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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284430

ABSTRACT

En el nivel primario de atención se detectan errores en la prescripción del tratamiento farmacológico de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la prescripción de hipoglucemiantes orales en pacientes atendidos en consultorios del médico de la familia del Policlínico Universitario Hermanos Cruz, municipio Pinar del Río, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos de tipo descriptivo y transversal clasificado dentro de estos como de indicación-prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y de factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. El universo estuvo conformado por 1575 pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tratados con hipoglucemiantes orales que pertenecían a los 20 consultorios médicos de la familia.La muestra de estudio se obtuvo por el método de muestreo no probabilístico (por conveniencia) (n=846). La información se obtuvo de la historia clínica y tarjeta control de los pacientes para adquirir estos medicamentos. Predominó la edad de 40-49 años, el sexo femenino y entre 5-10 años de evolución de la enfermedad. No se usó la primera línea de tratamiento en el 43,6 % de los casos, ningún caso tenía estudios de laboratorio para el uso de la Metformina. La prescripción y dosis fue adecuada no así su uso racional. Las interacciones más frecuentes fueron las farmacocinéticas.El uso racional de hipoglucemiantes orales fue deficiente lo que hace necesario ampliar la divulgación de un protocolo de tratamiento para mejorar el uso de estos fármacos en el nivel primario de atención.


Errors in the prescription of drug treatment for type 2 diabetes are detected at the primary level of care. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients attended in the family doctor's offices of the Hermanos Cruz University Polyclinic, Pinar del Río distrit, Cuba. A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the use of medications was carried out, classified within these as indication-prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme and factors that condition prescription habits. The universe was made up of 1575 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents who belonged to the 20 family medical offices. The study sample was carried out by the non-probabilistic sampling method (for convenience) (n = 846). The information was obtained from the clinical history and control card of the patients to acquire these medications. The age of 40-49 years, the female sex and between 5-10 years of evolution of the disease predominated. The first line of treatment was not used in 43.6% of the cases; no case had laboratory studies for the use of Metformin. The prescription and dose was adequate, but not its rational use. The most frequent interactions were pharmacokinetic ones.The rational use of oral hypoglycemic agents was deficient, which makes it necessary to expand the dissemination of a treatment protocol to improve the use of these drugs at the primary level of care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Age Factors , Cuba , Drug Interactions , Drug Utilization
2.
Femina ; 49(3): 177-182, 20210331.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224087

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é um distúrbio metabólico por déficit na produção e/ou ação insulínica. Tem relação direta com um constante estado catabólico associado com maior resistência à ação da insulina. Doença de difícil controle, implica risco materno-fetal elevado. O objetivo é estudar a eficácia das drogas antidiabéticas orais sobre o controle glicêmico no DMG e sua segurança quanto aos desfechos gestacionais e perinatais. Trata-se de revisão de literatura descritiva baseada em dados de artigos, livros-texto e guidelines emitidos nos últimos cinco anos. O antidiabético oral pode ser uma boa alternativa no controle do DMG em fase inicial da doença, na presença de distúrbio metabólico e como complemento da terapia com insulina. Entretanto, por causa de sua passagem placentária, há preocupações com seus efeitos fetais e perinatais. Estudos comparativos destacam a metformina no manejo do DMG, considerando principalmente a segurança materno-fetal.(AU)


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by deficit in production and/or insulin action. It is directly related to a constant catabolic state associated with greater resistance to insulin action. Disease difficult to control, implies high maternal-fetal risk. To study the efficacy of oral antidiabetic drugs on glycemic control in GDM and its safety regarding gestational and perinatal outcomes. Descriptive literature review based on data from articles, textbooks and guidelines issued in the last five years. Oral antidiabetic can be a good alternative in the control of GDM in the initial phase of the disease, in the presence of metabolic disorder and as a complement to insulin therapy. However, there are concerns about its placental passage and perinatal effects. Comparative studies highlight metformin in the management of DMG considering mainly maternal-fetal safety.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-171189, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223725

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Adherence to oral antineoplastics (OA) is an important indicator of therapeutic response related to personal, social, and structural factors. Objective: To determine rates of adherence to OA, investigating possible risk factors for nonadherence and to assess patient beliefs about medication, identifying opportunities for pharmaceutical intervention. Method: An analytical study was conducted with cancer patients using OA in 2015. Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale (ARMS) and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) were applied to assess adherence and beliefs about medication and treatment. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 222 patients were interviewed, with a 92.8% adherence rate according to ARMS and 84.7% according to BMQ, in which the necessity-beliefs exceeded the concerns with the treatment and use of OA. Family income, treatment interruption, number and causes of interruptions, depression, and medication possession ratio were the risk factors identified. Comparison of BMQ domains showed that, in the adherent group, patient beliefs in the necessity of the medication exceeded their concerns about it. Conclusion: Understanding the patient's beliefs is a decisive factor in comprehending the risks related to nonadherence as well as in defining strategies to deal with it.


Introdução: A adesão aos antineoplásicos orais (AO) é um importante indicador de resposta terapêutica relacionada a fatores pessoais, sociais e estruturais. Objetivo: Determinar as taxas de adesão aos AO, investigando possíveis fatores de risco para a não adesão, e avaliar as crenças dos pacientes sobre medicamentos, identificando oportunidades de intervenção farmacêutica. Método: Estudo analítico realizado com pacientes com câncer em uso de AO em 2015. Escala de Adesão e Recarga dos Medicamentos (ARMS) e Questionário de Crenças sobre Medicamentos (BMQ) foram aplicados para avaliar a adesão e crenças sobre medicamentos e tratamento. Os testes de Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher foram usados para análise de dados. Resultados: Foram entrevistados 222 pacientes, com taxa de adesão de 92,8%, segundo o ARMS e 84,7%, segundo o BMQ, no qual as crenças de necessidade excederam as preocupações com o tratamento e o uso de AO. Renda familiar, interrupção do tratamento, número e causas das interrupções, depressão e razão de posse de medicamentos foram os fatores de risco identificados. A comparação dos domínios do BMQ demostrou que, no grupo aderente, as crenças dos pacientes sobre a necessidade do medicamento excederam suas preocupações quanto a isso. Conclusão: Considerar as crenças do paciente é um fator decisivo para compreender os riscos relacionados à não adesão, bem como para definir estratégias para lidar com ela.


Introducción: La adherencia a antineoplásicos orales (AO) es un indicador importante de la respuesta terapéutica relacionada con factores personales, sociales y estructurales. Objetivo: Determinar tasas de adherencia a AO, investigar posibles factores de riesgo de incumplimiento y evaluar creencias de los pacientes sobre la medicación, identificando oportunidades para intervención farmacéutica. Método: Estudio analítico con pacientes con cáncer que usaban AO en 2015. Se aplicó Adherencia a la Recogida y Administración de la Medicación (ARMS) y Cuestionario de Creencias sobre Medicación (BMQ) para evaluar el cumplimiento y las creencias sobre medicación y tratamiento. Las pruebas de Mann-Whitney, Chi-cuadrado y Exacto de Fisher se utilizaron para análisis de datos. Resultados: Se entrevistó un total de 222 pacientes, con una tasa de adherencia de 92,8% según ARMS y 84,7% según BMQ, en la cual las creencias de necesidad excedieron preocupaciones con el tratamiento y uso de AO. Ingreso familiar, interrupción del tratamiento, número y causas de interrupciones, depresión y proporción de posesión de medicamentos fueron los factores de riesgo identificados. La comparación de los dominios de BMQ mostró que, en el grupo adherente, las creencias sobre necesidad de la medicación excedieron preocupaciones. Conclusión: La consideración de las creencias del paciente es un factor decisivo para comprender los riesgos relacionados con la no adherencia, así como para definir estrategias para afrontarla.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Culture , Medication Adherence , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmaceutical Services , Administration, Oral
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881073

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 185-190, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881006

ABSTRACT

After one-month of oral treatment with traditional Chinese medicine decoction, without using other drugs, the lung inflammatory exudate, pulmonary fibrosis and quality of life of a 61-year-old female patient with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were significantly improved. No recurrence or deterioration of the patient's condition was found within seven weeks of treatment and follow-up, and no adverse events occurred, indicating that oral Chinese medicine decoction was able to improve the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a patient recovering from COVID-19, but further research is still needed.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , COVID-19/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Lung/pathology , Magnoliopsida , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Periploca aphylla is used by local population and indigenous medicine practitioners as stomachic, tonic, antitumor, antiulcer, and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiabetic effect of the extract of P. aphylla and to investigate antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#The present research was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanol extract of P. aphylla (PAM) and subfractions n-hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC), ethyl acetate (PAE), n-butanol (PAB), and aqueous (PAA) in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the efficacy, PAB (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was tested for its antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) in rat. Blood glucose values were taken weekly. HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB was carried out for the presence of various polyphenols.@*RESULTS@#HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB recorded the presence of rutin, catechin, caffeic acid, and myricetin. Oral administration of PAB at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 21 days significantly restored (P < 0.01) body weight (%) and relative liver and relative kidney weight of diabetic rats. Diabetic control rats showed significant elevation (P < 0.01) of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, creatinine, total bilirubin, and BUN while reduced (P < 0.01) level of glucose, total protein, albumin, insulin, and HDL in serum. Count of blood cells and hematological parameters were altered in diabetic rats. Further, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and total soluble protein concentration decreased while concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and percent DNA damages increased (P < 0.01) in liver and renal tissues of diabetic rats. Histopathological damage scores increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Intake of PAB (400 mg/kg) resulted in significant improvement (P < 0.01) of above parameters, and results were comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide.@*CONCLUSION@#The result suggests the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of PAB treatment in STZ-compelled diabetic rat. PAB might be used as new therapeutic agent in diabetic patients to manage diabetes and decrease the complications.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Male , Periploca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin/adverse effects
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879012

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate(HPMCAS MF) on absorption of silybin(SLB) from supersaturable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system which was pre-prepared at the early stage experiment. The cell toxicity of self-emulsifying preparation was evaluated by the MTT method, and the in vitro membrane permeability and absorption promoting effect of the self-emulsifying preparation were evaluated by establishing a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The in vivo and in vitro supersaturation correlation was evaluated via the blood concentration of SLB. The results of MTT showed that the concentration of the preparation below 2 mg·mL~(-1)(C_(SLB) 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was not toxic to Caco-2 cells, and the addition of polymer had no significant effect on Caco-2 cells viability. As compared with the solution group, the transport results showed that the P_(app)(AP→BL) of the self-emulsifying preparation had a very significant increase; the transport rate of silybin can be reduced by polymer in 0-30 min; however, there was no difference in supersaturated transport between supersaturated SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SSNEDDS) and SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SNEDDS) within 2 hours. As compared with SLB suspension, pharmacokinetic parameters showed that the blood concentration of both SLB-SNEDDS and SLB-SSNEDDS groups were significantly increased, and C_(max) was 5.25 times and 9.69 times respectively of that in SLB suspension group, with a relative bioavailability of 578.45% and 1 139.44% respectively. C_(max) and relative bioavailability of SLB-SSNEDDS were 1.85 times and 197% of those of SLB-SNEDDS, respectively. Therefore, on the one hand, SSNEDDS can increase the solubility of SLB in gastrointestinal tract by maintaining stability of SLB supersaturation state; on the other hand, the osmotic transport process of SLB was regulated through the composition of its preparations, and both of them could jointly promote the transport and absorption of SLB to improve the oral bioavailability of SLB.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Humans , Methylcellulose/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Silymarin , Solubility
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878993

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-MS/MS method for rapid and simultaneous determination of psoralen, isopsoralen, apigenin, genistein, bavaisoflavone, neobavaisoflavone, bavachin, bavachinin, psoralenoside, and isopsoralenoside of Psoraleae Fructus in beagle dog plasma was established, and then the method was applied in the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract to beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of WinNonlin. A Waters HSS-T3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm,1.8 μm)was used for liquid chromatography separation with acetonitrile-water(containing 0.004% formic acid) as the mobile phase for gradient elution.The mass spectrometry was detected using electrospray ion source(ESI) under multi-reaction monitoring mode(MRM), as well as positive ion mode. Analysis time only takes 8.5 min. The methodological study in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linear range, recovery, matrix effect, and stability, was validated. The LC-MS analysis method established in this experiment was simple, specific, accurate, reliable, and meet the requirement of pharmacokinetic study in plasma after administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract to beagle dogs. Six beagle dogs received intragastric administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract, T_(max) of 10 chemical components is 1.92-5.67 h; among them, C_(max) of psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside is 383-3 613 ng·mL~(-1), and AUC_(0-∞) is 3 556-18 949 ng·h·mL~(-1), t_(1/2) is 2.45-4.83 h. C_(max) of the remaining six compounds is 0.81-19.9 ng·mL~(-1), AUC_(0-∞ )is 6.54-178 ng·h·mL~(-1), t_(1/2) is 2.95-7.29 h. The UPLC-MS/MS analysis method established in this study was proved to be accurate and sensitive that it can be applied to the pharmacokinetic study of beagle dogs after oral administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plasma , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 491-497, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biological therapy and new drugs have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Ideally, the choice of medication should be a shared decision with the patient, aiming at greater satisfaction, compliance, and consequently, favorable clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate patient's preferences in the choice of their therapy and the factors that influence this choice. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 101 outpatients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and no previous exposure to biological therapy. Patients' preferences were assessed through questions that addressed the preferred mode of administration (oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous) and the factors that determined the choice of medication (efficacy, medical indication, fear of medication, convenience, mode of application, and personal doctors' indication). RESULTS: The mean age was 43.6±13.5 years, 75.3% were female, and 81.2% were cases of ulcerative colitis. Regarding the mode of administration, the majority of patients preferred oral (87.1%), followed by intravenous (6.93%) and subcutaneous (5.94%) medications. The reasons were "I prefer to take it at home" (42.57%), "I have more freedom" (36.63%), "I don't like self-application" (29.70%), and "I believe it works better" (19.80%). Younger patients and patients in clinical disease activity preferred intravenous mode compared to the oral route (P<0.05). Doctor's opinion (98%) was an important factor associated with the medication choice. CONCLUSION: Oral route was the preferred mode of administration and most patients took their physician's opinion into account in their choice of medication.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A terapia biológica e os novos medicamentos revolucionaram o tratamento da doença inflamatória intestinal. A escolha do medicamento deve ser compartilhada com o paciente, visando maior satisfação, adesão e, consequentemente, desfecho clínico favorável. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as preferências do paciente na escolha de sua terapia e os fatores que influenciaram essa escolha. MÉTODOS: Este estudo transversal incluiu 101 pacientes ambulatoriais com doença de Crohn ou retocolite ulcerativa. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade ≥18 anos e nenhuma exposição prévia à terapia biológica. A preferência dos pacientes foi avaliada por meio de perguntas que abordaram o modo de administração preferido (oral, subcutâneo ou intravenoso) e os fatores que determinaram a escolha do medicamento (eficácia, indicação médica, medo da injeção, conveniência, modo de aplicação e opinião pessoal do médico). RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 43,6±13,5 anos, 75,3% eram mulheres e 81,2% eram portadores de retocolite ulcerativa. Em relação ao modo de administração, a maioria dos pacientes preferiu os medicamentos orais (87,1%), seguidos dos endovenosos (6,93%) e subcutâneos (5,94%). Os motivos foram "prefiro aplicar em casa" (42,57%), "tenho mais liberdade com essa medicação" (36,63%), "não gosto de autoaplicação" (29,70%) e "acredito que funcione melhor" (19,80%). Pacientes jovens e pacientes em atividade clínica preferiram a via intravenosa em comparação com a via oral (P<0,05). A opinião do médico (98%) foi um fator importante associado à escolha do medicamento. CONCLUSÃO: A via oral foi preferida e a maioria dos pacientes levou em consideração a opinião do seu médico na escolha do medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Patient Satisfaction , Patient Preference , Injections, Subcutaneous/statistics & numerical data , Biological Therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.


RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 684-690, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El primer año de vida es un periodo de riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D (VD). La administración de 400 UI diarias de VD no tiene una adherencia del 100%, en cambio dosis únicas de 100.000 UI de VD oral son seguras en recién nacidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la suplementación oral de VD en dosis única de 100.000 UI al mes de edad vs dosis diarias de 400 UI sobre las concentraciones séricas de VD, a los 6 meses de vida. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, sin enmascaramiento. Se incluyeron 84 lactantes sanos de 1 mes de vida, asignados al azar al grupo de estudio (GE) que recibió una dosis única de VD de 100.000 UI oral o al grupo control (GC), que recibió dosis diarias de VD de 400 UI oral del 1er al 6to mes de vida. A los 6 meses de edad se determinó la concentración sérica de VD. RESULTADOS: 65 lactantes terminaron el estudio, 36 en GE y 29 en GC. No se encontró deficiencia de VD. La insuficiencia de VD fue de 5,5% y 6,8% en el GE y GC, respectivamente. La concentración sérica de VD a los 6 meses de vida, fue de 38,8 ± 5,2 ng/ml y 39,7 ± 6,3 ng/ml para GE y GC, respectivamente (NS). CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación con 100.000 UI de VD única al mes de edad logra concentraciones séricas de VD a los 6 meses de vida, similares a dosis diarias de 400 UI de VD, del 1er al 6to mes.


INTRODUCTION: Infants are a group at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. The administration of 400 IU of VD per day during the first year of life does not achieve 100% adherence. A single dose of 100,000 IU of oral VD is safe in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oral administration of VD between a single dose of 100,000 IU at one month of age vs daily doses of 400 IU on serum concentrations of VD, at 6 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Randomized clinical trial, without masking. 84 healthy infants were included at 1 month of age, randomized to the study group (SG) receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU or to the control group (CG), who received daily oral doses of VD of 400 IU from the 1st to the 6th month of life. At 6 months of life, the serum concentration of VD was determined. RESULTS: 65 infants completed the study, 36 in SG and 29 in CG. No VD deficiency was found. VD insufficient was 5.5% and 6.8% in the SG and CG, respectively. The serum concentration of VD at six months of age was 38.8 ± 5.2 ng/ml and 39.7 ± 6.3 ng/ml for the SG and CG, respectively (NS). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of 100,000 IU of VD at one month age achieves serum concentrations of VD at 6 months of life similar to the administration of daily doses of 400 IU of VD from the 1st to the 6th month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Biomarkers/blood , Nutritional Status , Administration, Oral , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1444-1454, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134461

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Over dose or long-term clinical use of therapeutic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) causes hepatotoxicity. Various strategies attempted to ameliorate APAP-hepatotoxicity have been found to be unsuitable for clinical practice. This study was aimed to illustrate the histopathological changes induced by therapeutic dose of APAP and investigate the hepatoprotective role of oral co-administration of selenium/ Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract concurrently against hepatotoxicity induced by APAP in rats. Fifty-four healthy male albino Wistar rats were randomized into nine groups (G1-G9) of six rats each, and administered with APAP and TT orally for 30 days as follows: Control (2ml normal saline), APAP (470 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + selenium (2 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + TT (98 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + selenium (2mg/kg) + TT (98 mg/kg), APAP (470 mg/kg) + silymarin (200 mg/kg), selenium (2 mg/ kg), TT (98 mg/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) groups. The results demonstrated that exposure of rats to therapeutic dose of APAP for 30 days caused significant histopathological changes parallel to elevated blood chemistry parameters. Co-administration of selenium/TT extract showed significantly reduced histopathological lesions and, restored or decreased levels of the examined blood chemistry parameters. Liver histology in selenium/TT extract showed normal hepatic architecture with mild changes and silymarin treated rats showed no histopathological changes. Histochemically PAS staining, showed that APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was characterized by hepatocytes glycogen depletion. Selenium/TT co-supplementation plays a potential role in preventing APAP-induced glycogen depletion by increasing detoxification and scavenging the reactive metabolites. Selenium/TT extract oral co-administration possesses a significant hepatoprotective property and mitigates APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing its antioxidant role and improving tissue integrity. Selenium/TT supplementation could represent an effective treatment against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism underlying the protective role of TT extract.


RESUMEN: La dosis excesiva o el uso clínico a largo plazo de dosis terapéuticas de acetaminofeno (APAP) causa hepatotoxicidad. Se ha descubierto que varias estrategias que intentaron mejorar la hepatotoxicidad por APAP no son adecuadas para la práctica clínica. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo ilustrar los cambios histopatológicos inducidos por la dosis terapéutica de APAP e investigar el papel hepatoprotector de la administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / Tribulus terrestris (TT) simultá- neamente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP en ratas. Cincuenta y cuatro ratas Wistar albino machos sanas se aleatorizaron en nueve grupos (G1 - G9) de seis ratas cada una, y se administraron con APAP y TT por vía oral durante 30 días de la siguiente manera: Control (2 ml de solución salina normal), APAP (470 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + selenio (2 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + TT (98 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + selenio (2 mg / kg) + TT (98 mg / kg), APAP (470 mg / kg) + silimarina (200 mg / kg), selenio (2 mg / kg), TT (98 mg / kg) y silimarina (200 mg / kg). Los resultados demostraron que la exposición de las ratas a la dosis terapéutica de APAP durante 30 días causó cambios histopatológicos significativos paralelos a parámetros elevados de química sanguínea. La administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / TT mostró lesiones histopatológicas significativamente reducidas y niveles restaurados o disminuidos de los parámetros de química sanguínea. La histología hepática en el extracto de selenio / TT mostró una arquitectura hepática normal con cambios leves y las ratas tratadas con silimarina no mostraron cambios histopatológicos. La tinción histoquímica de PAS mostró que la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP se caracterizó por la pérdida de glucógeno de los hepatocitos. La suplementación con selenio / TT juega un papel potencial en la prevención de la pérdida de glucógeno inducido por APAP al aumentar la desintoxicación y eliminar los metabolitos reactivos. La administración conjunta de extracto de selenio / TT posee una propiedad hepatoprotectora significativa y mitiga la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP al mejorar su papel antioxidante y la integridad del tejido. La suplementación con selenio / TT podría representar un tratamiento efectivo contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por APAP. Se necesitan más estudios para dilucidar el mecanismo exacto que subyace a la función protectora del extracto TT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Selenium/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Tribulus/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Glycogen , Liver/drug effects
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.4): 1-26, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287231

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tratamiento de un paciente anticoagulado con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK) sigue siendo un desafío, especialmente en regiones donde, por el costo, los dicumarínicos son todavía la alternativa más buscada a la hora de elegir un anticoagulante oral. Las clínicas de anticoagulación han demostrado ser la forma más eficiente y segura de evitar complicaciones trombóticas y hemorrágicas y de mantener al paciente en rango óptimo de tratamiento. Sin embargo, requieren de una adecuada infraestructura y personal capacitado para que funcionen eficientemente. En este consenso argentino se propone una serie de parámetros para la gestión efectiva de una clínica de anticoagulación. El objetivo es lograr una elevada calidad desde el punto de vista clínico-asistencial a través de un laboratorio de hemostasia de excelencia. Los criterios desarrollados en el documento fueron consensuados por un amplio grupo de expertos especialistas en hematología y en bioquímica de todo el país. Estos criterios deben adaptarse a la irregular disponibilidad de recursos de cada centro, pero siempre se los debe tener en cuenta a la hora de indicar el tratamiento anticoagulante con estas drogas. Tener en consideración estas premisas nos permitirá optimizar la atención del enfermo anticoagulado con AVK y de esta forma minimizar las intercurrencias trombóticas y hemorrágicas a las que está expuesto, para así honrar nuestra promesa de no dañar al paciente.


Abstract Treating an anticoagulated patient with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remains a challenge, especially in areas where dicoumarins are still the first drug of choice due to the cost of other oral anticoagulants. Anticoagulation clinics have proven to be the most efficient and safe way to avoid thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications and to keep patients in optimal treatment range. However, they require adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to work properly. In this Argentine consensus we propose a series of guidelines for the effective management of the anticoagulation clinics. The goal is to achieve the excellence in both the clinical healthcare and the hemostasis laboratory for the anticoagulated patient. The criteria developed in the document were agreed upon by a large group of expert specialists in hematology and biochemistry from all over the country. The criteria presented here must always be considered when indicating VKA although they had to be adapted to the unequal reality of each center. Taking these premises into consideration will allow us to optimize the management of the anticoagulated patient with VKA and thus minimize thrombotic and hemorrhagic intercurrences, in order to honor our promise not to harm the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , International Normalized Ratio , Consensus , Ambulatory Care Facilities/standards
15.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(3): 24-30, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1149672

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una de las premisas del Treat to Target (T2T) es la decisión conjunta del tratamiento entre el reumatólogo y el paciente. Por esta razón las preferencias del paciente juegan un rol fundamental en el éxito del tratamiento a corto y largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las preferencias de tratamiento de los pacientes con Espondiloartritis axial (EsPax) e identificar factores asociados a su elección. Material y métodos: Estudio de corte transversal de la cohorte ESPAXIA de pacientes ≥18 años de edad con EsPax (según criterios ASAS 2009). Se consignaron datos sociodemográficos, comorbilidades, características de la enfermedad, y tratamientos recibidos. Se administró un cuestionario especialmente diseñado, en modalidad de elección múltiple y/o respuesta categorizada según orden de importancia de los enunciados. Análisis estadístico: Estadística descriptiva. Test T de Student, test de Chi2 y análisis de regresión logística múltiple. Se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 70 pacientes con una edad mediana (m) de 46,5 años (RIC: 38-57) y un tiempo m de evolución de 13,5 años (RIC: 7,75-23,25). Los aspectos más importantes en la elección del tratamiento fueron: la capacidad de mejoría en la calidad de vida, seguido por mejoría en la inflamación articular, el dolor y la función física. Las vías de administración elegidas en orden decreciente de frecuencia fueron: vía oral (VO) 51,4%, subcutánea (SC) 41,4%, intramuscular (IM) 4,3% y endovenosa (EV) 2,9%. El intervalo entre dosis más votado en la VO fue 1 comprimido semanal (61,1%), y en la SC, 1 aplicación mensual (34,5%). La elección de la VO, se asoció con: preferencia por la autoaplicación, preferencia de aplicación en el hogar y mayor nivel de escolaridad. La elección de la vía SC, fue más frecuente en los pacientes con EA. Los pacientes que recibían tratamiento biológico por vía SC, así como aquellos que tenían la actividad de su enfermedad más controlada, tuvieron mayor conformidad con el tratamiento. Conclusión: La vía de administración de la medicación preferida en nuestra cohorte de pacientes con EsPax fue la oral. Los pacientes con mayor conformidad de tratamiento fueron aquellos que recibían el tratamiento biológico por vía SC y los que tenían menor actividad de la enfermedad.


Background: One of the premises of the Treat to Target (T2T) is the shared treatment decision between the rheumatologist and the patient. For this reason, patient preferences play a fundamental role in the success of treatment in the short and long term. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment preferences of patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and to identify the factors associated with their choice. Material and methods: Cross sectional study. Patients ≥18 years old that fulfilled the ASAS 2009 criteria for axSpA were included. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, disease characteristics, and treatments received were recorded. A specially designed questionnaire in both, multiple choice modality and response mode listed in order of priority of the statements was administered. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics. Student's T-test, Chi2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis. A value of p <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Seventy patients were included with a median age (m) of 46.5 years (IQR: 38-57), 55 males (78.6%) and a median disease duration of 13.5 years (IQR: 7.75-23.25). The relevant aspects for choosing a treatment were: the ability to improve the quality of life (32.9%), followed by improvement in joint inflammation (22.9%), pain (21.4%) and physical function (14.3%). The chosen administration routes in decreasing order of frequency were: oral (51.4%), subcutaneous (SC) (41.4%), intramuscular (IM) 4.3% and intravenous (IV) 2.9%. The preferred frequency of oral administration was one tablet per week (61.1%) and SC administration, once a month (34.5%). The choice of oral route was associated with: preference for self-administration, preference for receiving the medication at home and higher level of education. The choice of the SC route was independently associated with the type of axSpA (AS) and a lower educational level. The patients under biological SC treatment and with lower disease activity, showed higher level of treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: The most preferred way of administration by patients with axSpA was the oral route. Lower disease activity and SC biological treatment were associated with treatment greater compliance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spondylarthritis , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Administration, Oral
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.


Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 109-112, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088962

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the impact of ocular changes between systemic treatment with doxycycline and low-dose oral isotretinoin in patients with moderate-to-severe papulopustular rosacea. Methods: Patients were randomized to receive either isotretinoin 0.3-0.4 mg/kg (group A) or doxycycline 100 mg/day (group B) for 16 weeks. Ocular symptoms were searched and evaluated, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, breakup time, rose bengal staining score, and meibomian gland dysfunction grading. The patients were retested at the end of treatment. Results: The present study included 39 patients (30 females and 9 males). Best-corrected visual acuity was > 20/30 in >90% of patients in both groups and did not change after treatment. After treatment, improvement in ocular symptoms and meibomian gland dysfunction was more pronounced in group B (p<0.05); the other parameters did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Doxycycline improved meibomian gland dysfunction, ocular symptoms, and ocular surface in patients with rosacea. Even though some patients experienced worsening meibomian gland dysfunction and symptoms, no subject experienced any serious complications after administration of low-dose isotretinoin.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar o impacto das alterações oculares entre o tratamento sistêmico de doxiciclina e isotretinoína em baixa dosagem em pacientes com rosácea papulopustulosa moderada a grave. Métodos: Os pacientes form randomizados para receber isotretinoína 0,3 a 0,4 mg/kg (grupo A) ou doxiciclina 100mg/dia (grupo B) por 16 semanas. Os sintomas oculares foram pesquisados e avaliados, incluindo melhor acuidade visual corrigida, teste de Schirmer, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, coloração de rosa bengala e graduação da disfunção de glândula de Meibomius. Os pacientes foram novamente testados no final do tratamento. Resultados: O presente estudo incluiu 39 pacientes (30 mulheres e 9 homens). A melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi >20/30 em >90% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos e não se alterou após o tratamento. A melhora dos sintomas oculares e da disfunção de glândula de Meibomius foi mais pronunciada no grupo B (p<0,05) após o tratamento; as demais variáveis não atingiram significância estatística. Conclusão: A doxiciclina melhorou a disfunção de glândula de Meibomius, os sintomas oculares e a superfície ocular de pa cientes com rosácea. Mesmo que alguns pacientes tenham piorado a disfunção e os sintomas da glândula de Meibomius, nenhum indivíduo apresentou complicações graves após a admi nistração de baixas doses de isotretinoína.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Isotretinoin/administration & dosage , Doxycycline/administration & dosage , Rosacea/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Meibomian Gland Dysfunction/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Visual Acuity , Administration, Oral , Treatment Outcome , Rosacea/physiopathology , Eye/drug effects , Meibomian Gland Dysfunction/physiopathology , Meibomian Glands/drug effects
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 19-26, mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Anxiety in dental surgery may lead to behavioral and physiological changes for the patient and constitute a frequent challenge for the oral surgeon. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of inhalatory nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O/O2) with oral diazepam conscious sedation in vital signs of patients undergone third molar extraction. Outpatients who needed removal of partially impacted, bilateral lower third molars, during the period of one year, were included. Each patient underwent conscious sedation with either oral diazepam or inhalatory N2O/O2 on a randomized controlled trial, split-mouth design. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen blood saturation were the changes measured before, at the beginning and the end of the procedure. Also, surgical procedure duration was recorded. Data from vital signs were submitted to analysis of variance and the duration of the surgery to paired Student's t-test. Twenty-five healthy outpatients (13 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 21.6 years were studied. There was an increase in systolic and diastolic pressure and in heart rate in the beginning; these values decreased and stabilized at the end of the surgical procedure in both treatments (p < 0.001) being lower in N2O/O2 but without difference between treatments. The surgical procedure duration was lower and occurred an expected increase of oximetry under N2O/O2 sedation (p < 0.001). Both treatments were effective for the conscious sedation but N2O/O2 showed better outcomes, mainly in duration of the surgery.


RESUMEN: La ansiedad en la cirugía dentoalveolar puede conducir a alteraciones fisiológicas y de comportamiento en el paciente, constituyendo así un desafío frecuente para el cirujano maxilofacial. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto del óxido nitroso inhalatorio con oxígeno (N2O/O2) y la sedación consciente oral con diazepam por médio de los signos vitales de pacientes sometidos a la extracción del tercer molar. Fueron incluídos pacientes ambulatoriales com necesidad de exodoncia de terceros molares inferiores bilaterales, parcialmente impactados, durante el período de un año. Cada paciente fue sometido a sedación consciente con diazepam oral o N2O/O2 por inhalación en un ensayo controlado aleatorio, diseño de boca dividida. La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, la frecuencia cardíaca y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre fueron medidos antes, al inicio y al final del procedimiento. Además, se registró la duración del procedimiento quirúrgico. Los datos de los signos vitales fueron enviados para análisis de varianza y la duración de la cirugía para la prueba t de Student pareada. Se estudiaron 25 pacientes ambulatorios sanos (13 mujeres y 12 hombres) con una edad media de 21,6 años. Al início hubo un aumento en la presión sistólica y diastólica y en la frecuencia cardíaca; estos valores disminuyeron y se estabilizaron al final del procedimiento quirúrgico en ambos tratamientos (p <0,001), siendo más bajos en N2O/ O2 pero sin diferencia entre los tratamientos. La duración del procedimiento quirúrgico fue menor y se produjo un aumento esperado de la oximetría bajo sedación con N2O/O2 (p <0,001). Ambos tratamientos fueron efectivos para la sedación consciente, pero el N2O/O2 mostró mejores resultados, principalmente en la duración de la cirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tooth, Impacted/surgery , Conscious Sedation/methods , Diazepam/adverse effects , Molar, Third/surgery , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Oximetry/methods , Administration, Oral , Heart Rate , Nitrous Oxide/administration & dosage
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 65-76, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102867

ABSTRACT

Due to the biological activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, its incorporation in methacrylate polymeric (Eudragit E100) nanoparticles (NP), physical characterization, and antimicrobial essays were evaluated. The clove bears great potential for applications in dentistry. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and oil loaded NP using the nanoprecipitation method. Particle size and polydispersity index were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, and physical morphology by electron microscopy. Loading capacity and in vitro eugenol release were evaluated by gas mass chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of oil loaded-NP was calculated against Streptococcus mutans. Different chemical ingredients were characterized, and eugenol was the principal compound with 51.55%. Polymer content was directly related to NP homogenous size, which was around 150 nm with spherical morphology. A 73.2% loading capacity of eugenol was obtained. Oil loaded NP presented a fickian-type release mechanism of eugenol. Antimicrobial activity to 300 µg/mL was obtained after 24 h.


Debido a las actividades biológicas del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum, se evaluó su incorporación en nanopartículas (NP) de metacrilato polimérico (Eudragit E100), su caracterización y ensayos antimicrobianos. El clavo tiene un gran potencial para aplicaciones en odontología. El aceite se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y las NP cargado de aceite utilizando el método de nanoprecipitación. El tamaño de partícula y el índice de polidispersidad se determinaron mediante espectroscopia de correlación fotónica y su morfología por microscopía electrónica. La capacidad de carga y la liberación de eugenol in vitro se evaluaron mediante cromatografía de gases en masa, y la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Streptococcus mutans. Se caracterizaron diferentes ingredientes químicos, siendo el eugenol el principal compuesto con 51.55%. El contenido de polímero se relacionó directamente con el tamaño homogéneo de NP, que fue de alrededor de 150 nm con morfología esférica. Se obtuvo un 73,2% de capacidad de carga de eugenol. El aceite cargado en NP presentó un mecanismo de liberación de eugenol de tipo fickiano. La actividad antimicrobiana a 300 µg/mL se obtuvo después de 24 h.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Syzygium/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Delivery Systems , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18540, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285516

ABSTRACT

Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT) is an active S (+) enantiomer of ketoprofen, and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. DT has a short biological half-life and the dosing interval is quite short when there is a need to maintain the desirable effect for longer time periods. Consequently, a controlled release DT tablet was designed for oral administration aiming to minimize the number of doses and the possible side effects. Calculations of the parameters for controlled release DT tablets were shown clearly. Controlled release matrix-type tablet formulations were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (low and high viscosity), Eudragit RS and Carbopol, and the effects of different polymers on DT release from the tablet formulations were investigated. The dissolution rate profiles were compared and analyzed kinetically. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to predict drug release and a successful model was obtained. Subsequently, an optimum formulation was selected and evaluated in terms of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Although the developed controlled release tablets did not have an initial dose, they were found to be as effective as commercially available tablets on the market. Dissolution and in vivo studies have shown that the prepared tablets were able to release DT for longer time periods, making the tablets more effective, convenient and more tolerable.


Subject(s)
Tablets/analysis , Tromethamine/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Ketoprofen/agonists , Dosage/adverse effects , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics
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