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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1194, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251752

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ácidos grasos polinsaturados de cadena larga son esenciales en la nutrición del feto y del recién nacido. Objetivo: Examinar la importancia de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados durante el embarazo y la lactancia, para destacar los requerimientos, las recomendaciones y fuentes alimentarias. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura internacional de los últimos 15 años en bases de datos, en español y en inglés. Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras clave: embarazo, lactancia, ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, omega 3/6, fuentes y requerimientos. Se identificaron los aspectos más relevantes y controversiales. Resultados: El ácido araquidónico y docosahexaenoico influyen sobre el perfil lipídico, la sensibilidad a la insulina, la proliferación y diferenciación de los preadipocitos. Sus concentraciones durante la gestación resultan uno de los principales factores responsables de la programación fetal, que son las adaptaciones metabólicas que condicionan la evolución de la salud futura. Concentraciones óptimas de ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6 son vitales para el desarrollo neurológico del feto y del recién nacido. La funcionalidad de la placenta puede afectar la adiposidad y los niveles fetales de nutrientes clave, como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga. Conclusiones: La dieta es uno de los principales factores ambientales durante la gestación. La lactancia materna es la mejor alternativa nutricional durante el primer año de vida, por eso es fundamental promocionarla. Es importante ofrecer una asistencia adecuada y generar estrategias que estimulen el consumo de ácidos omega-3 como una herramienta de prevención a largo plazo(AU)


Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in the nutrition of the fetus and newborns. Objective: Examine the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation to highlight food requirements, recommendations and sources. Methods: A systematic review of the international literature of the last 15 years was carried out in databases, in Spanish and English, using the following keywords: pregnancy, lactation, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 3/6, sources and requirements. The most relevant and controversial aspects were identified. Results: Arachydonic and docosahexaenoic acid influence lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Their levels during gestation are one of the main factors responsible for fetal programming that are metabolic adaptations conditioning the evolution of future health. Optimal levels of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids are vital for the neurological development of the fetus and newborn. Placenta´s functionality can affect adiposity and fetal levels of key nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions: Diet is one of the main environmental factors during gestation. Breastfeeding is the best nutritional alternative during the first year of life, which is why it is essential to promote it. It is important to provide adequate assistance and generate strategies that stimulate the consumption of omega-3 acids as a long-term prevention tool(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adiposity , Nutritional Sciences , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Food
2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1547, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156556

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal puede ser un indicador de utilidad durante el embarazo y después del parto, en la prevención de eventos cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir posibles asociaciones de la vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal con cambios de la presión arterial en el posparto a corto plazo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en el período enero 2017-agosto 2018, en 119 mujeres pertenecientes al policlínico Chiqui Gómez Lubián. Se aplicó la prueba de peso sostenido, se determinó la media y desviación estándar de la presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media calculada; en reposo y dos minutos después de la primera medición. Se analizaron los cambios cuantitativos de la presión arterial en reposo y con estimulación física posterior, según vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal, 18 meses después del parto. Se clasificaron las mujeres en tres grupos según su respuesta vascular ante la estimulación física, evaluada por los cambios de la presión arterial: normorreactivas, hiperreactivas y con respuesta hipertensiva. Se aplicó la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis para la comparación de muestras independientes. Resultados: Incremento de los valores medios de presión arterial en mujeres con VGlobal Extrema AGA/CA (PAD, PAS_2min, PAD_2min y PAM-2min) y con VAGI (TAS Y TAM). De las mujeres con respuesta hiperreactiva, 36,4 por ciento tenía VAGI y el 45,5 por ciento con VAGA. El único caso con respuesta hipertensiva tenía VGlobal Extrema AGA/CA. Conclusiones: La caracterización temprana de la vulnerabilidad cardiometabólica por adiposidad corporal puede alertar sobre cambios en la reactividad vascular la cual conduce a eventos cardiovasculares posteriores(AU)


Introduction: Cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body fat can be a useful indicator during pregnancy and after delivery, in the prevention of cardiovascular events. Objective: To describe possible associations of cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body adiposity with changes in blood pressure in the short-term postpartum. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive observational study was carried out from January 2017 to August 2018, in 119 women at Chiqui Gómez Lubián community clinic. The sustained weight test was applied, the mean and standard deviation of the calculated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were determined at rest and two minutes after the first reading. The quantitative changes in blood pressure at rest and with subsequent physical stimulation were analyzed, according to cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body fat, 18 months after delivery. These women were classified into three groups according to their vascular response to physical stimulation, evaluated by changes in blood pressure: normoreactive, hyperreactive and with a hypertensive response. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for the comparison of independent samples. Results: Increase in mean blood pressure values in women with VGlobal Extrema AGA / CA (DBP, PAS_2min, DBP_2min and MAP-2min) and with VAGI (TAS and TAM). 36.4 percent of the women with a hyperreactive response, had VAGI and 45.5 percent had VAGA. The only case with a hypertensive response had VGlobal Extrema AGA / CA. Conclusions: The early characterization of cardiometabolic vulnerability due to body adiposity can alert about changes in vascular reactivity which leads to later cardiovascular events(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postpartum Period , Health Vulnerability , Adiposity , Arterial Pressure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
3.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e856, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289444

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de variables antropométricas relacionadas con el rendimiento en un deporte representa un interés en común para los profesionales de la salud y el deporte. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del índice de masa corporal, la masa grasa y la masa libre de grasa en la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas. Métodos: Se aplicó un estudio descriptivo de tipo correlacional con un enfoque cuantitativo y una muestra a conveniencia conformada por 21 futbolistas. Para valorar la velocidad con cambios de dirección se utilizó el Test de sprint 20 metros con cambios de dirección y el porcentaje de grasa corporal por medio de un monitor OMRON® BF-306. Los datos fueron analizados en el paquete estadístico PSPP en el cual se aplicó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk y el coeficiente correlacional de Pearson (95 por ciento de confianza y un p-valor de 0,05). Resultados: Los resultados reflejaron una distribución normal (p > 0,05); sin embargo, no se obtuvieron relaciones significativas entre el índice de masa corporal (r = -0,29), masa grasa (r = -0,06) y masa libre de grasa (r = 0,06; p > 0,05) con el rendimiento en la prueba de velocidad con cambios de dirección. Conclusiones: Este estudio permitió establecer que no existe relación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal, masa grasa y masa libre de grasa con el rendimiento de la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas(AU)


Introduction: Identification of anthropometric variables related to performance in a given sport is a common topic of interest to health and sports professionals. Objective: Determine the influence of body mass index, fat mass, and fat-free mass on change of direction speed in young soccer players. Methods: A correlational descriptive quantitative study was conducted of a convenience sample of 21 soccer players. Change of direction speed was measured with the Meters Swerve Sprint Test, whereas body fat percentage was evaluated with an OMRON® BF-306 monitor. The data were analyzed with the statistical package PSPP, with application of the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and Pearson's correlational coefficient (confidence interval 95 percent and p-value 0,05). Results: Results show a normal distribution (p > 0,05). However, a significant relationship was not found between body mass (r = -0,29), fat mass (r = -0,06) and fat-free mass (r = 0,06; p > 0,05), and performance in the swerve speed test. Conclusions: The study found that there is not a significant relationship between body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and change of direction speed in young soccer players(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Soccer , Sports , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Reaction Time , Confidence Intervals , Anthropometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Correlation of Data
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Body mass-independent parameters might be more appropriate for assessing cardiometabolic abnormalities than weight-dependent indices in Asians who have relatively high visceral adiposity but low body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured trunk-to-peripheral fat ratio is one such body mass-independent index. However, there are no reports on relationships between DXA-measured regional fat ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors targeting elderly Asian men.@*METHODS@#We analyzed cross-sectional data of 597 elderly men who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study, a community-based single-center prospective cohort study conducted in Japan. Whole-body fat and regional fat were measured with a DXA scanner. Trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAR) was calculated as trunk fat divided by appendicular fat (sum of arm and leg fat), and trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLR) as trunk fat divided by leg fat.@*RESULTS@#Both TAR and TLR in the group of men who used ≥ 1 medication for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes ("user group"; N = 347) were significantly larger than those who did not use such medication ("non-user group"; N = 250) (P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounding factors including whole-body fat, both TAR and TLR were significantly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting serum insulin, and the insulin resistance index in the non-user group and non-overweight men in the non-user group (N = 199).@*CONCLUSION@#The trunk-to-peripheral fat ratio was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of whole-body fat mass. Parameters of the fat ratio may be useful for assessing cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in underweight to normal-weight populations.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Adiposity/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Japan , Male , Osteoporosis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thorax/diagnostic imaging
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known on how context-specific sedentary behaviors (SB) affect adiposity. This study aimed to investigate compositional associations between context-specific SB and adiposity and estimate the differences in adiposity associated with replacing school and out-of-school SB with physical activity (PA).@*METHODS@#This study included 336 children and adolescents. Time spent in SB and PA was estimated using multi-day 24-hour raw accelerometer data. SB and PA were specified for school and out-of-school times. Fat mass percentage (FM%) and fat mass index (FMI) were used as adiposity indicators. A compositional isotemporal substitution model was used to estimate differences in adiposity associated with one-to-one reallocations of time from context-specific SB to PA.@*RESULTS@#Participants spent approximately two thirds of their school and out-of-school time being sedentary. Relative to the remaining 24-h movement behaviors, significant associations between out-of-school SB and adiposity were found in both boys (β@*CONCLUSIONS@#A reduction of out-of-school SB in favor of light PA should be advocated as an appropriate target for interventions and strategies to prevent childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry , Adiposity , Adolescent , Child , Czech Republic , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Schools , Sedentary Behavior
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 291 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152062

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da adiposidade no ambiente intrauterino e alterações na composição corporal neonatal podem estar relacionados com obesidade e doenças crônicas no futuro. O ganho de peso gestacional (GPG) está associado à obesidade infantil, porém, estudos que avaliaram a relação entre o GPG materno e a composição corporal do concepto revelaram resultados inconsistentes, especialmente no que se refere à adiposidade fetal. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre o GPG materno e a adiposidade do feto e composição corporal neonatal. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico prospectivo do tipo coorte, realizado em Araraquara e região, envolvendo gestantes atendidas em 34 Unidades de Saúde do SUS e na Maternidade Municipal "Gota de Leite". As gestantes foram acompanhadas em três períodos gestacionais (≤19, 20-29 e 30-39 semanas), durante o parto, e posteriormente até 72 horas após o parto. Foram avaliadas 1005 gestantes no 1º período gestacional, 1002 pares de gestantes e fetos no 2º período, 991 pares de gestantes e fetos no 3º período e 412 pares de mães e respectivos neonatos. A taxa de ganho de peso (TGP) foi calculada a partir da diferença entre o peso aferido no período gestacional específico menos o peso avaliado no período gestacional anterior, dividido pelo número de semanas correspondente a esse intervalo. O GPG total foi obtido pela diferença entre o peso aferido na data do parto e o peso pré-gestacional e classificado em insuficiente, adequado e excessivo, de acordo com a última diretriz do Institute of Medicine (IOM). A adiposidade fetal e a composição corporal do neonato foram avaliadas, respectivamente, por ultrassonografia e pletismografia por deslocamento de ar. Modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram construídos de acordo com um conjunto de ajustes mínimos suficientes sugeridos por gráficos acíclicos direcionados, considerando os seguintes fatores de confusão: idade, cor da pele/etnia, escolaridade, renda per capita, tabagismo, ingestão de alcool, paridade, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial, altura, IMC pré-gestacional, sexo, idade gestacional ao nascer, horas de vida do neonato. O nível de significância em todos os testes foi α = 5%. Resultados: Durante o 2º período gestacional, verificou-se que para cada 0,1 kg/semana da TGP, houve um aumento de 0,222 mm (p=0,012), 0,462 cm2 (p <0,001), e 0,310 cm2 (p <0,001) no tecido adiposo subcutâneo do abdômen, coxa e braço do feto, respectivamente. Também houve associação entre a TGP materna no 3º período gestacional e deposição de gordura subcutânea no braço (ß=0,484 cm2; p=0,001) e na coxa (ß=0,480 cm2; p=0,049) do feto. Quanto à composição corporal neonatal, observou-se que para cada 1 kg do GPG total houve aumento de 0,004 Kg (p=0,002) na massa gorda, 0,084% (p=0,025) no percentual de massa gorda e 0,009 Kg (p <0,001) na massa livre de gordura do neonato. Crianças de mulheres com GPG total insuficiente apresentaram massa livre de gordura 0,104 kg (p=0,009) menor que os neonatos de mães com GPG total adequado. Conclusão: De acordo com nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo na literatura internacional que investigou a associação entre ganho de peso materno e adiposidade fetal e composição corporal neonatal. Os resultados mostram um impacto diferente da TGP materno sobre o acúmulo de gordura fetal, de acordo com o período gestacional investigado. Também houve associação positiva entre GPG total e massa gorda, percentual de massa gorda e massa livre de gordura do neonato. Mães com GPG total insuficiente tiveram neonatos com menor massa livre de gordura.


Introduction: The increase in adiposity in the intrauterine environment and changes in neonatal body composition may be related to obesity and chronic diseases in the future. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity, however, studies that evaluated the relationship between the maternal GWG and the body composition of the fetus revealed inconsistent results, especially with regard to fetal adiposity. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between maternal GWG and adiposity of the fetus and body composition of the newborn. Methods: This is an epidemiological prospective cohort study, carried out in Araraquara and region, involving pregnant women attended at 34 Health Units from the Brazilian National Health Service - SUS and at the Municipal Maternity "Gota de Leite". The pregnant women were followed up in the respective gestational periods: ≤ 19, 20-29 and 30-39 weeks, during delivery, and later up to 72 hours after delivery. One thousand and five (1005) pregnant women were evaluated in the 1st period of pregnancy, 1002 pairs of pregnant women and fetuses in the 2nd period, 991 pairs of pregnant women and fetuses in the 3rd period, and 412 pairs of mothers and newborns. The rate of weight gain (RWG) was calculated based on the difference between the weight measured in the gestational period minus the weight assessed in the previous gestational period, divided by the number of weeks corresponding to that interval. GWG was obtained by the difference between the weight measured at the date of delivery and the pre-gestational weight, and classified as insufficient, adequate, and excessive, according to the last guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The fetal adiposity and body composition of the newborn were evaluated, respectively, by ultrasound and plethysmography by air displacement. Multiple linear regression models were constructed considering a set of sufficient minimum adjustments suggested by directed acyclic graphs, considering the following confounders: age, skin color/ethnicity, schooling, per capita income, smoking, alcohol intake, parity, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, height, pre-gestational BMI, sex, gestational age at birth, hours of life of the newborn. The level of significance in all tests was α = 5%. Results: During the 2nd gestational period, it was found that for each 0.1 kg/week of RWG, there was an increase of 0.222 mm (p = 0.012), 0.462 cm2 (p<0.001), and 0.310 cm2 (p<0.001) in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdomen, thight and arm of the fetus, respectively. There was also an association between the RWG in the 3rd gestational period and deposition of subcutaneous fat in the arm (ß=0.484 cm2; p=0.001) and thigh (ß=0.480 cm2; p=0.049) of the fetus. Concerning the newborn's body composition, it was observed that for each 1 kg of total GWG there was an increase of 0.004 Kg (p=0.002) in the fat mass, 0,084% (p=0.025) in the percentage of fat mass, and 0.009 Kg (p<0.001) in the fat-free mass of the newborn. Considering the guidelines of the IOM, neonates of mothers who had an insufficient total GWG had a fat-free mass of 0.104 kg (p=0.009) less than those born to women with adequate total GWG. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first study in the international literature that investigated the association between maternal weight gain in three different periods of gestation and fetal adiposity and newborn adiposity. The results show a different impact of the maternal RWG on the accumulation of fetal fat, according to the gestational period investigated. There was also a positive association between total GWG and mass fat, percentage of fat mass, and fat-free mass of the fetus, regardless of pre-gestational BMI. Women with insufficient total GWG had neonates with lower fat-free mass.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Infant, Newborn , Adiposity , Fetus , Gestational Weight Gain , Pediatric Obesity
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0649-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155589

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neck circumference (NC) and anthropometric data of people living with HIV (PLWH) are correlated. METHODS: Socioeconomic, NC, body mass index (BMI), tricipital skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) data of 72 PLWH were correlated. RESULTS Higher adiposity was observed in NC (40.3% [n=29]) and WC (31.9% [n=23]). Correlations between NC/BMI, NC/WC, NC/HC, NC/MAC, NC/MAMC, and NC/WHtR were significant. Increased NC (40.3%[n=29]) and WC (31.9 [n=23]) were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSIONS: NC correlations are adequate for estimating cardiometabolic risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist-Hip Ratio , Waist-Height Ratio
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(1): e00033320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153668

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between birth by cesarean section and central adiposity in adolescents in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. This was a cohort study that included 601 participants evaluated at birth and at 18-19 years. At birth we assessed type of delivery, maternal education, family income, maternal marital status, maternal body mass index before pregnancy, prenatal care, maternal smoking habit, gestational age at delivery and intrauterine growth restriction. In the adolescents, we evaluated central adiposity using the dual X-ray energy absorptiometry method. The indicators of central fat used were the trunk-to-total fat mass ratio (T/T), the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (A/G), the trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio (T/Lb), and the trunk-to-leg fat mass ratio (T/Lg). A theoretical model for the study of associations was developed using directed acyclic graphs, which allowed selecting the variables that required minimum adjustment for inclusion in the predictive model of exposure to cesarean delivery. The data were analyzed with marginal structural models weighted by the inverse of the probability of selection. A total of 38.6% of the adolescents studied were delivered by cesarean section. There was no significant difference in the central adiposity of adolescents delivered by cesarean section according to the indicators used: T/T ( coefficient = -0.003; 95%CI: -0.013; 0.007), A/G (coefficient = 0.001; 95%CI: -0.015; 0.018); T/Lb (coefficient = -0.016; 95%CI: -0.048; 0.016); T/Lg (coefficient = 0.014; 95%CI: -0.060; 0.030). In conclusion, there was no association between cesarean section delivery and greater central adiposity in the studied adolescents.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre nascimento por parto cesáreo e adiposidade central em adolescentes em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil. O estudo de coorte incluiu 601 participantes avaliados ao nascer e com 18-19 anos de idade. Ao nascer, foram avaliados o tipo de parto, escolaridade materna, renda familiar, estado civil materno, índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional, atendimento pré-natal, tabagismo materno, idade gestacional ao nascer e restrição do crescimento intrauterino. Nos adolescentes, a adiposidade central foi avaliada com o método da absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia. Como indicadores da adiposidade central, foram usadas a razão gordura tronco/gordura total (T/T), razão gordura androide/gordura ginecoide (A/G), razão gordura tronco/gordura membros (T/Lb) e razão gordura tronco/gordura membros inferiores (T/Lg). Foi desenvolvido um modelo teórico para analisar as associações, usando gráficos acíclicos dirigidos, permitindo a seleção das variáveis que exigiam ajuste mínimo para inclusão no modelo preditivo de exposição ao parto cesáreo. Os dados foram analisados com modelos estruturais marginais, ponderados pelo inverso da probabilidade de seleção. Entre os adolescentes estudados, 38,6% nasceram de parto cesáreo. Não houve diferença significativa na adiposidade central nos adolescentes nascidos de parto cesáreo, de acordo com os indicadores utilizados: T/T (coeficiente = -0,003; IC95%: -0,013; 0,007), A/G (coeficiente = 0,001; IC95%: -0,015; 0,018); T/Lb (coeficiente = -0,016; IC95%: -0,048; 0,016); T/Lg (coeficiente = 0,014; IC95%: -0,060; 0,030), O estudo conclui que não havia associação entre história de parto cesáreo e aumento de adiposidade central nesse grupo de adolescentes.


Resumen: El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la asociación entre el nacimiento por parto con cesárea y la adiposidad central en adolescentes en São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil. La cohorte de estudio incluyó a 601 participantes evaluados en su nacimiento y con 18-19 años de edad. En el momento del nacimiento se evaluó el tipo de parto, educación de la madre, ingresos familiares, estado civil de la madre, índice de masa corporal de la madre, cuidado prenatal, madre fumadora, edad gestacional en el parto y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino. En los adolescentes, la grasa central se evaluó usando el método de absorciometría con rayos X de energía dual. Los indicadores de grasa central utilizados fueron: el cociente de torso-grasa total (T/T por sus siglas en inglés), el de androide/ginecoide de grasa corporal (A/G), el cociente de masa adiposa torso-extremidades (T/Lb por sus siglas en inglés), y el cociente de masa adiposa torso-pierna (T/Lg por sus siglas en inglés). Se desarrolló un modelo teórico para el estudio de asociaciones, usando grafos acíclicos dirigidos, lo que permitió seleccionar las variables que requerían un mínimo ajuste para su inclusión en el modelo predictivo de exposición al parto por cesárea. Los datos se analizaron con modelos estructurales marginales ponderados por el inverso de la probabilidad de selección. De los adolescentes estudiados, un 38,6% fueron partos por cesárea. No hubo una diferencia significativa en la adiposidad central de los adolescentes que nacieron por cesárea, según los indicadores usados: T/T (coeficiente = -0,003; 95%CI: -0,013; 0,007), A/G (coeficiente = 0,001; 95%CI: -0,015; 0,018); T/Lb (coeficiente = -0,016; 95%CI: -0,048; 0,016); T/Lg (coeficiente = 0,014; 95%CI: -0,060; 0,030). A modo de conclusión, no hubo asociación entre los partos por cesárea y una mayor adiposidad central en los adolescentes estudiados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Adiposity , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Obesity
9.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 125-131, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147402

ABSTRACT

Introducción: diversos estudios han sugerido que el bajo y alto peso al nacer (PN) se asocian a obesidad (OB) y sobrepeso (SP) durante la infancia y la edad adulta. Objetivos: determinar la asociación entre PN y OB en escolares de 9 años de tres regiones de Argentina. Materiales y métodos: las medidas antropométricas y la presión arterial (PA) se tomaron en 1.131 escolares (505 masculinos) de 8,8±2,1 años de edad promedio, en tres regiones de Argentina durante el año 2019. Se interrogó, además, acerca del peso al nacer y el estilo de vida. Resultados: el 21,1% (239) de los niños presentaba SP (IMC>85 <95 percentilo según CDC) y el 21,8% (246) OB (IMC>95 percentilo). La prevalencia de PN bajo (<2.500 g) fue de fue de 6,2% (n=70) y de PN alto (>4.000 g) de 7,3% (n=82). El puntaje z-IMC de los niños de 9 años aumentaba significativamente con el aumento del PN: PN bajo (z-IMC=0,33), normal (z-IMC=0,72) y alto (z-IMC=1,12). En modelos de regresión logística múltiple se observó que el PN bajo se asoció inversamente a la OB (OR, 0.41 [IC del 95%: 0,19-0,92]), mientras que el PN alto se asoció directamente con la OB ajustado por edad y sexo (OR, 2.48 [95% IC 1,53-4,02]). Conclusiones: nuestros datos indican que el alto PN, pero no el bajo PN, se asocia con OB en niños en edad escolar de 9 años, mientras que el bajo PN está inversamente asociado con OB.


Introduction: several studies have suggested that low and high birth weight are associated with obesity (OB) and overweight (OW) during childhood and adulthood. Objectives: to determine the association between birth weight and OB in 9-year-old schoolchildren from three areas of Argentina. Materials and methods: anthropometric measurements and blood pressure (BP) were taken in 1.131 schoolchildren (505 males) of an average age of 8.8±2.1 years in three areas of Argentina during 2019. Mothers were asked about their children's birth weight and lifestyle. Results: 21.1% (239) of the children had OW (BMI>85 <95 percentile according to the CDC) and 21.8% (246) OB (BMI>95 percentile). The prevalence of low birth weight (<2.500 g) was 6.2% (n=70) and of high birth weight (>4.000 g) was 7.3% (n=82). The 9-year-old z-BMI score increased significantly with increasing birth weight: low birth weight (z-BMI=0.33), normal (z-BMI=0.72) and high (z-BMI=1.12). In multiple logistic regression models, it was found that low birth weight was inversely associated with OB (OR, 0.41 [95% CI: 0.19-0.92]), while high birth weight was directly associated with OB adjusted for age and sex (OR, 2.48 [95% CI 1.53-4.02]). Conclusions: our data indicate that high birth weight, but not low birth weight, is associated with OB in 9-year-old schoolchildren, while low birth weight is inversely associated with OB


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Birth Weight , Overweight , Adiposity , Life Style , Obesity
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 896-904, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142246

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Diversos índices antropométricos têm sido propostos para determinar a associação entre excesso de peso e fatores de risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre adiposidade corporal e reatividade microvascular em pacientes hipertensos sob terapia anti-hipertensiva. Métodos: Pacientes hipertensos tratados de 40 a 70 anos foram submetidos à avaliação de índices antropométricos: conicidade (IC), adiposidade corporal (IAC), adiposidade visceral (IAV) e relação cintura-estatura (RCE). Os participantes foram divididos pelos tercis de percentual de gordura (%G) obtido pela bioimpedância elétrica (BIA) e submetidos a teste de reatividade microvascular (laser speckle contrast image), medida da velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP). O valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: A variação da área sob a curva (ASC) da perfusão cutânea foi inferior no tercil superior (97 ± 57% vs. 67 ± 36%; p = 0,027). O %G apresentou correlação significativa com RCE (r = 0,77; p < 0,001), IAV (r = 0,41; p = 0,018), IC (r = 0,60; p < 0,001) e IAC (r = 0,65; p < 0,001) nos homens e somente com RCE (r = 0,55; p < 0,001) e IAC (r = 0,60; p < 0,001) nas mulheres. Na regressão linear, a ASC mostrou associação independente com o %G (β =-3,15; p = 0,04) nas mulheres e com a glicemia (β = -1,15; p = 0,02) nos homens. Não houve diferença nas medidas de VOP. Conclusão: Os índices antropométricos de obesidade foram mais associados ao %G nos homens. A maior adiposidade corporal foi relacionada com menor reatividade microvascular, o que foi mais evidente nas mulheres. Não houve diferença na rigidez arterial, o que pode ter sido influenciado pelo tratamento anti-hipertensivo.


Abstract Background: Several anthropometric indexes have been proposed to determine the association between overweight and cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between body adiposity and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients under antihypertensive therapy. Methods: Treated hypertensive patients aged 40 to 70 were submitted to evaluation of anthropometric indexes: conicity (CI), body adiposity (BAI), visceral adiposity (VAI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Participants were divided by the terciles of fat percentage (%F) obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The patients underwent microvascular reactivity test (Laser Speckle Contrast Image) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. The p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The variation of the area under the curve (AUC) of the skin perfusion was lower in the upper tercile (97±57% vs. 67±36%; p=0.027). %F showed significant correlation with WHtR (r=0.77; p<0.001), VAI (r=0.41; p=0.018), CI (r=0.60; p<0.001), BAI (r=0.65; p<0.001) in men and only with WHtR (r=0.55; p<0.001) and BAI (r=0.60; p<0.001) in women. In linear regression, AUC was independently associated with %F (β=−3.15; p=0.04) in women and with blood glucose (β=−1.15; p=0.02) in men. There was no difference in PWV measurements. Conclusion: Anthropometric indices were more associated with %F in men. Higher body adiposity was associated with lower microvascular reactivity, which was more evident in women. There was no difference in arterial stiffness, which may have been influenced by antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adiposity , Pulse Wave Analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1173-1178, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134420

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study evaluated the effect of resistance exercise training (RET) on body composition and muscle strength in 16 older women during summer holidays (70.5 ± 8.4 years old; Range 60-87). Exercise sessions were carried out for twelve weeks, two sessions per week, with 60 minutes of exercise per session. We measured body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (FM%, by bioimpedance) and grip strength with a dynamometer before and after the intervention. The participants showed a significant increase in BMI (p<0.05), FM% (p<0.001), and a significant gain in grip strength (p<0.05). The RET program could be an important strategy for improving strength for older women, but we would suggest combining it with other interventions, such as aerobic exercises with gradually increasing intensity and nutrition interventions, in order to maintain a steady weight during holiday periods.


RESUMEN: Este estudio evaluó el efecto del entrenamien- to con ejercicios de resistencia (EER) sobre la composición corpo- ral y la fuerza muscular en 16 mujeres adultas mayores durante las vacaciones de verano (70,5 ± 8,4 años; Rango 60-87). Las sesio- nes de ejercicio se llevaron a cabo durante doce semanas, dos ve- ces por semana, con 60 minutos de ejercicio por sesión. Se evaluó el índice de masa corporal (IMC), el porcentaje de masa grasa (% MG, por bioimpedancia) y la fuerza de presión con un dinamómetro manual antes y después de la intervención. Las participantes mos- traron un aumento significativo en el IMC (p< 0,05), % de MG (p<0,001) y un incremento significativo en la fuerza prensil (p <0,05). El programa de EER podría ser una estrategia importante para mejorar la fuerza de mujeres adultas mayores durante el periodo estival. El EER se sugiere combinarlo con otras variables, como ejercicios aeróbicos con intensidad gradualmente creciente y una intervención nutricional, para mantener un peso constante durante los períodos de vacaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Body Composition , Hand Strength/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Pressure , Seasons , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Adiposity , Resistance Training , Holidays
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 155-163, sept. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1150848

ABSTRACT

To determine the association between serum ferritin levels, lipid profile and adiposity in school-age children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on obese and non-obese children. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured for all participants. Lipid profile, serum ferritin and glucose were determined and analysed through absorbance. The Spearman correlation was performed for the quantitative variables and a regression analysis was used to determine the interaction between variables. Eighty-nine children were included, with a median age of 9.0 years. Results: When comparing serum ferritin levels in normal weight group, vs. the overweight and obesity group, values were significantly higher in the latter. Serum ferritin correlated positively with BMI (Rho .282, p <0.01), waist circumference (Rho .372, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (Rho .244, p < 0.05), body fat percentage (Rho .375, p < 0.001), insulin (Rho .254, p <.05) and sex (Rho .224, p <.05); and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Rho. -221, p< 0.05). When analysing the significant variables in a multivariate regression model, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat percentage remained statistically significant (p <0.01). Conclusion: We observed associations between serum ferritin and obesity in Mexican school aged children(AU)


Determinar la asociación entre los niveles de ferritina sérica, el perfil de lípidos y la adiposidad en niños en edad escolar. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal en niños obesos y no obesos. Se midieron el peso, la altura, la circunferencia de cintura y la presión arterial en todos los participantes. El perfil lipídico, la ferritina sérica y la glucosa se determinaron y analizaron mediante absorbancia. Se realizó correlación de Spearman para las variables cuantitativas y se utilizó un análisis de regresión para determinar la interacción entre las variables. Se incluyeron ochenta y nueve niños, con una edad media de 9,0 años. Resultados: Al comparar los niveles de ferritina sérica en el grupo de peso normal, frente al grupo de sobrepeso y obesidad, los valores fueron significativamente más altos en este último. La ferritina sérica se correlacionó positivamente con el IMC (Rho 0,282, p <0,01), la circunferencia de cintura (Rho 0,372, p <0,01), la presión arterial diastólica (Rho 0,244, p <0,05), el porcentaje de grasa corporal (Rho 0,375, p < 0,001), insulina (Rho 0,254, p <0,05) y sexo (Rho 0,224, p < 0,05); y negativamente con colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (Rho -0,221, p <0,05). Al analizar las variables significativas en un modelo de regresión multivariante, el sexo, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura y el porcentaje de grasa corporal se mantuvieron estadísticamente significativos (p <0,01). Conclusión: Observamos asociaciones entre la ferritina sérica y la obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Weights and Measures , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Ferritins/analysis , Pediatric Obesity , Anthropometry , Chronic Disease , Body Fat Distribution , Adiposity , Lipids
14.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(3): 476-490, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125011

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: diferentes manifestaciones de la composición corporal de las gestantes pueden ser indicativos de adiposidad abdominal. Dichos indicativos integran el cortejo del fenotipo normopeso obeso, y constituyen factores importantes que se deben tener en cuenta para la pesquisa y detección temprana de riesgos o alteraciones metabólicas en las gestantes de peso adecuado. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de fenotipos en gestantes sanas de peso adecuado a través de variables de adiposidad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico-longitudinal-prospectivo en 326 gestantes sanas de peso adecuado (IMC 18,5-24,9), las cuales asistieron a la consulta de nutrición de estas áreas de salud: Policlínico Universitario «Chiqui Gómez Lubián¼, Policlínico Universitario «XX Aniversario¼ y Policlínico Universitario «Capitán Roberto Fleites¼, todos del municipio de Santa Clara. El estudio se realizó en el período comprendido de octubre 2016 a octubre 2017; la muestra seleccionada fue de 201 gestantes. Se estudiaron variables antropométricas y su posible agrupación según afinidad. Resultados: la variable suma de pliegues subescapular y tricipital alcanzó sus valores más altos, en relación al resto de las variables de adiposidad que participaron en la formación de los conglomerados. Conclusiones: las posibles alteraciones metabólicas en las gestantes sanas se pueden prever a través de la determinación de agrupaciones por afinidad de sus variables de adiposidad. Esto puede influir significativamente en la condición trófica de los recién nacidos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: different manifestations of body composition in pregnant women can be indicative of abdominal adiposity. These indicators are part of the metabolically- obese normal-weight phenotype, and are important factors that must be taken into account for the screening and early detection of risks or metabolic alterations in normal- weight pregnant women. Objective: to identify the presence of phenotypes in healthy normal-weight pregnant women through adiposity variables. Methods: an analytical, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted on 326 healthy normal-weight pregnant women (BMI 18.5-24.9), who came to the nutrition consultation of these health areas: "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" University Polyclinic, "XX Aniversario" University Polyclinic and "Capitán Roberto Fleites" University Polyclinic, all belonging to Santa Clara municipality. The study was conducted from October 2016 to October 2017 and the selected sample was 201 pregnant women. Anthropometric variables and their possible grouping according to affinity were studied. Results: the sum variable of the tricipital and subscapular skinfolds reached its highest values, in relation to the rest of the adiposity variables that participated in the formation of the conglomerates. Conclusions: the possible metabolic alterations in healthy pregnant women can be foreseen through the determination of groupings according to the affinity of their adiposity variables. This can significantly influence the trophic condition of newborns.


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Body Composition , Adiposity
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1375-1380, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131467

ABSTRACT

Laminite endocrinopática designa os casos de laminite cuja etiologia está associada a uma endocrinopatia. Cavalos com síndrome metabólica equina (SME) apresentam adiposidade regional e obesidade. Existe uma correlação positiva entre obesidade e resistência à insulina. Este relato descreve três casos de laminite endocrinopática em cavalos com SME. Os pacientes apresentaram escore de condição corporal (ECC) variando de 8 a 9 (escala de 1 a 9), sensibilidade ao teste de pinçamento do casco e claudicação de grau 3 ou 4 (escala de 1 a 4). Não havia histórico de cólica recente, trauma ou excesso de exercício. O tratamento incluiu medicação anti-inflamatória não esteroidal, repouso na baia, restrição energética para perda de peso, revestimento e bandagem dos membros, conforme a necessidade de cada paciente. A restrição alimentar ajudou no tratamento da SME e reduziu o ECC. Tratamento medicamentoso, casqueamento e bandagem diminuíram o grau de claudicação. Conclui-se que o tratamento anti-inflamatório não esteroidal, a restrição energética, o repouso em baia, o casqueamento e a bandagem do casco são eficazes no tratamento da laminite endocrinopática em cavalos com síndrome metabólica equina.(AU)


Endocrinopathic laminitis refers to cases of laminitis whose etiology is associated with an endocrinopathy. Horses with Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) have regional adiposity and obesity. There is a positive correlation between obesity and insulin resistance. This report describes three cases of endocrinopathic laminitis in horses with EMS. Patients had body condition score (BCS) ranging from 8 to 9 (scale from 1 to 9), sensitivity to the hoof clamping test and claudication grade 3 or 4 (scale from 1 to 4). There was no history of recent colic, trauma or over exercise. Treatment included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, stall rest, energy restriction for weight loss, hoofing and hoof bandage as needed by each patient. Dietary restriction helped in the treatment of EMS and reduced BCS. Drug treatment, hoofing and hoof bandage decreased the degree of lameness. It is concluded that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment, energy restriction, stall rest, hoofing and hoof bandage are effective in the treatment of endocrinopathic laminitis in horses with equine metabolic syndrome.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Adiposity , Hoof and Claw/injuries , Horses/injuries , Obesity/veterinary , Bandages/veterinary , Exercise , Endocrine System Diseases/veterinary
16.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 371-378, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126174

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La obesidad es una enfermedad inflamatoria donde la genética determina cierto nivel de riesgo. Aun cuando existen estudios que reportan asociación entre polimorfismos de FTO (fat-mass associated gene) y adiposidad, existe limitada evidencia en población infantil chilena. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre el polimorfismo rs9939609 del FTO y marcadores de adiposidad en población in fantil chilena. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de corte transversal incluyó 361 participantes (de 6 a 11 años; 50% niñas). Los datos clínicos y la recolección de muestras de sangre se realizaron entre marzo y junio de 2008. El polimorfismo SNP (rs9939609), del gen FTO, se determinó utilizando ADN genómico extraído de leucocitos, utilizando el Mini Kit QIAamp DNA Blood (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Alemania). Los marcadores de adiposidad estudiados fueron, índice de masa corporal (IMC), masa grasa, perímetro de cintura (PC) y razón cintura/talla, y se compararon ajustados por sexo, edad y estadio de Tanner. La asociación entre el polimorfismo estudiado y los marcadores de obesidad se realizó mediante análisis de regresión lineal. Resultados: Al ajustar los marcadores por sexo, edad y estadío de Tanner se observó una asociación significativa entre el polimorfismo e indicadores de adi posidad. Por cada copia extra del alelo de riesgo se encontró un aumento de 2,47 kg de peso corporal, (IC 95%: 1,39-3,55); 1,06 kg/m2 de IMC, (IC 95%: 0,56-1,54); 2,55 cm de PC, (IC 95%: 1,26-3,85) y 1,98% de masa grasa, (IC 95%: 0,78-3,19). Al convertir los marcadores de adiposidad a z-score, la razón perímetro de cintura/talla arrojó la mayor asociación con el alelo de riesgo de FTO. Conclu sión: Este estudio indica asociación entre el polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con marcadores de adiposidad general y central en población infantil en Chile.


Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory disease with an important genetic component. Although several studies have reported an association between the FTO (fat-mass associated gene) and adiposity in children, there is limited evidence in the Chilean population. Objective: To deter mine the association between the polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene and markers of adipo sity in Chilean children. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional study which included 361 children aged between 6 and 11 years (50% were girls). Between March and June 2008, clinical data and blood sample collection was carried out. The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the FTO gene, was determined using the genomic DNA extracted from leukocytes, using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany).The adiposity markers included were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat, and WC/H index; which were later compared adjusted by sex, age, and Tanner stage. Linear regression analyses were conducted to detect the association between the polymorphism and obesity markers. Results: After adjusting the models by age, sex, and Tanner stage, we found a significant association between the polymorphism and markers of adiposity. For each extra copy of the risk allele, we found an increase of 2.47 kg body weight (95% CI: 1.39-3.55); 1.06 kg/m2 BMI (95% CI: 0.56-1.54); 2.55 cm WC, (95% CI: 1.26-3.85); and 1.98% body fat (95% CI: 0.78-3.19). When converting adiposity markers to z-score, we found that WC/height index shows the strongest association with the risk allele FTO. Conclusion: This study supports the association between the rs9939609 SNP of the FTO gene and overall and central adiposity markers in Chilean children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adiposity/genetics , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Genetic Markers , Linear Models , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/pathology
17.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(2): 250-266, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124991

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el exceso de grasa corporal en las mujeres en edad fértil se ha duplicado en los últimos 30 años, de modo que dicho estado nutricional se ha convertido en una amenaza para la estabilidad de las gestantes. Se conoce que el sobrepeso y la obesidad están asociados a múltiples complicaciones. Objetivo: describir los indicadores antropométricos en gestantes sobrepeso sanas, según afinidad de variables de adiposidad y grados de sobrepeso. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico-transversal, en el período comprendido de octubre 2016 a octubre 2017, en todas las gestantes sobrepeso de tres áreas de salud del municipio Santa Clara. Se utilizó el método multivariante de clasificación: técnica de conglomerados de dos pasos así como medidas descriptivas de tendencia central y de dispersión de las variables estudiadas. Resultados: se obtuvieron dos conglomerados y en uno de ellos se reunió a las gestantes con mayor adiposidad; los valores medios de las variables de composición corporal resultaron superiores en el conglomerado 2 y en el grado II de sobrepeso. Conclusiones: La agrupación de gestantes sobrepeso, según afinidad de variables de adiposidad corporal, permitió obtener agrupaciones de relativa correspondencia con los grados de sobrepeso establecidos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: excess body fat in women of childbearing age has doubled in the last 30 years, so this nutritional status has become a threat to the stability of pregnant women. Overweight and obesity are known to be associated with multiple complications. Objective: to describe the anthropometric indicators in healthy overweight pregnant women according to affinity of adiposity variables and degrees of overweight. Methods: an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2016 to October 2017 in all overweight pregnant women of three health areas belonging to Santa Clara municipality. The multivariate classification method: two-step cluster analysis was used, as well as descriptive measures of central tendency and dispersion of the studied variables. Results: two clusters were obtained and in one of them pregnant women with greater adiposity were gathered; average values of body composition variables were higher in cluster 2 and in overweight grade II. Conclusions: the grouping of overweight pregnant women, according to affinity of body fat variables, allowed obtaining groupings of relative correspondence with the established degrees of overweight.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Anthropometry , Overweight , Adiposity
18.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 449-456, jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126143

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: evaluate the relationship between visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: A case series study was conducted with 146 male and female adult outpatients at a hospital in Northeast Brazil. VAT and SAT were quantified using computed tomography and GFR was estimated using the formula proposed by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration. The conceptual model also considered socio-demographic, clinical, anthropometric and lifestyle variables. Results: Females accounted for 71.9% of the sample and mean age was 52.5±13.2 years. Mean body mass index indicated obesity in both sexes (men:30.4±5.9 kg/m2; women: 31.6±6.1 kg/m2). For the same mean age and BMI, men had more VAT and a higher VAT/SAT ratio. Mean GFR was similar between sexes and within the normal range. Simple linear regression analysis revealed that 21.8% of the reduction in GFR in males could be explained by the VAT/SAT ratio (p=0.002). Among females, both VAT alone and the VAT/SAT ratio were predictors of GFR reduction (r2=4.8%, p=0.025 and r2=5.3%, p=0.019, respectively). Conclusion: Mean VAT and VAT/SAT ratio were compatible with abdominal obesity in both sexes and were related to a reduction in GFR.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el tejido adiposo visceral (TAV) y subcutáneo (TAS) con la tasa de filtración glomerular. Métodos: Estudio tipo serie de casos, en 146 pacientes adultos de ambos sexos, atendidos en un ambulatorio de un hospital de referencia en el Nordeste brasileño. El TAV y el TAS se cuantificaron por tomografía computadorizada y la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG) estimada por la fórmula del grupo Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). El modelo conceptual también consideró variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, antropométricas y de estilo de vida. Resultados: Pacientes con edad promedio de 52,5 ± 13,2 años y el 71,9% de sexo femenino. El promedio del IMC en ambos sexos se encuentra en el rango de obesidad (hombres= 30,4 ± 5,9 kg/m2 vs mujeres= 31,6 ± 6,1 kg/m2). Para un mismo promedio de edad e IMC, los hombres presentaron mayor TAV y mayor razón TAV/TAS que las mujeres. El promedio de la TFG fue similar entre los sexos y se encuentra en el rango normal. A través de regresión lineal simple, se evidenció que, en el sexo masculino, la disminución de la TFG puede explicarse en el 21,8% por la razón TAV/TAS (p=0,002). En el sexo femenino, tanto el TAV aislado como la razón TAV/TAS fueron predictores de disminución de la TFG (r2= 4,8%; p=0,025 e r2= 5,3%; p=0,019), respectivamente. Conclusión: Se evidenciaron valores muy elevados de los parámetros antropométricos de obesidad abdominal y promedio de TAV y de la razón TAV/TAS compatible con obesidad visceral en ambos sexos, siendo que estos dos últimos parámetros estuvieron relacionados al descenso de la TFG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Brazil , Body Mass Index , Linear Models , Anthropometry , Adiposity , Obesity, Abdominal , Life Style
19.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(2): 204-210, Mai 16, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282972

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As associações de Terapias Combinadas de Ultrassom e Eletroterapia (TCUE) no mercado nacional podem ser utilizadas através de diferentes equipamentos. Na prática clínica tem-se relatado que o uso das TCUE tem eficácia no tratamento da adiposidade localizada. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da terapia combinada (TCUE) no tratamento da adiposidade localizada. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo experimental, composto por uma amostra de 15 coelhos, de ambos os sexos, da espécie Oryctolagus Cuniculus, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: G1- grupo TCUE-M que utilizou efeitos do ultrassom com aplicação de correntes estereodinâmicas (n = 5); G2- grupo TCUE -H que utilizou uma combinação de ultrassom e corrente Aussie (n = 5) e G3- controle (n = 5) nenhuma terapia. Resultados: As análises dos resultados revelaram pequenas alterações na camada adiposa na maioria dos coelhos integrantes dos grupos tratados. Conclusão: A análise das lâminas histológicas apresentou irregularidades na membrana celular adiposa mostrando diferentes tamanhos de células. (AU)


Introduction: Associations of Combined Ultrasound Therapy and Electrotherapy (TCUE) can be used in the domestic market through different equipment. Some authors report that the use of TCUE has efficacy in the treatment of localized adiposity. Objective: To evaluate the effects of combined therapy (TCUE) in the treatment of localized adiposity. Methods: This is an experimental study consisting of a sample of 15 rabbits of both sexes of the species Oryctolagus Cuniculus, randomly divided into three groups: G1- TCUE-M group that used ultrasound effects with the application of stereodynamic currents (n = 5); G2-TCUE-H group that used a combination of ultrasound and current Aussie (n = 5) and G3-control (n = 5) no therapy. Results: Analyzes of the results revealed small alterations in the adipose layer in most of the rabbits in the treated groups. Conclusion: Analysis of the histological slides presented irregularities in the adipose cell membrane showing different cell sizes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Combined Modality Therapy , Adiposity , Ultrasonic Therapy , Adipose Tissue , Electric Stimulation Therapy
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 459-468, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127086

ABSTRACT

Background Walking speed is a strong predictor of non-communicable diseases and mortality. Aim To investigate the association of self-reported walking pace with adiposity, metabolic and cardiovascular markers in the Chilean population. Material and Methods Analysis of data from 5,077 participants of the 2009-2010 National Health Survey (ENS 2009-2010). Walking speed was self-reported as average or slow pace. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile were the outcome. Results In Chile, 11% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 10.0; 12.7) of the population reported a slow walking pace. Compared with average walking people, those reporting a slow pace had a higher body weight (difference (∆) 5.65 kg [95% CI: 3.22; 8.09], p < 0.01), BMI (D 2.48 kg/m 2 [95% CI: 1.53; 3.44], p < 0.01), WC (D 6.23 cm [95% CI: 4.12; 8.34], p < 0.01), serum triglycerides (D 30,9 mg/dl [95% CI: 5,31; 57,5], p = 0.018), and lower HDL cholesterol (D -2.32 mg/dl [95% CI: -4,24; -0,34], p = 0.022). Those reporting a slow pace had also a higher odd of being obese (odds ratio (OR): 2.46 [95% CI: 1.82; 3.33], p < 0.01), being diabetic (OR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.02; 2.40], p = 0.018) and having metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.03 [95% CI: 1.30; 3.18], p = 0.002). Conclusions In Chilean adults, slow walking pace is associated with and unfavorable adiposity and lipid profile, including a higher probability of being obese, diabetic and having metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Walking Speed , Chile , Risk Factors , Walking , Adiposity , Self Report
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