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Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 253-261, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285318


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Caustic ingestion and development of esophageal strictures are recognized major public health problems in childhood. Different therapeutic methods have been proposed in the management of such strictures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and risk of endoscopic topical application of mitomycin C in the treatment of caustic esophageal strictures. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Central Cochrane, and LILACS databases. The outcomes evaluated were dysphagia resolution rate, number of dilations performed in resolved cases, and the number of dilations performed in all patients. RESULTS: Three randomized clinical trials were included for final analysis with a total of 190 patients. Topical mitomycin C application group showed a significant increase in dysphagia resolution rate, corresponding to a 42% higher dysphagia resolution as compared to endoscopic dilation alone, with statistical significance between the two groups (RD: 0.42 - [CI: 0.29-0.56]; P-value <0.00001). The mean number of dilations performed in resolved cases were significantly less in the topical mitomycin C application group, compared to endoscopic dilations alone, with statistical significance between the two groups (MD: 2.84 [CI: 1.98-3.69]; P-value <0.00001). When comparing the number of dilations in all patients, there was no statistical difference between the two groups (MD: 1.46 [CI: -1.53-4.44]; P-value =0.34). CONCLUSION: Application of topical mitomycin C with endoscopic dilations in caustic esophageal strictures was more effective in dysphagia resolution than endoscopic therapy alone in the pediatric population. Moreover, topical mitomycin C application also reduced the number of dilation sessions needed to alleviate dysphagia without rising morbidity.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A ingestão de soda cáustica e o desenvolvimento de estenoses esofágicas são reconhecidos como importantes problemas de saúde pública na infância. Diferentes métodos terapêuticos têm sido propostos no manejo dessas estenoses. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e o risco da aplicação endoscópica tópica de mitomicina C no tratamento de estenoses esofágicas cáusticas. MÉTODOS: Buscamos as bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, Central Cochrane e LILACS. Os desfechos avaliados foram taxa de resolução da disfagia, número de dilatações realizadas nos casos resolvidos e número de dilatações realizadas em todos os pacientes. RESULTADOS: Três ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos para análise final com um total de 190 pacientes. O grupo de aplicação de mitomicina C tópica apresentou aumento significativo na taxa de resolução da disfagia, correspondendo a uma resolução da disfagia 42% maior em comparação à dilatação endoscópica isolada, com significância estatística entre os dois grupos (RD: 0,42 - [IC: 0,29-0,56]; P-valor <0,00001). O número médio de dilatações realizadas em casos resolvidos foi significativamente menor no grupo de aplicação tópica de mitomicina C, em comparação com as dilatações endoscópicas isoladas, com significância estatística entre os dois grupos (MD: 2,84 [IC: 1,98-3,69]; P-valor <0,00001). Ao comparar o número de dilatações em todos os pacientes, não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos (MD: 1,46 [IC: -1,53-4,44]; valor de P=0,34). CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação de mitomicina C tópica com dilatações endoscópicas em estenoses esofágicas cáusticas foi mais eficaz na resolução da disfagia do que a terapia endoscópica isolada na população pediátrica. Além disso, a aplicação tópica de mitomicina C também reduziu o número de sessões de dilatação necessárias para aliviar a disfagia sem aumentar a morbidade.

Humans , Child , Caustics/toxicity , Esophageal Stenosis/chemically induced , Esophageal Stenosis/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Administration, Topical , Esophagoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Mitomycin/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 414-416, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288554


Abstract The diagnosis of genital ulcers remains a challenge in clinical practice. Lipschütz ulcer is a non-sexually transmitted rare and, probably, underdiagnosed condition, characterized by the sudden onset of vulvar edema along with painful necrotic ulcerations. Despite its unknown incidence, this seems to be an uncommon entity, with sparse cases reported in the literature. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented at the emergency department with vulvar ulcers. She denied any sexual intercourse. The investigation excluded sexually transmitted infections, so, knowledge of different etiologies of non-venereal ulcers became essential. The differential diagnoses are extensive and include inflammatory processes, drug reactions, trauma, and malignant tumors. Lipschütz ulcer is a diagnosis of exclusion. With the presentation of this case report, the authors aim to describe the etiology, clinical course, and outcomes of this rare disease, to allow differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.

Humans , Female , Child , Ulcer/diagnosis , Vulvar Diseases/drug therapy , Dibucaine/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Ulcer/drug therapy , Vulvar Diseases/pathology , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Dibucaine/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 112-124, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090547


Abstract Introduction Mitomycin C is a natural antibiotic that has been used to inhibit the proliferation of fibroblasts in scar tissue. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of topical Mitomycin C as an adjuvant in the endoscopic treatment of laryngotracheal stenoses. Data synthesis A systematic review of experimental or observational studies that have evaluated the treatment of laryngotracheal stenoses with the use of topical Mitomycin C was performed. Databases researched: LILACS, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science. Outcomes: resolution (symptom-free time ≥ one year), number of procedures required, and complications resulting from the procedure. A total of 15 studies (involving 387 patients) were selected. Mitomycin C was administered to every patient in 11 studies, and in 4 other studies, the patients were separated into 2 groups, 1 receiving mitomycin C, and the other not. The resolution of the stenosis evaluated in 12 studies in which the patients received mitomycin C was of 69% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 61-76%; I2 = 17.3%). A total of 52% of the patients (95%CI: 39-64%, 11 studies; I2 = 64.7%) were submitted to a single endoscopic procedure, and 48% (95%CI: 36-61%, 11 studies; I2 = 64.7%) were submitted to more than 1 procedure. Complications (mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, dysphonia, laceration or vocal fold paralysis and acute light obstruction) were reported in 9% of the patients (95%CI: 3-18%, 9 studies; I2 = 79.8%). Conclusions The evidence suggests that mitomycin C is an effective and safe option in the endoscopic treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tracheal Stenosis/therapy , Laryngostenosis/therapy , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Laryngoscopy/methods , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Mitomycin/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 221-237, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130848


Abstract With the development of new cancer therapies, systemic toxicity profile and effects on survival achieved an important improvement. However, a constellation of toxicities has emerged, even more remarkably, cutaneous adverse events. This report, developed by a board of Brazilian experts in oncodermatology, aims to establish a guideline for the dermatological care of oncologic patients. When possible, evidence-based recommendations were made, but in many cases, when strong evidence was not available, a consensus was reached, based on some data supporting therapies combined with personal experiences.

Humans , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Skin/drug effects , Risk Factors , Administration, Topical , Neoplasms/complications
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 111-118, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089362


Abstract Introduction Tranexamic acid is a hemostatic agent, which inhibits fibrin degradation, which may be beneficial in controlling bleeding during surgery. Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide a meta-analysis and review of the effects of tranexamic acid on hemorrhage and surgical fields and side effects on patients during endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods Two authors independently searched six databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library) from the start of article collection until July 2018. Postoperative complications such as intraoperative bleeding, operative time, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and coagulation profile were included in the analysis of tranexamic acid (Treatment Group) and placebo (Control Group) during the operation. Results The amount of blood loss during surgery was statistically lower in the treatment group compared to the placebo group, and the surgical field quality was statistically higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in operation time, hemodynamics, or coagulation profile between groups. In addition, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on vomiting and thrombosis compared to the Control Group. Conclusion This meta-analysis has shown that topical administration of tranexamic acid can reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and improve the overall quality of the surgery. Hemodynamic instability during surgery, vomiting after surgery, or abnormal clotting profile were not reported. Additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study because there are fewer studies.

Resumo Introdução O ácido tranexâmico é um agente hemostático, que inibe a degradação da fibrina e pode ser benéfico no controle do sangramento durante a cirurgia. Objetivos Fazer uma metanálise e revisão dos efeitos do ácido tranexâmico na hemorragia e nos campos cirúrgicos e efeitos colaterais em pacientes durante a cirurgia endoscópica do seio nasal. Método Dois autores realizaram independentemente uma busca em seis bancos de dados (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar e Cochrane) desde o início da coleta de artigos até julho de 2018. Complicações pós-operatórias como sangramento intraoperatório, tempo operatório, hipotensão, náusea, vômitos e perfil de coagulação foram incluídos na análise do ácido tranexâmico (grupo de tratamento) e placebo (grupo controle) durante a cirurgia. Resultados A quantidade de perda de sangue durante a cirurgia foi estatisticamente menor no grupo de tratamento comparado com o grupo placebo e a qualidade do campo cirúrgico foi estatisticamente maior no grupo de tratamento do que no grupo placebo. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significante no tempo cirúrgico, hemodinâmica ou perfil de coagulação entre os grupos. Além disso, o ácido tranexâmico não teve efeito significante na ocorrência de vômitos e trombose em comparação ao grupo controle. Conclusão Esta metanálise mostrou que a administração tópica de ácido tranexâmico pode reduzir a quantidade de sangramento durante a cirurgia e melhorar a qualidade geral dela. Instabilidade hemodinâmica durante a cirurgia, vômitos após a cirurgia ou perfil de coagulação anormal não foram relatados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para confirmar os resultados desta pesquisa, porque há poucos estudos na literatura.

Humans , Tranexamic Acid/pharmacology , Epistaxis/drug therapy , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/drug therapy , Antifibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Administration, Topical , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Nasal Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190140, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056590


Abstract Objective: The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of systemic and topical ozone application on alveolar bone loss (ABL) by evaluating the effect of Hypoxia-inducible factor −1 alpha (HIF-1-α) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-positive cells on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in a rat periodontitis model. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) Group C (control group); 2) Group SO (systemic ozone group) and 3) Group TO (topical ozone group). Experimental periodontitis was induced with a 3/0 silk suture placed at the mandibular left first molars of rats, and the suture was removed 14 days later. Ozone gas was injected intraperitoneally (0.7 mg/kg) in SO group. Topical ozone application protocol was performed using an ozone generator at 80% concentration (4th grade) 90- degree probe for the duration of 30 s. Both ozone applications were carried out for two weeks at intervals of two days. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: ABL was significantly lower in Group SO compared to Group C (p: 0.0052). HIF-1α- positive cells were significantly lower in Group TO than in Group C (p: 0.0043). RANKL-positive cells were significantly lower in Group SO and in Group TO compared to the control group (p: 0.0033, p: 0.0075, respectively). Conclusion: Both ozone applications decreased RANKL-positive cell counts, TO application decreased HIF-1-α positive cells counts, and SO application was found to be more effective in reducing ABL compared to control group.

Animals , Male , Ozone/administration & dosage , Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 83-89, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177638


Intentar el tratamiento retentivo de material protésico ante heridas quirúrgicas infectadas por gérmenes resistentes es objeto de debate, especialmente cuando el agente causal es un Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM). Una paciente diabética y con obesidad tipo I sufrió infección de la herida quirúrgica tras artroplastia de rodilla que no evolucionó bien con antibioterapia empírica y terapia hiperosmolar. Se planificó una reintervención que fue demorada por motivos extramédicos (falta de terapia de presión negativa para cubrir la herida postoperatoria, pues se preveía no poder realizar cierre primario). Mientras se conseguía este material, y tras obtener el consentimiento de la paciente, se iniciaron irrigaciones de la herida con sevoflurano tópico off-label, pues ese fármaco ha mostrado capacidad antimicrobiana. La evolución clínica fue excelente desde el inicio a pesar de que en el cultivo se aisló un SARM resistente a la antibioterapia empírica, por lo que se desestimó la reintervención y se continuó con sevoflurano tópico junto a la antibioterapia dirigida por antibiograma, lográndose la curación completa de la herida tras 6 semanas. Durante ese tiempo, la paciente no experimentó ningún efecto adverso atribuible al sevoflurano. El sevoflurano tópico aparece como una valiosa nueva opción terapéutica ante heridas postoperatorias infectadas, especialmente cuando los gérmenes causantes son resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales.

It is challenging to try a retentive treatment of prosthetic material superinfected by resistant microorganisms, especially when the causative agent is a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A diabetic, obese female patient suffered from a postoperative wound infection after a knee arthroplasty. Initial treatment with antibiotics and hyperosmolar therapy failed and clinical evolution was no good. Surgery was scheduled, but it was delayed due to nonmedical reasons (lack of negative-pressure therapy to cover the wound since primary wound closure was anticipated to be very improbable to perform). While waiting for this therapy, off-label irrigations with topical sevoflurane were started after obtaining written consent, since this drug has exhibited antimicrobial properties. Clinical evolution turned out to be excellent since the very beginning, even though a MRSA resistant to the antibiotics empirically administered was isolated. Thus, surgery was discarded, and culture-guided antibiotic therapy was added to topical sevoflurane, which was followed by a complete healing of the wound after 6 weeks. Sevoflurane treatment was well tolerated as the patient reported no adverse effects. Therefore, treating postsurgical wounds with topical sevoflurane appears as a valuable new alternative, especially when infections are caused by microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics.

Humans , Female , Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Administration, Topical , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bogotá; s.n; 2020. 78 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343796


Introducción: Aproximadamente 14.5% de los pacientes oncológicos presentan una herida neoplásica maligna (HNM) debido al aumento en la tasa de supervivencia y un 85% refieren dolor en la HNM. En la práctica clínica este es el síntoma con menos uso de tratamientos tópicos. Objetivo: Sintetizar la evidencia disponible relacionada con la efectividad de los tratamientos tópicos para el control del dolor en la HNM en adultos. Método: Se realizó una Revisión de efectividad, siguiendo la metodología JBI y las fuentes consultadas fueron: CINAHL, LILACS, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, NICE, Scopus y JBI, así como otras fuentes, en inglés, portugués y español, sin límites de tiempo. Los registros que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión fueron revisados por relevancia con respecto a los objetivos del estudio. Se realizaron valoraciones de la calidad metodológica mediante los instrumentos del JBI y se extrajeron los datos por las revisoras de forma independiente; no se presentó desacuerdo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 4 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, un estudio sobre el tratamiento con crema lidocaína y prilocaína al 5% y el otro sobre la morfina tópica al 0,2% los dos comprobaron un efecto analgésico; los otros dos estudios no arrojaron resultados primarios significativos en el control del dolor. Conclusiones: La crema de lidocaína y prilocaína al 5% y la morfina tópica al 0,2% se presentan altamente eficaces y seguras para el control del dolor en las HNM. Sin embargo, se requieren nuevos estudios para fortalecer el conocimiento y la práctica clínica

Introduction: Approximately 14.5% of cancer patients present a malignant fungating wound (MFW) due to the increase in the survival rates, among which 85% report pain in the MFW. In current clinical practice, pain in MFW is the symptom for which topical treatments are least used. Objective: Synthesize the available evidence related to the effectiveness of topical treatments for MFW pain control in adults. Methods: We did a review of effectiveness, following the JBI methodology and the databases searched were: CINAHL, LILACS, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, NICE, Scopus and JBI, as well as unpublished studies??, in English, Portuguese and Spanish, without time limits. The records that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed for relevance to the study objectives. Methodological quality assessments were made using the JBI instruments and the data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with no disagreements. Results: Four randomized clinical trials were included; one study on topical treatment with lidocaine and prilocaine 5% and another one with topical morphine 0,2% confirmed an analgesic effect; the other two studies had no significant primary outcomes in pain control. Conclusions: Lidocaine and prilocaine cream 5% and topical morphine 0.2% showed highly effective and safe for HNM pain control. However, further studies are required to strengthen clinical knowledge and practice

Humans , Male , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Treatment Outcome , Administration, Topical , Systematic Review
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 432-438, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057460


Abstract Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential analgesic action of 8% capsaicin cream for topical use in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: Initially, cream formulations of PLA (Placebo) and CPS (Capsaicin 8%) were developed and approved according to the current requirements of the health authority agency. The 40 participating patients were randomly assigned to the PLA and CPS groups in a double-blind fashion. Before the creams were topically administered, according to the allocation group, the local anesthetic was used for a period of 50 minutes directly in the area of interest. The cream was applied to the area of the skin over the trigger point, represented by the area with pain at palpation, in an amount of 10 g for 30 minutes in a circular area of 24 mm diameter. Subsequently, the cream was removed and the skin tolerability parameters were evaluated. The pain was measured before and during the formulation application, as well as at 1 hour, 7 days, 30 days, and 60 days after the procedure, evaluated using a verbal numerical scale (from 0 to 10: with 0 = no pain and 10 = worst pain imaginable). Results: No patient in PLA Group had hyperemia or burning sensation at the site of application, while 85% of patients in CPS Group had hyperemia or burning sensation at 15 minutes. These complaints disappeared 24 hours after the cream was removed. The pain score in CPS Group decreased steadily up to the 60th day of evaluation (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Application of the formulations did not cause macroscopic acute or chronic skin lesions in patients, and the 8% capsaicin formulation was beneficial and well tolerated.

Resumo Justificativa: A síndrome da dor miofascial é uma causa comum de dor musculoesquelética. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a potencial ação analgésica de 8% do creme de capsaicina para uso tópico em pacientes com síndrome da dor miofascial. Métodos: Inicialmente, as formulações de creme de PLA (Placebo) e CPS (Capsaicina 8%) foram desenvolvidas e aprovadas de acordo com os requisitos atuais da agência de autoridade de saúde. Os 40 pacientes participantes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e de forma duplo-cega para os grupos PLA e CPS. Antes dos cremes serem administrados topicamente, de acordo com o grupo de alocação, o anestésico local foi usado por um período de 50 minutos diretamente na área de interesse. A administração ocorreu na área da pele sobre o ponto-gatilho, o qual apresentou a área dolorida à palpação, em uma quantidade de 10 g por 30 minutos em área circular com diâmetro de 24 mm. Posteriormente, o creme foi removido e os parâmetros de tolerabilidade à pele foram avaliados. A dor foi medida antes e durante a aplicação da formulação, bem como 1 hora, 7 dias, 30 dias e 60 dias após o procedimento avaliado pela escala numérica verbal (0 a 10, com zero sem dor e dez a pior dor imaginável). Resultados: Nenhum paciente no grupo PLA experimentou hiperemia ou sensação de queimação no local de aplicação do creme, enquanto 85% dos que experimentaram no grupo CPS apresentaram hiperemia ou sensação de queimação 15 minutos. Essas queixas desapareceram 24 horas após a remoção do creme. O escore de dor no grupo CPS diminui de forma sustentada até o 60° dia de avaliação (p < 0,0001). Conclusão: A administração das formulações não causou lesões cutâneas agudas ou crônicas macroscópicas nos pacientes e a formulação de 8% de capsaicina foi benéfica e bem tolerada.

Humans , Male , Female , Capsaicin/administration & dosage , Analgesia , Myofascial Pain Syndromes/drug therapy , Ointments , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 192-194, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013665


ABSTRACT This study aims to describe a challenging clinical case of a patient with a neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer. A 75-year-old male patient, with history of right eye (RE) limbic stem-cell insuficiency due to complications of recurrent herpetic keratitis, underwent successful limbic stem-cell transplantation in 2008. In 2010, an uneventful penetrating keratoplasty was performed. After a cataract phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation done in 2011, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20, and remained stable until 2015. In July 2015, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy and two months later, presented with an extensive central corneal ulcer, with a significant thinning of central stroma, without infection signs, but with an imminent risk of perforation. Treatment with topical ofloxacin and intensive ocular lubrification was started in association with permanent ocular oclusion. Due to lack of any clinical improvement, treatment with RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfate, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea) was started. After two weeks of treatment, a complete reepithelization and partial stromal filling was observed. Continued monitoring and treatment with artificial tears was maintained, with no recurrence observed. There is an unmet need for a medical therapy that could help corneal neurotrophic ulcers to heal. The presented clinical case shows that the approach of targeting extracellular matrix can be effective in the reepithelialization of neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer that do not respond to conventional treatments.

RESUMO Este trabalho relata um caso clínico desafiante de doente com uma úlcera de córnea neurotrófica e de exposição. Doente do sexo masculino, de 75 anos, com antecedentes de queratites herpéticas de repetição no olho direito (OD), complicadas com o desenvolvimento de uma insuficiência límbica, foi submetido com sucesso a transplante de células límbicas em 2008. Em 2010 foi submetido a queratoplastia penetrante e em 2011, após realização de cirurgia de catarata, apresentava uma melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC) de 20/20. A MAVC manteve-se estável até Julho de 2015, altura em que desenvolveu paresia facial periférica à direita. Dois meses depois, o doente desenvolveu uma úlcera de córnea central extensa, com adelgaçamento significativo do estroma central, sem sinais de infeção, mas com risco iminente de perfuração. Foi iniciado tratamento tópico com ofloxacina, lubrificação intensiva e oclusão ocular contínua. Por ausência de melhoria clínica, foi iniciado tratamento tópico com um RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfato, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea). Após duas semanas de tratamento, observou-se uma reepitelização completa e regeneração parcial do estroma. Foi mantida monitorização regular e tratamento com lágrimas artificiais, sem recidiva do quadro clínico. Há uma grande necessidade de tratamentos médicos que possam ajudar na regeneração de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição. O caso clínico apresentado sugere que os fármacos que têm por alvo a matrix extracelular poderão ser eficazes na reepitelização de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição que não respondem ao tratamento convencional.

Humans , Male , Aged , Regeneration/drug effects , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Glycosaminoglycans/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Stimulation, Chemical , Wound Healing , Administration, Topical , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Hypesthesia , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 341-343, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011101


Abstract: CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia, Ichthyosiform erythroderma, Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant disease. The authors report a 2-month-old patient presenting with typical features of CHILD syndrome that was treated with a topical solution containing cholesterol and lovastatin, with complete clearance of her CHILD nevus. The changes in skin lipid metabolism that explain the CHILD ichthyosiform nevus and their correction through topical application of cholesterol and lovastatin are discussed.

Humans , Female , Infant , Abnormalities, Multiple/drug therapy , Lovastatin/administration & dosage , Cholesterol/metabolism , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/drug therapy , Limb Deformities, Congenital/drug therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Cholesterol/biosynthesis , Administration, Topical , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/genetics , Limb Deformities, Congenital/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/genetics
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001151


Abstract BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus, for its activity on modulation of collagen production and fibroblast activity, may have a role in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate macroscopic, microscopic, metabolic, laboratory effects and side effects of the use of topical tacrolimus ointment, in different concentrations, in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. METHODS: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of 2 fragments of 1 cm of each ear, 4 cm apart, down to cartilage. The left ear of the animals was standardized as control and Vaseline applied twice a day. The right ear received tacrolimus ointment, at concentrations of 0.1% on the upper wound and 0.03% on the lower wound, also applied twice a day. Macroscopic, microscopic, laboratory criteria and the animals' weight were evaluated after 30 days of the experiment. RESULTS: Wounds treated with tacrolimus, at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.03%, when compared to control, showed a lower average degree of thickening (p = 0.048 and p <0.001, respectively). The average of scar thickness and lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil concentrations are lower in the treated wounds compared to the control (p <0.001, p=0.022, p=0.007, p=0.044, respectively). The mean concentration of lymphocytes is lower in wounds treated with a higher concentration of the drug (p=0.01). STUDY LIMITATIONS: experiment lasted only 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Tacrolimus at the 2 concentrations evaluated reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and positively altered the macroscopic aspect of the scar in the short term. Its use was shown to be safe, with no evidence of systemic or local adverse effects.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ointments , Urea/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Serum Albumin/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Lymphocyte Count , Creatinine/blood , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ear, External/pathology , Erythema/pathology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2,supl.1): 67-75, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011092


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory and pruritic dermatosis with a multifactorial etiology, which includes skin barrier defects, immune dysfunction, and microbiome alterations. Atopic dermatitis is mediated by genetic, environmental, and psychological factors and requires therapeutic management that covers all the aspects of its complex pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to present the experience, opinions, and recommendations of Brazilian dermatology experts regarding the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Eighteen experts from 10 university hospitals with experience in atopic dermatitis were appointed by the Brazilian Society of Dermatology to organize a consensus on the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis. The 18 experts answered an online questionnaire with 14 questions related to the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Afterwards, they analyzed the recent international guidelines on atopic dermatitis of the American Academy of Dermatology, published in 2014, and of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, published in 2018. Consensus was defined as approval by at least 70% of the panel. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The experts stated that the therapeutic management of atopic dermatitis is based on skin hydration, topical anti-inflammatory agents, avoidance of triggering factors, and educational programs. Systemic therapy, based on immunosuppressive agents, is only indicated for severe refractory disease and after failure of topical therapy. Early detection and treatment of secondary bacterial and viral infections is mandatory, and hospitalization may be needed to control atopic dermatitis flares. Novel target-oriented drugs such as immunobiologicals are invaluable therapeutic agents for atopic dermatitis.

Humans , Consensus , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Societies, Medical , Ultraviolet Therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Administration, Topical , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Dermatology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 98-102, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003572


Resumo Objetivos: Quantificar a dor dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de facoemulsificação sob anestesia tópica e anestesia tópica mais dipirona e avaliar se há correlação da dor com o tempo operatório, a graduação da catarta e a Energia Ultrassônica Dissipada Acumulada. Métodos: Cento e quatro olhos de 52 pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação. Um olho foi submetido a anestesia tópica associado à sedação. O outro olho foi submetido a anestesia anterior acrescida de 1g de dipirona venosa. 15 minutos e 24 horas após a cirurgia, uma Escala Visual de Dor era respondida. Registraram-se a graduação da catarata, tempo cirúrgico, energia ultrassônica. Resultados: Dor no grupo sem dipirona 15 minutos e 24 horas apresentou decréscimo com correlação estatística significativa (p=0,004). Não houve significância estatística na redução da dor no grupo submetido à infusão de dipirona. Pacientes com cataratas de maior graduação apresentaram dor maior no pós-operatório (p=0,046). Conclusão: Ausência de redução significativa da dor com a dipirona apresentou resultados semelhantes a outros estudos. Redução da dor 24 horas após a cirurgia no grupo sem o analgésico pode ser devido à subjetividade da dor. Pacientes com cataratas de grau mais avançados apresentam dor mais intensa.

Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the effect of intraoperative endovenous administration of dipyrone on postoperative pain in patients submitted to phacoemulsification by correlating pain scores with duration of surgery and the amount of cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) delivered to the eye. Methods: The sample consisted of 104 eyes from 52 patients submitted to phacoemulsification under topic anesthesia and sedation. In each patient, one eye was treated intraoperatively with 1g dipyrone. Information was collected on cataract grade/type, duration of surgery and CDE. Postoperative pain was scored on a visual analog scale at 15 min and 24 hours. Results: Between 15 min and 24 hours, pain decreased significantly (p=0.004) among patients not treated with dipyrone, but no change was observed in patients receiving dipyrone. Caratact severity was positively associated with postoperative pain (p=0.046). Conclusion: The absence of a measurable effect of dipyrone on pain scores matched the literature. The decrease in pain scores at 24 hours among patients not treated with dipyrone may be explained by the influence of subjective psychological factors on pain perception. Higher grades of cataract were associated with greater postoperative pain.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Measurement , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Phacoemulsification/methods , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Postoperative Care , Administration, Topical , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Pain Management/methods , Administration, Intravenous , Intraoperative Care , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000004, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983681


Abstract Purpose: To characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the absorption of metronidazole solution, in greater concentrations and for longer periods, when applied topically to an experimental open skin wound model. Methods: An open skin wound, 2 cm in diameter and total skin thickness was prepared, under anesthetic, in the dorsal region of 108 Wistar rats weighing between 300 and 350 grams. The animals were allocated to groups of 18 animals in accordance with the concentration of metronidazole in the solution to be applied daily to the wound. In the control group (CG), 0.9% sodium chloride solution was used for application, and in the experimental groups (GI, GII, GIII, GIV and GV) metronidazole solution at 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%, respectively, was applied. After 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment. Blood samples collected through cardiac puncture were examined for the existence or non-existence of metronidazole, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detected metronidazole values were compared statistically within each group (temporal analysis 3 days X 7 days X 14 days) and between the groups that used topical metronidazole (4% X 6% X 8% X 10% and 12%) using the Kruskal-Wallis test, considering a statistical significance of 95% (p<0.05). Results: Metronidazole was detected in all the samples at all times in all the groups in which topical metronidazole was applied to the wounds. Characteristically, there was no significant difference between the doses obtained within each group over time (3 days X 7 days X 14 days) GI=0.461; GII=0.154; GIII=0.888; GIV= 0.264 and GV=0.152. In the evaluation between groups, a similar degree of absorption was found after 3 days (p=0.829) and 14 days (p=0.751). Conclusion: The serum concentration of metronidazole that was achieved was not influenced by the concentration of the solution applied to the skin wound, with similar extend, or by the duration of the application.

Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/blood , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/blood , Time Factors , Administration, Topical , Chromatography, Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(1): e2015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990367


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos da administração tópica do metronidazol na diferenciação de fibroblastos e na contração da ferida durante cicatrização experimental por segunda intenção em ratos. Métodos: cento e oito animais foram submetidos a uma ferida circular no dorso, com 2cm de diâmetro e divididos em seis grupos: grupo controle, com aplicação de solução salina sobre a ferida e cinco grupos experimentais divididos de acordo com a concentração da solução do metronidazol utilizada (4%, 6%, 8%,10% e 12%). Curativos foram realizados diariamente durante todo o período do experimento, que foi subdividido em três momentos de análise: três, sete e 14 dias. A contração da ferida foi avaliada por planimetria digital e os miofibroblastos e protomiofibroblastos foram identificados usando técnicas de imuno-histoquímica CD34 e a-SMA. Resultados: a contração da ferida não apresentou diferença entre os grupos e o controle. Os protomiofibroblastos foram significativamente mais numerosos aos sete dias (p=0,022) nos grupos metronidazol de 4%, 6% e 8%. Após 14 dias, nos mesmos grupos, os miofibroblastos predominaram significativamente (p=0,01). Conclusão: a administração tópica de solução de metronidazol em feridas de pele com cicatrização por segunda intenção foi capaz de melhorar a diferenciação de fibroblastos. A fase de contração da cicatrização de feridas permaneceu inalterada, sem redução significativa da contração avaliada pela planimetria digital. Estes resultados podem ser utilizados em favor do processo de cicatrização de feridas.

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the effects of topical administration of metronidazole on fibroblast differentiation and on wound contraction during experimental secondary intention wound healing in rats. Methods: we submitted 108 rats to a circular wound on the back, 2cm in diameter, and divided them into six groups: control group, with application of saline solution on the wound and five experimental groups, divided according to the concentration of metronidazole solution used (4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%). We changed the dressings daily throughout the trial period, which comprised three stages of analysis: three, seven and 14 days. We evaluated wound contraction by digital planimetry, and identified myofibroblasts and protomyofibroblasts using CD34 and α-SMA immunohistochemistry techniques. Results: wound contraction was not different between the experimental and the control groups. Protomyofibroblasts were significantly more numerous at seven days (p=0.022) in the 4%, 6% and 8% metronidazole groups. After 14 days, in the same groups, myofibroblasts predominated significantly (p=0.01). Conclusion: the topical administration of metronidazole solution in skin wounds healing by secondary intention was able to improve the differentiation of fibroblasts. The contraction phase of wound healing remained unchanged, without significant reduction of the contraction evaluated by digital planimetry. These results can be used in favor of the wound healing process.

Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(5): e20192245, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057168


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar a cicatrização, por segunda intenção, sob os efeitos da aplicação tópica de mel, óleo-resina de copaíba e um produto comercial (fibrinolisina, desoxirribonuclease e cloranfenicol) a um grupo controle, em ratos. Métodos: ressecção de pele, com 1cm de diâmetro, foi realizada no dorso de 40 ratos alocados em quatro grupos de dez animais. Todas as feridas foram limpas, diariamente, com 2ml de solução de NaCl 0,9%. O primeiro grupo (controle - GC) ficou restrito a tal procedimento. Nas feridas do segundo (GM), terceiro (GO) e quarto grupos (GF), após limpeza, aplicou-se, respectivamente, 1ml de mel, 1ml de óleo-resina de copaíba e 1ml de creme contendo fibrinolisina, desoxirribonuclease e cloranfenicol. Ocluíram-se as feridas com gaze estéril. Imediatamente após a incisão e nos dias três, sete e 14 do experimento, as feridas foram copiadas e, usando planimetria, analisou-se a contração. Após a eutanásia, a histologia foi utilizada para avaliação da reação inflamatória e do colágeno nas cicatrizes. Resultados: a redução da área da ferida do GM (p=0,003), GO (p=0,011) e GF (p=0,002) foram superiores ao do GC. A quantidade de colágeno tipo I presente no GM e no GO foi superior aos grupos GC e GF (p<0,05). Houve predominância do estágio inflamatório crônico no GM (p=0,004), GO (p<0,001) e GF (p=0,003) quando comparados ao GC. Conclusão: o uso tópico do mel e do óleo-resina de copaíba aumenta a contração da ferida, a presença de colágeno tipo I e acelera a cicatrização.

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the healing by second intention under the effects of topical application of honey, copaíba oil-resin and a commercial product (fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol) with a control group in rats. Methods: we carried out a skin resection, 1cm in diameter, on the back of 40 rats allocated to four groups of ten animals. All wounds were cleaned daily with 2ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. The first group (control - GC) was restricted to such procedure. In the wounds of the second (GM), third (GO) and fourth groups (GF), after cleaning, we respectively applied 1ml of honey, 1ml of copaíba oil-resin and 1ml of cream containing fibrinolysin, deoxyribonuclease and chloramphenicol. The wounds were occluded with sterile gauze. Immediately after the incision and on days three, seven and 14 of the experiment, the wounds were copied and contraction was analyzed using planimetry. After euthanasia, we histologically evaluated the inflammatory reaction and collagen in the scars. Results: the reduction of the wound area of GM (p=0.003), GO (p=0.011) and GF (p=0.002) were higher than the GC. The amount of type-I collagen present in GM and GO was higher than in GC and GF groups (p<0.05). There was a predominance of chronic inflammatory stage in GM (p=0.004), GO (p<0.001) and GF (p=0.003) when compared with GC. Conclusion: the topical use of honey and copaíba oil-resin increases wound contraction, the presence of type-I collagen and accelerates healing.

Animals , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Honey , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Chloramphenicol/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Rats, Wistar , Fibrinolysin/administration & dosage , Deoxyribonuclease I/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal