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Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 561-564, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143959


Abstract Background and objectives The Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block (SGB) is an effective, low-risk treatment option for Postdural Puncture Headache (PDPH) refractory to conservative management. Case report This report presents four complex cases of patients with headache related to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Three of them were successfully treated with the application of local anesthetic topical drops through the nasal cavity. Conclusion The novel approach described in this report has minimal risks of discomfort or injury to the nasal mucosa. It is quick to apply and can be administered by the patient himself.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O Bloqueio do Gânglio Esfenopalatino (BGEP) é opção de tratamento efetivo associado a baixo risco para Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural (CPPD) refratária às medidas conservadoras. Relato de caso: Este relato apresenta quatro pacientes com alta complexidade que apresentaram cefaleia relacionada à baixa pressão do líquido cefaloraquidiano. Três pacientes foram tratados com sucesso pela instilação de gotas de anestésico local tópico na cavidade nasal. Conclusões: A nova abordagem descrita neste relato apresenta riscos mínimos de desconforto ou lesão à mucosa nasal. A aplicação é rápida e pode ser administrada pelo próprio paciente.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/therapy , Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Administration, Intranasal , Self Administration , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828892


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the median effective dose (ED) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation in uncooperative pediatric patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease before and after cardiac surgery.@*METHODS@#We prospectively recruited 47 children (22 in preoperative group and 25 in postoperative group) who needed sedation for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A modified up-and-down sequential study design was employed to determine dexmedetomidine dose for each patient with a starting dose of 2 μg/kg in both groups; dexmedetomidine doses for subsequent subjects were determined according to the responses from the previous subject using the up-and-down method at a 0.25 μg/kg interval. The ED was determined using probit regression. The onset time, examination time, wake-up time and adverse effects were measured, and the safety was evaluated in terms of changes in vital signs every 5 min.@*RESULTS@#The ED value of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 1.84 μg/kg (95% : 1.68-2.00 μg/kg) in children with congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery, and 3.38 μg/kg (95% : 3.21-3.54 μg/kg) after the surgery. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the demographic variables, onset time, examination time, wake-up time, or adverse effects.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, the ED of intranasal dexmedetomidine for TTE sedation increases to 3.38 μg/ kg after cardiac surgery from the preoperative value of 1.84 μg/kg.

Administration, Intranasal , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Child , Dexmedetomidine , Heart Defects, Congenital , General Surgery , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 325-330, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040031


Abstract Introduction Oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids have been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, the evidence suggests a level of superiority of corticosteroids, so they should be preferred over the former. Objective To know the prescription profile of two second generation antihistamines (cetirizine and levocetirizine) and two nasal corticosteroids (mometasone and furoateciclesonide) in a cohort of patients with allergic rhinitis, and to compare the clinical outcomes obtained. Methods A cohort study was carried including patients with allergic rhinitis treated with cetirizine, levocetirizine, mometasone furoate or ciclesonide. The improvement was evaluated with the total nasal symptoms score (TNSS). This scale yields results between 0 and 12. Zero indicates absence of symptoms. Results A total of 314 patients completed 12 weeks of follow-up. Seventy-five percent were treated with antihistamines, 20% with corticosteroids, and 5% with a combination of the above. The TNSS median for corticosteroid was 2.5 points; for antihistamines, its was 5 points, and for combination, it was 4 points. We found differences between corticosteroids and antihistamines. Conclusion The prescription percentage of second generation oral antihistamines is higher than that of intranasal corticosteroids. However, patients with allergic rhinitis treated with the second option obtained better control of symptoms.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Administration, Intranasal , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cetirizine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Colombia , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(2): 133-136, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020628


La presencia de infiltrados pulmonares es un hallazgo frecuente que incluye un amplio diagnóstico diferencial basado en muchas ocasiones en la historia clínica. Entre ellas, la neumonía lipoidea exógena representa una entidad poco frecuente y es preciso un elevado índice de sospecha para alcanzar su diagnóstico y evitar su progresión. En estos casos, un contexto clínico adecuado y una TC con opacidades y áreas de baja densidad pueden ser altamente sugestivos de la enfermedad. Se presenta un caso de neumonía lipoidea exógena secundaria a la utilización continuada de sustancias oleosas intranasal, que debido a los antecedentes del paciente y a las posibilidades diagnósticas tras los hallazgos de la TC, precisó confirmación histológica.

The presence of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent finding that includes a large differential diagnosis based on many occasions in the clinical history. Among them, exogenous lipoid pneumonia represents a rare entity and a high index of suspicion is necessary to reach its diagnosis and prevent its progression. In these cases, an adequate clinical context and a CT with opacities and low density areas are highly suggestive of the disease. We present a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to the continued use of oily substances at the nasal level, due to his antecedents and the diagnostic possibilities after the CT findings, histological confirmation was required.

Humans , Male , Aged , Petrolatum/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Lipid/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Lipid/etiology , Pneumonia, Lipid/pathology , Biopsy , Administration, Intranasal , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 371-378, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011620


Abstract Introduction: Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which affects 1 out of 6 individuals. Perennial allergic rhinitis accounts for 40% of AR cases. Ciclesonide is one of the relatively new intranasal steroid for allergic rhinitis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Scientific Citation Index, Embase, Clinical Trial Registries for randomized controlled trials and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to find out the randomized controlled Trial comparing ciclesonide with placebo for PAR. Results: Eight studies were included. In comparison with placebo groups, ciclesonide groups significantly decreased Reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (MD = −0.56; 95% CI −0.72 to 0.39, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.19, I2 = 24%), Instantaneous Total Nasal Symptom Score (MD = −0.57; 95% CI −0.75 to −0.39, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.34, I2 = 11%). A significant effect for Reflective Nasal Symptom Score Subtotal (MD = −0.15; 95% CI −0.18 to −0.13, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.12, I2 = 24%) was also demonstrated. Rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire score (RQLQs) (MD = −0.27; 95% CI −0.39 to −0.15, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.58, I 2 = 0%) in the treatment of ciclesonide was also significantly reduced. In addition, the difference in Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: Ciclesonide can improve perennial allergic rhinitis without increasing adverse events. Ciclesonide may be another valuable choice for perennial allergic rhinitis in the future.

Resumo Introdução: A rinite alérgica é uma doença inflamatória crônica que afeta um a cada seis indivíduos. A rinite alérgica perene é responsável por 40% dos casos de rinite alérgica. A ciclesonida é um dos corticosteroides intranasais mais novos para o tratamento dessa condição clínica. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da ciclesonida no tratamento da rinite alérgica perene. Método: Uma busca foi feita nos bancos de dados Pubmed, Scientific Citation Index, Embase e Clinical Trial Registries por ensaios clínicos randomizados e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials por estudos controlados randomizados que comparassem ciclesonida com placebo no tratamento da rinite alérgica perene. Resultados: Oito estudos foram incluídos. Em comparação com os grupos placebo, os grupos ciclesonida mostraram diminuição significante no escore do Reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (DM = −0,56; IC 95%: −0,72 a −0,39, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,19, I2 = 24%), do Instantaneous Total Nasal Symptom Score (DM = −0,57; IC95%: −0,75 a −0,39, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,34, I2 = 11%). Um efeito significante no escore do Reflective Nasal Symptom Score Subtotal (DM = −0,15; IC 95%: −0,18 a −0,13, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,12, I2 = 24%) também foi demonstrado. O escore do Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score (RQLQs) (DM = −0,27; IC 95%: −0,39 a −0,15, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,58, I2 = 0%) também foi significantemente reduzido no tratamento com ciclesonida. Além disso, a diferença em relação aos eventos adversos emergentes do tratamento entre os dois grupos não foi significante. Conclusão: A ciclesonida pode melhorar a rinite alérgica perene sem aumentar os eventos adversos. Esse fármaco pode ser outra opção valiosa para a rinite alérgica perene no futuro.

Humans , Pregnenediones/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/drug therapy , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 101-103, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002176


Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation driven by Th2-type cytokines. Glucocorticosteroids are the most common first-line treatment for ECRS with nasal polyps. Objective We have evaluated the long-term treatment with double-dose intranasal corticosteroids in refractory ECRS nasal polyps resistant to the conventional dose and assessed the risk of adverse systemic effects Methods Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects had ECRS after endoscopic sinus surgery that resulted in recurrentmild andmoderate nasal polyps and were undergoing a postoperative follow-up application of mometasone furoate at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril once a day (200 μg). All the patients were prescribed mometasone furoate, administered at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril twice a day (400 μg) for 6 months. Results The average scores of the symptoms during the regular dose of intranasal steroid treatment were 5.2 ± 2.2, but 6 months after the high-dose application, they had significantly decreased to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p < 0.05). The polyp size showed an average score of 1.38 during the regular dose which was significantly reduced to 0.43 (p < 0.01) by the double dose. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) showed normal ranges in all the patients tested. The cortisol plasma concentration was also normal. Conclusion Doubling the dose of the nasal topical spray mometasone furoate might be recommended for the treatment of recurrent nasal polyps in the postoperative follow-up of intractable ECRS. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Postoperative Care , Sinusitis/surgery , Administration, Intranasal , Rhinitis/surgery , Nasal Polyps/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Endoscopy , Nasal Sprays
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765963


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms may develop when we fail to adapt to various stressors of our daily life. Central oxytocin (OXT) can counteract the biological actions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and in turn attenuates stress responses. Administration (intracerebroventricular) of OXT significantly antagonized the inhibitory effects of chronic complicated stress (CCS) on GI dysmotility in rats. However, intracerebroventricular administration is an invasive pathway. Intranasal administration can rapidly deliver peptides to the brain avoiding stress response. The effects of intranasal OXT on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and GI motility in CCS conditions have not been investigated. METHODS: A CCS rat model was set up, OXT 5, 10, or 20 μg were intranasal administered, 30 minutes prior to stress loading. Central CRF and OXT expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and OXT concentrations were measured, and gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated by gastric emptying, fecal pellet output, and motility recording system. RESULTS: Rats in CCS condition showed significantly increased CRF expression and corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and increased fecal pellet output, attenuated gastric motility and enhanced colonic motility were also recorded. OXT 10 μg or 20 μg significantly reduced CRF mRNA expression and the corticosterone concentration, OXT 20 μg also helped to restore GI motor dysfunction induced by CCS. CONCLUSION: Intranasal administration of OXT has an anxiolytic effect and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to CCS, and gave effects which helped to restore GI dysmotility, and might be a new approach for the treatment of stress-induced GI motility disorders.

Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Brain , Colon , Corticosterone , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Motility , Models, Animal , Oxytocin , Peptides , Rats , RNA, Messenger
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763037


Taurine has a number of beneficial pharmacological actions in the brain such as anxiolytic and neuroprotective actions. We explored to test whether taurine could be transported to the central nervous system through the intranasal route. Following intranasal administration of taurine in mice, elevated plus maze test, activity cage test and rota rod test were carried out to verify taurine’s effect on anxiety. For the characterization of potential mechanism of taurine’s anti-anxiety action, mouse convulsion tests with strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine, and isoniazid were employed. A significant increase in the time spent in the open arms was observed when taurine was administered through the nasal route in the elevated plus maze test. In addition, vertical and horizontal activities of mice treated with taurine via intranasal route were considerably diminished. These results support the hypothesis that taurine can be transported to the brain through intranasal route, thereby inducing anti-anxiety activity. Taurine’s anti-anxiety action may be mediated by the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor as evidenced by the inhibition of strychnine-induced convulsion.

Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anxiety , Arm , Brain , Central Nervous System , Isoniazid , Mice , Picrotoxin , Receptors, Glycine , Seizures , Strychnine , Taurine , Yohimbine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773375


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine.@*METHODS@#Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured.@*RESULTS@#H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus.@*CONCLUSION@#CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.

Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Cholera Toxin , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , Allergy and Immunology , Random Allocation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773251


Curcumin( Cur) is a natural active substance extracted from the roots or tubers of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities on brain diseases. Due to the poor stability,low solubility,poor absorption and low bioavailability of curcumin,N-acetyl-L-cysteine( NAC) was used as an absorption enhancer and mixed with curcumin to improve the absorption of curcumin in the body. In this paper,curcumin was smashed by airflow pulverization,and Cur-NAC mixtures were prepared by being grinded with liquid. Then,the raw material and the product were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry( DSC),X-ray diffraction( XRD) for structural characterization. The dissolution was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the samples prepared by grinding method were similar to those of the raw materials,while the melting temperature and the accumulated dissolution degree were not significantly changed. The crystal forms of the products were not changed,and no new crystal form was formed after grinding. After the administration of intranasal powder,blood samples were collected from the orbit,while the whole brain tissues were removed from the skull and dissected into 10 anatomical regions. The concentrations of curcumin in these samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of curcumin in plasma and brain were compared at different time points. After intranasal administration of two drugs,it was found that the concentration of curcumin after sniffing up the mixtures in plasma was high,and the concentration of the drug in the olfactory bulb,hippocampus,and pons was increased significantly. Within 0. 083-0. 5 h,the olfactory bulb,piriform lobe and hippocampus remained high concentrations,the endodermis,striatum,hypothalamus and midbrain reached high concentrations within 1-3 h; and the cerebellum,pons and brain extension maintained relatively high concentrations within 3-7 h. The experiment showed that nasal administration of Cur-NAC mixtures can significantly improve the bioavailability of curcumin,and lead to significant differences in brain tissue distribution.

Acetylcysteine , Pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Biological Availability , Brain , Brain Chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Curcumin , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739395


PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator. However, its role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic effect of intranasally applied vitamin D in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum before they were intranasally challenged with OVA. Then, they were intranasally administered 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.02 μg) or solvent. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine mRNA levels (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and interferon-γ) in the nasal tissue, and serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were analyzed and compared with negative and positive control groups. Cervical lymph nodes (LNs) were harvested for flow cytometry analysis and cell proliferation assay. RESULTS: In the treatment group, allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, and mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the nasal tissue than in the positive control group. The IL-5 mRNA level, serum total IgE, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels decreased in the treatment group; however, the difference was not significant. In the cervical LNs, CD86 expression had been down-regulated in CD11c+major histocompatibility complex II-high (MHCIIhigh) in the treatment group. Additionally, IL-4 secretion in the lymphocyte culture from cervical LNs significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the antiallergic effect of intranasal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. It decreases CD 86 expression among CD11c+MHCIIhigh cells and T-helper type 2-mediated inflammation in the cervical LNs. Therefore, topically applied 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be a future therapeutic agent for allergic rhinitis.

Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents , Calcitriol , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mice , Models, Animal , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Vitamin D
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(2): 185-190, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889377


Abstract Introduction Nasal irrigation solutions are widely used following endonasal surgery. These irrigation solutions remove infective debris and crusts, reducing the probability of synechia formation, and accelerate mucosal healing. Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of nasal irrigation solutions with different contents following septoplasty and concha radiofrequency. Methods The present study was a prospective, randomized, controlled simple blind study of 120 patients who underwent septoplasty and bilateral concha radiofrequency. Patients were divided into four groups according to the nasal irrigation solution used: tap water, buffered isotonic saline, saline with xylitol, and hypertonic sea water. Patients were examined on the 7th and 15th postoperative days. A saccharine test was applied to determine mucociliary activity preoperatively and on the 7th and 15th postoperative days. Patients were asked about drying and obstruction using a 10 cm visual analog scale. In addition, patients were examined to determine the crusting score. Results There was no significant difference found in the preoperative and 7th and 15th postoperative days' mucociliary clearance times among the four groups. The crusting score was found to be significantly lower in the hypertonic sea water group (p < 0.001). Drying and obstruction on the 7th and 15th postoperative days were found to be significantly more comfortable in the hypertonic sea water group (p < 0.001). Conclusion Hypertonic sea water is the recommended irrigation solution, as it is associated with less crusting, drying, and obstruction in the nose for the postoperative period following septoplasty and concha radiofrequency.

Resumo Introdução Soluções para irrigação nasal são amplamente usadas após cirurgias endonasais. Essas soluções removem os resíduos e crostas, reduzem a probabilidade de formação de sinéquias e aceleram a cicatrização da mucosa. Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos das soluçoes para irrigaçao nasal com diferentes conteudos apos septoplastia e turbinoplastia com radiofrequencia. Método O presente estudo foi um estudo cego simples, randomizado, controlado e prospectivo de 120 pacientes submetidos a septoplastia e turbinoplastia bilateral com radiofrequencia. Os pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a soluçao nasal utilizada: agua da torneira, soluçao salina isotonica tamponada, soluçao salina com xilitol e agua do mar hipertonica. Os pacientes foram examinados no 7° e 15° dias do pos-operatorio. O teste de sacarina foi utilizado para determinar a atividade mucociliar pre-operatoria e no 7° e 15° dias do pos-operatorio. Os pacientes foram questionados sobre a sensaçao de secura e obstruçao nasais utilizando uma escala visual analógica de 10 cm. Alem disso, os pacientes foram examinados para determinar o escore em relaçao a crostas. Resultados Não houve diferença significativa entre o pré-operatório e o sétimo e 15° dias do pós-operatório dos tempos de clearance mucociliar entre os quatro grupos. Verificou-se que o escore em relação a crostas foi significativamente menor no grupo que usou água do mar hipertônica (p < 0,001). As sensações de secura e obstrução nasais no sétimo e 15° dias do pós-operatório mostraram-se significativamente mais confortáveis no grupo água do mar hipertônica (p < 0,001). Conclusão A água de mar hipertônica é a solução de irrigação recomendada, pois está associada a menor incidência de crostas, secura e obstrução nasais no pós-operatório de cirurgia de septoplastia e das conchas nasais com radiofrequência.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rhinoplasty/adverse effects , Mucociliary Clearance/drug effects , Nasal Lavage , Fresh Water , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Septum/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/administration & dosage , Seawater , Administration, Intranasal , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Catheter Ablation/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 89-98, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902820


La vía nasal, ya sea mediante la inhalación o aspiración, se ha convertido en una ruta atractiva para quienes abusan de sustancias, principalmente por la fácil accesibilidad y la rápida absorción sistémica, además de evitar las consecuencias asociadas al uso de drogas intravenosas (enfermedades de transmisión). El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar una actualización de diversas sustancias que son utilizadas por esta vía, enfocándose en aquellas en las que se ha documentado daños en la anatomía nasal.

The nasal route, either by inhalation or aspiration, has become an attractive route for substances abusers, mainly because of its easy accessibility, rapid systemic absorption and also to avoid the consequences associated with intravenous drug use (transmitted diseases). The objective of this review is to present an update of various substances that are used by this route, focusing on those in which damage to the nasal anatomy has been documented.

Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Substance-Related Disorders , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Designer Drugs/administration & dosage , Inhalant Abuse , Substance Abuse, Oral/classification , Central Nervous System Stimulants/antagonists & inhibitors , Methamphetamine/administration & dosage , Methylphenidate/administration & dosage , Nitrites/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716002


PURPOSE: The use of tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) to control exacerbated immune responses may be a prophylactic and therapeutic option for application in autoimmune and allergic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of TolDC administration in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation caused by mite extract. METHODS: Mouse bone marrow-derived TolDCs were induced by incubation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and dexamethasone, and then characterized by flow cytometry and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For the in vivo model of Blomia tropicalis-induced allergy, mice transplanted with antigen-pulsed TolDCs were sensitized intraperitoneally with B. tropicalis mite extract (BtE) adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. After challenge by nasal administration of BtE, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs, spleen and serum were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Induction of TolDCs was efficiently achieved as shown by low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-10, upon LPS stimulation in vitro. Transplantation of 1 or 2 doses of BtE-pulsed TolDCs reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and lungs as well as mucus deposition. Moreover, compared to saline-injected controls, TolDC-treated mice showed lower serum levels of anti-BtE immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies as well as reduced Gata3 and IL-4 gene expression in the lungs and decreased IFN-γ levels in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures Transplantation of TolDCs increased the percentage of the regulatory T cells in the spleen and the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive treatment with TolDCs protects against dust mite-induced allergy in a mouse model, reinforcing the use of tolerogenic dendritic cells for the management of allergic conditions.

Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies , Antigens, Dermatophagoides , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Dendritic Cells , Dexamethasone , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Lung , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mice , Mites , Mucus , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Up-Regulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717998


Investigations into the development of new therapeutic agents for lung inflammatory disorders have led to the discovery of plant-based alternatives. The rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides have a long history of use against lung inflammatory disorders in traditional herbal medicine. However, the therapeutic potential of this plant material in animal models of lung inflammation has yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we prepared the alcoholic extract and derived the saponin-enriched fraction from the rhizomes of A. asphodeloides and isolated timosaponin A-III, a major constituent. Lung inflammation was induced by intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice, representing an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). The alcoholic extract (50–200 mg/kg) inhibited the development of ALI. Especially, the oral administration of the saponin-enriched fraction (10–50 mg/kg) potently inhibited the lung inflammatory index. It reduced the total number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histological changes in alveolar wall thickness and the number of infiltrated cells of the lung tissue also indicated that the saponin-enriched fraction strongly inhibited lung inflammation. Most importantly, the oral administration of timosaponin A-III at 25–50 mg/kg significantly inhibited the inflammatory markers observed in LPS-induced ALI mice. All these findings, for the first time, provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of A. asphodeloides and its major constituent, timosaponin A-III, in alleviating lung inflammation.

Acute Lung Injury , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Oral , Alcoholics , Anemarrhena , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Plants , Pneumonia , Rhizome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6736, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889017


Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nares of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery increases the potential risk of surgical site infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has gained recognition as a pathogen that is no longer only just a hospital-acquired pathogen. Patients positive for MRSA are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality following infection. MRSA is commonly found in the nares, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is even more prevalent. Recently, studies have determined that screening for this pathogen prior to surgery and diminishing staphylococcal infections at the surgical site will dramatically reduce surgical site infections. A nasal mupirocin treatment is shown to significantly reduce the colonization of the pathogen. However, this treatment is expensive and is currently not available in China. Thus, in this study, we first sought to determine the prevalence of MSSA/MSRA in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery in northern China, and then, we treated the positive patients with a nasal povidone-iodine swab. Here, we demonstrate a successful reduction in the colonization of S. aureus. We propose that this treatment could serve as a cost-effective means of eradicating this pathogen in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, which might reduce the rate of surgical site infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Elective Surgical Procedures/economics , Orthopedic Procedures/economics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Administration, Intranasal , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/economics , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/economics , Nasal Cavity/drug effects
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(5): 558-562, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889310


Abstract Introduction: The adherence to medical treatment in allergic rhinitis is poorly evaluated in clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate adherence to intranasal corticosteroids in the treatment of allergic rhinitis patients. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on adult patients who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of the otolaryngology department tertiary hospital. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe persistent AR and who had not used any nasal sprays were enrolled in the study. The patients were provided with mometasone furoate nasal sprays. On the 30th day, all participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the factors that may have influenced their adherence to the treatment. Afterwards, each patient filled out the Turkish-language-validated Morisky Medical Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) form. Each factor that may have affected adherence to the prescribed medication was evaluated according to the MMAS-8 score and all variables were analyzed statistically. Results: Fifty-nine adult patients with a mean age of 32.5 years (range 21-52 years) were included in the study. The mean overall MMAS-8 score was 3.64. Two factors were significantly related to low adherence: number of dependent children (p = 0.001) and benefit from the medication (p = 0.001). In addition, patients with higher education levels seemed to be more adherent than the rest of the group. Conclusion: Clinicians must keep in mind the factors related to non-adherence in order to achieve better treatment outcomes. Therefore, based on our results, patients must be informed that medications should be taken properly regardless of the benefit, and the treatment should be scheduled with respect to daily activities, particularly for patients caring for more than two children.

Resumo Introdução: A adesão ao tratamento clínico de rinite alérgica é mal avaliada na prática clínica. Objetivos: Avaliar a adesão aos corticosteroides intranasais no tratamento de pacientes com rinite alérgica. Método: Este estudo prospectivo foi realizado com pacientes adultos admitidos no ambulatório do setor de otorrinolaringologia de um hospital terciário. Os pacientes diagnosticados com rinite alérgica moderada a persistente grave que não haviam ainda usado spray nasal foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes receberam sprays nasais de furoato de mometasona. No 30° dia, todos preencheram um questionário sobre os fatores que podem ter influenciado a sua adesão ao tratamento. Depois disso, cada paciente preencheu o formulário da Escala de Adesão Clínica Morisky validado para a língua turca (MMAS-8). Cada fator que pode ter afetado a adesão à medicação prescrita foi avaliado de acordo com o escore de MMAS-8 e todas as variáveis foram analisadas estatisticamente. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 59 pacientes adultos com média de 32,5 anos (variação de 21-52). O escore total médio de MMAS-8 foi de 3,64. Dois fatores foram significantemente relacionados com a baixa adesão: número de dependentes infantis (p = 0,001) e benefício da medicação (p = 0,001). Além disso, os pacientes com níveis de ensino mais elevados pareceram ser mais adesistas do que o restante do grupo. Conclusão: Os médicos devem estar cientes dos fatores relacionados à falta de adesão, a fim de alcançar melhores resultados do tratamento. Portanto, com base em nossos resultados, os pacientes devem ser informados de que os medicamentos devem ser usados adequadamente independentemente do benefício, e o tratamento deve ser programado com relação às atividades diárias, especialmente para os pacientes que cuidam de mais de dois filhos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Administration, Intranasal , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Nasal Sprays , Tertiary Care Centers
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 36(3): 194-199, 08/09/2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911214


Introduction Monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH) is cytotoxic to temozolomideresistant glioma cells, regardless of its O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. Moreover, adherence to a ketogenic diet (KD) produced successful outcomes in preclinical and clinical studies in the glioma setting. Case Presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian man had a confirmed diagnosis of refractory glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The immunohistochemical evaluation was negative for methylation, and failed to detect mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. In January 2016, the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial combining daily intranasal delivery of POH in combination with a KD. The KD was administered concomitantly with inhalation of POH (55 mg, 4 times a day) in an uninterrupted administration schedule for 3 months. Results The combination treatment was well-tolerated. The nutritional status and anthropometric measurements of the patient were measured. Adherence to the KD was confirmed by measuring the levels of ketone bodies in the urine. Throughout the treatment, a reduced frequency of seizures was observed. After three months of adherence to the treatment, the patient presented with weight loss, reduced body fat, increased water retention, and a slight increase in bone and muscle mass. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan after 3 months of treatment revealed marked reduction of the enhancing lesion. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of POH combined with concomitant adherence to a KD appeared to have a beneficial therapeutic effect in a patient with recurrent GBM. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this therapeutic strategy in a larger cohort of treatment-refractory GBM patients.

Introdução O monoterpeno álcool perílico (AP) é citotóxico para linhagens celulares de glioblastoma, independentemente do status do promotor de metilação O6-metilguaninametiltransferase (MGMT). Além disso, a adesão à dieta cetogênica (DC) produziu resultados bem sucedidos em desenho de estudos pré-clínicos e clínicos de glioma. Relato de Caso Homem, 54 anos, caucasiano, com diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) recidivo. A avaliação imuno-histoquímica foi negativa para metilação e não detectou mutações do gene da isocitrato desidrogenase 1 e 2 (IDH1 IDH2). Em janeiro de 2016, o paciente foi inscrito em um ensaio clínico da administração intranasal diária do AP combinada a DC. A DC foi administrada concomitantemente com inalação de AP (55 mg, 4 vezes ao dia) em um cronograma de administração ininterrupto durante 3 meses. Resultados O tratamento combinado foi bem tolerado. O estado nutricional e as medidas antropométricas do paciente foram avaliadas. Aderência a DC foi confirmada pela presença de corpos cetônicos na urina. Ao longo do tratamento, observou-se redução da frequência de convulsões. Após três meses de adesão ao tratamento, o paciente apresentou perda de peso, redução da gordura corporal, melhor hidratação e um aumento discreto da massa óssea e muscular. O acompanhamento da ressonância magnética após 3 meses de tratamento revelou redução acentuada do volume da lesão. Conclusão A administração intranasal do AP combinada a DC sugere ter um efeito terapêutico benéfico em pacientes com GBM recorrente. São necessários mais estudos para avaliar a eficácia desta estratégia terapêutica em uma coorte maior de pacientes com GBM refratários.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Glioblastoma , Diet, Ketogenic , Administration, Intranasal , Monoterpenes
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 67-73, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844125


Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus) were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4). Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group). All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7%) than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eliminação de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em gatos imunizados pela via nasal com proteínas ROP2 de T. gondii. Doze gatos sem raça definida (Felis catus) foram divididos em três grupos experimentais G1, G2 e G3 (n = 4). Os animais do G1 receberam 100 μg de proteínas de rROP2 mais 20 μg de Quil-A, G2 recebeu 100 μg de albumina de soro bovino (BSA) junto com 20 μg de Quil-A, e o G3 recebeu apenas solução salina (grupo de controle). Todos os tratamentos foram realizados pela via intranasal nos dias 0, 21, 42 e 63. O desafio foi realizado em todos os grupos no dia 70 com aproximadamente 800 cistos de tecido da cepa ME-49 por via oral. Os animais de todos os grupos tiveram as suas fezes examinadas e o número de oocistos foi determinado durante 20 dias após o desafio. Os animais de G1 eliminaram menos oocistos (86,7%) do que os grupos controles. O ELISA foi utilizado para detectar IgG e IgA anti-rROP2, no entanto, não houve correlação entre o número de eliminhação de oocistos com os níveis de anticorpos IgG ou IgA. No presente trabalho, apesar da menor produção de oocistos no grupo imunizado (G1) em relação aos grupos controles (G2 e G3), não foi possível associar o uso de rROP2 pela via nasal com proteção contra eliminação de oocistos de T. gondii. Para o futuro, a utilização de outras proteínas recombinantes, ou mesmo vacina de DNA, em combinação com rROP2 poderia ser utilizada para tentar melhorar a eficácia deste tipo de vacina.

Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/prevention & control , Protozoan Vaccines/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cat Diseases/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/administration & dosage , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Protozoan Vaccines/administration & dosage , Oocysts/immunology , Quillaja Saponins/administration & dosage , Quillaja Saponins/immunology , Membrane Proteins/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e15223, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839489


ABSTRACT This study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Curcumin loaded sodium hyaluronate based mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMME) was developed by using Box Behnken design of Response surface method (RSM) and was characterized. Male C57BL/6 mice were first treated with four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP (20 mg/kg of body weight) at 2 h intervals followed CMME intranasal administration for 14 days at 2.86 mg of curcumin/kg of body weight per once a day. Optimal CMME containing 3% Capmul MCM as oil phase, 37 % of Accenon CC and Transcutol HP at 2.5:1 ratio and 0.5% sodium hyaluronate was stable, non-ciliotoxic with 57.66 nm±3.46 as average globule size. PdI value (0.190 ± 0.19) and TEM result depicted the narrow size distribution of CMME.All three independent variables had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the responses and the designed model was significant for all taken responses. In-vivo results revealed significant reduction of MPTP-mediated dopamine depletion after nasal administration of CMME. MPTP intoxication significantly decreased striatal DA content to 21.29 % which was then elevated to 55.37% after intranasal curcumin treatment. Significant improvement in motor performance as well as gross behavioural activity of mice was observed from rota-rod and open field test findings. Findings of the investigation revealed the symptomatic neuroprotection of curcumin against MPTP-induced neurodegradation in the striatum and hence could be considered as a promising approach to treat PD.

Animals , Male , Rats , Parkinson Disease/prevention & control , Curcumin/adverse effects , Administration, Intranasal/statistics & numerical data , Methodology , Nasal Mucosa