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1.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(1): 32-38, Abril/2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1096408

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar custo-minimização da troca entre as versões intravenosa (IVIg) e subcutânea (SCIg) das imunoglobulinas (Ig) em operadora de saúde com mais de 500.000 vidas. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, descritivo, seguido de custo-minimização entre os pacientes que utilizaram IVIg, de 1º de outubro de 2018 a 30 de setembro de 2019. Simulou-se a troca entre as IVIg e SCIg, objetivando descrever a economia de uma hipotética substituição. Estabeleceram-se como critérios de exclusão: o não pagamento e a liberação com dose acima de 60.000 mg. Após exclusão, calcularam-se as despesas totais, somando-se os custos do produto e taxas de infusão. Resultados: Evidenciou-se que 133 pacientes, totalizando 1.175 liberações, utilizaram IVIg no período avaliado. Identificou-se a utilização de 34.797.500 mg de IVIg, por 10 especialidades, totalizando R$ 12.408.192,50 de despesas. Quando aplicada simulação, há uma potencial economia de recursos de até 29,83%, dependendo da SCIg escolhida. Conclusão: A análise econômica no tratamento com imunoglobulinas evidenciou significativa relevância, pois contribui com o uso adequado da terapêutica garantindo a sustentabilidade do sistema de saúde. Medicamentos subcutâneos apresentam-se como uma opção custo-minimizatória em comparação ao tratamento intravenoso para saúde suplementar brasileira.


Objective: Cost-minimization evaluation of the switch from intravenous (IVIg) to subcutaneous (SCIg) immunoglobulin (Ig) in a Brazilian Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), with more than 500.000 lives. Methods: This is a retrospective, transversal and descriptive study, followed by a cost-minimization analysis among patients using IVIg between 2018, October, 1st and 2019, September, 30th. The simulation was performed supposing the exchange from IVIg to SCIg, in order to calculate possible savings. Exclusion criteria: non-payment (gloss), and infusions with doses above 60.000 miligrams. After exclusion, total expenditures were calculated by summing product and infusion costs. Results: There were133 patients, with1,175 IVIg infusion events in the period evaluated. It was identified the use of 34,797,500 milligrams of IVIg, for 10 specialties, with R$ 12,408,192.50 of final expenditure. The simulation previews hypothetical reduction in the final cost of up to 29.83%, depending on the SCIg brand chosen. Conclusion: The economic analysis in the treatment with immunoglobulins showed significant relevance, as it contributes to the appropriate use of therapy ensuring the sustainability of the health system. Subcutaneous drugs are a cost-minimizing option compared to intravenous treatment for Brazilian HMOs.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulin G , Evidence-Based Medicine , Costs and Cost Analysis , Supplemental Health , Administration, Intravenous
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(3): 404-408, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115806

ABSTRACT

Hypophosphatemia is a relatively frequent and a potentially serious adverse drug effect. Clinically it is characterized by bone pain and muscle weakness. There are several mechanisms by which a drug can induce hypophosphatemia and they can be classified according to whether or not they are mediated by an excess of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23). We report two patients with the condition: (i) A 49-year-old woman with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and gastric sleeve surgery at 46 years of age. After receiving intravenous carboxymaltose iron in one occasion due to refractory anemia, she developed symptomatic hypophosphatemia. Urinary phosphate losses associated with high FGF23 levels were confirmed. Plasma phosphate returned to normal values 90 days after the iron administration. (ii) A 40-year-old man with a history of CML in whom imatinib was started. He developed symptomatic hypophosphatemia due to non FGF23-mediated hyperphosphaturia. As treatment with imatinib could not be interrupted, hypophosphatemia and its symptoms resolved with oral phosphate intake. These cases illustrate the importance of recognizing and treating drug-induced hypophosphatemia in a timely manner, and thus avoid the morbidity associated with this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hypophosphatemia , Phosphates , Administration, Intravenous , Imatinib Mesylate , Iron
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782186

ABSTRACT

6 years (RR=4.15), with previous abdominal pain (RR=7.2) or constipation (RR=4.06). Constipation was recorded in 23/289 (8.0%), with increased risk in children having surgery (RR=2.56) or previous constipation (RR=7.38). Probiotic supplementation significantly reduced AAD (RR=0.30) and abdominal pain (RR=0.36). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and L. reuteri significantly reduced AAD (RR=0.37 and 0.35) and abdominal pain (RR=0.37 and 0.24).CONCLUSION: AAD occurred in 20.4% of children, with increased risk at younger age, lower respiratory and urinary tract infections, intravenous treatment and previous AAD. LGG and L. reuteri reduced both AAD and associated abdominal pain.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Administration, Intravenous , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Constipation , Diarrhea , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probiotics , Prospective Studies , Protective Factors , Urinary Tract Infections
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4433, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the pharmaceutical interventions of a vertical clinical pharmacy service to promote the rational use of intravenous omeprazole. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study carried out at a university hospital in the Midwestern Region of Brazil, from November 2014 to May 2015. The service consisted of the analysis of adequacy of the route of administration of omeprazole in relation to the clinical conditions of the patient, as well as the use of the appropriate diluent. Interventions were recorded in medical records and subsequently evaluated for acceptance. Results: A total of 770 prescriptions were evaluated. Interventions related to diluent replacement were more accepted (p<0.001), and surgeons were the specialty that used the intravenous route inappropriately (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although partially accepted, pharmaceutical interventions could contribute to improve patient safety, since they allowed the use of a safer route of administration.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as intervenções farmacêuticas de um serviço farmacêutico clínico vertical, para a promoção do uso racional do omeprazol intravenoso. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e descritivo realizado em um hospital universitário da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, no período de novembro de 2014 a maio de 2015. O serviço consistia na análise da adequabilidade da via de administração do omeprazol em relação às condições clínicas do paciente, bem como a utilização do diluente adequado. As intervenções eram registradas em prontuário e, posteriormente, avaliadas quanto à aceitação. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 770 prescrições. As intervenções relacionadas à substituição do diluente foram mais aceitas (p<0,001), e os cirurgiões foram a especialidade que utilizou a via intravenosa de maneira inadequada (p<0,001). Conclusão: Embora parcialmente aceitas, as intervenções farmacêuticas puderam contribuir com a melhoria da segurança dos pacientes, uma vez que permitiram a utilização de uma via de administração mais segura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous/methods , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Patient Safety , Hospitals, University , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3290, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126966

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze variations in body temperature and in plasma nitrate and lactate concentrations in rats submitted to the experimental sepsis model. Method: a total of 40 rats divided equally into five groups. The induction of endotoxemia was performed with intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide, 0.5 mg/Kg, 1.5 mg/Kg, 3.0 mg/Kg, and 10 mg/Kg, respectively. The control group received 0.5 mL of saline solution. The experiment lasted six hours, with evaluations performed at 0 (baseline data), 2nd, 4th, and 6thhours. Results: The animals that received doses up to 3.0 mg/kg showed a significant increase in body temperature compared to the group with 10 mg/kg, which showed a decrease in these values. The increase in plasma nitrate and lactate concentrations in the groups with lipopolysaccharide was significantly higher than in the group that received the saline solution and was correlated with the increase in body temperature. Conclusion: the variations in body temperature observed in this study showed the dose-dependent effect of lipopolysaccharide and were correlated with the increase in the concentrations of nitrate and plasma lactate biomarkers. The implications of this study are the importance of monitoring body temperature, together with the assessment of these pathophysiological markers, which suggest worsening in the prognosis of sepsis.


Objetivo: analisar as variações na temperatura corporal e nas concentrações de nitrato e lactato plasmáticos em ratos submetidos ao modelo de sepse experimental. Método: foram utilizados 40 ratos divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. A indução da endotoxemia foi realizada com administração endovenosa de lipopolissacarídeo, respectivamente 0,5 mg/Kg, 1,5 mg/Kg, 3,0 mg/Kg e 10 mg/Kg. O grupo controle recebeu 0,5 mL de solução salina. O experimento teve duração de seis horas, com avaliações realizadas na 0 (dados basais), 2a, 4a e 6a hora. Resultados: os animais que receberam doses de até 3,0 mg/Kg apresentaram aumento significativo na temperatura corporal em relação ao grupo com 10 mg/Kg, que apresentou diminuição nesses valores. O aumento nas concentrações de nitrato e lactato plasmáticos nos grupos com lipopolissacarídeo foi significativamente superior ao grupo que recebeu salina e esteve correlacionado com o aumento na temperatura corporal. Conclusão: as variações na temperatura corporal observadas neste estudo mostraram efeito dose dependentes de lipopolissacarídeo e estiveram correlacionadas com o aumento nas concentrações dos biomarcadores nitrato e lactato plasmáticos. O estudo traz como implicações, a importância no monitoramento da temperatura corporal, em conjunto com a avaliação destes marcadores fisiopatológicos, os quais sugerem agravamento no prognóstico da sepse.


Objetivo: analizar las variaciones de la temperatura corporal y de las concentraciones de nitrato y lactato en plasma en ratones sometidos a un modelo de sepsis experimental. Método: se utilizaron 40 ratones divididos en cinco grupos iguales. La inducción de la endotoxemia se realizó mediante administración intravenosa de 0,5 mg/Kg, 1,5 mg/Kg, 3,0 mg/Kg y 10 mg/Kg de lipopolisacárido, respectivamente. El grupo de control recibió 0,5 mL de solución salina. El experimento duró seis horas, con evaluaciones realizadas a la hora 0 (datos de referencia) y a la 2a, 4a y 6ahora. Resultados: los animales que recibieron dosis de hasta 3,0 mg/kg presentaron un aumento significativo de la temperatura corporal, en comparación con el grupo al que se le administró 10 mg/kg, que presentó una disminución de dichos valores. En los grupos a los que se les administró lipopolisacárido, el aumento en las concentraciones de nitrato y lactato en plasma fue significativamente mayor que en el grupo al que se le administró la solución salina y estuvo correlacionado con el aumento de la temperatura corporal. Conclusión: las variaciones de la temperatura corporal observadas en este estudio mostraron que los efectos dependieron de la dosis de lipopolisacárido, y estuvieron correlacionadas con el aumento en la concentración de biomarcadores, como el nitrato y lactato en plasma. El estudio reveló la importancia del control de la temperatura corporal, junto con la evaluación de estos marcadores fisiopatológicos, que sugieren un empeoramiento en el pronóstico de la sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature , Biomarkers , Sepsis , Endotoxemia , Lactic Acid , Models, Animal , Serum , Administration, Intravenous , Nitric Oxide
7.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e34474, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1115314

ABSTRACT

Objetivo validar o conteúdo e a aparência da tecnologia educacional "Complicações da Terapia Intravenosa em Crianças: Manual de Orientações para Familiares" na perspectiva de acompanhantes de crianças hospitalizadas. Método estudo metodológico, do tipo produção tecnológica. A validação foi realizada por 65 familiares de crianças hospitalizadas, mediante leitura e aplicação de questionário sobre todos os itens que faziam parte da tecnologia. Resultados a distribuição do índice de concordância de todas as variáveis alcançou mais de 90% segundo os acompanhantes das crianças hospitalizadas. Conclusão o manual demonstrou estar apto para utilização na prática clínica diária nos hospitais pediátricos, pois os familiares acompanhantes consideraram o conteúdo apropriado, clareza da linguagem utilizada e sua aparência, destacando a motivação durante a leitura das informações disponíveis.


Objetivo validar el contenido y el aspecto de la tecnología educacional "Complicaciones de la Terapia Intravenosa en Niños: Manual de Directrices para la Familia" en la perspectiva de los compañeros de los niños hospitalizados. Método un estudio metodológico, del tipo de la producción tecnológica. La validación fue realizada por 65 familiares de los niños hospitalizados a través de la lectura y la aplicación de un cuestionario sobre todos los elementos que eran parte de la tecnología. Resultados la distribución del índice de concordancia de todas las variables alcanzó más del 90% de acuerdo a los acompañantes de los niños hospitalizados. Conclusión el manual demostró ser adecuado para el uso en la práctica clínica diaria en los hospitales pediátricos, porque los cuidadores familiares consideran el contenido apropiado, la claridad del lenguaje utilizado y su apariencia, resaltando la motivación durante la lectura de la información disponible.


Objective to validate the content and layout of the educational technology "Complications of Intravenous Therapy in Children: Family's Guideline Handbook" in the perspective of companions of hospitalized children. Method methodological study, the technological production type. The validation was performed by 65 relatives of hospitalized children through reading and application of a questionnaire on all items that were part of the technology. Results the distribution of the concordance index of all variables reached more than 90% according to the companions of hospitalized children. Conclusion the handbook proved to be suitable for use in daily clinical practice in pediatric hospitals, because the family companions considered the content appropriate, clear language used and layout, highlighting the motivation during the reading of the information available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatric Nursing , Child, Hospitalized , Educational Technology , Administration, Intravenous/standards , Infusions, Intravenous/adverse effects
8.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e36450, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1137063

ABSTRACT

Objetivo identificar os erros no preparo e na administração de medicamentos intravenosos. Método estudo observacional e descritivo realizado de 694 doses de medicamentos intravenosos realizadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem em pacientes adultos nas unidades de Emergência, Internamento e Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital de pequeno porte do recôncavo da Bahia, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados em março e abril de 2019, por meio da observação não participante, tendo como instrumento dois roteiros de observação. As variáveis descritivas foram analisadas por meio da distribuição de frequência absoluta e relativa. Resultados destacou-se os erros de técnica com observação da ocorrência de 60% de erros de técnica do preparo e 75% de erros de técnica de administração dos medicamentos intravenosos. Conclusão Tanto no preparo quanto na administração dos medicamentos intravenosos, foram identificados erros de técnica e de horário, apontando a necessidade de implementação de estratégias voltadas para a segurança do paciente.


Objetivo identificar errores en la preparación y administración de medicaciones intravenosas. Método estudio observacional y descriptivo, realizado con 694 dosis de medicaciones intravenosas realizadas por profesionales de enfermería en pacientes adultos en las Unidades de Emergencia, Internación y Cuidados Intensivos de un pequeño hospital en el recóncavo de Bahía, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en los meses de marzo y abril de 2019, mediante observación no participante, utilizando dos guiones de observación como instrumento. Las variables descriptivas se analizaron mediante la distribución de frecuencia absoluta y relativa. Resultados se observaron errores técnicos, con ocurrencia del 60% de errores de técnica de preparación y 75% de errores de técnica de administración de fármacos intravenosos. Conclusión tanto en la preparación como en la administración de medicamentos por vía intravenosa se identificaron errores en la técnica y en el tiempo, señalando la necesidad de implementar estrategias orientadas a la seguridad del paciente.


Objective to identify errors in the preparation and administration of intravenous drugs. Method observational and descriptive study. 694 doses of intravenous medications performed by nursing professionals in adult patients were observed in the Emergency, Inpatient and Intensive Care Units of a small hospital in the recôncavo of Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected in March and April 2019, through non-participant observation, using two observation scripts as instruments. Descriptive variables were analyzed using the absolute and relative frequency distribution. Results the occurrence of 60% of errors in the preparation technique and 75% of errors in the technique of administering intravenous drugs was highlighted. Conclusion both in the preparation and administration of intravenous medications, errors in technique and time were identified, pointing out the need to implement strategies aimed at patient safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intravenous , Medication Errors , Nursing, Team , Medication Therapy Management , Medication Systems/standards
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811152

ABSTRACT

The safety of metformin use for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and advanced kidney disease is controversial, and more recent guidelines have suggested that metformin be used cautiously in this group until more definitive evidence concerning its safety is available. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology have agreed on consensus statements concerning metformin use for patients with T2DM and renal dysfunction, particularly when these patients undergo imaging studies using iodinated contrast media (ICM). Metformin can be used safely when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m². If the eGFR is between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m², metformin treatment should not be started. If metformin is already in use, a daily dose of ≤1,000 mg is recommended. Metformin is contraindicated when the eGFR is <30 mL/min/1.73 m². Renal function should be evaluated prior to any ICM-related procedures. During procedures involving intravenous administration of ICM, metformin should be discontinued starting the day of the procedures and up to 48 hours post-procedures if the eGFR is <60 mL/min/1.73 m².


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Consensus , Contrast Media , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Metformin , Nephrology , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 451-461, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056616

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hypertension and Diabetes mellitus are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease that culminate in the final stage of kidney disease. Since these two risk factors are common and can overlap, new approaches to prevent or treat them are needed. Macitentan (MAC) is a new non-selective antagonist of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic blockade of ET-1 receptor with MAC on the alteration of renal function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic animals. Genetically hypertensive rats were divided into control hypertensive (HT-CTL) group, hypertensive and hyperglycemic (HT+DIAB) group, and hypertensive and hyperglycemic group that received 25 mg/kg macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavage for 60 days. Kidney function and parameters associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), ET-1, and catalase in the renal cortex was performed. The HT+DIAB group showed a decrease in kidney function and an increase in NGAL expression in the renal cortex, as well as an increase in oxidative stress. MAC treatment was associated with attenuated ET-1 and NGAL production and increases in antioxidant defense (catalase expression) and nitric oxide production. In addition, MAC prevented an increase in oxidant injury (as measured by urinary hydroperoxide and lipid peroxidation), thus improving renal function. Our results suggest that the antioxidant effect of the ET-1 receptor antagonist MAC is involved in the improvement of kidney function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic rats.


RESUMO Hipertensão e Diabetes Mellitus figuram como as duas principais causas de doença renal crônica que culmina em doença renal terminal. Uma vez que os dois fatores de risco são comuns e podem se sobrepor, novas abordagens preventivas e terapêuticas se fazem necessárias. O macitentan (MAC) é um novo antagonista não-seletivo dos receptores da endotelina-1 (ET-1). O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio crônico dos receptores da ET-1 com MAC sobre a alteração da função renal em animais hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos. Ratos geneticamente hipertensos foram divididos em grupos com animais hipertensos de controle (HT-CTL), hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos (HT+DIAB) e hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos tratados com 25 mg/kg de macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavagem por 60 dias. Foram avaliados função renal e parâmetros associados ao estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo. Exames de imunoistoquímica foram realizados para lipocalina associada à gelatinase neutrofílica (NGAL), ET-1 e catalase no córtex renal. O grupo HT+DIAB exibiu diminuição da função renal e aumento na expressão de NGAL no córtex renal, bem como estresse oxidativo aumentado. O tratamento com MAC foi associado a atenuação da produção de ET-1 e NGAL e maior ativação das defesas antioxidantes (expressão de catalase) e elevação da produção de óxido nítrico. Além disso, o MAC evitou exacerbação da lesão oxidante (medida por hidroperóxidos urinários e peroxidação lipídica), melhorando assim a função renal. Nossos resultados sugerem que o efeito antioxidante do antagonista dos receptores da ET-1 MAC esteja imbricado no aprimoramento da função renal observada em ratos hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Hyperglycemia/complications , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Rats/genetics , Risk Factors , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
12.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 51(4): 289-300, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092259

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las bombas de infusión inteligentes, constituyen una herramienta útil para la administración segura de medicamentos endovenosos dado que permiten prevenir potenciales eventos adversos. Objetivo: Evaluar la adherencia y los potenciales eventos adversos prevenidos, durante la administración de medicamentos endovenosos empleando bombas de infusión inteligentes. Metodología: Estudio observacional, realizado en cuatro unidades de cuidados intensivos usando datos del software Hospira MedNetTM. Un análisis descriptivo fue llevado a cabo junto con un análisis bivariado empleando una prueba U de Mann-Whitney, una prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y un test de Bonferroni para evaluar la adherencia y los potenciales eventos adversos prevenidos por año y servicio. Resultados: La adherencia fue del 74,0%, se presentaron 78.299 alertas de seguridad y se previnieron 4,54% (n=16.288) potenciales eventos adversos. Se encontraron diferencias entre el primer y segundo año en la adherencia [Mediana: 69,15 (Q1:64,2-Q3:75,5) Vs Mediana: 84,2(Q1:72,15-Q3:89,05), p<0.001], adherencia a la seguridad [Mediana: 87,1% (Q1:83,05-Q3:91,2) Vs Mediana: 94,05 (Q1:89,95-Q3:96,2), p<0.001] y las ediciones de alertas de limite relativo [Mediana:17,0 (Q1:8,5-Q3:24,5) Vs Mediana: 12,0 (Q1:7,0-Q3:17,5), p=0.013]. La solución salina, la norepinefrina, el lactato de ringer, la piperacilina-tazobactam, la nitroglicerina y la heparina presentaron el mayor número de alertas de seguridad. Conclusión: Se encontró una buena adherencia (uso de la farmacoteca) y adherencia a la seguridad (indicador de uso de la bomba), con una reducción de los potenciales eventos adversos; así el uso de bombas inteligentes podría contribuir en la prevención de potenciales errores durante la administración de medicamentos endovenosos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.


Abstract Introduction: Smart infusion pumps have become a useful tool for the safe administration of intravenous medications, since they allow the prevention of potential adverse events. Objetive: To assess adherence and potential adverse events prevented during intravenous medication administration using smart infusion pumps. Methods: Observational study, conducted in four intensive care units using data from Hospira MedNetTM software. A descriptive analysis was carried out together with a bivariate analysis using a Mann-Whitney U test, a KruskalWallis test and a Bonferroni test to assess adherence and potential adverse events prevented by year and service. Results: Adherence was 74.0%, 78,299 safety alerts were presented and 4.54% (n = 16,288) potential adverse events were prevented. Differences were found between the first and second year in adherence [Median: 69.15 (Q1: 64.2-Q3:75.5) versus Median: 84.2 (Q1: 72.15-Q3: 89.05), p<0.001]. Likewise safety adherence [Median: 87.1% (Q1: 83.05-Q3: 91.2) versus Median: 94.05 (Q1: 89.95-Q3: 96.2), p<0.001] and the relative limit alert editions [Median: 17.0 (Q1: 8.5-Q3: 24.5) versus Median: 12.0 (Q1: 7.0-Q3: 17.5), p=0.013]. The saline solution, norepinephrine, ringer's lactate, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroglycerin and heparin presented the highest number of safety alerts. Conclusions: Adequate adherence (use of the drug library) and safety adherence (indicator of pump use) were found, with a reduction in potential adverse events; thus, the use of smart pumps could contribute to the prevention of potential errors during the administration of intravenous medications in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medication Errors , Infusion Pumps , Safety Management , Administration, Intravenous
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1569-1571, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094191

ABSTRACT

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) may severely affect the quality of life of patients. A deficient iron incorporation into the central nervous system has an important role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Severely affected patients may not respond to current therapeutic options. We report a preliminary experience with five patients with severe RLS and low serum ferritin levels who did not improve with oral iron. All were treated with 1 g of intravenous iron carboxymaltose. They experienced a marked improvement in symptoms, evident even during the first week of therapy that had persistent after up to two years of follow-up. A significant change in the RLS severity scale was observed after intravenous iron. Serum ferritin levels increased in all of them. Intravenous iron could be a therapeutic option for patients with severe RLS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Restless Legs Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Iron/therapeutic use , Ferritins/analysis
14.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1353-1359, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1022039

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study's main purpose has been to analyze scientific articles on the world scenario about nursing interventions in the process of preparation and administration of intravenous drugs, risks inherent in professional practice and actions integrated with medical prescription. Methods: It is a research of literary nature that was carried out through the main databases of online indexed studies. For the development of this research, books related to the practice of intravenous therapy and current legislation were consulted. Results: This investigation describes the main urgent and emerging pathologies in the hospital service, nursing actions aimed at intravenous therapy and pain relief. Conclusion: Finally, it is needed to improve the instruments used to measure acute pain, because they have limitations in its implementation, either for evaluating the size of a single aspect or to be extensive in its application in the level of hospital care


Objetivo: Objetivo do estudo consiste em analisar artigos científicos no cenário mundial acerca das intervenções de enfermagem no processo de preparo e administração de medicamentos por via venosa, riscos inerentes a pratica profissional e ações integradas à prescrição médica. Método: pesquisa de natureza literária, realizada através dos principais bancos de dados online de pesquisas indexadas. Para desenvolvimento do estudo foram consultados livros relacionados à prática da terapia intravenosa e legislações vigentes. Resultados: descrição das principais patologias urgentes e emergentes no serviço hospitalar, ações de enfermagem voltadas para terapia intravenosa e alivio da dor. Conclusão: necessidade de aprimoramento dos instrumentos utilizados para mensurar a dor aguda, pois possuem limitações em sua implementação, seja por avaliar a dimensão de um único aspecto ou serem extenso em sua aplicação em nível de atendimento hospitalar


Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio consiste en analizar artículos científicos en el escenario mundial acerca de las intervenciones de enfermería en el proceso de preparación y administración de medicamentos por vía venosa, riesgos inherentes a la práctica profesional y acciones integradas a la prescripción médica. Método: investigación de naturaleza literaria, realizada a través de las principales bases de datos en línea de investigaciones indexadas. Para el desarrollo del estudio se consultó libros relacionados con la práctica de la terapia intravenosa y las legislaciones vigentes. Resultados: descripción de las principales patologías urgentes y emergentes en el servicio hospitalario, acciones de enfermería dirigidas a terapia intravenosa y alivio del dolor. Conclusión: necesidad de perfeccionamiento de los instrumentos utilizados para medir el dolor agudo, pues poseen limitaciones en su implementación, sea por evaluar la dimensión de un solo aspecto o ser extenso en su aplicación a nivel de atención hospitalaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Pain/nursing , Acute Pain/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Risk , Harm Reduction , Administration, Intravenous/nursing
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The administration of ketamine as nebulized inhalation is relatively new and studies on nebulized ketamine are scarce. We aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of nebulized ketamine (1 and 2 mg.kg-1) administered 30 min before general anesthesia in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy in comparison with intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and saline placebo. Methods One hundred children aged (7-12) years were randomly allocated in four groups (n = 25) receive; Saline Placebo (Group C), Intravenous Ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group K-IV), Nebulized Ketamine 1 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N1) or 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N2). The primary endpoint was the total consumption of rescue analgesics in the first 24 h postoperative. Results The mean time to first request for rescue analgesics was prolonged in K-N1 (400.9 ± 60.5 min, 95% CI 375.9-425.87) and K-N2 (455.5 ± 44.6 min, 95% CI 437.1-473.9) groups compared with Group K-IV (318.5 ± 86.1 min, 95% CI 282.9-354.1) and Group C (68.3 ± 21.9 min, 95% CI 59.5-77.1; p < 0.001), with a significant difference between K-N1 and K-N2 Groups (p < 0.001). The total consumption of IV paracetamol in the first 24 h postoperative was reduced in Group K-IV (672.6 ± 272.8 mg, 95% CI 559.9-785.2), Group K-N1 (715.6 ± 103.2 mg, 95% CI 590.4-840.8) and Group K-N2 (696.6 ± 133.3 mg, 95% CI 558.8-834.4) compared with Control Group (1153.8 ± 312.4 mg, 95% CI 1024.8-1282.8; p < 0.001). With no difference between intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups (p = 0.312). Patients in intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups showed lower postoperative VRS scores compared with Group C (p < 0.001), no differences between K-IV, K-N1 or K-N2 group and without significant adverse effects. Conclusion Preemptive nebulized ketamine was effective for post-tonsillectomy pain relief. It can be considered as an effective alternative route to IV ketamine.


Resumo Objetivos A administração de cetamina por via inalatória através de nebulizador é relativamente nova e os estudos sobre este assunto são escassos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a eficácia analgésica da cetamina nebulizada (1 e 2 mg.kg-1) administrada 30 minutos antes da anestesia geral em crianças submetidas à amigdalectomia eletiva, em comparação com cetamina intravenosa (0,5 mg.kg-1) e placebo (soro fisiológico). Métodos Cem crianças entre 7-12 anos foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n = 25) e receberam: soro fisiológico para controle (Grupo C); 0,5 mg.kg-1 de cetamina intravenosa (Grupo C-IV); 1 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N1); 2 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N2). O desfecho primário foi o consumo total de analgésicos de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados O tempo médio para a primeira solicitação de analgésicos de resgate foi prolongado nos grupos C-N1 (400,9 ± 60,5 min, IC 95% 375,9-425,87) e C-N2 (455,5 ± 44,6 min, IC 95% 437,1-473,9) em comparação com o Grupo C-IV (318,5 ± 86,1 min, IC 95% 282,9-354,1) e o Grupo C (68,3 ± 21,9 min, IC 95% 59,5-77,1; p < 0,001), com uma diferença significativa entre os grupos C-N1 e C-N2 (p < 0,001). O consumo total de paracetamol IV nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório foi reduzido no Grupo C-IV (672,6 ± 272,8 mg, IC 95% 559,9-785,2), Grupo C-N1 (715,6 ± 103,2 mg, IC 95% 590,4-840,8) e Grupo C-N2 (696,6 ± 133,3 mg, IC 95% 558,8-834,4) em comparação com o Grupo C (1153,8 ± 312,4 mg, IC 95% 1024,8-1282,8; p < 0,001). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada (p = 0,312). Os pacientes dos grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada apresentaram escores VRS pós-operatórios menores, em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos C-IV, C-N1 ou C-N2 e sem efeitos adversos significativos. Conclusão A administração preventiva de cetamina nebulizada foi eficaz no alívio da dor pós-amigdalectomia. Cetamina nebulizada pode ser considerada como uma via alternativa eficaz à cetamina IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Double-Blind Method , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General/methods , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 932-934, jul. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058624

ABSTRACT

We report an 89-year-old male under oral anticoagulant therapy with a therapeutic international normalized ratio, presenting at the emergency room with right side hemiparesis and aphasia. Neuroimaging was compatible with an acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation was reverted with the use of four factor prothrombin complex, followed by thrombolysis with alteplase, with a favorable evolution, returning to his basal functional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Prothrombin/administration & dosage , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Amlodipine/adverse effects , Stroke/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Metformin/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Amlodipine/administration & dosage , Stroke/etiology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Administration, Intravenous , Acenocoumarol/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(3): 617-623, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1013549

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze cost-effectiveness and to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the use of infusion pumps with drug library to reduce errors in intravenous drug administration in pediatric and neonatal patients in Intensive Care Units. Methods: Mathematical modeling for economic analysis of the decision tree type. The base case was composed of reference and alternative settings. The target population was neonates and pediatric patients hospitalized in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units, comprising a cohort of 15,034 patients. The cost estimate was based on the bottom-up and top-down approaches. Results: The decision tree, after RollBack, showed that the infusion pump with drug library may be the best strategy to avoid errors in intravenous drugs administration. Conclusion: The analysis revealed that the conventional pump, although it has the lowest cost, also has lower effectiveness.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar el costo-efectividad y calcular la razón de costo-efectividad incremental del uso de bombas de infusión con una biblioteca de fármacos para reducir errores en la administración de medicamentos por vía intravenosa, en pacientes pediátricos y neonatales en unidades de terapia intensiva. Método: Modelaje matemático para el análisis económico, del tipo árbol de decisión. El caso base se compone de escenarios de referencia y alternativo. La población objetivo fueron pacientes neonatos y pediátricos internados en unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica y neonatal, componiendo una cohorte de 15.034 pacientes. La estimación de costos se basó en los enfoques bottom-up y top-down. Resultados: El árbol de decisión, después de Roll Back, mostró que la bomba de infusión con biblioteca de fármacos puede ser la mejor estrategia para evitar errores en la administración de medicamentos intravenosos. Conclusión: El análisis reveló que la bomba convencional, aunque tiene el menor costo, tiene también menor efectividad.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o custo-efetividade e calcular a razão de custo-efetividade incremental do uso de bombas de infusão com biblioteca de fármacos para reduzir erros na administração de medicamento pela via intravenosa, em pacientes pediátricos e neonatais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. Método: Modelagem matemática para análise econômica, do tipo árvore de decisão. O caso-base foi composto pelos cenários de referência e alternativo. A população alvo foram pacientes neonatos e pediátricos internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva pediátrica e neonatal, compondo uma coorte de 15.034 pacientes. A estimativa de custos foi baseada nas abordagens bottom-up e top-down. Resultados: A árvore de decisão, após RollBack, mostrou que a bomba de infusão com biblioteca de fármacos pode ser a melhor estratégia para evitar erros na administração de medicamentos intravenosos. Conclusão: A análise revelou que a bomba convencional, embora tenha o menor custo, tem também menor efetividade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infusion Pumps/economics , Infusion Pumps/standards , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/methods , Brazil , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Monte Carlo Method , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Administration, Intravenous/methods , Administration, Intravenous/standards , Medication Errors/economics , Medication Errors/nursing
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 131-136, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Postoperative pain is the most common postoperative complication. This study was conducted to assess the effect of acetaminophen versus fentanyl on postoperative pain relief in patients who underwent urologic surgeries. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 18-65 years. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 2000 mg acetaminophen (propacetamol) or 2 mcg.kg-1 fentanyl intravenously, 15 min before the end of surgery. The postoperative pain was evaluated every 6 h for 24 h using the Visual Analog Scale. Total morphine dose taken in 24 h and hemodynamic status were evaluated. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled into the trial. The mean score of pain in 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after surgery was lower in the acetaminophen group than in the fentanyl group but the difference was not statistically significant except in 12 and 18 h after surgery (p < 0.05). The amount of administered morphine was higher in the fentanyl group than in the acetaminophen group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The hemodynamic status including systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were nearly the same in the two groups but the SpO2 mean was significantly higher in the acetaminophen group than the fentanyl group. Conclusions: This trial indicated that intravenous acetaminophen is as effective as intravenous fentanyl in pain relief after urologic surgeries (transurethral lithotripsy).


Resumo Justificativa: A dor pós-operatória é a complicação mais comum no período pós-operatório. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de acetaminofeno versus fentanil no alívio da dor pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias urológicas. Métodos: Este ensaio clínico foi realizado com pacientes cujas idades variou entre 18 e 65 anos. Os pacientes foram randomicamente designados para receber 2.000 mg de acetaminofeno (propacetamol) ou 2 mcg.kg-1 de fentanil por via intravenosa 15 min antes do final da cirurgia. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada a cada 6 horas por 24 horas, utilizando a escala visual analógica. A dose total de morfina administrada em 24 horas e o estado hemodinâmico foram avaliados. Resultados: Oitenta pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O escore médio de dor em 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas após a cirurgia foi menor no grupo acetaminofeno que no grupo fentanil, mas a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa, exceto em 12 e 18 horas após a cirurgia (p < 0,05). A quantidade de morfina administrada foi maior no grupo fentanil que no grupo acetaminofeno, mas a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa. O estado hemodinâmico, incluindo pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica e frequência cardíaca, foi quase o mesmo nos dois grupos, mas a média de SpO2 foi significativamente maior no grupo acetaminofeno que no grupo fentanil. Conclusões: Este estudo indicou que acetaminofeno intravenoso é tão eficaz quanto fentanil intravenoso no alívio da dor após cirurgias urológicas (litotripsia transuretral).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Lithotripsy/methods , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Single-Blind Method , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous , Middle Aged
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 86-94, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Early antibiotic switch and early discharge protocols have not been widely studied in Latin America. Our objective was to describe real-world treatment patterns, resource use, and estimate opportunities for early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics and early discharge for patients hospitalized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections. Materials/methods: This retrospective medical chart review recruited 72 physicians from Brazil to collect data from patients hospitalized with documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections between May 2013 and May 2015, and discharged alive by June 2015. Data collected included clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-targeted intravenous and oral antibiotic use, and early switch and early discharge eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria. Results: A total of 199 patient charts were reviewed, of which 196 (98.5%) were prescribed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -active therapy. Only four patients were switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics while hospitalized. The mean length of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-active treatment was 14.7 (standard deviation, 10.1) days, with 14.6 (standard deviation, 10.1) total days of intravenous therapy. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.2 (standard deviation, 23.0) days. The most frequent initial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-active therapies were intravenous vancomycin (58.2%), intravenous clindamycin (19.9%), and intravenous daptomycin (6.6%). Thirty-one patients (15.6%) were discharged with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -active antibiotics of which 80.6% received oral antibiotics. Sixty-two patients (31.2%) met early switch criteria and potentially could have discontinued intravenous therapy 6.8 (standard deviation, 7.8) days sooner, and 65 patients (32.7%) met early discharge criteria and potentially could have been discharged 5.3 (standard deviation, 7.0) days sooner. Conclusions: Only 2% of patients were switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics in our study while almost one-third were early switch eligible. Additionally, one-third of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections were early discharge eligible indicating opportunity for reducing intravenous therapy and days of hospital stay. These results provide insight into possible benefits of implementation of early switch/early discharge protocols in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Substitution/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Administration, Intravenous , Length of Stay
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