestation. Breastfeeding is the best nutritional alternative during the first year of life, which is why it is essential to promote it. It is important to provide adequate assistance and generate strategies that stimulate the consumption of omega-3 acids as a long-term prevention tool(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adiposity , Nutritional Sciences , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Food
20.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e856, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289444

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de variables antropométricas relacionadas con el rendimiento en un deporte representa un interés en común para los profesionales de la salud y el deporte. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del índice de masa corporal, la masa grasa y la masa libre de grasa en la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas. Métodos: Se aplicó un estudio descriptivo de tipo correlacional con un enfoque cuantitativo y una muestra a conveniencia conformada por 21 futbolistas. Para valorar la velocidad con cambios de dirección se utilizó el Test de sprint 20 metros con cambios de dirección y el porcentaje de grasa corporal por medio de un monitor OMRON® BF-306. Los datos fueron analizados en el paquete estadístico PSPP en el cual se aplicó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk y el coeficiente correlacional de Pearson (95 por ciento de confianza y un p-valor de 0,05). Resultados: Los resultados reflejaron una distribución normal (p > 0,05); sin embargo, no se obtuvieron relaciones significativas entre el índice de masa corporal (r = -0,29), masa grasa (r = -0,06) y masa libre de grasa (r = 0,06; p > 0,05) con el rendimiento en la prueba de velocidad con cambios de dirección. Conclusiones: Este estudio permitió establecer que no existe relación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal, masa grasa y masa libre de grasa con el rendimiento de la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas(AU)


Introduction: Identification of anthropometric variables related to performance in a given sport is a common topic of interest to health and sports professionals. Objective: Determine the influence of body mass index, fat mass, and fat-free mass on change of direction speed in young soccer players. Methods: A correlational descriptive quantitative study was conducted of a convenience sample of 21 soccer players. Change of direction speed was measured with the Meters Swerve Sprint Test, whereas body fat percentage was evaluated with an OMRON® BF-306 monitor. The data were analyzed with the statistical package PSPP, with application of the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and Pearson's correlational coefficient (confidence interval 95 percent and p-value 0,05). Results: Results show a normal distribution (p > 0,05). However, a significant relationship was not found between body mass (r = -0,29), fat mass (r = -0,06) and fat-free mass (r = 0,06; p > 0,05), and performance in the swerve speed test. Conclusions: The study found that there is not a significant relationship between body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and change of direction speed in young soccer players(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Soccer , Sports , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Reaction Time , Confidence Intervals , Anthropometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Correlation of Data
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