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1.
s.l; CONETEC; 13 mayo 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1224494

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los primeros informes de China, Italia y Estados Unidos que describen a los pacientes con COVID-19 ingresados en el hospital, los pacientes con asma y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) estaban significativamente sub-representados.3-6 Surgió entonces la hipótesis que esta subrepresentación de las primeras cohortes, podría deberse al uso generalizado de glucocorticoides inhalados en esta población. 7 El uso de glucocorticoides inhalados en pacientes con asma y EPOC tiene la finalidad de disminuir la inflamación de las vías aéreas y de este modo contribuir a reducir las exacerbaciones, que a menudo se deben a infecciones de origen viral. 8 Los estudios in vitro han demostrado que los glucocorticoides inhalados reducen la replicación de SARS-CoV-2 en las células epiteliales de las vías respiratorias, además de la regulación en menos de la expresión de los genera ACE2 y TMPRSS2, que son críticos para la entrada de células virales en este epitelio.9 Budesonide inhalado se encuentran ampliamente disponible en Argentina y está aprobada por la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (ANMAT) para la prevención de los síntomas respiratorios relacionados con la inflamación bronquial aguda o crónica. Se realizó una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria, basada en evidencia proveniente de revisiones sistemáticas vivas y guías de práctica clínica de alta calidad metodológica para brindar parámetros actualizados y balanceados que sean de utilidad para la toma de decisiones en los diferentes niveles de gestión. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar parámetros de eficacia, seguridad, conveniencia y recomendaciones disponibles acerca del uso de esteroides inhalados para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Efectos en la Salud: Se desarrolló un protocolo sustentado en proyectos que resume activamente la evidencia científica a medida que la misma se hace disponible. Con este fin se utilizó la plataforma Love de Epistemonikos para identificar revisiones sistemáticas "vivas". Se seleccionaron aquellas con una calidad metodológica apropiada evaluada a través de la herramienta AMSTAR-2, y que a su vez llevaran un proceso de actualización frecuente.10 De cada una de las revisiones sistemáticas identificadas se extractaron los efectos de la intervención sobre los desenlaces priorizados como importantes o críticos separando los efectos del tratamiento sobre pacientes con COVID-19 (mortalidad, ingreso en asistencia ventilatoria mecánica, duración de estadía hospitalaria, tiempo a la resolución de síntomas o mejoría clínica al día 7-28 y eventos adversos graves) y la certeza en dichos efectos. Adicionalmente se extractaron datos relacionados a efectos de subgrupo potencialmente relevantes para la toma de decisión, con especial énfasis en el tiempo de evolución y la severidad de la enfermedad. Implementación: Este domino contempla dos subdominios: la existencia de barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de la tecnología evaluada no consideradas en los otros dominios analizados, y los costos comparativos en relación con otras intervenciones similares. Recomendaciones: se utilizó la plataforma COVID recmap. Se seleccionaron aquellas guías con rigor metodológico apropiado según la herramienta AGREE II (> 70%) y se incorporaron sus recomendaciones al informe. RESULTADOS: Efectos en la Salud: Se identificaron dos revisiones sistemáticas que cumplen con los criterios de inclusión del presente informe y que reportan sobre budesonide inhalado para pacientes con COVID-19. Se identificaron 2 ECA que incluyeron 1929 participantes en los que budesonide inhalado se comparó con la atención estándar u otros tratamientos. CONCLUSIONES: El cuerpo de evidencia disponible hasta el momento sugiere que budesonide inhalado podría mejorar el tiempo de resolución de los síntomas y disminuir las hospitalizaciones. Existe incertidumbre en el efecto de budesonide inhalado sobre la mortalidad, los efectos advsersos severos o el ingreso en asistencia ventilatoria mecánica. Budesonide inhalado se encuentran ampliamente disponible en Argentina y está aprobada por ANMAT para el tratamiento de síntomas respiratorios relacionados con la inflamación bronquial aguda o crónica. Su costo comparativo es bajo y no se identificaron recomendaciones que aborden el uso de esteroides inhalados para el tratamiento de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Administration, Inhalation , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Budesonide/economics , Therapeutic Index
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(3): e20200473, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279291

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and assess dynamic lung function in children and adolescents with asthma, as well as to determine the association of PIF with dynamic lung function and clinical variables. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents with asthma using dry powder inhalers (DPIs) regularly. The control group included sex-, age-, weight-, and height-matched individuals without lung disease. Socioeconomic and clinical variables were collected. PIF and dynamic lung function variables were obtained with a specific device. Between-group comparisons were made with the Student's t-test and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess associations between PIF and the other variables. Results: A total of 88 individuals (44 asthma patients and 44 controls) participated in the study. PIF and respiratory muscle strength (S-index) values were lower in the asthma patients than in the controls. PIF correlated positively with age, weight, height, and S-index in the asthma group. After controlling for height, we found an increase of 0.05 units in PIF associated with an increase of 1 unit in the S-index in the asthma group. Conclusions: PIF appears to be lower in children and adolescents with asthma than in those without asthma, correlating positively with age, height, weight, and respiratory muscle strength.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o pico de fluxo inspiratório (PFI) e a função pulmonar dinâmica de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos e verificar sua associação com variáveis clínicas. Métodos: Estudo transversal com crianças e adolescentes asmáticos que faziam uso regular de inaladores de pó. O grupo controle foi composto por participantes sem doença pulmonar, pareados por sexo, idade, peso e altura. Foram coletadas variáveis socioeconômicas e clínicas. O PFI e variáveis de função pulmonar dinâmica foram obtidos através de um dispositivo específico. As associações entre os dois grupos foram estudadas utilizando-se o teste t de Student e ANOVA. Realizou-se um modelo de regressão linear múltipla e foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson para estimar associações entre o PFI e as demais variáveis. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 88 participantes (44 em cada grupo). Nos asmáticos, os valores do PFI e de força muscular respiratória (S-índex) foram menores que os dos controles. O PFI nos asmáticos apresentou correlações positivas com as variáveis idade, peso, altura e S-índex. Controlando-se a altura, houve um aumento de 0,05 unidades no PFI associado ao aumento de 1 unidade de S-índex nos asmáticos. Conclusões: O PFI é menor em crianças e adolescentes com asma em comparação àqueles sem asma com características antropométricas semelhantes e apresenta correlações positivas com idade, altura, peso e força dos músculos respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Dry Powder Inhalers , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Muscles , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2954-2961, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Despite the recommendation of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus long-acting beta 2-agonist (LABA) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) or ICS/LTRA as stepwise approaches in asthmatic children, there is a lack of published systematic review comparing the efficacy and safety of the two therapies in children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years. This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) vs. montelukast (MON), or combination of montelukast and fluticasone (MFC) in children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years with bronchial asthma.@*METHODS@#A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China BioMedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical, and Wanfang for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from inception to May 24, 2021. Interventions are as follows: SFC vs. MON, or combination of MFC, with no limitation of dosage or duration. Primary and secondary outcome measures were as follows: the primary outcome of interest was the risk of asthma exacerbation. Secondary outcomes included risk of hospitalization, pulmonary function, asthma control level, quality of life, and adverse events (AEs). A random-effects (I2 ≥ 50%) or fixed-effects model (I2 < 50%) was used to calculate pooled effect estimates, comparing the outcomes between the intervention and control groups where feasible.@*RESULTS@#Of the 1006 articles identified, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria with 2643 individuals; two were at low risk of bias. As no primary outcomes were similar after an identical treatment duration in the included studies, meta-analysis could not be performed. However, more studies favored SFC, instead of MON, owing to a lower risk of asthma exacerbation in the SFC group. As for secondary outcome, SFC showed a significant improvement of peak expiratory flow (PEF)%pred after 4 weeks compared with MFC (mean difference [MD]: 5.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57-9.34; I2 = 95%; P = 0.006). As for asthma control level, SFC also showed a higher full-controlled level (risk ratio [RR]: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24-1.85; I2 = 0; P < 0.001) and higher childhood asthma control test score after 4 weeks of treatment (MD: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.39-3.21; I2 = 72%; P < 0.001) compared with MFC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SFC may be more effective than MFC for the treatment of asthma in children and adolescents, especially in improving asthma control level. However, there is insufficient evidence to make firm conclusive statements on the use of SFC or MON in children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years with asthma. Further research is needed, particularly a combination of good-quality long-term prospective studies and well-designed RCTs.@*PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER@#CRD42019133156.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Cyclopropanes , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fluticasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Quinolines , Salmeterol Xinafoate/therapeutic use , Sulfides
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48443, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1116092

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento de pré-escolares durante o uso de administração por inalação, antes e após sessão de Brinquedo Terapêutico. Método: estudo quase-experimental de abordagem quantitativa, com a técnica de observação antes e após a intervenção, realizado por meio de amostra intencional, recrutadas em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento no interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, coletados entre os meses de novembro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Resultados: foram avaliados 25 comportamentos de 99 pré-escolares durante a administração por inalação. Após a sessão, 73,7% estavam com a postura e expressão facial relaxada, 76,8% estavam à vontade, 19,2% interromperam o procedimento e 38,4 % solicitaram a presença da mãe ou acompanhante. Conclusão: o uso do brinquedo, favoreceu maior aceitação e adaptação de pré-escolares submetidos à administração por inalação, evidenciado a importância em implementar essa estratégia em serviços de pronto atendimento pediátrico.


Objective: to compare the behavior of preschoolers during inhalation therapy, before and after a Therapeutic Play session. Method: quasi-experimental, quantitative study using pre- and post-intervention observation with an intentional sample recruited at an Emergency Care Unit in Minas Gerais. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: twenty-five behaviors of 99 preschoolers were evaluated during inhalation administration. After the session, 73.7% were relaxed in posture and facial expression, 76.8% were comfortable, 19.2% interrupted the procedure, and 38.4% requested the mother or companion to be present. Conclusion: the use of toys favored greater acceptance and adaptation by preschoolers undergoing inhalation therapy, evidencing the importance of implementing this strategy in pediatric emergency services.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento de los preescolares durante la terapia de inhalación, antes y después de una sesión de Juego Terapéutico. Método: estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental utilizando observación previa y posterior a la intervención con una muestra intencional reclutada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencia en Minas Gerais. Los datos se recopilaron de noviembre de 2017 a abril de 2018 y se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: se evaluaron veinticinco comportamientos de 99 niños en edad preescolar durante la administración por inhalación. Después de la sesión, el 73.7% se relajó en la postura y la expresión facial, el 76.8% se sintió cómodo, el 19.2% interrumpió el procedimiento y el 38.4% solicitó que la madre o la acompañante estuvieran presentes. Conclusión: el uso de juguetes favoreció una mayor aceptación y adaptación por parte de los preescolares sometidos a terapia de inhalación, lo que evidencia la importancia de implementar esta estrategia en los servicios de emergencia pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Play and Playthings/psychology , Administration, Inhalation , Child Behavior/psychology , Behavior Observation Techniques , Nurse-Patient Relations , Nursing Care/methods
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(1): e20190307, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090792

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The pharmacological management of asthma has changed considerably in recent decades, as it has come to be understood that it is a complex, heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and endotypes. It is now clear that the goal of asthma treatment should be to achieve and maintain control of the disease, as well as to minimize the risks (of exacerbations, disease instability, accelerated loss of lung function, and adverse treatment effects). That requires an approach that is personalized in terms of the pharmacological treatment, patient education, written action plan, training in correct inhaler use, and review of the inhaler technique at each office visit. A panel of 22 pulmonologists was invited to perform a critical review of recent evidence of pharmacological treatment of asthma and to prepare this set of recommendations, a treatment guide tailored to use in Brazil. The topics or questions related to the most significant changes in concepts, and consequently in the management of asthma in clinical practice, were chosen by a panel of experts. To formulate these recommendations, we asked each expert to perform a critical review of a topic or to respond to a question, on the basis of evidence in the literature. In a second phase, three experts discussed and structured all texts submitted by the others. That was followed by a third phase, in which all of the experts reviewed and discussed each recommendation. These recommendations, which are intended for physicians involved in the treatment of asthma, apply to asthma patients of all ages.


RESUMO O manejo farmacológico da asma mudou consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, com base no entendimento de que a asma é uma doença heterogênea e complexa, com diferentes fenótipos e endótipos. Agora está claro que o objetivo do tratamento da asma deve ser alcançar e manter o controle da doença e evitar riscos futuros (exacerbações, instabilidade da doença, perda acelerada da função pulmonar e efeitos adversos do tratamento). Isso implica em uma abordagem personalizada, incluindo tratamento farmacológico, educação do paciente, plano de ação por escrito, treinamento para uso do dispositivo inalatório e revisão da técnica inalatória a cada visita ao consultório. Um painel de 22 pneumologistas brasileiros foi convidado a revisar criticamente evidências recentes de tratamento farmacológico da asma e a preparar esta recomendação, um guia de tratamento adaptado à nossa realidade. A escolha dos tópicos ou questões relacionadas às mudanças mais significativas nos conceitos e, consequentemente, no manejo da asma na prática clínica foi realizada por um painel de especialistas. Foi solicitado a cada especialista que revisasse criticamente um tópico ou respondesse a uma pergunta, com base em evidências, para estas recomendações. Numa segunda fase, três especialistas discutiram e estruturaram todos os textos submetidos pelos demais e, na última fase, todos revisaram e discutiram cada recomendação. As presentes recomendações se aplicam a adultos e crianças com asma e destinam-se a médicos envolvidos no tratamento da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/administration & dosage , Disease Management , Severity of Illness Index , Administration, Inhalation , Brazil , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Symptom Flare Up
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 95-97, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116916

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia suprarrenal es un síndrome que se produce por la disminución de niveles séricos de glucocorticoides, la cual se clasifica en primaria o secundaria, según la etiología. El uso prolongado de corticoides exógenos a altas dosis puede producir una inhibición en el eje hipotálamo-hipofisiario-adrenal, y la supresión aguda de éstos produce insuficiencia suprarrenal secundaria. Los glucocorticoides inhalados, usados ampliamente como tratamiento del asma bronquial, pudiesen tener un impacto a nivel del eje adrenal, principalmente en la población pediátrica. Por el momento, si bien hay reportes de casos que evidencian insuficiencia suprarrenal secundaria al uso de corticoides tanto tópicos como inhalatorios, aún es materia de discusión esta interacción a nivel sistémico, con artículos que se contraponen en sus resultados. Se presenta un caso clínico de una paciente usuaria de glucocorticoides inhalatorios por el antecedente de asma bronquial, que desarrolla una clínica de insuficiencia suprarrenal en el periodo de lactancia.


Adrenal insufficiency is a syndrome that is produced by the decrease in serum glucocorticoid levels, which is classified as primary or secondary, according to the etiology. Prolonged use of exogenous corticosteroids at high doses may cause inhibition in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and acute suppression of these results in secondary adrenal insufficiency. Inhaled glucocorticoids, widely used as a treatment for bronchial asthma, could have an impact at the level of the adrenal axis, mainly in the pediatric population. At the moment, although there are reports of cases that show adrenal insufficiency secondary to the use of both topical and inhalation corticosteroids, this interaction at systemic level is still a matter of discussion, with articles that contrast in their results. We present a clinical case of a patient using inhaled glucocorticoids due to a history of bronchial asthma, which develops a clinical of adrenal insufficiency in the period of breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Lactation , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878768

ABSTRACT

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Western medicine in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Three English databases and four Chinese databases were systematically searched from the database establishment to April 1, 2020. We screened randomized controlled trial(RCT) according to the pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, then extracted data. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed with Cochrane bias risk evaluation tool. Data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.3. A total of 401 articles were retrieved and finally 17 RCTs were included in this study, involving 1 447 patients, and the overall quality of the included studies was not high. Meta-analysis showed that, in reducing traditional Chinese medicine symptom score, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing the grade of modified medical research council(mMRC), Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing COPD assessment test(CAT) score, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine alone. In delaying the decline of forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV_1) or % in the expected value, Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation was superior to conventional Western medicine or Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In delaying the decline of ratio of FEV_1 to forced vital capacity(FEV_1/FVC), Liujunzi Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine was superior to conventional Western medicine alone, but there was no statistical difference between Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation and Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. In reducing acute exacerbation rate, there was no statistical difference between Liujunzi Decoction combined with Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation and Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Powder for Inhalation alone. On the other outcome measures of Liujunzi Decoction combined with other Western medicine, Meta-analysis could not be conducted and conclusions due to the inclusion of only one study. In terms of the occurrence of adverse reactions, some studies did not mention, so the safety of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Wes-tern medicine could not be determined in this paper. Due to the limitations of the quality and quantity of inclu-ded studies, the efficacy of Liujunzi Decoction combined with Western medicine for COPD still needs more high-quality studies for confirmation, and its safety needs to be further verified.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Salmeterol Xinafoate/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of intermittent versus daily inhalation of budesonide on pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with mild persistent asthma.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 children, aged 6-14 years, with mild persistent asthma who attended the hospital from January 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled. The children were divided into an intermittent inhalation group with 60 children (inhalation of budesonide 200 μg/day for 6 weeks when symptoms of asthma appeared) and a daily inhalation group with 60 children (continuous inhalation of budesonide 200 μg/day) by stratified randomization. The children were followed up at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of baseline data, changes in FeNO and pulmonary function parameters, amount of glucocorticoid used, number of asthma attacks, and asthma control.@*RESULTS@#At the start of treatment, there were no significant differences in baseline data, FeNO, and pulmonary function between the two groups (P>0.05). Over the time of treatment, FeNO gradually decreased and pulmonary function parameters were gradually improved in both groups (P0.05). Compared with the daily inhalation group, the intermittent inhalation group had a significantly lower amount of budesonide inhaled (P<0.05) and a significantly higher number of asthma attacks (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intermittent inhalation and daily inhalation of budesonide can achieve the same level of asthma control in children with mild persistent asthma and both have no influence on the increases in body height and body weight. Daily inhalation of budesonide can produce a better efficiency in reduing FeNO and increasing FEV1%pred. Although intermittent inhalation can reduce the amount of glucocorticoid used, it may lead to a higher risk of asthma attacks.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Budesonide , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Nitric Oxide
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
13.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 50(1-2): 14-21, Diciembre 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118362

ABSTRACT

El Paraquat (PQ) es un herbicida de contacto bipiridilico ampliamente utilizado en agricultura. La intoxicación en humanos por este agente ocasiona fibrosis pulmonar. Evaluamos los cambios histológicos pulmonares de ratas intoxicadas con PQ y tratadas con N-aceticisteina (NAC) administrada vía inhalatoria. Realizamos un estudio experimental descriptivo con 25 ratas adultas, machos cepa Wistar, divididas en cinco grupos. Al grupo I no se les administro ni PQ ni NAC. Grupo II, recibió NAC inhalada a 15mg/kg diaria c/12 horas. Grupo III, PQ vía oral (VO) 15mg/kg. Grupo IV, PQ a 15mg/kg, por VO y a la hora NAC 150mg/kg. Grupo V, PQ a 15mg/kg, por VO y a las seis horas NAC dosis de 150mg/kg. Los pulmones fueron extraídos y se evaluaron mediante cortes histológicos. Resultados: Los grupos I y II (supervivencia del 100%, n=10) no desarrollaron sintomatología de intoxicación. Grupos III, IV y V predominaron síntomas respiratorios, diversos grados de edema pulmonar, enfisema, congestión vascular y hemorragia intra-alveolar focal. La eficacia de la NAC sobre la intoxicación por PQ en términos de sobrevivencia al primer día, fue del 100% y al segundo día, fue del 80% (p= 0,005; prueba Chi-cuadrado). El PQ indujo un proceso inflamatorio (agudo-crónico) por infiltrado de segmentados neutrófilos y linfocitos, lo cual fue revertido parcialmente por la administración inhalada de NAC. Conclusión: Los cambios histopatológicos observados a nivel pulmonar fueron aminorados por el tratamiento con NAC, lo que sugiere un posible efecto protector de este fármaco sobre el daño oxidativo inducido por el herbicida


Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl contact herbicide widely used in agriculture. Intoxication in humans by this agent causes pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluated pulmonary histological changes of rats intoxicated with PQ and treated with N-acetycysteine (NAC) administered via inhalation. We conducted a descriptive experimental study with 25 adult rats, male Wistar strain, divided into five groups. Group I was not administered PQ or NAC. Group II, received NAC inhaled at 15mg/kg daily c/12 hours. Group III, PQ orally (VO) 15mg/ kg. Group IV, PQ at 15mg/kg, by VO and at hour NAC 150mg/ kg. Group V, PQ at 15mg/kg, by VO and at six hours NAC dose of 150mg/kg. The lungs were extracted and evaluated by histological sections. Results: Groups I and II (100% survival, n=10) did not develop intoxication symptoms. Groups III, IV and V predominantly respiratory symptoms, various degrees of pulmonary edema, emphysema, vascular congestion and focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The efficacy of NAC on PQ poisoning in terms of survival on the first day was 100% and on the second day it was 80% (p = 0.005, Chi-square test). The PQ induced an inflammatory process (acute-chronic) by infiltration of segmented neutrophils and lymphocytes, which was partially reversed by the inhaled administration of NAC. Conclusion: The histopathological changes observed at the pulmonary level were reduced by the treatment with NAC, which suggests a possible protective effect of this drug on the oxidative damage induced by the herbicide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Paraquat/poisoning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Herbicides/poisoning , Paraquat/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , Survival Analysis , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Herbicides/administration & dosage
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The administration of ketamine as nebulized inhalation is relatively new and studies on nebulized ketamine are scarce. We aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of nebulized ketamine (1 and 2 mg.kg-1) administered 30 min before general anesthesia in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy in comparison with intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and saline placebo. Methods One hundred children aged (7-12) years were randomly allocated in four groups (n = 25) receive; Saline Placebo (Group C), Intravenous Ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group K-IV), Nebulized Ketamine 1 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N1) or 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N2). The primary endpoint was the total consumption of rescue analgesics in the first 24 h postoperative. Results The mean time to first request for rescue analgesics was prolonged in K-N1 (400.9 ± 60.5 min, 95% CI 375.9-425.87) and K-N2 (455.5 ± 44.6 min, 95% CI 437.1-473.9) groups compared with Group K-IV (318.5 ± 86.1 min, 95% CI 282.9-354.1) and Group C (68.3 ± 21.9 min, 95% CI 59.5-77.1; p < 0.001), with a significant difference between K-N1 and K-N2 Groups (p < 0.001). The total consumption of IV paracetamol in the first 24 h postoperative was reduced in Group K-IV (672.6 ± 272.8 mg, 95% CI 559.9-785.2), Group K-N1 (715.6 ± 103.2 mg, 95% CI 590.4-840.8) and Group K-N2 (696.6 ± 133.3 mg, 95% CI 558.8-834.4) compared with Control Group (1153.8 ± 312.4 mg, 95% CI 1024.8-1282.8; p < 0.001). With no difference between intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups (p = 0.312). Patients in intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups showed lower postoperative VRS scores compared with Group C (p < 0.001), no differences between K-IV, K-N1 or K-N2 group and without significant adverse effects. Conclusion Preemptive nebulized ketamine was effective for post-tonsillectomy pain relief. It can be considered as an effective alternative route to IV ketamine.


Resumo Objetivos A administração de cetamina por via inalatória através de nebulizador é relativamente nova e os estudos sobre este assunto são escassos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a eficácia analgésica da cetamina nebulizada (1 e 2 mg.kg-1) administrada 30 minutos antes da anestesia geral em crianças submetidas à amigdalectomia eletiva, em comparação com cetamina intravenosa (0,5 mg.kg-1) e placebo (soro fisiológico). Métodos Cem crianças entre 7-12 anos foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n = 25) e receberam: soro fisiológico para controle (Grupo C); 0,5 mg.kg-1 de cetamina intravenosa (Grupo C-IV); 1 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N1); 2 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N2). O desfecho primário foi o consumo total de analgésicos de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados O tempo médio para a primeira solicitação de analgésicos de resgate foi prolongado nos grupos C-N1 (400,9 ± 60,5 min, IC 95% 375,9-425,87) e C-N2 (455,5 ± 44,6 min, IC 95% 437,1-473,9) em comparação com o Grupo C-IV (318,5 ± 86,1 min, IC 95% 282,9-354,1) e o Grupo C (68,3 ± 21,9 min, IC 95% 59,5-77,1; p < 0,001), com uma diferença significativa entre os grupos C-N1 e C-N2 (p < 0,001). O consumo total de paracetamol IV nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório foi reduzido no Grupo C-IV (672,6 ± 272,8 mg, IC 95% 559,9-785,2), Grupo C-N1 (715,6 ± 103,2 mg, IC 95% 590,4-840,8) e Grupo C-N2 (696,6 ± 133,3 mg, IC 95% 558,8-834,4) em comparação com o Grupo C (1153,8 ± 312,4 mg, IC 95% 1024,8-1282,8; p < 0,001). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada (p = 0,312). Os pacientes dos grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada apresentaram escores VRS pós-operatórios menores, em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos C-IV, C-N1 ou C-N2 e sem efeitos adversos significativos. Conclusão A administração preventiva de cetamina nebulizada foi eficaz no alívio da dor pós-amigdalectomia. Cetamina nebulizada pode ser considerada como uma via alternativa eficaz à cetamina IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Double-Blind Method , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General/methods , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
15.
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 24: e59060, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1019733

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar quais técnicas inalatórias do Inalador Pressurizado Dosimetrado, acoplado ao espaçador, têm sido utilizadas em pacientes com asma. Método: trata-se de revisão integrativa, realizada em janeiro de 2018, nas bases de dados US National Library of Medicine e na Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências de Saúde. Foram selecionados 14 artigos, publicados entre janeiro de 2011 e dezembro de 2017, que continham a descrição da sequência de passos da técnica inalatória. Resultados: os artigos, predominantemente, estudaram indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 14 anos e justificaram a adoção dos passos da técnica inalatória em referências da literatura. Os passos indicados por cada artigo foram revisados por pares e realizou-se uma quantificação daqueles mais citados, em que 15 passos foram definidos. Conclusão: a síntese do conhecimento gerado pode auxiliar profissionais de saúde no manejo adequado da asma, uma vez que traz evidências relacionadas à eficácia de cada passo.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar las técnicas de inhalación del inhalador presurizado con dosificador acoplado al espaciador que se utilizan en pacientes con asma. Método: revisión integral, que se realizó en enero de 2018, en las bases de datos US National Library of Medicine y en Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de Salud. Se eligieron 14 artículos, publicados entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2017, con la descripción de la secuencia de procedimientos de la técnica de inhalación. Resultados: los artículos, de modo predominante, abordaron individuos con edad igual o superior a 14 años y justificaron la adopción de los procedimientos de la técnica de inhalación en referencias de la literatura. Se revisaron los procedimientos apuntados por cada artículo por pares y se realizó una cuantificación de aquellos más mencionados, en la cual se definieron 15 procedimientos. Conclusión: la síntesis del conocimiento que se generó puede ayudar a los profesionales de salud en el manejo adecuado del asma, pues trae evidencias asociadas con la eficacia de cada procedimiento.


ABSTRACT Objective: to identify which Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhaler with spacer inhalation techniques have been used in patients with asthma. Method: this was an integrative review, conducted in January 2018, in the US National Library of Medicine and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases. 14 articles, published between January 2011 and December 2017, which contained the description of the sequence of inhalation technique steps, were selected. Results: the articles predominantly studied individuals aged 14 years or over and justified the adoption of the steps of the inhalation technique from literature references. The steps indicated by each article were reviewed by experts and a quantification of those most cited was performed, with 15 steps being defined. Conclusion: the synthesis of the knowledge generated can help healthcare providers in the proper management of asthma, since it provides evidence related to the efficacy of each step.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Administration, Inhalation , Metered Dose Inhalers , Review , Inhalation Spacers
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4397, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To demonstrate the most frequent errors in inhalation technique in patients with asthma undergoing treatment at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of asthma patients aged 18 years or over, treated at a pulmonology outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. The assessment of inhalation technique of users of the dry powder inhalers Aerolizer®, Aerocaps and Diskus®, or metered-dose inhalers was based on the manufacturer's instructions for use of each inhaler device. Patients demonstrated the inhalation technique with empty inhaler devices, and it was considered correct when all stages were performed properly, or when errors probably did not interfere with the treatment outcome. Results: Among 71 participants, 43 (60.5%) performed inhalation technique incorrectly. Among metered-dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers users, inhalation technique errors were found in 84.2% and 51.9%, respectively (p=0.013). Errors were more frequent at the exhalation stage (67.4%), followed by breathing in (58.1%) and apnea (51.2%). In the group using dry powder inhalers, the most common errors occurred during exhalation and, for those using metered-dose inhalers, the most compromised stage was aspiration. Conclusion: Errors were more frequent among those using metered-dose inhalers compared with dry powder inhalers. Misconceptions are more common at the expiration stage among users of dry powder inhalers and in aspiration among those on metered-dose inhalers.


RESUMO Objetivo: Demonstrar os erros mais frequentes na técnica inalatória de pacientes com asma brônquica em tratamento em hospital terciário. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com amostra de conveniência de pacientes com asma, com 18 anos ou mais, em tratamento em ambulatório de pneumologia de um hospital terciário. A avaliação da técnica inalatória dos usuários dos dispositivos de pó seco Aerolizer ®, Aerocaps® ou Diskus®, ou de aerossóis dosimetrados teve como base as orientações da bula do fabricante de cada dispositivo inalatório. Os pacientes demonstraram a técnica inalatória com dispositivos inalatórios vazios, e ela foi considerada correta quando todas as etapas foram realizadas de forma apropriada, ou quando os equívocos provavelmente não interferiam no resultado do tratamento. Resultados: Entre os 71 participantes, 43 (60,5%) realizaram a técnica inalatória de forma incorreta. Dentre os usuários de aerossóis dosimetrados e dispositivos de pó seco, ocorreram erros de técnica inalatória em 84,2% e 51,9%, respectivamente (p=0,013). Os erros foram mais frequentes na etapa da expiração (67,4%), seguidos da aspiração (58,1%) e da apneia (51,2%). No grupo que usava dispositivos de pó seco, os erros mais comuns aconteceram na expiração e, nos que utilizavam aerossóis dosimetrados, a etapa mais comprometida foi a aspiração. Conclusão: Os erros foram mais frequentes entre os que usavam aerossóis dosimetrados em comparação com dispositivos de pó seco. Os equívocos foram mais comuns na etapa da expiração entre os usuários de dispositivos de pó seco e na aspiração entre os que usavam aerossóis dosimetrados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Asthma/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Medication Errors , Socioeconomic Factors , Self Administration/standards , Patient Education as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metered Dose Inhalers , Dry Powder Inhalers/instrumentation , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation phenotype characteristics of asthmatic patients who are sensitive to cold stimulation.@*METHODS@#Eighty patients with newly diagnosed bronchial asthma or with mild to moderate acute exacerbation of previously diagnosed bronchial asthma but without regular treatment were selected. According to whether cold air stimulation could induce respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheeze, the patients were divided into cold-insensitive group (45 cases) and cold-sensitive group (35 cases). All the patients were treated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), long-acting β2 receptor agonist (LABA; salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate powder for inhalation, 50 μg/250 μg, twice daily) and montelukast sodium tablets (10 mg, once daily); short-acting β2 receptor agonist (SABA) and/or systemic glucocorticoid (prednisone acetate tablets, 10 mg, once daily; or injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate, 40 mg) were given if necessary. Asthma Control Test (ACT) score before treatment and at 3 months of treatment was used to assess the clinical symptoms such as cough and wheeze; spirometry was performed to determine lung function impairment and recovery. Blood and induced sputum cell counts were examined to determine the characteristics of airway inflammation.@*RESULTS@#The two groups were comparable for age, gender, BMI, proportion of smokers and allergic rhinitis before treatment. The cold-sensitive patients experienced significantly more frequent acute exacerbations than the cold-insensitive patient within 1 year before the visit ( < 0.05), but the use of SABA and glucocorticoid for symptom control during the treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups ( > 0.05). The ACT scores of the cold-sensitive group were significantly lower than those of the cold-insensitive group both before and after the treatment ( < 0.01). Compared with the cold-insensitive patients, the cold-sensitive patients had more obvious impairment of FEV1/FVC% and FEV1%pred before treatment ( < 0.01), and also showed poorer recovery after treatment ( < 0.05). The percentages of eosinophils in blood and induced sputum samples did not differ significantly between the two groups either before and after the treatment, but the percentage of neutrophils was significantly higher in the cold-sensitive group ( < 0.01). In the induced sputum samples collected before treatment, the cell populations consisted mainly of eosinophilic subtype (60%) and neutrophilic subtype (20%) in the cold-insensitive group; in the cold-sensitive patients, the sputum neutrophilic subtype cells increased significantly to 42.86% (=0.03) and the eosinophilic subtype cells were lowered to 31.43% (=0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cold-sensitive asthmatic patients experience frequent recurrent and/or aggravated symptoms and have obvious lung function impairment. Different from that in patients with classic asthma, the airway inflammatory phenotype in these patients is characterized by the domination by neutrophilic subtype.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Cold Temperature , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Humans , Phenotype , Recurrence , Sputum , Cell Biology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the incidence of acute attacks of asthma and dynamic changes in laboratory markers in children with well-controlled asthma after the withdrawal of low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and to provide a basis for optimal long-term control regimens for children with asthma.@*METHODS@#A total of 63 children with well-controlled asthma were enrolled as subjects. According to their parents' wishes, they were continuously administered with ICS (ICS treatment group; n=35) and without ICS (ICS withdrawal group; n=28). They were followed up for 18 months. The incidence of acute attacks of asthma was evaluated, dynamic monitoring was performed for pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) was performed every three months.@*RESULTS@#At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference in FeNO between the ICS treatment and withdrawal groups (P>0.05). However, at 15 and 18 months of follow-up, the withdrawal group had a significantly higher level of FeNO than the ICS treatment group (P0.05). At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow-up, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity, percentage of predicted maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF%), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50) (P>0.05), while at 15 and 18 months of follow-up, the ICS treatment group had significantly higher MMEF% and MEF50 than the withdrawal group (P<0.05). During follow-up, 3 children (9%) in the ICS treatment group and 8 (29%) in the withdrawal group experienced acute attacks of asthma (P=0.0495).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Continuous inhalation of low-dose ICS can maintain the stability of pulmonary function and reduce acute attacks of asthma in children with well-controlled asthma.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Nitric Oxide
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the intervention measures to maintain clinical control in children with asthma in the remission stage when concomitant with acute upper respiratory infection (AURI).@*METHODS@#A total of 100 asthmatic children who had achieved clinical control were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The two groups were both treated with a combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 receptor agonist (ICS/LABA) at the lowest dose every night. Conventional therapies were used for the two groups when suffering from AURI. In addition to conventional therapies, the observation group was given early short-term upgrade therapy, i.e., on the basis of maintenance therapy, the same amount of ICS/LABA complex preparation was inhaled every morning, which lasted for 7-10 days. Both groups were treated following asthma guidelines according to the severity of the disease at the time of acute attacks. The control rate of asthma, severity of acute attacks, changes in pulmonary function indices, and occurrence of adverse events were evaluated after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment.@*RESULTS@#At each time point of follow-up, the rate of asthma control in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (90% vs 80%; P<0.05). The severity of acute attacks in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group at all follow-up time points (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly improved pulmonary function indices of large and small airways (P<0.05) and significantly reduced mean amount of inhaled glucocorticoids and impact on family life (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early short-term upgrade therapy for children with asthma in the remission stage when concomitant with AURI can prevent acute attacks of asthma, raise the rate of asthma control and improve pulmonary function.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenergic beta-Agonists , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans
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