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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(2): 235-243, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency turbinate reduction as an initial treatment on clinical improvement, inflammatory mediators, and remodeling process. Methods: Between July 2018- February 2020, 32 patients with moderate-severe persistent AR were randomly divided into 2 groups. Intervention group received radiofrequency turbinate reduction followed by intranasal steroid and Antihistamine H-1 (AH-1), control group received intranasal steroid and AH-1. Both groups were evaluated for clinical improvement (using visual analogue scale based on total nasal symptoms score, peak nasal inspiratory flow, and turbinate size using imageJ) after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Inflammatory mediators (ELISA from nasal secretions was performed to measure ECP, IL-5, and HSP-70) and remodeling markers (nasal biopsy followed by immunohistochemistry examination was performed to evaluate MMP-9, TIMP-1, and PAI-1) were evaluated in week 4. Results: Three patients dropped out of the study, resulting in 16 patients in intervention group and 13 patients in control group. At week 4, clinical response improved significantly in the intervention group compared to control group (Chi-Square test, p<0.05). Compared to control, intervention group experienced a reduction of IL-5 and no significant change in ECP level (Mann Whitney test, p>0.05). Reduction in the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 were significantly higher in intervention group (unpaired t-test, p< 0,05). Meanwhile, increase in HSP-70 in the intervention group was slightly lower than in control group, but the difference with control group was not significant (Mann Whitney test, p>0.05). Conclusion: Early radiofrequency turbinate reduction followed by pharmacotherapy given to persistent moderate-severe AR patients give more improvement only in early clinical symptoms and reduce MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, thus it might be suggested as one of the adjuvant therapies for the management of moderate-severe persistent AR. However, further investigation with a larger sample size and longer follow-up period is needed. Level of evidence: 1B.


Subject(s)
Turbinates/surgery , Turbinates/pathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Steroids , Administration, Intranasal , Interleukin-5/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/therapeutic use , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2426-2434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
3.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 550-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982784

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of the M receptor antagonist Bencycloquidium bromide nasal spray in treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis with runny nose as the main symptom. Methods:From August 2021 to September 2021, 134 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were enrolled in the otolaryngology Outpatient Department of Peking University Third Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University and China-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University, including 71 males and 63 females, with a median age of 38 years. TNSS score and visual analogue scale(VAS) of total nasal symptoms were observed during 2 weeks of treatment with Bencycloquidium bromide nasal spray. Results:TNSS score decreased from (8.89±3.31) on day 0 to (3.71±2.51) on day 14(P<0.001), VAS score of nasal symptoms decreased from (24.86±7.40) on day 0 to (6.84±5.94) on day 14(P<0.001), VAS score of rhinorrhoea decreased from (6.88±2.06) on day 0 to (1.91±1.81) on day 14(P<0.001). Rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire(RQLQ) score decreased from (94.63±33.35) on day 0 to (44.95±32.28) on day 14(P<0.001). The incidence of adverse reaction was low and no serious adverse events occurred during the whole experiment. Conclusion:Bencycloquidium bromide nasal spray has significant efficacy and good safety in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/drug therapy , Nasal Sprays , Quality of Life , Administration, Intranasal , Rhinorrhea , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 328-337, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982050

ABSTRACT

Intranasal drug delivery system is a non-invasive drug delivery route with the advantages of no first-pass effect, rapid effect and brain targeting. It is a feasible alternative to drug delivery via injection, and a potential drug delivery route for the central nervous system. However, the nasal physiological environment is complex, and the nasal delivery system requires "integration of medicine and device". Its delivery efficiency is affected by many factors such as the features and formulations of drug, delivery devices and nasal cavity physiology. Some strategies have been designed to improve the solubility, stability, membrane permeability and nasal retention time of drugs. These include the use of prodrugs, adding enzyme inhibitors and absorption enhancers to preparations, and new drug carriers, which can eventually improve the efficiency of intranasal drug delivery. This article reviews recent publications and describes the above mentioned aspects and design strategies for nasal intranasal drug delivery systems to provide insights for the development of intranasal drug delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Drug Delivery Systems , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Carriers , Brain , Nasal Cavity/physiology , Nasal Mucosa
5.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 31(3)sept.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410318

ABSTRACT

La rinitis alérgica ha ido en aumento en los países latinoamericanos, dando lugar a una creciente población de pacientes que necesitan tratamiento médico para esta afección respiratoria. Su similitud con la COVID-19 en cuanto a síntomas y la posibilidad de concurrencia con esta, hacen que la rinitis alérgica sea de particular interés para los sistemas de salud. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe han sido particularmente vulnerables por múltiples desafíos, entre estos, las altas tasas de pobreza, el acceso limitado a la atención médica y las limitaciones en la prestación de servicios básicos de salud, así como la ausencia de guías de tratamiento para la rinitis alérgica en situación de pandemia. Con el objetivo de proporcionar orientación esencial para los equipos multidisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe con respecto a la evaluación y el tratamiento de la rinitis alérgica durante la pandemia de COVID-19, se revisó literatura científica publicada sobre tratamiento de la rinitis alérgica y COVID-19, y se consideró la opinión de profesionales líderes de sociedades científicas de la región. Se analizaron las diferentes medidas para evitar contagios, y las diferentes estrategias de tratamiento con énfasis en la terapia intranasal y el tratamiento con vacunas contra la alergia. Se formuló una declaración de posicionamiento con la intención de mantener la continuidad del servicio médico en el contexto de una pandemia y minimizar la propagación, infección y complicación asociada con el coronavirus tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo en pacientes con seguimiento o comenzando tratamiento para la rinitis alérgica(AU)


Allergic rhinitis has been increasing in Latin American countries, leading to a growing population of patients who need medical treatment for this respiratory condition. Its similarity to COVID-19 in terms of symptoms and the possibility of concurrence with it, make allergic rhinitis of particular interest to health systems. The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have been particularly vulnerable due to multiple challenges, including high poverty rates, limited access to medical care and limitations in the provision of basic health services, as well as the absence of guidelines of treatment for allergic rhinitis in a pandemic situation. With the aim of to provide essential management for multidisciplinary teams in Latin America and the Caribbean regarding the evaluation and treatment of allergic rhinitis during the COVID-19 pandemic, published scientific literature on the treatment of allergic rhinitis and COVID-19 was reviewed, and the opinion of leading professionals from scientific societies in the region was considered. The different measures to avoid infections and the different treatment strategies were analyzed, with an emphasis on intranasal therapy and treatment with allergy vaccines. A position statement was formulated with the intention of maintaining continuity of medical service in the context of a pandemic and minimizing the spread, infection and complication associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients undergoing or starting treatment for allergic rhinitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Administration, Intranasal/methods , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Caribbean Region , COVID-19/epidemiology , Latin America
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1574-1578, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421819

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cadmium is a highly toxic metal and affects the respiratory mucosa. The aim of the study is to show the inflammation and degenerative effect of cadmium on the olfactory mucosa. In this study, eight-week-old Wistar rats with an average weight of 170-190 g were divided into two groups (control and experiment) with 20 animals in each group and used in the experiments. The rats in the experimental group were given 2 mg/kg/day powdered cadmium chloride dissolved in water intraperitoneally every day for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the nasal cavity was completely removed with anesthesia. Concha nasalis superior was separated, fixed with zinc-Formalin solution and decalcified with 5 % EDTA (Ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid). After routine histopathological procedure, APAF-1 antibody was used for expression of Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination revealed interruptions in the basement membrane structure due to cadmium and degenerative changes in stem cells, degeneration in sensory cells and pycnosis in nuclei, dilatation in blood vessels and increased inflammation in connective tissue. APAF-1 expression was found to increase in epithelial cells and olfactory glands (Bowman gland) cells. It has been thought that cadmium toxicity increases cell degeneration and inflammation in the olfactory mucosa and may significantly affect cell death and olfactory metabolism by inducing the pro-apoptotic process.


El cadmio es un metal altamente tóxico que afecta la mucosa respiratoria. El objetivo fue mostrar el efecto inflamatorio y degenerativo del cadmio sobre la mucosa olfativa. En este estudio, ratas Wistar de ocho semanas de edad con un peso promedio de 170-190 g se dividieron en dos grupos (control y experimental) con 20 animales en cada grupo. Las ratas del grupo experimental recibieron 2 mg/kg/día de cloruro de cadmio en polvo disuelto en agua por vía intraperitoneal todos los días durante dos semanas. En los animales se exirpó la cavidad nasal bajo anestesia. Se separó la concha nasal superior, se fijó con solución de zinc-Formalina y se descalcificó con EDTA (ácido etilendiaminotetraacético) al 5 %. Después del procedimiento histopatológico de rutina, Hematoxilina- Eosina (HE) e inmunohistoquímica, se utilizó el anticuerpo APAF-1. El examen histopatológico reveló interrupciones en la estructura de la membrana basal debido al cadmio y cambios degenerativos en las células madre, degeneración en las células sensoriales y picnosis en los núcleos, dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos y aumento de la inflamación en el tejido conjuntivo. Se encontró que la expresión de APAF-1 aumenta en las células epiteliales y en las células de las glándulas olfatorias (glándulas de Bowman). Se ha pensado que la toxicidad del cadmio aumenta la degeneración celular y la inflamación en la mucosa olfativa y puede afectar significativamente la muerte celular y el metabolismo olfativo al inducir el proceso proapoptótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Olfactory Mucosa/drug effects , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Administration, Intranasal , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
7.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE039000934, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374008

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o impacto de um programa de melhoria da qualidade relacionado aos indicadores de frequência de sondas nasoenterais obstruídas, do tempo despendido pela equipe de enfermagem no preparo e na administração de medicamentos orais por essa via, e dos custos associados ao incidente. Método Estudo de intervenção voltado para a comparação pré (Fase I) e pós (Fase II) implementação de um Programa Melhoria da Qualidade, proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Foram observadas 92 doses de medicamentos na Fase I e 66 doses na Fase II. Foram necessários quatro ciclos Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) para atingir a meta proposta para o programa de melhoria. Resultados Houve redução no tempo médio gasto pelo profissional no preparo e na administração de medicamentos sólidos via sonda nasoenteral em ambas as fases. As frequências de sondas obstruídas reduziram de 33,3% (Fase I) para 7,4% (Fase II) e nenhuma sonda apresentou-se obstruída durante os ciclos 1, 2 e 4. O custo médio da obstrução por paciente foi de R$ 1.251,05 ao mês na Fase I e de R$ 23,31 na Fase II. Após as mudanças testadas, foi verificada economia de tempo para a equipe de enfermagem e de custo para a instituição. Conclusão Os ciclos PDSA foram eficazes na redução de não conformidades no preparo e na administração de medicamentos via sonda nasoenteral. Tal melhoria impactou a frequência de obstrução, os custos relacionados e o tempo médio gasto pelo profissional de enfermagem durante o preparo e a administração das doses.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el impacto de un programa de mejora de la calidad relacionado con los indicadores de frecuencia de sondas nasoenterales obstruidas, del tempo invertido por el equipo de enfermería en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos orales por esa vía y de los costos asociados con el incidente. Métodos Estudio de intervención direccionado para la comparación previa (Fase I) y posterior (Fase II) a la implementación de un Programa Mejora de la Calidad, propuesto por el Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Se observaron 92 dosis de medicamentos en la Fase I y 66 dosis en la Fase II. Se necesitaron cuatro ciclos Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) para alcanzar la meta propuesta para el programa de mejora. Resultados Hubo reducción del tiempo promedio consumido por el profesional en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos sólidos por sonda nasoenteral en ambas fases. La frecuencia de la obstrucción de las sondas se redujo del 33,3 % (Fase I) para el 7,4 % (Fase II) y ninguna sonda presentó obstrucción durante los ciclos 1, 2 y 4. El costo promedio de la obstrucción por paciente fue de R$ 1.251,05 al mes en la Fase I y de R$ 23,31 en la Fase II. Después de someter a pruebas los cambios, se verificó un ahorro de tiempo para el equipo de enfermería y de costo para la institución. Conclusión Los ciclos PDSA fueron eficaces en la reducción de no conformidades en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos por sonda nasoenteral. Esa mejora impactó la frecuencia de obstrucción, los costos relacionados y el tiempo promedio consumido por el profesional de enfermería durante la preparación y la administración de las dosis.


Abstract Objective Evaluate the impact of a quality improvement program related to the frequency indicators of obstructed nasogastric tubes, the time the nursing team spent on oral medication preparation and administration through this route, and the costs associated with the incident. Method Intervention study aimed at comparing pre (Phase I) and post (Phase II) implementation of a Quality Improvement Program, proposed by Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Ninety-two medication doses were observed in Phase I and 66 doses in Phase II. Four Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were needed to achieve the proposed target for the improvement program. Results The average time the professional spent on solid medication preparation and administration through nasogastric tube decreased in both phases. Frequencies of obstructed tubes dropped from 33.3% (Phase I) to 7.4% (Phase II) and no probe was obstructed during cycles 1, 2, and 4. The average cost of the obstruction per patient was R$ 1,251.05 per month in Phase I and R$ 23.31 in Phase II. After testing the changes, time savings for the nursing team and cost savings for the institution were verified. Conclusion The PDSA cycles were effective in reducing non-conformities in medication preparation and administration via nasogastric tube. This improvement influenced the obstruction frequency, related costs, and the average time the nursing professional spent on the preparation and administration of the medication doses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Quality Improvement , Patient Safety , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Stents , Administration, Oral
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 561-564, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143959

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives The Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block (SGB) is an effective, low-risk treatment option for Postdural Puncture Headache (PDPH) refractory to conservative management. Case report This report presents four complex cases of patients with headache related to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Three of them were successfully treated with the application of local anesthetic topical drops through the nasal cavity. Conclusion The novel approach described in this report has minimal risks of discomfort or injury to the nasal mucosa. It is quick to apply and can be administered by the patient himself.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O Bloqueio do Gânglio Esfenopalatino (BGEP) é opção de tratamento efetivo associado a baixo risco para Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural (CPPD) refratária às medidas conservadoras. Relato de caso: Este relato apresenta quatro pacientes com alta complexidade que apresentaram cefaleia relacionada à baixa pressão do líquido cefaloraquidiano. Três pacientes foram tratados com sucesso pela instilação de gotas de anestésico local tópico na cavidade nasal. Conclusões: A nova abordagem descrita neste relato apresenta riscos mínimos de desconforto ou lesão à mucosa nasal. A aplicação é rápida e pode ser administrada pelo próprio paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Post-Dural Puncture Headache/therapy , Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Administration, Intranasal , Self Administration , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 864-868, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the median effective dose (ED) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation in uncooperative pediatric patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease before and after cardiac surgery.@*METHODS@#We prospectively recruited 47 children (22 in preoperative group and 25 in postoperative group) who needed sedation for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A modified up-and-down sequential study design was employed to determine dexmedetomidine dose for each patient with a starting dose of 2 μg/kg in both groups; dexmedetomidine doses for subsequent subjects were determined according to the responses from the previous subject using the up-and-down method at a 0.25 μg/kg interval. The ED was determined using probit regression. The onset time, examination time, wake-up time and adverse effects were measured, and the safety was evaluated in terms of changes in vital signs every 5 min.@*RESULTS@#The ED value of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 1.84 μg/kg (95% : 1.68-2.00 μg/kg) in children with congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery, and 3.38 μg/kg (95% : 3.21-3.54 μg/kg) after the surgery. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the demographic variables, onset time, examination time, wake-up time, or adverse effects.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, the ED of intranasal dexmedetomidine for TTE sedation increases to 3.38 μg/ kg after cardiac surgery from the preoperative value of 1.84 μg/kg.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Dexmedetomidine , Heart Defects, Congenital , General Surgery , Hypnotics and Sedatives
10.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 325-330, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040031

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids have been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, the evidence suggests a level of superiority of corticosteroids, so they should be preferred over the former. Objective To know the prescription profile of two second generation antihistamines (cetirizine and levocetirizine) and two nasal corticosteroids (mometasone and furoateciclesonide) in a cohort of patients with allergic rhinitis, and to compare the clinical outcomes obtained. Methods A cohort study was carried including patients with allergic rhinitis treated with cetirizine, levocetirizine, mometasone furoate or ciclesonide. The improvement was evaluated with the total nasal symptoms score (TNSS). This scale yields results between 0 and 12. Zero indicates absence of symptoms. Results A total of 314 patients completed 12 weeks of follow-up. Seventy-five percent were treated with antihistamines, 20% with corticosteroids, and 5% with a combination of the above. The TNSS median for corticosteroid was 2.5 points; for antihistamines, its was 5 points, and for combination, it was 4 points. We found differences between corticosteroids and antihistamines. Conclusion The prescription percentage of second generation oral antihistamines is higher than that of intranasal corticosteroids. However, patients with allergic rhinitis treated with the second option obtained better control of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Administration, Intranasal , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cetirizine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Colombia , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(2): 133-136, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020628

ABSTRACT

La presencia de infiltrados pulmonares es un hallazgo frecuente que incluye un amplio diagnóstico diferencial basado en muchas ocasiones en la historia clínica. Entre ellas, la neumonía lipoidea exógena representa una entidad poco frecuente y es preciso un elevado índice de sospecha para alcanzar su diagnóstico y evitar su progresión. En estos casos, un contexto clínico adecuado y una TC con opacidades y áreas de baja densidad pueden ser altamente sugestivos de la enfermedad. Se presenta un caso de neumonía lipoidea exógena secundaria a la utilización continuada de sustancias oleosas intranasal, que debido a los antecedentes del paciente y a las posibilidades diagnósticas tras los hallazgos de la TC, precisó confirmación histológica.


The presence of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent finding that includes a large differential diagnosis based on many occasions in the clinical history. Among them, exogenous lipoid pneumonia represents a rare entity and a high index of suspicion is necessary to reach its diagnosis and prevent its progression. In these cases, an adequate clinical context and a CT with opacities and low density areas are highly suggestive of the disease. We present a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to the continued use of oily substances at the nasal level, due to his antecedents and the diagnostic possibilities after the CT findings, histological confirmation was required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Petrolatum/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Lipid/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Lipid/etiology , Pneumonia, Lipid/pathology , Biopsy , Administration, Intranasal , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 371-378, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011620

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which affects 1 out of 6 individuals. Perennial allergic rhinitis accounts for 40% of AR cases. Ciclesonide is one of the relatively new intranasal steroid for allergic rhinitis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Scientific Citation Index, Embase, Clinical Trial Registries for randomized controlled trials and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to find out the randomized controlled Trial comparing ciclesonide with placebo for PAR. Results: Eight studies were included. In comparison with placebo groups, ciclesonide groups significantly decreased Reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (MD = −0.56; 95% CI −0.72 to 0.39, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.19, I2 = 24%), Instantaneous Total Nasal Symptom Score (MD = −0.57; 95% CI −0.75 to −0.39, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.34, I2 = 11%). A significant effect for Reflective Nasal Symptom Score Subtotal (MD = −0.15; 95% CI −0.18 to −0.13, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.12, I2 = 24%) was also demonstrated. Rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire score (RQLQs) (MD = −0.27; 95% CI −0.39 to −0.15, p < 0.00001) with heterogeneity (p = 0.58, I 2 = 0%) in the treatment of ciclesonide was also significantly reduced. In addition, the difference in Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: Ciclesonide can improve perennial allergic rhinitis without increasing adverse events. Ciclesonide may be another valuable choice for perennial allergic rhinitis in the future.


Resumo Introdução: A rinite alérgica é uma doença inflamatória crônica que afeta um a cada seis indivíduos. A rinite alérgica perene é responsável por 40% dos casos de rinite alérgica. A ciclesonida é um dos corticosteroides intranasais mais novos para o tratamento dessa condição clínica. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da ciclesonida no tratamento da rinite alérgica perene. Método: Uma busca foi feita nos bancos de dados Pubmed, Scientific Citation Index, Embase e Clinical Trial Registries por ensaios clínicos randomizados e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials por estudos controlados randomizados que comparassem ciclesonida com placebo no tratamento da rinite alérgica perene. Resultados: Oito estudos foram incluídos. Em comparação com os grupos placebo, os grupos ciclesonida mostraram diminuição significante no escore do Reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (DM = −0,56; IC 95%: −0,72 a −0,39, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,19, I2 = 24%), do Instantaneous Total Nasal Symptom Score (DM = −0,57; IC95%: −0,75 a −0,39, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,34, I2 = 11%). Um efeito significante no escore do Reflective Nasal Symptom Score Subtotal (DM = −0,15; IC 95%: −0,18 a −0,13, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,12, I2 = 24%) também foi demonstrado. O escore do Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score (RQLQs) (DM = −0,27; IC 95%: −0,39 a −0,15, p < 0,00001) com heterogeneidade (p = 0,58, I2 = 0%) também foi significantemente reduzido no tratamento com ciclesonida. Além disso, a diferença em relação aos eventos adversos emergentes do tratamento entre os dois grupos não foi significante. Conclusão: A ciclesonida pode melhorar a rinite alérgica perene sem aumentar os eventos adversos. Esse fármaco pode ser outra opção valiosa para a rinite alérgica perene no futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnenediones/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/drug therapy , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 101-103, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation driven by Th2-type cytokines. Glucocorticosteroids are the most common first-line treatment for ECRS with nasal polyps. Objective We have evaluated the long-term treatment with double-dose intranasal corticosteroids in refractory ECRS nasal polyps resistant to the conventional dose and assessed the risk of adverse systemic effects Methods Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects had ECRS after endoscopic sinus surgery that resulted in recurrentmild andmoderate nasal polyps and were undergoing a postoperative follow-up application of mometasone furoate at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril once a day (200 μg). All the patients were prescribed mometasone furoate, administered at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril twice a day (400 μg) for 6 months. Results The average scores of the symptoms during the regular dose of intranasal steroid treatment were 5.2 ± 2.2, but 6 months after the high-dose application, they had significantly decreased to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p < 0.05). The polyp size showed an average score of 1.38 during the regular dose which was significantly reduced to 0.43 (p < 0.01) by the double dose. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) showed normal ranges in all the patients tested. The cortisol plasma concentration was also normal. Conclusion Doubling the dose of the nasal topical spray mometasone furoate might be recommended for the treatment of recurrent nasal polyps in the postoperative follow-up of intractable ECRS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Postoperative Care , Sinusitis/surgery , Administration, Intranasal , Rhinitis/surgery , Nasal Polyps/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Endoscopy , Nasal Sprays
14.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 450-456, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763037

ABSTRACT

Taurine has a number of beneficial pharmacological actions in the brain such as anxiolytic and neuroprotective actions. We explored to test whether taurine could be transported to the central nervous system through the intranasal route. Following intranasal administration of taurine in mice, elevated plus maze test, activity cage test and rota rod test were carried out to verify taurine’s effect on anxiety. For the characterization of potential mechanism of taurine’s anti-anxiety action, mouse convulsion tests with strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine, and isoniazid were employed. A significant increase in the time spent in the open arms was observed when taurine was administered through the nasal route in the elevated plus maze test. In addition, vertical and horizontal activities of mice treated with taurine via intranasal route were considerably diminished. These results support the hypothesis that taurine can be transported to the brain through intranasal route, thereby inducing anti-anxiety activity. Taurine’s anti-anxiety action may be mediated by the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor as evidenced by the inhibition of strychnine-induced convulsion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Anxiety , Arm , Brain , Central Nervous System , Isoniazid , Picrotoxin , Receptors, Glycine , Seizures , Strychnine , Taurine , Yohimbine
15.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 611-622, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms may develop when we fail to adapt to various stressors of our daily life. Central oxytocin (OXT) can counteract the biological actions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and in turn attenuates stress responses. Administration (intracerebroventricular) of OXT significantly antagonized the inhibitory effects of chronic complicated stress (CCS) on GI dysmotility in rats. However, intracerebroventricular administration is an invasive pathway. Intranasal administration can rapidly deliver peptides to the brain avoiding stress response. The effects of intranasal OXT on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and GI motility in CCS conditions have not been investigated. METHODS: A CCS rat model was set up, OXT 5, 10, or 20 μg were intranasal administered, 30 minutes prior to stress loading. Central CRF and OXT expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and OXT concentrations were measured, and gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated by gastric emptying, fecal pellet output, and motility recording system. RESULTS: Rats in CCS condition showed significantly increased CRF expression and corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and increased fecal pellet output, attenuated gastric motility and enhanced colonic motility were also recorded. OXT 10 μg or 20 μg significantly reduced CRF mRNA expression and the corticosterone concentration, OXT 20 μg also helped to restore GI motor dysfunction induced by CCS. CONCLUSION: Intranasal administration of OXT has an anxiolytic effect and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to CCS, and gave effects which helped to restore GI dysmotility, and might be a new approach for the treatment of stress-induced GI motility disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Administration, Intranasal , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Brain , Colon , Corticosterone , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Motility , Models, Animal , Oxytocin , Peptides , RNA, Messenger
16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 531-540, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine.@*METHODS@#Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured.@*RESULTS@#H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus.@*CONCLUSION@#CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Cholera Toxin , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , Allergy and Immunology , Random Allocation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2841-2848, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773251

ABSTRACT

Curcumin( Cur) is a natural active substance extracted from the roots or tubers of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities on brain diseases. Due to the poor stability,low solubility,poor absorption and low bioavailability of curcumin,N-acetyl-L-cysteine( NAC) was used as an absorption enhancer and mixed with curcumin to improve the absorption of curcumin in the body. In this paper,curcumin was smashed by airflow pulverization,and Cur-NAC mixtures were prepared by being grinded with liquid. Then,the raw material and the product were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry( DSC),X-ray diffraction( XRD) for structural characterization. The dissolution was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the samples prepared by grinding method were similar to those of the raw materials,while the melting temperature and the accumulated dissolution degree were not significantly changed. The crystal forms of the products were not changed,and no new crystal form was formed after grinding. After the administration of intranasal powder,blood samples were collected from the orbit,while the whole brain tissues were removed from the skull and dissected into 10 anatomical regions. The concentrations of curcumin in these samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of curcumin in plasma and brain were compared at different time points. After intranasal administration of two drugs,it was found that the concentration of curcumin after sniffing up the mixtures in plasma was high,and the concentration of the drug in the olfactory bulb,hippocampus,and pons was increased significantly. Within 0. 083-0. 5 h,the olfactory bulb,piriform lobe and hippocampus remained high concentrations,the endodermis,striatum,hypothalamus and midbrain reached high concentrations within 1-3 h; and the cerebellum,pons and brain extension maintained relatively high concentrations within 3-7 h. The experiment showed that nasal administration of Cur-NAC mixtures can significantly improve the bioavailability of curcumin,and lead to significant differences in brain tissue distribution.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetylcysteine , Pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Biological Availability , Brain , Brain Chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Curcumin , Pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4800-4805, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008166

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing incidence of central nervous system diseases,especially the increasing incidence and mortality of stroke,brain-targeted drug delivery has attached more and more attention. Nasal administration,as one of the ways of brain-targeted administration,can effectively make the drug delivered to the brain in a targeted way after by passing the blood-brain barrier,providing a new idea for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Therefore,it is a promising administration way. In recent years,the treatment of encephalopathy by nasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine has become a hot topic in the research of traditional Chinese medicine. Ischemic stroke is one of the most important diseases endangering human health. Nasal administration has a history of thousands of years in treatment of stroke. Modern medical research has proved that there is a subtle connection between the nasal cavity and the brain,and the complex and ingenious structure of the nasal cavity provides the possibility for drugs delivery to the brain through the nose. Drug administration through nasal cavity has obvious advantages in treatment of central nervous system diseases represented by ischemic stroke. Nasal administration is characterized by non-invasion,low infection,rapid absorption and brain targeting. The author will expound the theoretical basis of brain targeting of nasal administration from the aspects of anatomy and physiology,and summarize the transport pathway of drugs through the nose into the brain,the in vitro and in vivo experimental research basis of the " nose-brain"pathway,and the clinical nasal administration of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent cerebral ischemia. It provides a reference for better research of drugs to prevent and treat cerebral ischemia injury through the " nose-brain"pathway and lays a foundation for further research of the " nose-brain" pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Brain , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nasal Mucosa , Pharmaceutical Preparations
19.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 267-279, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator. However, its role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic effect of intranasally applied vitamin D in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum before they were intranasally challenged with OVA. Then, they were intranasally administered 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.02 μg) or solvent. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine mRNA levels (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and interferon-γ) in the nasal tissue, and serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were analyzed and compared with negative and positive control groups. Cervical lymph nodes (LNs) were harvested for flow cytometry analysis and cell proliferation assay. RESULTS: In the treatment group, allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, and mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the nasal tissue than in the positive control group. The IL-5 mRNA level, serum total IgE, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels decreased in the treatment group; however, the difference was not significant. In the cervical LNs, CD86 expression had been down-regulated in CD11c+major histocompatibility complex II-high (MHCIIhigh) in the treatment group. Additionally, IL-4 secretion in the lymphocyte culture from cervical LNs significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the antiallergic effect of intranasal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. It decreases CD 86 expression among CD11c+MHCIIhigh cells and T-helper type 2-mediated inflammation in the cervical LNs. Therefore, topically applied 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be a future therapeutic agent for allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Anti-Allergic Agents , Calcitriol , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Models, Animal , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Vitamin D
20.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(2): 67-78, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-951293

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) se consideran como una de las principales causas de morbilidad en el mundo, y Escherichia coli uropatogénica (UPEC, por sus siglas en inglés) es el agente causal asociado a estas infecciones. La alta morbilidad generada por las ITU y la limitación de tratamientos debido al aumento de la resistencia bacteriana a los diversos antibióticos inducen la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas contra estas infecciones. El conocimiento que se ha generado acerca de la respuesta inmunitaria en el tracto urinario (TU) es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias efectivas en la prevención, el tratamiento y el control de las ITU. Los avances en las herramientas de biología molecular y bioinformática han permitido generar proteínas de fusión consideradas como biomoléculas potenciales para el desarrollo de una vacuna viable contra las ITU. Las adhesinas fimbriales (FimH, CsgA y PapG) de UPEC son factores de virulencia que contribuyen a la adherencia, la invasión y la formación de comunidades bacterianas intracelulares. Pocos estudios in vivo e in vitro han mostrado que las proteínas de fusión promueven una respuesta inmunitaria eficiente y de protección contra las ITU causadas por UPEC. Adicionalmente, la vía de inmunización intranasal con moléculas inmunogénicas ha generado una respuesta en la mucosa del TU en comparación contra otras vías de inmunización. El objetivo de esta revisión fue proponer un diseño de vacuna contra las ITU causadas por UPEC, describiendo el panorama general de la infección, el mecanismo de patogenicidad de la bacteria y la respuesta inmunitaria del huésped.


Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the etiological agent associated with these infections. The high morbidity produced by the UTI and the limitation of antibiotic treatments promotes the search for new alternatives against these infections. The knowledge that has been generated regarding the immune response in the urinary tract is important for the development of effective strategies in the UTI prevention, treatment, and control. Molecular biology and bioinformatic tools have allowed the construction of fusion proteins as biomolecules for the development of a viable vaccine against UTI. The fimbrial adhesins (FimH, CsgA, and PapG) of UPEC are virulence factors that contribute to the adhesion, invasion, and formation of intracellular bacterial communities. The generation of recombinant proteins from fimbrial adhesins as a single molecule is obtained by fusion technology. A few in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that fusion proteins provide an efficient immune response and protection against UTI produced by UPEC. Intranasal immunization of immunogenic molecules has generated a response in the urinary tract mucosa compared with other routes of immunization. The objective of this review was to propose a vaccine designed against UTI caused by UPEC, describing the general scenario of the infection, the mechanism of pathogenicity of bacteria, and the immune response of the host.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Urinary Tract/immunology , Urinary Tract/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/immunology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Administration, Intranasal , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Escherichia coli Infections/immunology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/immunology
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