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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538408

ABSTRACT

Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors, often non-functioning, located in the adrenal cortex, consisting mainly of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. Although uncommon, the number of reported cases has increased due to the greater use of diagnostic imaging techniques. This tumor is usually unilateral and found as an adrenal incidentaloma, although there is a predominance of bilaterality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In this study, we report the case of a 33-year-old male patient with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in non-regular use of the control medication, with bilateral giant adrenal myelolipoma and subsequent evolution of bilateral testicular adrenal rest tumors. He underwent bilateral adrenalectomy by video laparoscopy. The anatomopathological analysis, which confirmed myelolipomas' diagnosis, revealed the right adrenal with 430 g and 12.5 x 9.3 cm and the left with 257 g and 11.5 x 10.4 cm. This tumor may be accompanied by adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma, ganglioneuroma, pheochromocytoma, Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, or CAH. Among the hypotheses of its pathogenesis, we highlight an association between the development of adrenal myelolipoma and chronic hormonal stimulation by the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), especially in CAH. The non-regular treatment of CAH with glucocorticoids may have contributed to the chronic and elevated secretion of ACTH and, consequently, to the development of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipoma (AU).


Mielolipomas adrenais são tumores benignos raros, com frequência não-funcionantes, localizados no córtex da adrenal, constituídos, principalmente, por tecido adiposo maduro e tecido hematopoético. Apesar de incomum, o número de casos relatados tem aumentado devido ao maior uso de técnicas diagnósticas de imagens. Esse tumor é geralmente unilateral e encontrado como um incidentaloma adrenal, embora haja predominância de bilateralidade em casos de portadores de hiperplasia adrenal congênita (HAC). Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 33 anos, portador de HAC por deficiência de 21-hidroxilase, em uso não-regular da medicação de controle, com mielolipoma adrenal gigante bilateral e posterior evolução de tumor bilateral testicular de restos de adrenais. Ele foi submetido à adrenalectomia bilateral por videolaparoscopia. A análise anátomo-patológica, que confirmou o diagnóstico de mielolipomas, revelou adrenal direita com 430 g e 12,5 x 9,3 cm, e esquerda com 257 g e 11,5 x 10,4 cm. Esse tumor pode vir acompanhado de adenoma e carcinoma adrenocortical, glanglioneuroma, feocromocitoma, doença de Addison, Síndrome de Cushing ou HAC. Dentre as hipóteses de sua patogênese, des-tacamos uma associação entre o desenvolvimento do mielolipoma adrenal e a estimulação hormonal crônica pelo hormônio adrenocorticotrófico (ACTH), especialmente na HAC. O tratamento não-regular da HAC com glicocorticoides pode ter contribuído para a secreção crônica e elevada de ACTH e, consequentemente, para o desenvolvimento do mielolipoma adrenal gigante bilateral (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Myelolipoma , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
2.
Femina ; 51(12): 682-686, 20231230.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532471

ABSTRACT

A hiperplasia adrenal congênita (HAC) pode cursar com redução da fertilidade na mulher. Entretanto, nos casos em que ocorre gestação, os recém-nascidos das por- tadoras de hiperplasia adrenal congênita exibem risco de hiperandrogenismo, com todas as suas consequências. A presente revisão atualiza o tema, considerando também as necessidades da assistência a essas pacientes. A busca identificou 294 artigos na base de dados MEDLINE/PubMed de 1961 a março/2023, e os resultados mostraram que as portadoras de hiperplasia adrenal congênita exibem significativa redução da fertilidade. Nos casos de interesse de gestação, as portadoras de hiper- plasia adrenal congênita devem fazer um planejamento reprodutivo, envolvendo a fase antenatal, o acompanhamento pré-natal especializado, o parto e o aleitamento.


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia may lead to reduced male and female fertility. Mo- reover, when the pregnancy occurs, the newborns of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are at risk of hyperandrogenism with all its consequences. This review updates the theme and emphasizes assistance needs. The search identified 294 ar- ticles in the MEDLINE/PubMed database from 1961 to March/2023, and the results showed that patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia truly exhibit a significant reduction in fertility. In cases of interest in pregnancy, patients with congenital adre- nal hyperplasia should carry out reproductive planning, involving the antenatal pha- se, specialized prenatal care, till delivery and breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Reproductive Health , Testicular Neoplasms/complications , Hyperandrogenism/complications , Infertility/complications
3.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 96-101, Junio 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443406

ABSTRACT

La pesquisa neonatal de hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita se realiza mediante la determinación de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP) en gotas de sangre seca en papel de filtro. Los bebés prematuros presentan valores más elevados que los bebés de término, siendo de utilidad contar con límites de corte apropiados. Nuestro objetivo fue actualizar los valores de corte de 17OHP ajustados por edad gestacional para la metodología en uso a nivel nacional por las jurisdicciones asistidas por el "Programa Nacional de Fortalecimiento de la Detección Precoz de Enfermedades Congénitas". La 17OHP se determinó utilizando el kit comercial de enzimo-inmunoanálisis (ELISA competitivo), Elizen Neonatal 17OHP Screening (Zentech, Bélgica). Se obtuvieron límites de corte utilizando percentiles de la distribución de los valores de 17OHP para cada edad gestacional. La sensibilidad obtenida fue 100%, especificidad 98,76 %, tasa de falsos positivos 1,24 % y el valor predictivo positivo 1,12 %. Destacamos la importancia de disponer de límites de corte adecuados a la población. La armonización de los mismos permitirá resultados comparables entre los programas regionales de pesquisa neonatal (AU)


Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia is performed by the measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in dried blood spots on filter paper. Premature infants have higher values than full-term infants, and appropriate cutoff values are useful. Our aim was to update the cut-off values of 17OHP adjusted for gestational age for the methodology used at a national level in regions assisted by the "National Program for Strengthening the Early Detection of Congenital Diseases". 17OHP was determined using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (competitive ELISA) kit, Elizen Newborn 17OHP Screening (Zentech, Belgium). Cut-off values were obtained using percentiles of the distribution of 17OHP values for each gestational age. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 98.76%, false positive rate 1.24%, and positive predictive value 1.12%. It is important to have cut-off values that are adjusted to the population. Harmonization will allow for the comparison of results among regional newborn screening programs (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Predictive Value of Tests , Gestational Age , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 769-780, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981822

ABSTRACT

21 hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is caused by defects in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 oxidase (P450C21) involved in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. The diagnosis of 21-OHD is based on the comprehensive evaluation of clinical manifestation, biochemical alteration and molecular genetics results. Due to the complex structure of CYP21A2, special techniques are required to perform delicate analysis to avoid the interference of its pseudogene. Recently, the state-of-the-art diagnostic methods were applied to the clinic gradually, including the steroid hormone profiling and third generation sequencing. To standardize the laboratory diagnosis of 21-OHD, this consensus was drafted on the basis of the extensive knowledge, the updated progress and the published consensuses and guidelines worldwide by expert discussion organized by Rare Diseases Group of Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Medical Genetics Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Birth Defect Prevention and Molecular Genetics Branch of China Maternal and Child Health Association. and Molecular Diagnosis Branch of Shanghai Medical Association.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Consensus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mutation
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 462-467, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze a child with 11β hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) due to CYP11B2/CYP11B1 chimeric gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child who was admitted to Henan Children's Hospital on August 24, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. RT-PCR and Long-PCR were carried out to verify the presence of chimeric gene.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 5-year-old male, had featured premature development of secondary sex characteristics and accelerated growth, and was diagnosed with 21 hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). WES revealed that he has harbored a heterozygous c.1385T>C (p.L462P) variant of the CYP11B1 gene, in addition to a 37.02 kb deletion on 8q24.3. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.1385T>C (p.L462P) was rated as a likely pathogenic variant (PM2_Supporting+PP3_Moderate+PM3+PP4). The results of RT-PCR and Long-PCR suggested that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes have recombined to form a CYP11B2 exon 1~7/CYP11B1 exon 7~9 chimeric gene. The patient was diagnosed as 11β-OHD and effectively treated with hydrocortisone and triptorelin. A healthy fetus was delivered following genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.@*CONCLUSION@#11β-OHD may be misdiagnosed as 21-OHD due to the potential CYP11B2/CYP11B1 chimeric gene, which will require multiple methods for the detection.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2/genetics , Exons , Retrospective Studies , Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 614-619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985918

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of endoscopic diaphragm incision in pediatric congenital duodenal diaphragm. Methods: Eight children with duodenal diaphragm treated by endoscopic diaphragm incision in the Department of Gastroenterology of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from October 2019 to May 2022 were enrolled in this study. Their clinical data including general conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging examinations, endoscopic procedures and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 8 children, 4 were males and 4 females. The diagnosis was confirmed at the age of 6-20 months; the age of onset was 0-12 months and the course of disease was 6-18 months. The main clinical manifestations were recurrent non-biliary vomiting, abdominal distension and malnutrition. One case complicated with refractory hyponatremia was first diagnosed with atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the endocrinology department. After treatment with hydrocortisone, the blood sodium returned to normal, but vomiting was recurrent. One patient underwent laparoscopic rhomboid duodenal anastomosis in another hospital but had recurred vomiting after the operation, who was diagnosed with double duodenal diaphragm under endoscope. No other malformations were found in all the 8 cases. The duodenal diaphragm was located in the descending part of the duodenum, and the duodenal papilla was located below the diaphragm in all the 8 cases. Three cases had the diaphragm dilated by balloon to explore the diaphragm opening range before diaphragm incision; the other 5 had diaphragm incision performed after probing the diaphragm opening with guide wire. All the 8 cases were successfully treated by endoscopic incision of duodenal diaphragm, with the operation time of 12-30 minutes. There were no complications such as intestinal perforation, active bleeding or duodenal papilla injury. At one month of follow-up, their weight increased by 0.4-1.5 kg, with an increase of 5%-20%. Within the postoperative follow-up period of 2-20 months, all the 8 children had duodenal obstruction relieved, without vomiting or abdominal distension, and all resumed normal feeding. Gastroscopy reviewed at 2-3 months after the operation in 3 cases found no deformation of the duodenal bulbar cavity, and the mucosa of the incision was smooth, with a duodenal diameter of 6-7 mm. Conclusion: Endoscopic diaphragm incision is safe, effective and less invasive in pediatric congenital duodenal diaphragm, with favorable clinical applicability.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Thorax , Endoscopy , Physical Examination , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital
7.
Philippine Journal of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility ; : 29-37, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984291

ABSTRACT

@#Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Turner Syndrome are not very rare diseases. However, their combination may be confounding. Presented here is a case of a 54 year old nulligravid, with primary amenorrhea, short stature, absent breast development, hirsutism, signs of virilization, and clitoromegaly who came in due to hypogastric pain and an enlarging palpable hypogastric mass. Diagnostic procedures and surgical management are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Turner Syndrome
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1124-1130, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical phenotypes, genetic characteristics, and pathological features of children with disorders of sex development (DSD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on epidemiological, clinical phenotype, chromosomal karyotype, gonadal pathology, and genotype data of 165 hospitalized children with DSD at Children's Hospital of Hebei Province and Tangshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital from August 2008 to December 2022.@*RESULTS@#Among the 165 children with DSD, common presenting symptoms were short stature (62/165, 37.6%), clitoromegaly (33/165, 20.0%), cryptorchidism (28/165, 17.0%), hypospadias (24/165, 14.5%), and skin pigmentation abnormalities/exteriorized pigmented labia majora (19/165, 11.5%). Chromosomal karyotype analysis was performed on 127 cases, revealing 36 cases (28.3%) of 46,XX DSD, 34 cases (26.8%) of 46,XY DSD, and 57 cases (44.9%) of sex chromosome abnormalities. Among the sex chromosome abnormal karyotypes, the 45,X karyotype (11/57, 19%) and 45,X/other karyotype mosaicism (36/57, 63%) were more common. Sixteen children underwent histopathological biopsy of gonadal tissues, resulting in retrieval of 25 gonadal tissues. The gonadal tissue biopsies revealed 3 cases of testes, 3 cases of dysplastic testes, 6 cases of ovaries, 11 cases of ovotestes, and 1 case each of streak gonad and agenesis of gonads. Genetic testing identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 23 cases (23/36, 64%), including 12 cases of 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by CYP21A2 pathogenic variants.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Short stature, clitoromegaly, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and skin pigmentation abnormalities are common phenotypes in children with DSD. 45,X/other karyotype mosaicism and CYP21A2 compound heterozygous variants are major etiological factors in children with DSD. The most commonly observed gonadal histopathology in children with DSD includes ovotestes, ovaries, and testes/dysgenetic testes.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Child , Disorders of Sex Development/pathology , Hypospadias/complications , Cryptorchidism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
9.
Southern Philippines Medical Center Journal of Health Care Services ; (2): 1-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003735

ABSTRACT

@#Congenital disorders cause a global estimate of 240,000 deaths in newborns and 170,000 deaths in children ages 1 month up to 5 years every year. 1 In order to detect metabolic, hematologic, or endocrine disorders in newborns, newborn screening (NBS) is conducted in many countries around the world. In the Philippines, NBS was introduced by the Newborn Screening Study Group in 1996, with the aim of establishing the incidence of six metabolic conditions, namely, congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and creating recommendations for the adoption of NBS nationwide.2 The Republic Act No. 9288, otherwise known as the Newborn Screening Act of 2004, requires that the Department of Health shall ensure the establishment and accreditation of newborn screening centers (NSCs) in strategically located areas across the Philippines.3 At present, there are seven operational NSCs in the country,4 with the Newborn Screening Center-Mindanao (NSC-Mindanao) in Southern Philippines Medical Center (SPMC) as the only center catering to all NBS facilities all over Mindanao.5 NSC-Mindanao initially performed screening tests for five disorders, but now tests for a panel of 29 metabolic and other congenital disorders.


Subject(s)
Neonatal Screening , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , Congenital Hypothyroidism
10.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 131-134, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003691

ABSTRACT

@#The majority of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) present with a deficiency of 21-hydroxylase or 11-beta-hydroxylase, which account for 90% and 7% of cases, respectively. However, CAH due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is an extremely rare form of CAH (<1% of all CAH cases) that leads to a deficiency of cortisol and sex steroids, along with features of aldosterone excess. This is a case of a 51-year-old single female who was referred to us for the evaluation of new-onset hypertension and hypokalaemia of one-year duration. She was born out of a second-degree consanguineous marriage and reared as a female. She was diagnosed to have testicular feminization syndrome when she presented with a history of primary amenorrhea, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, and bilateral labial swellings at pubertal age. Subsequently, she underwent gonadectomy at the age of 16. Due to the presence of hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and bilaterally enlarged adrenals on CT scan, 46, XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) was considered. A karyotype confirmed the presence of 46, XY chromosomal sex, and genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the CYP17A1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of 17a-hydroxylase deficiency.


Subject(s)
Disorders of Sex Development , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 77-87, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364306

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Adrenal steroid biosynthesis and its related pathology are constant evolving disciplines. In this paper, we review classic and current concepts of adrenal steroidogenesis, plus control mechanisms of steroid pathways, distribution of unique enzymes and cofactors, and major steroid families. We highlight the presence of a "mineralocorticoid (MC) pathway of zona fasciculata (ZF)", where most circulating corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) originate together with 18OHDOC, under ACTH control, a claim based on functional studies in normal subjects and in patients with 11β-, and 17α-hydroxylase deficiencies. We emphasize key differences between CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and the onset of a hybrid enzyme - CYP11B1/CYP11B2 -, responsible for aldosterone formation in ZF under ACTH control, in "type I familial hyperaldosteronism" (dexamethasone suppressible). In "apparent MC excess syndrome", peripheral conversion of cortisol to cortisone is impaired by lack of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, permitting free cortisol access to MC receptors resulting in severe hypertension. We discuss two novel conditions involving the synthesis of adrenal androgens: the "backdoor pathway", through which dihydrotestosterone is formed directly from androsterone, being relevant for the fetoplacental setting and sexual differentiation of male fetuses, and the rediscovery of C19 11-oxygenated steroids (11-hydroxyandrostenedione and 11-ketotestosterone), active androgens and important markers of virilization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency and polycystic ovaries syndrome. Finally, we underline two enzyme cofactor deficiencies: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase which partially affects 21- and 17α-hydroxylation, producing a combined clinical/hormonal picture and causing typical skeletal malformations (Antley-Bixler syndrome), and PAPSS2, coupled to SULT2A1, that promotes sulfation of DHEA to DHEAS, preventing active androgens to accumulate. Its deficiency results in reduced DHEAS and elevated DHEA and androgens with virilization. Future and necessary studies will shed light on remaining issues and questions on adrenal steroidogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/metabolism , Hyperaldosteronism , Steroids , Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 , Androgens
13.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32209, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418948

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o diagnóstico e manejo clínico da deficiência da 21-hidroxilase (D-21OH), no contexto atual de inclusão da doença nos programas de triagem neonatal, bem como características genéticas, fisiopatológicas e manifestações na infância e adolescência. Fonte de Dados: Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (BVS), Scopus, Web of Science nos últimos vinte anos, em língua inglesa e portuguesa; população-alvo: crianças da primeira infância à adolescência; com o uso dos termos "triagem neonatal", "hiperplasia adrenal congênita", "deficiência da 21-hidroxilase", "glucocorticoide" e "polimorfismos do gene NR3C1". Síntese de Dados: A hiperplasia adrenal congênita (HAC) constitui um grupo de doenças caracterizadas por deficiências enzimáticas na esteroidogênese do córtex adrenal. A D-21OH é responsável por 95% dos casos e, se não tratada precocemente, pode levar ao óbito no período neonatal em sua forma clássica. A triagem neonatal para a HAC consiste na dosagem do precursor 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP) no sangue de recém-nascidos, permitindo rápida confirmação diagnóstica e instituição da terapêutica. A implantação da triagem neonatal constitui um avanço, mas o controle dos pacientes pediátricos com D-21OH é complexo e deve ser sempre individualizado. Conclusão: A instituição dos programas de triagem neonatal para HAC tem trazido benefícios para o prognóstico das crianças com D-21OH. Seu manejo é multiprofissional, individualizado e ainda um desafio mesmo para o especialista. Ampla divulgação do conhecimento sobre a doença é desejável para permitir melhor condução dessas crianças, especialmente de meninas com a doença que apresentam genitália atípica.


Objective: To describe the diagnosis and clinical management of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OH-D), in the current context of including the disease in neonatal screening programs, as well as genetic, pathophysiological characteristics, and manifestations in childhood and adolescence. Data Source: Integrative review performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (BVS), Scopus, Web of Science databases in the last twenty years, in English and Portuguese; target population: children from early childhood to adolescence; with the use of the terms "neonatal screening"; "congenital adrenal hyperplasia"; "21-hydroxylase deficiency"; "glucocorticoid"; "polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene". Data Synthesis: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of diseases characterized by enzyme deficiencies in adrenal cortex steroidogenesis. 21OH-D is responsible for 95% of cases and, if not treated early, can lead to death in the neonatal period in its classic form. Neonatal screening for CAH consists of measuring the precursor 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in the blood of newborns, allowing rapid diagnostic confirmation and institution of therapy. The implementation of neonatal screening is an advance, but the control of pediatric patients with 21OH-D is complex and must always be individualized. Conclusion: The institution of newborn screening programs for CAH has benefits for the prognosis of children with 21OH-D. Its management is multi-professional, individualized and still a challenge even for the specialist. Wide dissemination of knowledge about the disease is desirable to allow better management of these children, especially girls with the disease who have atypical genitalia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/therapy , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Neonatal Screening , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/metabolism
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 841-845, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350003

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Ovarian adrenal rest tumors (OARTs) are very rare. We describe a case of a young woman with uncontrolled classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CCAH), presenting with bilateral OARTs, successfully treated with steroid replacement. A 20-year-old woman, known to have 21OH-CCAH, presented with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. As a result of poor compliance, 6 months before her admission hirsutism worsened and amenorrhea, hyperpigmentation, and weakness developed. ACTH levels were 278 < pmol/L and 17OHP 91.3 nmol/L. She was admitted for parenteral antibiotics and high-dose hydrocortisone treatment. CT revealed bilateral juxta-ovarian masses (6.2 x 3.6 x 7.4 cm left and 5 x 2.2 x 3.2 cm right) that on MRI were iso-intense in T1 and hypointense in T2, with early enhancement and rapid washout. One week of high-dose hydrocortisone resulted in significant clinical and laboratory improvement and the patient was discharged with 2 mg dexamethasone/day. One month later US revealed shrinkage of the masses and dexamethasone dose was decreased. At three months from discharge, she has resumed regular menses, and a repeated MRI revealed the para-ovarian masses have shrunk. One year after the diagnosis, the para-ovarian masses have shrunk more to 2.8 x 1.9 x 4.3 on the left and 2.1 x 0.9 x 1.2 on the right with less contrast enhancement in comparison to previous test possibly due to fibrotic changes of the tissue. OARTs are rare tumors with a poorly known natural history, and surgery has been the first option in the few reported cases. We demonstrate that medical treatment is a good alternative, leading to significant tumor shrinkage over a short period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Adrenal Rest Tumor/drug therapy , Adrenal Rest Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 488-494, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339103

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is characterized by the inability of the adrenal cortex to produce sufficient amounts of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids. Addison's disease (AD) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are the most frequent disorders in adults and children, respectively. Despite the diagnostic advances and the availability of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacements, adrenal crisis (AC) is still a potentially lethal condition contributing to the increased mortality, not only during the first year of life, but also throughout life. Failure in increasing glucocorticoid doses during acute stress, when greater amounts of glucocorticoids are required, can lead to AC and an increase morbimortality rate of PAI. Considering a mortality rate of 0.5 per 100 patient years, up to 1,500 deaths from AC are expected in Brazil in the coming decade, which represents an alarming situation. The major clinical features are hypotension and volume depletion. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, lack of energy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are common. The main precipitating factors are gastrointestinal diseases, other infectious disease, stressful events (e.g., major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, and pregnancy), and withdrawal of glucocorticoid therapy. Suspected AC requires immediate therapeutic action with intravenous (iv) hydrocortisone, fluid infusion, monitoring support, and antibiotics if necessary. AC is best prevented through patient education, precocious identification and by adjusting the glucocorticoid dosage in stressor situations. The emergency card, warning about acute glucocorticoid replacement, has high value in reducing the morbidity and mortality of AC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Addison Disease , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Hydrocortisone , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e282, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1347399

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La práctica de la cirugía genital es frecuente en infantes y adolescentes diagnosticados de intersexualidad. Una de sus principales consecuencias se refleja en la personalidad del paciente. Existen numerosos estudios en población adulta, pero son escasos en edades pediátricas. El dibujo constituye un instrumento valioso para la exploración psicológica en edades tempranas. Objetivo: Identificar las características psicológicas de infantes y adolescentes con tratamiento quirúrgico de los genitales, y de su desarrollo psicológico en el momento de la valoración. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo y metodología cualitativa. La muestra la integraron 15 participantes entre 6 y 12 años, con hiperplasia adrenal congénita y cirugía genital. De ellos, 4 con asignación al sexo masculino y 11 con asignación femenina. Todos residentes en La Habana, Cuba y captados de las consultas de seguimiento de los servicios de Endocrinología del Instituto de Endocrinología y hospitales pediátricos. Se aplicaron las técnicas psicográficas (dibujo espontáneo, dibujo temático de la familia y dibujo temático "Así soy yo"). Resultados: El desarrollo psicológico se correspondió con la edad cronológica. El 100 por ciento presentó un pensamiento coherente y estructurado. El 50 por ciento presentó indicadores emocionales que aluden a insatisfacción con el propio yo, angustia (40 por ciento), y falta de aceptación del propio cuerpo (70 por ciento); además, expresaron dificultades en la comunicación familiar (60 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los indicadores globales relevantes de los dibujos denotaron daño emocional, dificultades en la aceptación, percepción y representación del esquema corporal y también en la comunicación social y familiar. Resulta impostergable intervenir en las causas del malestar y los problemas psicológicos de los sujetos estudiados para evitar que se desarrollen enfermedades psiquiátricas en la edad adulta(AU)


Introduction: The practice of genital surgery is frequent in infants and adolescents diagnosed with intersex. One of the main consequences is reflected in the patient´s personality. There are numerous studies in the adult population; however, they are rare in pediatric ages. Drawing is a valuable tool for psychological exploration in early ages. Objective: Identify the psychological characteristics of infants and adolescents with surgical treatment of the genitalia, and to characterize their psychological development. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study and qualitative methodology. The sample was made up of 15 infants and adolescents between 6 and 12 years old with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and genital surgery. 4 of them with male sex assignment and 11 with female assignment, coming from the primary care level, residents in Havana, Cuba, recruited in the follow-up consultations of the endocrinology services of the Institute of Endocrinology and pediatric hospitals. The psychographic techniques (spontaneous drawing, thematic drawing of the family and thematic drawing called "I am like this" were applied). The study complied with the basic ethical aspects of scientific research. Results: Psychological development corresponded with chronological age. 100 percent of the patients presented a coherent and structured thinking. 50 percent presented emotional indicators that allude to dissatisfaction with one's own self, anguish (40 percent), and lack of acceptance of one's own body (70 percent); in addition, they expressed difficulties in family communication (60 percent). Conclusions: The relevant global indicators of the drawings denoted emotional damage, difficulties in the acceptance, perception and representation of the body scheme and also in social and family communication. It cannot be postponed an intervention in the discomfort causes and psychological problems of the patients studied, in order to avoid that psychiatric diseases can be developed in adults ages(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Primary Health Care , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Sex Reassignment Surgery/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychological Techniques
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(4): 861-867, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286762

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: 46,XX Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) remains the first cause of genital virilization and current surgical techniques aim to restore female aspect of genitalia while preserving dorsal neurovascular bundle but not at the expense of not preserving erectile tissue. We aim to report our experience with a new surgical technique for clitoroplasty, completely preserving corporeal bodies, neurovascular bundles without dismembering the clitoris, in four patients with over a year follow up. Materials and Methods: After IRB approval four patients with 46,XX CAH and Prader 5 and 3 external genitalia, underwent feminizing genitoplasty. Complete preservation of erectile tissue was accomplished without a need to dissect dorsal neurovascular bundle. Glans size allowed no need for glanular reduction and there was no need to dismember the corporeal bodies. Results: Four patients 12 to 24-months-old underwent complete corporeal preservation clitoroplasty (CCPC), mean age was 18.5 months, mean follow up was 10.25 months. Vaginoplasty was performed in all patients with partial urogenital mobilization (PUM) and Urogenital Sinus flap (UF), only one severely virilized patient required a parasagittal pre-rectal approach to mobilize the vagina. We had no complications until last follow up. Conclusion: To our knowledge, we are introducing the concept of CCPC without the need of disassembling the corporeal bodies, neurovascular bundle and glans. It stands as a new alternative for feminizing genitoplasty with complete preservation of erectile tissue and no dissection of neurovascular bundle. Although there is still lacking long-term follow-up, it represents a new step in conservative reconfiguration of the external virilized female genitalia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgical Flaps , Vagina/surgery , Clitoris/surgery , Genitalia, Female/surgery
18.
Ciencias y Salud ; 5(1): 11-18, 20210224. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368707

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC) es el desorden adrenal más común en la infancia y la causa más frecuente de ambigüedad sexual. La forma clásica, que representa los casos más severos de este déficit, se asocia en un 75 % con pérdida de sal. Por otra parte, en los recién nacidos (RN) del sexo femenino se pueden presentar grados severos de virilización de genitales. Objetivo: presentar los resultados (durante diez años), del Programa Cubano de Pesquisa Neonatal (PN) de la HSC, soportado en un procedimiento inmunoenzimático desarrollado en Cuba. Resultados: en el período de enero 2005 a diciembre 2014, se han estudiado 1 140 882 RN y se detectaron 56 niños con HSC, para una incidencia de 1:20 373 RN. La cobertura del programa se ha incrementado hasta llegar en el año 2013 al 99.34 % de todos los RN cubanos. Conclusiones: la existencia del Programa Cubano de PN de HSC, ha permitido estimar la incidencia e incrementar el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. La PN ha posibilitado el diagnóstico precoz en la variedad perdedora de sal, contribuyendo a la disminución de la mortalidad infantil. El Programa ha favorecido a pacientes con formas virilizantes de la enfermedad, mediante la asignación correcta del sexo


Introduction: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (HSC) is the most common adrenal disorder in childhood and the most frequent cause of sexual ambiguity. The classic form, which represents the most severe causes of this deficit, is associated in 75 % with loss of salt. On the other hand, in the NB of the female sex that present severe degrees of virilization of the genitals. Objective: To present result of the application for ten years of the Cuban Neonatal Research Program of the HSC, supported by an inmmunoenzymatic procedure developed in Cuba. Result: In the period from January 2005 to December 2014, using the UMELISA 17 OH PROGESTERONA NEONATAL, 1 140882 RN were detected, for an incidence of 1:20373 RN. The coverage of the program has been increasing until2013 reaching 99.34 % of all Cuban RN. Conclusion: The existence of the Cuban HSC PN Program, has allowed estimating the incidence and increase knowledge of this disease in our country. PN has made possible the early diagnosis of patients with the salt losing variety, contributing to decrease in infant mortality nationwide. The Program has favored patients with virilizing form of the disease, through the correct assignment of sex


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Infant, Newborn , National Health Programs
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 81-89, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283557

ABSTRACT

La Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita (HSRC) corresponde a un grupo de defectos genéticos en la síntesis de cortisol. El 95% de ellas son debidas al déficit de 21-hidroxilasa por lo que nos referiremos solo a esta deficiencia. La hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita clásica (HSRC-C) debuta en recién nacidos o lactantes con insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria, diferentes grados de hiperandrogenismo clínico en mujeres y puede coexistir con hipotensión, hiperkalemia e hiponatremia si hay un déficit clínico de aldosterona. El objetivo de este artículo es actualizar el conocimiento y enfoques sugeridos para el manejo de la HSRC-C desde el inicio de sus controles en la etapa adulta. El diagnóstico diferencial en retrospectiva de la HSRC-C y la no clásica (HSRC-NC) a veces resulta difícil ya que esta enfermedad es un espectro fenotípico continuo. La insuficiencia suprarrenal y la dependencia a terapia corticoidal son los eventos principales para diferenciar estas dos patologías que tienen enfoques terapéuticos diferentes. El tratamiento de la HSRC-C en adultos abarca 2 objetivos primarios: la adecuada sustitución de la falla suprarrenal y el control de hiperandrogenismo mediante el uso de corticoides en sus dosis mínimas efectivas. En la mujer existen terapias complementarias para el control del hiperandrogenismo como anticonceptivos y otras que se encuentran en diferentes fases de investigación. Esto permite disminuir las dosis de corticoides en algunos casos. Es importante a la vez abordar tres objetivos secundarios: controlar el riesgo cardiometabólico propio de la enfermedad, evitar el sobre tratamiento corticoidal y manejar la infertilidad. La correcta monitorización del tratamiento en adultos tomando en cuenta los objetivos descritos permite una mejor calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Finalmente el consejo genético debe realizarse en todos los pacientes con HSRC que deseen fertilidad y en sus parejas. El estudio requiere de secuenciación del gen CYP21A2 y debe realizarse en un laboratorio de experiencia.


Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) are a group of genetic defects characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis. 95% of them are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. We will discuss only this enzyme's deficiency. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH-C) debuts in newborns or infants with primary adrenal insufficiency, some degree of clinical hyperandrogenism in newborn females, and can coexist with hypotension, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia if there is a clinical aldosterone deficiency. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge and suggested approaches for the management of CAH-C from the beginning of its controls in the adult stage. The retrospective differential diagnosis of CAH-C and non-classical (CAH-NC) is sometimes difficult because this disease is a continuous phenotypic spectrum. Adrenal insufficiency and dependence on corticosteroid therapy are the main events to differentiate these two pathologies that have different therapeutic approaches. In adults, the treatment of CAH-C must include 2 primary objectives: adequate the replacement of adrenal failure and control of hyperandrogenism, through the use of corticosteroids in their minimum effective doses. In women there are complementary therapies for the control of hyperandrogenism, such as contraceptives and others that are in different phases of research. This makes it possible to reduce the doses of corticosteroids in some cases. It is important at the same time to address three secondary objectives: control the cardiometabolic risk of the disease secondary to corticosteroid treatment, avoid corticosteroid overtreatment and manage infertility. The correct monitoring of treatment in adults and taking in to account the objectives described, allows a better quality of life in these patients. Finally, genetic counseling must be carried out in all patients planning for children, with any type of CAH and in their partners. The study requires sequencing of the CYP21A2 gene and must be performed in a certified laboratory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/therapy , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Hyperandrogenism/etiology , Hyperandrogenism/therapy , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Flutamide/therapeutic use , Genetic Counseling , Infertility/etiology , Infertility/therapy
20.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20180260, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286130

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o perfil vocal de indivíduos 46,XX com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Genética da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA). Método Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e exploratório, com corte transversal. A amostra foi de conveniência e participaram do estudo 28 voluntários, 14 diagnosticados com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, acompanhados pela equipe multiprofissional do Ambulatório de Genética da UFBA, e 14 indivíduos 46,XX sem alterações vocais e ausência de patologia de cunho endócrino e/ou genético. A coleta das vozes foi realizada individualmente, em um ambiente silencioso, com as participantes devidamente sentadas. Realizaram-se análises perceptivo-auditiva (CAPE-V) e acústica. Resultados Em relação ao julgamento qualitativo do pitch, verificou-se que oito (61,54%) pacientes do grupo com hiperplasia adrenal congênita apresentaram um padrão vocal agravado e 8 (61,54%) do grupo sem a doença apresentaram um padrão vocal agudizado. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos apenas para as medidas da análise perceptivo-auditiva (CAPE-V) grau geral (p = 0,01), rugosidade (p = 0,00) e pitch (p = 0,01). Os demais parâmetros investigados na análise acústica não diferiram significativamente (p > 0,05). Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou que indivíduos 46,XX com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, mesmo submetidos à terapêutica hormonal, apresentam qualidade vocal rugosa, pitch agravado e voz desviada.


ABSTRACT Purpose Describe the vocal profile of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients followed up at the Genetics Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University Bahia (GOC-UFBA). Methods This is a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 28 volunteers: 14 individuals diagnosed with CAH, followed up by the multiprofessional team of the GOC-UFBA, and 14 46,XX individuals without vocal changes and endocrine and/or genetic pathologies. Voice sample collection was performed individually in a quiet environment with participants properly seated. Acoustic (PRAAT program) and auditory-perceptual (Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice - CAPE-V) analyses were conducted. Results In the qualitative assessment of pitch, eight (61.54%) patients in the CAH group showed low vocal pattern and eight (61.54%) individuals in the group without CAH presented high vocal pattern. There were statistically significant differences between the groups only for the following vocal attributes of the CAPE-V: overall severity (p=0.01), roughness (p=0.00), and pitch (p=0.01). No statistically significant difference was observed in the other acoustic parameters investigated (p>0.05). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 46,XX CAH individuals, even when submitted to hormone therapy, present rough, low, deviant voice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Voice , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality , Cross-Sectional Studies
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