Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 87
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878544

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the development of new vaccines such as nucleic acid vaccines, genetically engineered vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines has achieved rapid development. However, compared with traditional inactivated or live vaccines, these vaccines often have problems such as poor immunogenicity. Therefore, an adjuvant is needed to enhance its effect, and adjuvants have proven to be a key component in vaccines. There are many types of adjuvants, while currently no unified standard for the classification. At present, the most commonly used adjuvants are Aluminum adjuvant and Freund's adjuvant, but new generation vaccines will probably need new generation adjuvants. Thus, this review aims to showcase the current status of immune adjuvants, with the focus on immunomodulatory molecular adjuvant, antigen delivery adjuvant and compound adjuvant. This review provides new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Freund's Adjuvant , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190090, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132173

ABSTRACT

Abstract DNA vaccines have been evaluated as an option to prevent several diseases. In this study, the capacity of the xanthan biopolymer to improve the DNA vaccines immune response, administered intramuscularly, was evaluated. The experimental vaccines consisted of genes encoding fragments of the proteins LigA and LigB of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. The humoral immune response was evaluated by indirect ELISA. Cytokine expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR. Compared to the control group, the IgG antibody levels of animals immunized with pTARGET/ligAni and pTARGET/ligBrep plasmids associated with xanthan biopolymer were significantly higher than the control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in IL-17 expression in animals vaccinated with pTARGET/ligBrep and xanthan.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Polysaccharides, Bacterial , DNA, Recombinant/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Xanthomonas campestris , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacology , Biopolymers/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae , Antibodies
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170451, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893699

ABSTRACT

Abstract Local administration of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), agonist cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODNs), and CD40 ligand (CD40L) can decrease ligature-induced periodontal inflammation and bone loss in wild type (WT) mouse. Objective: This study aimed to explore whether such effect is dependent on TLR9 signaling. Material and Methods: Purified spleen B cells isolated from WT C57BL/6J mice and TLR9 knockout (KO) mice were cultured for 48 hours under the following conditions: CD40L, CpG+CD40L, CpG at low, medium and high doses. We determined B cell numbers using a hemocytometer at 24 h and 48 h. Percentages of CD1dhiCD5+ B cells were detected by flow cytometry. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression and protein secretion were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and by ELISA, respectively. The silk ligature was tied around the maxillary second molars for 14 days, during which the CpG+CD40L mixture or PBS was injected into palatal gingiva on days 3, 6, and 9. Results: For both WT and TLR9 KO mice, CpG significantly induced B cell proliferation, increased IL-10 mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-10 but reduced CD1dhiCD5+ B cells population; local injection of CpG+CD40L mixture significantly decreased alveolar bone loss and the number of TRAP-positive cells adjacent to the alveolar bone surface, and significantly increased the gingival mRNA expression of IL-10 and decreased RANKL and IFN-γ mRNA expression. Conclusions: These results indicated that CpG plus CD40L decreased periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss in a TLR9-independent manner in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , CD40 Ligand/pharmacology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 9/drug effects , Guanine Nucleotides/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-10/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 9/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5281, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787384

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60–80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Catfishes/immunology , Vaccination/veterinary , Aluminum Hydroxide/immunology , beta-Glucans/immunology , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Lipids/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Serum Albumin, Bovine/immunology
5.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(supl.2): 238-255, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776697

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever as prevalências dos fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas na população adulta brasileira no ano de 2014, e investigar os fatores sociodemográficos associados. Métodos: Análise dos dados provenientes do inquérito telefônico Vigitel 2014, a partir de amostras probabilísticas da população adulta (≥ 18 anos) das capitais dos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal, residentes em domicílios com telefone fixo. Apresentadas prevalências por sexo, idade e escolaridade e razões de prevalências (RP) ajustadas, por meio da Regressão de Poisson. Resultados: Entre 40.853 adultos entrevistados, 10,8% são fumantes atuais e 21,2% ex-fumantes. O consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas foi relatado por 16,5 e 52,5% apresentaram excesso de peso, fatores mais frequentes entre os homens. A prevalência do consumo recomendado de frutas e hortaliças foi de 24%, de doces de 18,1% e de substituição das refeições por lanches de 16,2%, maiores entre as mulheres. Atividade física no tempo livre alcançou 35,3% e aumentou com a escolaridade. A hipertensão arterial foi a doença mais frequente, com 24,8%, foi maior entre as mulheres, aumentando com idade. Conclusão: Os resultados do Vigitel 2014 indicam que os fatores de risco investigados costumam ser mais frequentes entre os homens, adultos de maior idade, e menos escolarizados, caracterizando o gradiente socioeconômico e cultural na determinação de doenças crônicas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the prevalence of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in Brazilian adult population in 2014 and investigate the associated sociodemographic factors. Methods: Analyses were performed based on data from telephone interviews (Vigitel 2014) on probabilistic samples of adult population (≥ 18 years old) from the capitals of the 26 Brazilian States and the Federal District, living in households with landline phones. Prevalence is presented by gender, age and educational level, and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) are estimated using Poisson Regression model. Results: Among the 40.853 adults who were interviewed, 10.8% were smokers and 21.2% ex-smokers. Among the respondents, 16.5% reported alcohol abuse and 52.5% were overweight, factors that were more frequent among men. The prevalence of recommended intake of fruits and vegetables was 24%, intake of sweets was 18.1% and replacements of main meals for snacks was 16.2%, factors that were higher among women. Leisure time physical activity reached 35.3% and increased with the level of education. Hypertension was the most frequent disease achieving 24.8%, which was higher among women and increased with age. Conclusion: The results from Vigitel 2014 indicate that risk factors are, in general, more frequent among men, older adults and less educated individuals, characterizing the socioeconomic and cultural dimensions in determining chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Inflammation/therapy , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Tissue Scaffolds
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(supl.2): 214-223, Out.-Dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776709

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo Apresentar os resultados dos indicadores sobre consumo de álcool e direção para as capitais brasileiras obtidos em dois inquéritos populacionais realizados em 2013 no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com dados da população adulta (≥ 18 anos) participante da Vigilância de Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) e da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Foram calculadas as prevalências para os indicadores de consumo de bebida alcoólica e direção veicular. Resultados: A proporção de motoristas adultos de carro ou moto que dirigiram logo depois de beber foi significativamente maior no sexo masculino (29,3% - Vigitel; 24,4% - PNS), entre jovens de 18 a 29 anos (31,6% - Vigitel; 24,1% - PNS) e entre os residentes das capitais da Região Centro-Oeste (33,7% - Vigitel; 28,3% - PNS). A proporção de adultos que referiram beber e dirigir foi maior no sexo masculino (9,4% - Vigitel; 7,4% - PNS), no grupo de 18 a 29 anos (7,1% - Vigitel; 4,5% - PNS) e entre os residentes das capitais da Região Centro-Oeste (7,9% - Vigitel; 6,1% - PNS). Conclusão: O estudo permitiu estimar a prevalência do hábito de dirigir após ingestão de bebida alcoólica entre motoristas e na população em geral e mostrou coerência entre os resultados dos dois inquéritos epidemiológicos de abrangência nacional.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To present the results of indicators of alcohol consumption and driving for Brazilian capitals based on two population surveys performed in Brazil in 2013. Methods: Cross sectional study with data from adults (≥ 18 years) participants of the Telephone Survey on Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (Vigitel) and the National Health Survey (NHS). Prevalence for indicators of alcohol consumption and driving was then calculated. Results: The proportion of adult drivers who drove soon after drinking was significantly higher among males (29.3% - Vigitel and 24.4% - NHS), the young aging 18 to 29 years (31.6% - Vigitel and 24.1% - NHS) and among residents of the capitals of the Midwest (33.7% - Vigitel and 28.3% - NHS). The proportion of adults who reported drinking and driving was higher among males (9.4% - Vigitel and 7.4% - NHS) in the 18 to 29 age group (7.1% - Vigitel; 4.5% - NHS), and among residents of the capitals of the Midwest (7.9% - Vigitel and 6.1% - NHS). Conclusion: The study estimated the prevalence of the habit of driving after alcohol consumption among drivers and in the general population. There was consistency between the results from two nationwide surveys.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , DNA , Hydrogels , Peptides/pharmacology , Amino Acid Sequence , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Inflammation/pathology , Molecular Sequence Data , Peptides/chemistry
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 158-163
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158406

ABSTRACT

Chyawanprash is an ayurvedic formulation used in Indian traditional medicinal system for its beneficial effect on human health. We investigated the immunostimulatory effects of Chyawanprash (CHY) using in vitro assays evaluating the secretion of cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-α) from murine bone marrow derived Dendritic Cells (DC) which play pivotal role in immunostimulation. The effects of CHY on phagocytosis in murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and Natural Killer (NK) cell activity were also investigated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations (20–500 µg/ml), CHY enhanced the secretion of all the three cytokines from DC. CHY also stimulated both, macrophage (RAW264.7) as well as NK cell activity, in vitro. In conclusion, the data substantiates the immunoprotective role of CHY at cellular level mediated by immunostimulation in key immune cells viz. dendritic Cells, macrophages and NK cells.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Cytokines/analysis , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , In Vitro Techniques , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spleen/cytology , Zymosan
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 131-142
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158396

ABSTRACT

Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/economics , Adjuvants, Immunologic/isolation & purification , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/economics , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/economics , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomass , Carbohydrate Sequence , Chromatography/methods , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Glucuronates/economics , Glucuronates/isolation & purification , Glucuronates/pharmacology , Glucuronates/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrolysis , Lignin/analysis , Microbiota/drug effects , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Structure , Oligosaccharides/economics , Oligosaccharides/isolation & purification , Oligosaccharides/pharmacology , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Prebiotics/economics , Waste Products/economics , Xylans/chemistry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44468

ABSTRACT

Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, including Fucus vesiculosus. This compound is known to have immunostimulatory effects on various types of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. A recent study described the application of fucoidan as a vaccine adjuvant. Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient prophylactic method for preventing harmful or epidemic diseases. To increase vaccine efficacy, effective adjuvants are needed. In the present study, we determined whether fucoidan can function as an adjuvant using vaccine antigens. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan increases the expression of the activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD)25, and CD69 in spleen cells. In combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica antigen, fucoidan increased the viability and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production of spleen cells. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the in vivo production of antigen-specific antibodies in mice inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen. Overall, this study has provided valuable information about the use of fucoidan as a vaccine adjuvant.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bordetella bronchiseptica/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Fucus/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/immunology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Spleen/metabolism
10.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered the best candidate in stem cells therapy due to their multipotent differentiation ability, low expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, CD34 and HLA-II) and immunosuppression effects on in vivo immune responses. MSCs were now widely used in clinical trials but received no encourage results. The major problem was the fate of engrafted MSCs in vivo could not be defined. Some studies indicated that MSCs could induce immune response and result in the damage and rejection of MSCs. As toll like receptors (TLRs) are important in inducing of immune responses, in this study we study the role of TLR7 in mediating the immune status of MSCs isolated from umbilical cord. RESULTS: Our results indicated that TLR7 agonist Imiquimod could increase the proliferation of PBMC isolated from healthy human volunteers and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in supernatant from PBMC-UCMSCs co-culture system. Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR also confirmed the regulated expression of surface co-stimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TGF-β and TNF-α). And the down-regulation expression of stem cell markers also confirmed the loss of stemness of UCMSCs. We also found that the osteo-differentiation ability of UCMSCs was enhanced in the presence of Imiquimod. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report that activation of TLR7 pathway increases the immunogenicity of UCMSCs. Extensive researches have now been conducted to study whether the change of immune status will be help in tumor rejection based on the tumor-tropism of MSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , /agonists , Antigens, CD/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , /analysis , /analysis , /analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
11.
Clinics ; 69(7): 491-496, 7/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The effects of natural adjuvants on lung inflammation and tracheal responsiveness were examined in sensitized guinea pigs. METHODS: The responses of guinea pig tracheal chains and the serum levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma were examined in control pigs and three other groups of guinea pigs: the sensitized group and two other sensitized groups treated with either adjuvant G2 or adjuvant G2F (n = 7 for each group). Sensitization of the animals was achieved by injection and inhalation of ovalbumin. RESULTS: The results showed that sensitized animals had increased tracheal responsiveness and increased serum levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma compared to controls (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Treatments with either G2 or G2F prevented the increase in tracheal responsiveness and serum interleukin-4 (p<0.01 to p<0.001). However, the serum levels of interferon-gamma and the interleukin-4-to-interferon-gamma ratio was increased in the treated groups (p<0.001 for all cases). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate important preventive effects of two natural adjuvants, particularly G2, on the changes in tracheal responsiveness, serum cytokines and the interleukin-4-to-interferon-gamma ratio (T helper 1/T helper 2 balance) in sensitized guinea pigs. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , /blood , /drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/prevention & control , Bronchoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Immunization , Interferon-alpha/blood , Methacholine Chloride/pharmacology , Ovalbumin , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Trachea/immunology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24555

ABSTRACT

Natural toxic substances have a bitter taste and their ingestion sends signals to the brain leading to aversive oral sensations. In the present study, we investigated chronological changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to study the bitter taste reaction time of neurons in the NTS. Equal volumes (0.5 mL) of denatonium benzoate (DB), a bitter tastant, or its vehicle (distilled water) were administered to rats intragastrically. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h after treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei started to increase 0.5 h after treatment and peaked 2 h after gavage. In contrast, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the DB-treated group significantly increased 1 h after gavage. Thereafter, the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei decreased over time. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the NTS was also increased in a dose-dependent manner 1 h after gavage. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy significantly decreased DB-induced neuronal activation in the NTS. These results suggest that intragastric DB increases neuronal c-Fos expression in the NTS 1 h after gavage and this effect is mediated by vagal afferent fibers.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Injections/veterinary , Ligands , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/physiology , Vagus Nerve/drug effects
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(3): 313-321, mayo 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-723577

ABSTRACT

Lepidium meyenii Walp, Brassicaceae (Maca) is a plant native to Peru to conferring immunostimulatory activity. The objective was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract (EAc) of yellow ecotype on gene expression of three hematopoietic cytokines (IL-3, GM-CSF and IL-7) in splenocytes from Balb/c mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide. Levels of mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Two days after immunosuppression (IS), in splenocytes from mice treated with EAc increased expression of mRNA was demonstrated for IL-3, GM-CSF e IL-7 (p < 0.05) compared to the untreated group. Five days after IS, in mice treated with EAc found higher cell counts in bone marrow, peripheral blood and endogenous colonies formed units in spleen compared to the untreated group. It is concluded that administration of EAc in immunocompromised mice can reverse the suppressive effects of cyclophosphamide.


Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae (Maca) es una planta oriunda del Perú a la que se atribuye actividad inmunoestimuladora. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto inmunomodulador del extracto acuoso (EAc) del ecotipo amarillo sobre la expresión génica de tres citoquinas hematopoyéticas (IL-3, GM-CSF e IL-7) en esplenocitos de ratones Balb/c inmunosuprimidos con ciclofosfamida. Los niveles de mRNA se midieron por RT-PCR. Dos días después de la inmunosupresión (IS), en los esplenocitos de los ratones tratados con EAc se evidenció mayor expresión de mRNA para IL-3, GM-CSF e IL-7 (p<0.05) respecto al grupo no tratado. Cinco días después de la IS, en los ratones tratados con EAc se encontró mayor recuento de células en la médula ósea, sangre periférica y unidades formadoras de colonias endógenas en el bazo respecto al grupo no tratado. Se concluye que la administración de EAc a ratones inmunocomprometidos puede revertir los efectos supresores de la ciclofosfamida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunocompromised Host , Lepidium/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Spleen/cytology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Mice, Inbred BALB C , MicroRNAs/analysis , Peru , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71809

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of an immune-stimulating peptide, WKYMVm, in ulcerative colitis. The administration of WKYMVm to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice reversed decreases in body weight, bleeding score and stool score in addition to reversing DSS-induced mucosa destruction and shortened colon. The WKYMVm-induced therapeutic effect against ulcerative colitis was strongly inhibited by a formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 2 antagonist, WRWWWW, indicating the crucial role of FPR2 in this effect. Mechanistically, WKYMVm effectively decreases intestinal permeability by stimulating colon epithelial cell proliferation. WKYMVm also strongly decreases interleukin-23 and transforming growth factor-beta production in the colon of DSS-treated mice. We suggest that the potent immune-modulating peptide WKYMVm and its receptor FPR2 may be useful in the development of efficient therapeutic agents against chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Proliferation , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon/pathology , Humans , Interleukin-23/genetics , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Permeability , Receptors, Formyl Peptide/antagonists & inhibitors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39071

ABSTRACT

B-1 cells, which constitute a predominant lymphocyte subset in serosal cavities and produce most of natural antibodies, are subdivided into the CD5+ B-1a and CD5- B-1b cell subpopulations, but the differential roles of B-1a and B-1b cells are not well understood. We report that B-1a cells preferentially migrate out of the peritoneal cavity and upregulate the expression of CXCR4 with heightened sensitivity to CXCL12 and CXCL13 upon LPS treatment compared to B-1b and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a cells were slightly more abundant than B-1b and B-2 cells in the homeostatic condition, the number of B-1a cells preferentially decreased 48 hr after LPS treatment. The decrease in the peritoneal B-1a cell number was accompanied with increased migration of B-1a cells toward CXCL-12 and CXCL-13 in in vitro transmigration assay using peritoneal B cells from LPS treated mice. The expression level of CXCR4, but not of CXCR5, was also more prominently increased in B-1a cells upon LPS stimulation. LPS-stimulated B-1a cells did not accumulate in omental milky spots in contrast to B-2 cells. These results suggest that B-1a cells actively migrate out of the peritoneal cavity through the regulation of the migratory responsiveness to chemokines and actively participate in systemic immune responses.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Chemokine CXCL13/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peritoneal Cavity/cytology , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Up-Regulation
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(3): 256-264, mayo 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687015

ABSTRACT

A preclinical study was carried out to determinate the protective properties of Petiveria alliacea Linn on 5-Fluoruracilo (5-FU)-immunosuppressed animals, a cytostatic drug often used in cancer treatment. Were use five groups of female Balb/c mice (5 mice/group).Two groups were treated with 400 and 1200 mg/kg of P. alliacea leaves and stems powder respectively, and a third group was treated with carboxymethyl cellulose as vehicle. Two additional control groups were set up: a 5-FU treated group, as immunosuppression control, and a NaCl solution (0.9 percent treated group. Animals were treated daily for five days and then a unique dose of 150 mg/kg of 5-FU was administered and the treatment continued for another four days. At termination blood and tissue samples were collected for leukocyte total count, analysis of bone marrow cellularity, thymus weight and total IgG antibody forming cells. Our results show that the group treated with the highest dose of P. alliacea, was less affected by 5-FU-induced immunosupresion compared with the other treated groups. The results derived from this study suggest that P. alliacea, a medicinal plant product, could be used in patients under antineoplasic regimens to avoid the deleterious adverse effects of the immunosuppressive drugs.


Se realizó un estudio preclínico para la determinación de las propiedades protectoras de la planta Petiveria alliacea Linn sobre la inmunosupresión inducida por la droga citostática 5- Fluoruracilo (5-FU), la cual se utiliza muy frecuentemente en la terapia contra el cáncer. Se utilizaron cinco grupos de ratones hembras Balb/c (5 ratones por grupo) que incluyeron dos grupos de tratamiento con dos niveles de dosis del polvo de las hojas y tallos de la planta: 400 y 1200 mg/kg, así como grupos controles con solución de NACl y con el vehículo (solución de carboximetil celulosa) por vía oral, aplicados durante 5 días, luego una administración única de 150 mg/kg de 5-FU y la continuación del tratamiento en los restantes 5 días. En las variables: conteo global y diferencial de leucocitos, celularidad de la médula ósea, peso del timo y Células Formadoras de Anticuerpos (CFA) IgG totales, se pudo observar que el grupo de mayor dosis de P. alliacea tuvo una menor afectación por la inmunosupresión inducida por 5-FU, en comparación con el resto de los grupos tratados. Estos resultados apoyan el uso de formulaciones de esta planta en pacientes que reciben tratamientos antineoplásicos para la protección contra la inmunosupresión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Immunosuppression , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organ Size , Plant Stems/chemistry
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(4): 327-331, Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581484

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to determine the immune-modulating effects of the neurotrophic factor N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) on median nerve regeneration in rats. We used male Wistar rats (120-140 days of age, weighing 250-332 g) and compared the results of three different techniques of nerve repair: 1) epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures alone (group S - 10 rats), 2) epineural neurorrhaphy using sutures plus fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA; group SF - 20 rats), and 3) sutures plus FTA, with MDP added to the FTA (group SFM - 20 rats). Functional assessments using the grasp test were performed weekly for 12 weeks to identify recovery of flexor muscle function in the fingers secondary to median nerve regeneration. Histological analysis was also utilized. The total number and diameter of myelinated fibers were determined in each proximal and distal nerve segment. Two indices, reported as percentage, were calculated from these parameters, namely, the regeneration index and the diameter change index. By the 8th week, superiority of group SFM over group S became apparent in the grasping test (P = 0.005). By the 12th week, rats that had received MDP were superior in the grasping test compared to both group S (P < 0.001) and group SF (P = 0.001). Moreover, group SF was better in the grasping test than group S (P = 0.014). However, no significant differences between groups were identified by histological analysis. In the present study, rats that had received MDP obtained better function, in the absence of any significant histological differences.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/pharmacology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Median Nerve/drug effects , Median Nerve/physiology , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sutures , Time Factors
18.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2011; 10 (2): 101-110
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122685

ABSTRACT

Allergic Rhinitis [AR] is one of the most common chronic diseases in the developed countries. This study was performed to investigate the effect of CpG-ODN in alteration of T-helper [Th]l/Th2 balance of patients with AR treated with intranasal corticosteroids [INCs] and antihistamines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] of 20 patients with AR were isolated before and after 45 days therapy. Cytokine production [IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-gamma] and specific Ch.a IgE in response to CpG co-administration of natural chenopodium album [CpG/Ch.a] or recombinant Ch.a [CpG/rCh.a] allergen were investigated in supernatants.of cultured PBMCs using ELISA Intracellular IL-10 was also assessed in CD4[+] cells using flow cytometry. Significant increase in production of IFN-y and IL-10 and decrease in production of IL-4 were found in supernatants of cultured PBMCs activated with CPG/ch.a and CPG/rch.a. of both CpG/Ch.a and CpG/rCh.a compared to allergens alone, before and after therapy. After therapy, IFN-gamma production with CpG/Ch.a was significantly increased in comparison with before [237 vs. 44 pg/ml, p=0.001]. IFN-gamma and IL-10 production with CpG/rCh.a was significantly increased after therapy compared to before [407.6 vs. 109 pg/ml, p=0.0l for IFN- gamma; 171.7 vs. 52.6 pg/ml, p=0.008 for IL-10], whilst IL-4 was significantly decreased [2.1 vs. 5.8 pg/ml, p=0.02]. Intracellular IL-10 expression was also significantly increased in response to either CpG/Ch.a or CpG/rCh.a that showed intracellular assay could be more sensitive than ELISA. Also, treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines could enhance this CpG effect, in vitro


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/drug therapy , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/drug therapy , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Chenopodium album/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Cytokines/blood , Administration, Intranasal
19.
Diagnóstico (Perú) ; 49(4): 186-188, oct.-dic. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-590812

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Meta-análisis para evaluar la eficacia de OM-85 BV (Broncho-Vaxom) en la prevención de las infecciones respiratorias recurrentes (IRRs) en niños. Se define a las IRRs como 23 infecciones por semestre (otoño e invierno) y se definen como el evento final primario. Métodos: Se identificaron los estudios en bases de datos. Se excluyó once estudios que no fueron doble-ciego y uno referente a la prevención primaria; y se incluyó en el meta-análisis ocho estudios controlados y randomizados. Se compararon los resultados a 6 meses. Se examinó la base de datos de acuerdo con los lineamientos Cochrane. Resultados: De los pacientes tratados con OM-85 BV (n= 435), un32% tuvo IRRs (esto es, 23 RTI/periodo de 6 meses) vs. 58.2% en la población que recibió placebo (n= 416; P<0.001). Los resultados también fueron positivos para el tratamiento activo con respecto a las variables secundarias. Conclusiones: El presente meta-análisis demuestra, que la población tratada con OM-85BV tuvo significativa y consistentemente menos casos del IRRs. El efecto es mayor en los pacientes con un mayor riesgo para desarrollar IRRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Placebos/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174319

ABSTRACT

Cholera toxin, which has been frequently used as mucosal adjuvant, leads to an irreversible activation of adenylyl cyclase, thereby accumulating cAMP in target cells. Here, it was assumed that beta2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol may have modulatory functions of immunity induced by DNA vaccine, since beta2-adrenergic agonists induce a temporary cAMP accumulation. To test this assumption, the present study evaluated the modulatory functions of salbutamol co-administered with DNA vaccine expressing gB of herpes simplex virus (HSV) via intranasal (i.n.) route. We found that the i.n. co-administration of salbutamol enhanced gB-specific IgG and IgA responses in both systemic and mucosal tissues, but optimal dosages of co-administered salbutamol were required to induce maximal immune responses. Moreover, the mucosal co-delivery of salbutamol with HSV DNA vaccine induced Th2-biased immunity against HSV antigen, as evidenced by IgG isotypes and Th1/Th2-type cytokine production. The enhanced immune responses caused by co-administration of salbutamol provided effective and rapid responses to HSV mucosal challenge, thereby conferring prolonged survival and reduced inflammation against viral infection. Therefore, these results suggest that salbutamol may be an attractive adjuvant for mucosal genetic transfer of DNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/immunology , Albuterol/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Herpes Simplex/immunology , Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Simplexvirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL