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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): e226-e230, oct. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395843

ABSTRACT

Los hemangiomas infantiles (HI) son los tumores benignos más frecuentes de la infancia; la variante segmentaria es rara y se asocia con un mal pronóstico. Una de sus principales complicaciones es la ulceración durante la fase de crecimiento del tumor, a pesar de no presentar características macroscópicas compatibles con una lesión agresiva. El manejo en estos casos es dificultoso e impone la necesidad de asociar múltiples estrategias, algunas orientadas específicamente a impedir la proliferación del hemangioma y otras orientadas a la curación de la herida, el manejo del dolor y la prevención de la infección agregada. Presentamos dos casos a fin de comunicar nuestra experiencia respecto del manejo de dicha patología y su evolución final.


Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumors of childhood, and segmental ones are rare and associated with a poor prognosis. While these tumors look harmless, one of their main related complications is ulceration during tumor growth. The management in these cases is extremely challenging, requiring a combination of multiple approaches, some specifically aimed at preventing the proliferation of the hemangioma and others aimed at wound care, pain management, and prevention of further infection. Here we discuss two cases to narrate our experience on the management of this condition and its outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Ulcer/etiology , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Hemangioma/complications , Propranolol , Ulcer/etiology , Administration, Oral , Treatment Outcome , Hemangioma/drug therapy
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Acacia , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Administration, Oral , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/ultrastructure
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 88-94, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360110

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial é um problema de saúde pública associado com um risco cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. A análise de custos é importante para a introdução de novas terapias, e deve ser reconsiderada em situações especiais, tais como a pandemia do coronavírus em 2020. Objetivo: Avaliar os custos (em um período de um ano) relacionados à terapia anticoagulante e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrilação atrial tratados em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: Os custos do paciente foram aqueles relacionados à anticoagulação e calculados pela média de custos mensais da varfarina ou de anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs). As despesas não médicas, como alimentação e transporte, foram calculadas a partir de dados obtidos de questionários. O questionário brasileiro SF-6D foi usado para medir a qualidade de vida. Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A população do estudo consistiu em 90 pacientes, 45 em cada braço (varfarina vs. DOACs). Os custos foram 20% mais altos no grupo dos DOACs (US$55 532,62 vs. US$46 385,88), e principalmente relacionados ao preço dos medicamentos (US$23 497,16 vs. US$1903,27). Os custos hospitalares foram mais altos no grupo da varfarina (US$31 088,41 vs $24 604,74), e relacionados às visitas ao ambulatório. Ainda, as despesas não médicas foram duas vezes maiores no grupo varfarina ($13 394,20 vs $7 430,72). A equivalência de preço entre os dois medicamentos seria alcançada por uma redução de 39% no preço dos DOACs. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto à qualidade de vida. Conclusões: Os custos totais foram mais altos no grupo de pacientes tratados com DOACs que no grupo da varfarina. No entanto, uma redução de cerca de 40% no preço dos DOACs tornaria viável a incorporação desses medicamentos no sistema de saúde público brasileiro.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation is a public health problem associated with a fivefold increased risk of stroke or death. Analyzing costs is important when introducing new therapies and must be reconsidered in special situations, such as the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to anticoagulant therapy in a one-year period, and the quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients treated in a public university hospital. Methods: Patient costs were those related to the anticoagulation and calculated by the average monthly costs of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Patient non-medical costs (eg., food and transportation) were calculated from data obtained by questionnaires. The Brazilian SF-6D was used to measure the quality of life. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study population consisted of 90 patients, 45 in each arm (warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants). Costs were 20% higher in the DOAC group ($55,532.62 vs $46,385.88), and mainly related to drug price ($23,497.16 vs $1,903.27). Hospital costs were higher in the warfarin group ($31,088.41 vs $24,604.74) and related to outpatient visits. Additionally, non-medical costs were almost twice higher in the warfarin group ($13,394.20 vs $7,430.72). Equivalence of price between the two drugs could be achieved by a 39% reduction in the price of DOACs. There were no significant group differences regarding quality of life. Conclusions: Total costs were higher in the group of patients taking DOACs than those taking warfarin. However, a nearly 40% reduction in the price of DOACs could make it feasible to incorporate these drugs into the Brazilian public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants
5.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e55845, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366721

ABSTRACT

The effects of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis (Ip)and the flavonoid quercetin were tested during the induction of in vivomyocardial ischemia/ reperfusion in Rattus norvegicus. The antioxidant power of the extract and quercetin were chemically determined. The experimental groups were: control, ischemia/reperfusion induction, Iporal treatment, Iporal treatment and ischemia /reperfusion, quercetin oral treatment, and quercetin oral treatment and ischemia/reperfusion. Rats were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and xylazine via intraperitoneal injection and subsequently underwent 15 minutes of ischemia followed by 15 minutes of reperfusion. Ischemia was promoted by tying the left anterior descending coronary artery. Areas of risk and infarction were stained by intravenous Evans blue and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant capacity against peroxylradicals, and lipid peroxidation of the myocardium were quantified. A significant reduction in areas of risk and infarction was detected in the ischemic myocardium treated with Ipand quercetin; ROS generation and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced, and the antioxidant capacity was elevated. Oral administration of Ippromoted antioxidant benefits in the myocardium during ischemia and reperfusion, which reduced infarction. We suggest that Mate (a hot drink made from steeped dried leaves of Ip) consumption is a potential cardioprotective habit of indigenous people from southern South American countries, which must be better understood scientifically and ethnographically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Flavonoids , Ilex paraguariensis/adverse effects , Ischemia/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Quercetin/analysis , Rats , Reperfusion , Administration, Oral , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Teas, Medicinal/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1404-1414, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405270

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In Saudi Arabia, it is widely believed that women with reproductive problems can use the extract of the sage plant as a tea drink. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of this herb on the fertility of female rats and embryo implantation. Forty-eight Wistar virgin female rats were divided into four groups at random, with 12 rats in each group. The control group received distilled water orally. The three treatment groups received different concentrations of sage extract: 15, 60, or 100 mg/kg for 14 days before mating, then mated with a male and sacrificed on the 7th day of gestation, the uterine horns removed, and photographed. The total body weight of mothers, weight of uteri and ovaries and number of fetuses were determined. Ovarian and uteri tissues were cut into 5 µ sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Serum FSH, LH were determined by the ELISA method. The present study showed that low dose of sage (15 mg/kg) have no effects on serum concentration levels of FSH and LH hormones, also has no effect on the number of growing follicles. The present study showed a significant differences (P≤0.05) in body weight, ovary and uterus weight in the groups treated with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. Also a significant differences (P≤0.05) found in FSH, LH hormones. Histological study showed overall histomorphological structural configurations including growing and matured graafian follicular countable changes, besides a number of corpora lutea and regressed follicles in the treated groups with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. The researchers concluded that the extract of the sage plant with high doses can stimulate the growth graafian follicles and improve fertility in female rats.


RESUMEN: En Arabia Saudita, se cree ampliamente que las mujeres con problemas reproductivos pueden usar el extracto de la planta de salvia como bebida de té. Este estudio se realizó para investigar los efectos de esta hierba sobre la fertilidad de las ratas hembra y la implantación del embrión. Se dividieron cuarenta y ocho ratas hembra vírgenes Wistar en cuatro grupos al azar, con 12 ratas en cada grupo. El grupo control recibió agua destilada por vía oral. Los tres grupos de tratamiento recibieron diferentes concentraciones de extracto de salvia: 15, 60 o 100 mg/kg durante 14 días antes del apareamiento, luego se aparearon con un macho y se sacrificaron el día 7 de gestación, se extrajeron los cuernos uterinos y se fotografiaron. Se determinó el peso corporal total de las madres, el peso del útero y los ovarios y el número de fetos. Los tejidos ováricos y uterinos se cortaron en secciones de 5 µ y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina. FSH sérica, LH se determinaron por el método ELISA. El presente estudio mostró que dosis bajas de salvia (15 mg/kg) no tienen efectos sobre los niveles de concentración sérica de las hormonas FSH y LH, tampoco tienen efecto sobre el número de folículos en crecimiento. El presente estudio mostró diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en el peso corporal, peso de ovario y útero en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo control. También se encontraron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en las hormonas FSH, LH. El estudio histológico mostró configuraciones estructurales histomorfológicas generales que incluyen cambios contables en los folículos maduros (de Graaf) y en crecimiento, además de una cantidad de cuerpos lúteos y folículos en regresión en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo de control. Los investigadores concluyeron que el extracto de la planta de salvia en altas dosis puede estimular el crecimiento de los folículos maduros y mejorar la fertilidad en ratas hembra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Embryo Implantation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Salvia officinalis/chemistry , Fertility/drug effects , Body Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Luteinizing Hormone/analysis , Administration, Oral , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/analysis
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18524, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364432

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have demonstrated that Radix Astragali can inhibit gastric ulcers in mice. Anhydrous ethanol (0.01 mL/g) administered to mice by intragastric infusion can induce gastric ulcer injury. This study was performed to compare the stomach tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive constituents of Radix Astragali(calycosin-7-O-ß-d-glucoside, calycosin, ononin and formononetin) after oral administration of extract of Radix Astragali (ERA)in normal and gastric ulcer mice. The abundance of Radix Astragali constituents was determined using an ultra-pressure liquid chromatograph with a photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA), after which histograms were drawn. In comparison with normal mice, the contents of calycosin- 7-O-ß-d-glucoside, calycosin, ononin and formononetin in the stomach tissue samples of gastric ulcer mice showed significant differences at the selected time points (P < 0.05).The abundance of each of the four tested constituents in the normal groups was higher than that of the gastric ulcer groups. This study provides an empirical foundation for future studies focused on developing clinical applications of Radix Astragali


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach Ulcer/pathology , Tissues/drug effects , Tissue Distribution , Astragalus Plant/adverse effects , Plants, Medicinal , Administration, Oral
8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210246, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360442

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever as necessidades de aprendizagem de familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer quanto ao tratamento com quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método pesquisa qualitativa descritiva desenvolvida em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de julho a setembro de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer em quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Os dados foram processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires pela Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados dentre os temas que demandam aprendizagem pelos familiares estão administração oral, armazenamento e manipulação dos quimioterápicos orais, além dos efeitos adversos e emergências que demandam atendimento hospitalar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática no tratamento com quimioterápicos orais, as necessidades de aprendizagem dos familiares de crianças e adolescentes precisam ser problematizadas em práticas educativas dialógicas para, assim, favorecer a segurança, a adesão e a eficácia do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo describir las necesidades de aprendizaje de familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en cuanto al tratamiento con quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método investigación cualitativa descriptiva desarrollada en un hospital federal de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en los meses de julio a septiembre de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Los datos fueron procesados en el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires por la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados entre los temas que demandan aprendizaje por los familiares están administración oral, almacenamiento y manipulación de los quimioterápicos orales, además de los efectos adversos y emergencias que demandan atención hospitalaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica en el tratamiento con quimioterápicos orales, las necesidades de aprendizaje de los familiares de niños y adolescentes necesitan ser problematizadas en prácticas educativas dialógicas para, así, favorecer la seguridad, la adhesión y la eficacia del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents with cancer regarding treatment with oral antineoplastic chemotherapies. Method a descriptive qualitative research developed in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in the months from July to September 2020 from semi-structured interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents with cancer undergoing oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Data was processed in the software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results among the themes that demand learning by the family members are oral administration, storage and handling of oral antineoplastic drugs, as well as adverse effects and emergencies that require hospital care. Conclusion and implications for practice in oral antineoplastic treatment, the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents need to be problematized in dialogic educational practices in order to favor the safety, adherence, and efficacy of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Education , Caregivers/education , Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child Care , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Qualitative Research , Drug Storage , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191024, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394036

ABSTRACT

Abstract Posaconazole exerts an extended spectrum of antifungal activity against various strains of clinically relevant moulds and yeasts. In recent years, antifungal triazole posaconazole has become increasingly important for the prophylaxis and treatment of systemic mycoses. After oral administration of posaconazole, absolute bioavailability has been estimated to range from 8% to 47%. Pharmaceutical co-crystallization is a promising approach for improving dissolution rate or manipulating other physical properties of API. The objective of this study is to improve the dissolution rate of posaconazole by co-crystallization. A 1:1 stoichiometric co-crystals of adipic acid were prepared by solvent assisted grinding method. The prepared co-crystals were subjected to solid-state characterization by FTIR, PXRD and DSC studies. The physicochemical properties of posaconazole and co-crystals were assessed in terms of melting point, flowability and dissolution rate. The results indicated improvement in flow property and dissolution rate. In vitro dissolution profile of co-crystals showed a significant increased dissolution of posaconazole from initial period in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The dissolution efficiency for posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystal was 61.65 % against posaconazole, 46.58 %. Thus, co-crystallization can be a promising approach to prepare posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystals with improved physicochemical properties.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Crystallization/instrumentation , Hydrochloric Acid , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Yeasts/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Biological Availability , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Efficiency , Dissolution , Mycoses/pathology
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19859, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383996

ABSTRACT

To overcome the problems associated with bioavailability and systemic side effects of the drug by oral administration, monolithic matrix type transdermal patches containing cinnarizine (CNZ) were developed. For this purpose, films based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone as matrix-forming polymers were designed. Physical characteristics of transdermal films and drug-excipient compatibility were investigated. Factors affecting in vitro drug release and ex vivo skin penetration and permeation of the drug were studied. It was confirmed that films displayed sufficient flexibility and mechanical strength for application onto the skin for a long time period. Ex vivo penetration experiments gave satisfactory results for transdermal drug delivery through rat skin. The parameters determining good skin penetration were also evaluated. The highest drug permeation rate was obtained with incorporation of Transcutol® (0.102 mg/cm2/h) into the base CNZ formulation, followed by propylene glycol (0.063 mg/cm2/h), menthol (0.045 mg/cm2/h), and glycerin (0.021 mg/cm2/h) as penetration enhancers (p < 0.05). As a result, the developed transdermal patches of CNZ may introduce an alternative treatment for various conditions and diseases such as idiopathic urticarial vasculitis, Ménière's disease, motion sickness, nausea, and vertigo. Thus, the risk of systemic side effects caused by the drug can be reduced or eliminated


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Cinnarizine , Histamine Agonists/adverse effects , Cholinergic Antagonists , Anesthetics/classification , Skin , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hypromellose Derivatives/adverse effects , Drug Liberation
11.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE039000934, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374008

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o impacto de um programa de melhoria da qualidade relacionado aos indicadores de frequência de sondas nasoenterais obstruídas, do tempo despendido pela equipe de enfermagem no preparo e na administração de medicamentos orais por essa via, e dos custos associados ao incidente. Método Estudo de intervenção voltado para a comparação pré (Fase I) e pós (Fase II) implementação de um Programa Melhoria da Qualidade, proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Foram observadas 92 doses de medicamentos na Fase I e 66 doses na Fase II. Foram necessários quatro ciclos Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) para atingir a meta proposta para o programa de melhoria. Resultados Houve redução no tempo médio gasto pelo profissional no preparo e na administração de medicamentos sólidos via sonda nasoenteral em ambas as fases. As frequências de sondas obstruídas reduziram de 33,3% (Fase I) para 7,4% (Fase II) e nenhuma sonda apresentou-se obstruída durante os ciclos 1, 2 e 4. O custo médio da obstrução por paciente foi de R$ 1.251,05 ao mês na Fase I e de R$ 23,31 na Fase II. Após as mudanças testadas, foi verificada economia de tempo para a equipe de enfermagem e de custo para a instituição. Conclusão Os ciclos PDSA foram eficazes na redução de não conformidades no preparo e na administração de medicamentos via sonda nasoenteral. Tal melhoria impactou a frequência de obstrução, os custos relacionados e o tempo médio gasto pelo profissional de enfermagem durante o preparo e a administração das doses.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el impacto de un programa de mejora de la calidad relacionado con los indicadores de frecuencia de sondas nasoenterales obstruidas, del tempo invertido por el equipo de enfermería en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos orales por esa vía y de los costos asociados con el incidente. Métodos Estudio de intervención direccionado para la comparación previa (Fase I) y posterior (Fase II) a la implementación de un Programa Mejora de la Calidad, propuesto por el Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Se observaron 92 dosis de medicamentos en la Fase I y 66 dosis en la Fase II. Se necesitaron cuatro ciclos Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) para alcanzar la meta propuesta para el programa de mejora. Resultados Hubo reducción del tiempo promedio consumido por el profesional en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos sólidos por sonda nasoenteral en ambas fases. La frecuencia de la obstrucción de las sondas se redujo del 33,3 % (Fase I) para el 7,4 % (Fase II) y ninguna sonda presentó obstrucción durante los ciclos 1, 2 y 4. El costo promedio de la obstrucción por paciente fue de R$ 1.251,05 al mes en la Fase I y de R$ 23,31 en la Fase II. Después de someter a pruebas los cambios, se verificó un ahorro de tiempo para el equipo de enfermería y de costo para la institución. Conclusión Los ciclos PDSA fueron eficaces en la reducción de no conformidades en la preparación y en la administración de medicamentos por sonda nasoenteral. Esa mejora impactó la frecuencia de obstrucción, los costos relacionados y el tiempo promedio consumido por el profesional de enfermería durante la preparación y la administración de las dosis.


Abstract Objective Evaluate the impact of a quality improvement program related to the frequency indicators of obstructed nasogastric tubes, the time the nursing team spent on oral medication preparation and administration through this route, and the costs associated with the incident. Method Intervention study aimed at comparing pre (Phase I) and post (Phase II) implementation of a Quality Improvement Program, proposed by Institute for Healthcare Improvement . Ninety-two medication doses were observed in Phase I and 66 doses in Phase II. Four Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were needed to achieve the proposed target for the improvement program. Results The average time the professional spent on solid medication preparation and administration through nasogastric tube decreased in both phases. Frequencies of obstructed tubes dropped from 33.3% (Phase I) to 7.4% (Phase II) and no probe was obstructed during cycles 1, 2, and 4. The average cost of the obstruction per patient was R$ 1,251.05 per month in Phase I and R$ 23.31 in Phase II. After testing the changes, time savings for the nursing team and cost savings for the institution were verified. Conclusion The PDSA cycles were effective in reducing non-conformities in medication preparation and administration via nasogastric tube. This improvement influenced the obstruction frequency, related costs, and the average time the nursing professional spent on the preparation and administration of the medication doses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intranasal , Quality Improvement , Patient Safety , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Stents , Intervention Studies , Administration, Oral
12.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 31: e20210414, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1377402

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate a mobile application for the guidance of family members of children and adolescents undergoing treatment with oral antineoplastic drugs. Method: this is methodological research developed in seven steps: search for themes through interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents undergoing oral chemotherapy; theoretical study; mobile application development; validation with thirteen expert judges; adequacy; validation with twelve family members of children and adolescents undergoing oral chemotherapy and mobile application final adaptation. The interviews were analyzed using the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires software and validated with a Likert-type scale, considering validated items with a Concordance Index equal to or greater than 70%. Results: the application "Quimio em Casa" was returned with two interfaces, a desktop version aimed at health professionals and the application for family members of children and adolescents undergoing treatment with oral chemotherapy. The contents that guided the application development were storage, handling, administration, specific care for each chemotherapy agent, adverse effects, when to go to the emergency room and daily checking of administrations. The application was designed and validated with an adequacy Concordance Index of 96.7% among judges, and 100% by family members. Conclusion: the application proved to be valid as an educational technology in practical application with family members of children and adolescents undergoing oral chemotherapy.


RESUMEN Objetivo: desarrollar y validar una aplicación móvil para la orientación de familiares de niños y adolescentes en tratamiento con antineoplásicos orales. Método: investigación metodológica desarrollada en siete etapas: búsqueda de temas a través de entrevistas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes en quimioterapia oral; estudio teórico; desarrollo de aplicaciones móviles; validación con trece jueces expertos; adecuación; validación con doce familiares de niños y adolescentes en quimioterapia oral y adaptación final de la aplicación móvil. Las entrevistas fueron analizadas mediante el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires y validadas con la escala de Likert, considerando ítems con Índice de Concordancia igual o superior al 70% validados. Resultados: se devolvió la aplicación "Quimio em Casa" con dos interfaces, una versión de escritorio dirigida a profesionales de la salud y la aplicación para familiares de niños y adolescentes en tratamiento con quimioterapia oral. Los contenidos que orientaron el desarrollo de la aplicación fueron: almacenamiento; manipulación; administración; el cuidado específico de cada agente de quimioterapia; efectos adversos; cuándo acudir a urgencias y controles diarios de administración. La aplicación fue diseñada y validada con un Índice de Concordancia de Adecuación del 96,7% entre los jueces y del 100% por parte de los familiares. Conclusión: la aplicación demostró ser válida como tecnología educativa en aplicación práctica con familiares de niños y adolescentes en quimioterapia oral.


RESUMO Objetivo: elaborar e validar um aplicativo móvel para a orientação de familiares de crianças e adolescentes em tratamento com antineoplásicos orais. Método: pesquisa metodológica desenvolvida em sete etapas: busca dos temas por meio de entrevistas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes em quimioterapia oral; estudo teórico; desenvolvimento do aplicativo móvel; validação com treze juízes especialistas; adequação; validação com doze familiares de crianças e adolescentes em quimioterapia oral e adequação final do aplicativo móvel. As entrevistas foram analisadas pelo software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires e validadas com a escala Likert, considerando-se validados itens com Índice de Concordância igual ou maior a 70%. Resultados: o aplicativo "Quimio em Casa" foi devolvido com duas interfaces, uma versão desktop voltada para os profissionais de saúde e o aplicativo para os familiares de crianças e adolescentes em tratamento com quimioterápicos orais. Os conteúdos que direcionaram a elaboração do aplicativo foram: armazenamento; manipulação; administração; os cuidados específicos de cada quimioterápico; efeitos adversos; quando ir à emergência e checagem diária das administrações. O aplicativo foi elaborado e validado com Índice de Concordância de adequação de 96,7% entre os juízes, e de 100% pelos familiares. Conclusão: o aplicativo mostrou-se válido como tecnologia educacional na aplicação prática junto aos familiares de crianças e adolescentes em quimioterapia oral.


Subject(s)
Educational Technology , Validation Study , Mobile Applications , Oncology Nursing , Administration, Oral , Antineoplastic Agents
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935798

ABSTRACT

Hexazinone is a post-emergence herbicide/arboricides, and its acute poisoning has rarely been reported. Hexazinone is low-toxic to humans, but mass intake of hexazinone would still lead to organ impairment. This article analyzes a case of acute hexazinone poisoning from the poisoning treatment center of our hospital, and summarizes the symptoms and treatment effects of hexazinone poisoning, which is aimed at improving the comprehension, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Herbicides , Humans , Poisoning , Triazines
14.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 62-67, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935104

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. The data of this study were based on the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry (CAFR) Study, which was a prospective, multicenter registry study. The CAFR Study enrolled inpatients and outpatients with AF from 31 hospitals. Patients with AF and HCM were selected from August 2011 to December 2018. The patients were divided into NOAC-treated group and warfarin-treated group. General clinical data, echocardiographic results and treatment options were collected and compared between the two groups. Patients were followed up every 6 months; outcome events included effective endpoint events(thromboembolism)and safety endpoint events(major bleeding). The incidence of endpoint events in both groups was calculated and compared. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed to determine the association between NOAC use and endpoint events. Results: A total of 393 patients were included (average age: (60.5±11.8) years, 252 men (64.1%)). There were 133 (34.0%) patients in the NOAC-treated group and 260 (66.0%) patients in the warfarin-treated group. Compared with the warfarin-treated group, the patients in the NOAC-treated group had a higher proportion of paroxysmal AF, catheter ablation of AF, a lower proportion of hypertension, ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), lower heart rate, lower usage rate of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors(ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB), β-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers(NDH-CCB)(P<0.05). There were no significant differences on the echocardiographic results, including interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left atrial diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction(P>0.05). After a follow-up of 42 (24, 60)months, the incidence rates of thromboembolism were 1.63 and 2.10 events per 100 person-years for NOAC-and warfarin-treated group, and those of major bleeding were 0.66 and 1.03 events per 100 person-years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed survival rates free from endpoint events were similar between NOAC-treated group and warfarin-treated group(thromboembolism-free survival comparison, P=0.476; major bleeding-free survival comparison, P=0.855). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that there was no significant difference on risk of thromboembolism(HR=1.21, 95%CI: 0.42-3.50, P=0.720) and major bleeding(HR=1.50, 95%CI: 0.27-8.41, P=0.642) between NOAC-treated and warfarin-treated group. Conclusion: Patients with AF and HCM can be safely and effectively treated with NOAC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages of adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder in the treatment of children with outlet obstruction constipation (OOC).@*METHODS@#A total of 168 children with OOC were enrolled in this prospective study. All the subjects were randomly divided into a test group and a control group based on the order of visiting time, 84 in each group. The test group was treated with adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder, and the control group was treated with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder alone. Eleven children in the test group and two children in the control group withdrew from the study since they could not finish the whole treatment course. Finally, 73 children in the test group and 82 children in the control group were included in this analysis. As clinical outcomes, the total score of clinical symptoms and overall response rate were compared between the two groups at weeks 4 and 8 of treatment.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the total score of clinical symptoms between the two groups at beginning of treatment and at week 4 (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly lower total score of clinical symptoms than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05). At week 4, there was no significant difference in overall response rate between the two groups (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder is significantly associated with improvement of clinical outcomes in the treatment of children with OOC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biofeedback, Psychology , Child , Constipation/drug therapy , Electrolytes/therapeutic use , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927977

ABSTRACT

Taste is an important factor affecting the medicinal properties of oral preparations and patient compliance with medication, and also an important evaluation index for oral preparation design and clinical application. How to characterize the taste objectively, accurately, simply, and efficiently is a bottleneck problem that restricts the taste design, development, and utilization of oral preparations. At present, the commonly used taste assessment methods for oral preparations are traditional human taste panel, electronic tongue, animal preference test, in vitro release study, and electrophysiological test. The traditional human taste panel is the first choice for taste evaluation, but it is limited by poor subjectivity and reproducibility. Therefore, despite some limitations, the other four taste assessment methods have been applied in the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary methods. This study reviewed the detection principles, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of the above methods to provide references for the taste correction research and taste assessment of oral preparations, improve patient compliance and the competitiveness of oral preparation products in the industry, and promote the development of oral preparation technologies.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Electronic Nose , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Taste
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 188-200, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927594

ABSTRACT

Atrial Ca2+ handling abnormalities, mainly involving the dysfunction of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Previously, we found that the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) are upregulated in a sterile pericarditis (SP) rat model of AF, and oral administration of TRPV4 inhibitor GSK2193874 alleviates AF in this animal model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral administration of GSK2193874 could alleviate atrial Ca2+ handling abnormalities in SP rats. A SP rat model of AF was established by daubing sterile talcum powder on both atria of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after a pericardiotomy, to simulate the pathogenesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). On the 3rd postoperative day, Ca2+ signals of atria were collected in isolated perfused hearts by optical mapping. Ca2+ transient duration (CaD), alternan, and the recovery properties of Ca2+ transient (CaT) were quantified and analyzed. GSK2193874 treatment reversed the abnormal prolongation of time to peak (determined mainly by RyR activity) and CaD (determined mainly by SERCA activity), as well as the regional heterogeneity of CaD in SP rats. Furthermore, GSK2193874 treatment relieved alternan in SP rats, and reduced its incidence of discordant alternan (DIS-ALT). More importantly, GSK2193874 treatment prevented the reduction of the S2/S1 CaT ratio (determined mainly by RyR refractoriness) in SP rats, and decreased its regional heterogeneity. Taken together, oral administration of TRPV4 inhibitor alleviates Ca2+ handling abnormalities in SP rats primarily by blocking the TRPV4-Ca2+-RyR pathway, and thus exerts therapeutic effect on POAF.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Calcium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Pericarditis/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/pharmacology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/pathology , TRPV Cation Channels
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19178, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384006

ABSTRACT

In this study, a dichloromethane fraction dry extract from the underground parts of Jatropha isabellei (DFJi) was used to prepare lipid nanocarriers (LNCJi) aimed at providing the oral delivery of terpenic compounds in the treatment of arthritis. The lipid nanocarriers were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The lipid nanocarriers displayed sizes ranging from 180 to 200 nm and zeta potential values of around -18 mV. A high value of entrapment efficiency (> 90%) was obtained for jatrophone, which was used as the chemical marker of DFJi. LNCJi stored at 4°C were demonstrated to be stable through measurements of transmitted light after analytical centrifugation of the samples. In vitro drug release studies conducted in biorelevant dissolution media demonstrated that jatrophone release was faster from LNCJi than from free DFJi. When tested in an acute arthritis model, the LNCJi exhibited antinociceptive properties after oral administration of a 50 mg/kg dose, unlike the free DFJi, although no reduction in articular diameter was observed. These results suggest that an increase in the oral absorption of DFJi constituents may have occurred through the carrying of this fraction in LNCJi, thus improving the antinociceptive activity of this compound


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Administration, Oral , Jatropha/adverse effects , Efficiency/classification , Dissolution , Drug Liberation , Lipids/pharmacology , Methylene Chloride/pharmacology
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(8): 412-417, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358664

ABSTRACT

El dolor lumbar bajo y el dolor cervical con o sin irradiación son causas muy comunes de consulta a los médicos generalistas en los países desarrollados. La discopatía aguda y el dolor por estenosis del canal espinal son los diagnósticos más frecuentes. La postura tradicional ha sido la de administrar antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) para estas lumbalgias o cervicalgias agudas. Cuando existe irradiación neural por compresión radicular es usual asociar al AINE un corticoide a baja dosis, así como un antineurítico, para lograr un mejor resultado. Con el objeto de documentar la utilidad de esta práctica habitual, efectuamos en 142 pacientes ambulatorios un estudio multicéntrico randomizado que compara la efectividad y la tolerancia de una asociación a dosis fija de diclofenac, betametasona y cianocobalamina administrada por vía oral versus la administración de diclofenac como monofármaco en el tratamiento de la patología dolorosa de la columna lumbar y cervical asociada a compresión neural. La asociación demostró ser más eficaz en controlar el dolor y mejorar la funcionalidad de los pacientes que la administración de diclofenac en forma aislada y se asoció a escasos efectos colaterales, principalmente digestivos


Low back pain and neck pain with or without radiation are very common causes of consultation with general practitioners in developed countries. Acute discopathy and pain due to spinal canal stenosis are the most frequent diagnoses. The traditional approach has been to administer non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for these acute low back or cervical pain. When there is neural radiation due to root compression, it is usual to associate a low-dose corticosteroid with the NSAID, as well as an antineuritic, to achieve a better result. In order to document the usefulness of this routine practice, we conducted a randomized multicenter study in 142 outpatients that compared the effectiveness and tolerance of a fixed-dose combination of diclofenac, betamethasone, and cyanocobalamin administered orally versus the administration of diclofenac as Monopharmaceutical in the treatment of painful pathology of the lumbar and cervical spine associated with neural compression. The association proved to be more effective in controlling pain and improving the functionality of patients than the administration of diclofenac in isolation and was associated with few side effects, mainly digestive


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cats , Spinal Stenosis/therapy , Vitamin B 12/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Treatment Outcome , Low Back Pain/drug therapy , Neck Pain/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Evaluation
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