Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 51
Filter
1.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20180260, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286130

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o perfil vocal de indivíduos 46,XX com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Genética da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA). Método Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e exploratório, com corte transversal. A amostra foi de conveniência e participaram do estudo 28 voluntários, 14 diagnosticados com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, acompanhados pela equipe multiprofissional do Ambulatório de Genética da UFBA, e 14 indivíduos 46,XX sem alterações vocais e ausência de patologia de cunho endócrino e/ou genético. A coleta das vozes foi realizada individualmente, em um ambiente silencioso, com as participantes devidamente sentadas. Realizaram-se análises perceptivo-auditiva (CAPE-V) e acústica. Resultados Em relação ao julgamento qualitativo do pitch, verificou-se que oito (61,54%) pacientes do grupo com hiperplasia adrenal congênita apresentaram um padrão vocal agravado e 8 (61,54%) do grupo sem a doença apresentaram um padrão vocal agudizado. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos apenas para as medidas da análise perceptivo-auditiva (CAPE-V) grau geral (p = 0,01), rugosidade (p = 0,00) e pitch (p = 0,01). Os demais parâmetros investigados na análise acústica não diferiram significativamente (p > 0,05). Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou que indivíduos 46,XX com hiperplasia adrenal congênita, mesmo submetidos à terapêutica hormonal, apresentam qualidade vocal rugosa, pitch agravado e voz desviada.


ABSTRACT Purpose Describe the vocal profile of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients followed up at the Genetics Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University Bahia (GOC-UFBA). Methods This is a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 28 volunteers: 14 individuals diagnosed with CAH, followed up by the multiprofessional team of the GOC-UFBA, and 14 46,XX individuals without vocal changes and endocrine and/or genetic pathologies. Voice sample collection was performed individually in a quiet environment with participants properly seated. Acoustic (PRAAT program) and auditory-perceptual (Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice - CAPE-V) analyses were conducted. Results In the qualitative assessment of pitch, eight (61.54%) patients in the CAH group showed low vocal pattern and eight (61.54%) individuals in the group without CAH presented high vocal pattern. There were statistically significant differences between the groups only for the following vocal attributes of the CAPE-V: overall severity (p=0.01), roughness (p=0.00), and pitch (p=0.01). No statistically significant difference was observed in the other acoustic parameters investigated (p>0.05). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that 46,XX CAH individuals, even when submitted to hormone therapy, present rough, low, deviant voice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Voice , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 197-202, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125070

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a deficiency of enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis. In more than 90% of cases, CAH is secondary to deleterious mutations in the CYP21A2 gene leading to 21-hydroxilase deficiency (21OHD). The CYP21A2 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21·3) and encodes the cytochrome P450C21 enzyme. Neonatal screening programs detect the classic forms of CAH-21OHD quantifying 17OH-progesterone in dried blood spots (DBS). This test is very sensitive, but it has a low specificity, requiring a second sample to confirm the result. In these cases, a second-tier test in the same sample may be useful. Our aim was to evaluate a DNA extraction method from DBS and assess the performance of such DNA in the molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene mutations. Twelve individuals, who presumably had CAH based on the initial neonatal screening results, were analyzed using DNA extracted from freshly collected blood on EDTA and DBS. The CYP21A2 gene was analyzed by automated sequencing of all exons and intron boundaries and MLPA analysis in DBS. Molecular analysis results from both extraction methods were compared. In this study, we show that DNA extracted from neonatal screening DBS is a useful tool to define CYP21A2 gene mutations in 21-OHD diagnostic confirmation for the newborn screening program and that its results are comparable to traditional genotyping.


La hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC) es un desorden autosómico recesivo producido por la deficiencia de alguna de las enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de cortisol. Más del 90% se debe a mutaciones en el gen CYP21A2 que genera deficiencia de 21 hidroxilasa (21OHD). Este gen se encuentra en el brazo corto del cromosoma 6 (6p21·3) y codifica para la enzima citocromo P450C21. Los programas de pesquisa neonatal detectan la forma clásica de la HSC-21OHD cuantificando 17OH-progesterona en gota de sangre en papel de filtro (GSPF). Este test es muy sensible, pero tiene baja especificidad , por lo que se utiliza una segunda muestra para confirmar el resultado. En estos casos, una segunda determinación en la misma muestra podría ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el método de extracción de ADN y posterior análisis molecular del gen CYP21A2 en muestras de GSPF. Analizamos doce individuos presumiblemente afectados por HSC en la pesquisa neonatal usando ADN extraído de sangre fresca recolectada sobre EDTA y de GSPF. Realizamos el análisis del gen CYP21A2 mediante secuenciación automática de todos los exones y regiones intrónicas flanqueantes y MLPA en GSPF, y comparamos los resultados con ambos métodos de extracción. En este estudio demostramos que el ADN extraído de GSPF es una herramienta muy útil para analizar las mutaciones del gen CYP21A2 en la confirmación diagnóstica de 21-OHD para los programas de pesquisa neonatal y que los resultados son comparables con la genotipificación tradicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Mutation , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Gestational Age , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/analysis , Alleles
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 282-290, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the results obtained in a neonatal screening program after its implementation and to assess the clinical and molecular profiles of confirmed and suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Newborns with suspected disease due to high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and adjusted for birth weight were selected. Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms) was diagnosed by an increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels as confirmed in the retest, clinical evaluation, and genotype determined by SNaPshot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: After 24 months, 15 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases were diagnosed in a total of 217,965 newborns, with an estimated incidence of 1:14,531. From 132 patients, seven non-classical and 14 heterozygous patients were screened for CYP21A2 mutations, and 96 patients presented false positives with wild type CYP21A2. On retest, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were found in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients and showed significant correlation with genotype-related classical genital adrenal hyperplasia. The most frequent mutations were IVS2-13A/C>G followed by gene deletion or rearrangement events in the classical form. In non-classical and heterozygous diseases, p.Val282Leu was the most common mutation. Conclusions: The results underscore the effectiveness of congenital adrenal hyperplasia neonatal screening in the public health system and indicate that the adopted strategy was appropriate. The second sample collection along with genotyping of suspected cases helped to properly diagnose both severe and milder cases and delineate them from false positive patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever os resultados obtidos em um programa de triagem neonatal após sua implementação e avaliar os perfis clínicos e moleculares de casos confirmados e suspeitos de hiperplasia adrenal congênita. Métodos: Foi feito um estudo transversal. Recém-nascidos com suspeita da doença devido aos altos níveis de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona e ajustados pelo peso ao nascer foram selecionados. A hiperplasia adrenal congênita clássica (forma perdedora de sal e forma virilizante simples) foi diagnosticada por um aumento nos níveis de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona confirmado no reteste, avaliação clínica e genótipo determinado com o uso do ensaio SNaPshot e amplificação multiplex de sondas dependente de ligação. Resultados: Após 24 meses, 15 casos clássicos de hiperplasia adrenal congênita foram diagnosticados em 217.965 recém-nascidos, com uma incidência estimada de 1:14.531. De 132 pacientes, sete não clássicos e 14 heterozigotos foram submetidos à triagem para mutações no gene CYP21A2 e 96 pacientes apresentaram resultados falso-positivos com CYP21A2 do tipo selvagem. No reteste, níveis aumentados de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona foram encontrados em pacientes com hiperplasia adrenal congênita clássica e mostraram correlação significativa com HAC clássica relacionada ao genótipo. As mutações mais frequentes foram IVS2-13A/C>G, seguidas de deleção gênica ou eventos de rearranjo na forma clássica. Em casos de doenças não clássicas e heterozigose, a mutação p.Val282Leu foi a mais comum. Conclusões: Os resultados ressaltam a eficácia da triagem neonatal para a hiperplasia adrenal congênita no sistema público de saúde e indicam que a estratégia adotada foi adequada. A segunda coleta de amostras, juntamente com a genotipagem dos casos suspeitos, ajudou a diagnosticar adequadamente os casos graves e mais leves e diferenciá-los de pacientes com resultado falso-positivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/blood , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Phenotype , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/epidemiology , Genotype , Mutation
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 633-636, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887602

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS −3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH. Surprisingly, at 10.8 years, his bone age had advanced to 13 years, but physical exam, LH and testosterone levels remained prepubertal. An ACTH stimulation test disclosed a non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency explaining the bone age advancement and, therefore, treatment with cortisone acetate was added. The genetic diagnosis of a homozygous mutation in GHRHR (p.Leu144His), a homozygous CYP21A2 mutation (p.Val282Leu) and CYP21A1P pseudogene duplication was established by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and whole-exome sequencing. We report the unusual clinical presentation of a patient born to consanguineous parents with two recessive endocrine diseases: non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia modifying the classical GH deficiency phenotype. We used a method of paired read mapping aided by neighbouring mis-matches to overcome the challenges of exome-sequencing in the presence of a pseudogene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child , Bone Diseases, Developmental/genetics , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Receptors, Neuropeptide/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Dwarfism, Pituitary/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Bone Diseases, Developmental/etiology , Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Consanguinity , Dwarfism, Pituitary/complications , Mutation
6.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 4(2): 313-317, oct.- 2013. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-884621

ABSTRACT

La Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita (HSC) es una enfermedad endocrina genética. En el 90% de los casos es causada por mutaciones en el gen CYP21A2, que codifica la enzima esteroide adrenal 21-hidroxilasa (21-OH) implicada en la esteroidogénesis. Esto provoca hipersecreción de la hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH), llevando a la producción anormal- mente elevada de andrógenos suprarrenales. Se trata de un recién nacido con genitales ambiguos caracterizados por hipertrofia de clítoris, con la piel hiperpigmentada en el área genital, fusión labio escrotal en línea media y seno urogenital abajo del falo o clítoris de aproximadamente 1 mm de diámetro. No se palparon gónadas. El estudio sonográfico reportó glándulas suprarrenales dentro de los límites normales, con útero de forma y tamaño normal. No se observó presencia de testículos. El diagnóstico oportuno permitió la instauración del tratamiento en los primeros días de vida con la prevención subsecuente de complicaciones...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Congenital Abnormalities/genetics , Cytochrome P450 Family 21 , Hyperpigmentation/complications
7.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(7): 562-565, out. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690596

ABSTRACT

Mutation on NROB1 (DAX1) gene can cause different phenotypes of adrenal insufficiency in infancy. Long-term evolution of these patients shows that it is possible to have an association with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In this article we describe the evolution of a patient with NROB1 gene mutation, diagnosed with a mild form of adrenal insufficiency, and we highlight the presence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and short stature, besides the presence of attention deficit disorder. Such associations should make physicians aware during the follow-up of patients with this disease.


Mutações no gene NROB1 (DAX1) podem levar a quadros de insuficiência adrenal com diferentes formas de apresentação na infância. A evolução a longo prazo desses pacientes mostra que pode haver associação com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico. Neste artigo, relatamos a evolução de um paciente com uma mutação do gene NROB1, diagnosticado com uma forma leve de insuficiência adrenal, na qual chamamos a atenção para a evolução com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico e baixa estatura final, além de apresentar transtorno de déficit de atenção. Tais associações devem ser motivo de atenção para os médicos no seguimento de pacientes portadores dessa alteração.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Adrenal Insufficiency/genetics , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Hypogonadism/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Penis/growth & development , Testosterone/administration & dosage
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(4): 297-302, jul.-ago. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1165166

ABSTRACT

StAR facilitates cholesterol entry into the mitochondria as part of the transduceosome complex. Recessive mutations in the gen STAR cause classic and nonclassic congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. The aim of the study was to analyze the molecular consequences of a novel heterozygous STAR mutation in a 46,XY patient with ambiguous genitalia and adrenal insufficiency. We found a de novo heterozygous IVS-2A>G STAR mutation and the reported heterozygous p.G146A SF1 polymorphism with normal CYP11A1, FDXR, FDX1, VDAC1 and TSPO genes. RT-PCR and sequencing from patient’s testicular RNA showed a -exon2 transcript and the wild-type (WT) transcript. Both 37 kDa precursor and 30 kDa mature protein were detected in COS-7 cell transfected with mutant and WT plasmids. Immunofluorescence showed almost no co-localization of mitochondria and mutant protein (delta22-59StAR). Delta22-59StAR activity was 65±13


of WT. Cotransfection with WT and delta22-59StAR plasmids reduced WT activity by 62.0


± 13.9. Novel splice-junction heterozygous STAR mutation (IVS-2A>G) resulted in the in-frame loss of amino acids 22 to 59 in the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal. A misfolded p.G22_L59delStAR might interfere with WT StAR activity by blocking the transduceosome complex, causing an autosomal dominant form of StAR deficiency, explaining the clinical phenotype.


Subject(s)
Phosphoproteins/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Mutation/genetics , /genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , COS Cells , Phenotype , Humans , Adrenal Insufficiency/genetics , Pedigree , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infant, Newborn
9.
Clinics ; 68(2): 147-152, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The protocols for glucocorticoid replacement in children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency are well established; however, the current recommendation for mineralocorticoid replacement is general and suggests individualized dose adjustments. This study aims to retrospectively review the 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose regimen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient children who have been adequately treated during infancy. METHODS: Twenty-three salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients with good anthropometric and hormonal control were followed in our center since diagnosis. The assessments of cortisone acetate and 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical and hormonal levels were rigorously evaluated in pre-determined intervals from diagnosis to two years of age. RESULTS: The 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses decreased over time during the first and second years of life; the median fludrocortisone doses were 200 µg at 0-6 months, 150 µg at 7-18 months and 125 µg at 19-24 months. The cortisone acetate dose per square meter was stable during follow-up (median = 16.8 mg/m²/day). The serum sodium, potassium and plasma rennin activity levels during treatment were normal, except in the first month of life, when periodic 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose adjustments were made. CONCLUSIONS: The mineralocorticoid needs of salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients are greater during early infancy and progressively decrease during the first two years of life, which confirms that a partial aldosterone resistance exists during this time. Our study proposes a safety regiment for mineralocorticoid replacement during this critical developmental period.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Fludrocortisone/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Anthropometry , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Cortisone/administration & dosage , Cortisone/analogs & derivatives , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(8): 496-500, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660256

ABSTRACT

We report a case of adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) due to a novel DAX1 mutation. A 19-month-old boy with hyperpigmentation and failure to thrive came to our service for investigation. Three brothers of the patient had died due to adrenal failure, and a maternal cousin had adrenal insufficiency. Adrenoleukodystrophy was excluded. MRI showed normal pituitary and hypothalamus. Plasma hormone evaluation revealed high ACTH (up to 2,790 pg/mL), and low levels of androstenedione, DHEA-S, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol. At 14 years of age the patient was still prepubescent, his weight was 43.6 kg (SDS: -0.87) and his height was 161 cm (SDS: -0.36), with normal body proportions. In the GnRH test, basal and maximum values of LH and FSH were respectively 0.6/2.1 and < 1.0/< 1.0 U/L. Molecular investigation identified a novel mutation that consists of a deletion of codon 372 (AAC; asparagine) in exon 1 of DAX1. This mutation was not found in a study of 200 alleles from normal individuals. Prediction site analysis indicated that this alteration, located in the DAX1 ligand-binding domain, may damage DAX1 protein. We hypothesize that the novel (p.Asp372del) DAX1 mutation might be able to cause a disruption of DAX1 function, and is probably involved in the development of AHC and HH in this patient. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(8):496-500.


Relatamos um caso de hipoplasia adrenal congênita (HAC) e hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico (HH) causado por uma nova mutação do gene DAX1. Paciente do sexo masculino com 19 meses de idade, hiperpigmentação e desenvolvimento inadequado foi encaminhado ao nosso serviço. Antecedente familiar de três irmãos falecidos por falência da adrenal, e um primo materno portador de insuficiência adrenal. Excluída a hipótese de adrenoleucodistrofia. A RM demonstrou hipófise e hipotálamo normais. Os níveis de hormônios plasmáticos mostraram alta concentração de ACTH (até 2.790 pg/mL) e baixos níveis de androstenediona, DHEA-S, 11-deoxicortisol e cortisol. Aos 14 anos de idade, o paciente ainda era pré-púbere, com peso de 43,6 kg (SDS: -0,87) e altura de 161 cm (SDS: -0,36), proporcionado. O teste do GnRH mostrou níveis basais e máximos de LH e FSH, respectivamente, iguais a 0,6/2,1 e < 1,0/< 1,0 U/L. A análise molecular identificou uma nova mutação que consiste da deleção do códon 372 (AAC; asparagina) no éxon 1 do gene DAX1. Essa mutação não foi encontrada em 200 alelos de indivíduos normais. A análise no site PredictProtein indicou que essa alteração, localizada no domínio de ligação do DAX1, pode danificar a proteína. Nossa hipótese é que essa nova mutação (p.Asp372del) do gene DAX1 pode levar a uma alteração na função da proteína DAX1 e está provavelmente envolvida no desenvolvimento da HAC e HH nesse paciente. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(8):496-500.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Hypogonadism/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree
11.
Diagnóstico (Perú) ; 50(4): 192-195, oct.-dic. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-646579

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La deficiencia de 21-hidroxilasa es la causa de cerca del 95% de casos de hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita y en nuestro medio es responsable de 1 de cada 3000 consultas en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. El gen que codifica la producción de enzima 21OH es el CYP21B está localizado en el brazo corto del cromosoma 6. Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de las principales mutaciones en pacientes peruanos con las formas clásica y no clásica de HSC con deficiencia de 21-hidroxilasa, así como las deleciones del gen CYP21B. Materiales y pacientes: La técnica utilizada para el estudio genético fue la de la polymerase chain reaction (PCR) y se analizaron las mutaciones y delecciones más frecuentes encontradas tanto en Japón como en los EE.UU. de NA. Se han estudiado 20 pacientes que fueron diagnosticados y seguidos en el Servicio de Endocrinología del Instituto de Salud del Niño, 13 padres, 13 madres y 5 hermanos para el estudio genético. Cuando el padre estaba ausente se estudió un familiar de la línea paterna de sexo masculino abuelo o tío, en nuestro estudio se hizo con un abuelo paterno. Resultados: De los 20 pacientes estudiados, 11 fueron de sexo femenino y 9 de sexo masculino; de otro lado, 16 pacientes eran portadores de la variedad perdedora de sal y 4 de la forma virilizante. Tres hermanos de los pacientes no estuvieron afectados y 2 presentaron alteraciones genéticas y cuadro clínico (nacieron cuando se realizaba este estudio). Los pacientes portadores de HSC en el Perú presentan en la variedad perdedora de sal como mutaciones más frecuentes la I172N (7,42%), la P30L (7,42%) y la R356W (7,42%), 7,42% corresponden a deleciones y 21,4% a alteraciones genéticas no detectadas con las técnicas utilizadas; en el caso de la variedad virilizante simple 14,28% de mutaciones corresponden al alelo V28IL, 52,14% a deleciones y 28,57 a alteraciones genéticas no detectadas con la técnica empleada...


Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 95% of cases is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and of one of every 3000 consultations in the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru. Deficiency of 21OH is related to mutations in gene CYP21B, located in chromosome 6p. Objectives: To assess the frequency of the main disorders of the CYP 21B gene in peruvian patients with classic and non classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Methods: 20 patients with CAH of the Endocrinology unit of the IESN were studied. Also, 13 fathers, 13 mothers and 5 brothers where studied. In one case, the paternal grandfather was studied in absence of the father. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used in order to determine the mutations and deletions of the samples. The results were compared with those of similar studies in Japan and USA. Results: The frequency by sex in the 20 patients was: 11 females and 9 males. 16 patients had salt loss- CAH and 4 had simple virilizing CAH. Gene disorders and clinical characteristics of CAH were detected in 2 siblings (both were born during the study). The most frequent allele mutations found in salt loss-CAH were I172N (7,42%), P30L (7,42%) and R356W (7,42%). Deletions were detected in 7,42% of cases and unknown gene disorders in 21,4%. In the virilizing CAH cases, the most frequent allele mutation was V281L (14,28), deletions were present in 52,14% and were detected in 28,57% of cases the gene anomaly could not be detected. Conclusions: The frequency of allele mutations in CAH was similar to those found in Japan and USA. The unknown gene disorders may be mutations the gene anomaly could not be detected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Family , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Patients , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Clinics ; 66(8): 1361-1366, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598376

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes glucocorticoid deficiency and increased androgen production. Treatment is based on glucocorticoid replacement; however, interindividual variability in the glucocorticoid dose required to achieve adequate hormonal control has been observed. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphic variants involved inglucocorticoid action and/or metabolism and the mean daily glucocorticoid dose in 21-hydroxylase deficiency patients. METHODS: We evaluated 53 patients with classical forms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency who were receiving cortisone acetate. All patients were between four and six years of age and had normal androgen levels. RESULTS: The P450 oxidoreductase A503V, HSD11B1 rs12086634, and CYP3A7*1C variants were found in 19 percent, 11.3 percent and 3.8 percent of the patients, respectively. The mean ± SD glucocorticoid dose in patients with the CYP3A7*1C and wild-type alleles was 13.9 ± 0.8 and 19.5 ± 3.2 mg/m²/d, respectively. We did not identify an association between the P450 oxidoreductase or HSD11B1 allelic variants and the mean glucocorticoid dose. CONCLUSION: Patients carrying the CYP3A7*1C variant required a significantly lower mean glucocorticoid dose. Indeed, the CYP3A7*1C allele accounted for 20 percent of the variability in the cortisone acetate dose. The analysis of genes involved in glucocorticoid metabolism may be useful in the optimization of treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Cortisone/analogs & derivatives , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/enzymology , Cortisone/administration & dosage , Hormone Replacement Therapy
13.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(9): 826-832, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) Characterize serum (S) and urinary (U) steroid metabolites in complete CYP17 deficiency (cCYP17D); (2) analyze the relative 17α-hydroxylase (17OH) and 17,20-lyase (17,20L) activities in vivo; and (3) comparedata from the two most prevalent mutations in Brazil. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 20 genotyped cCYP17D patients from a previously reported cohort were homozygous for W406R or R362C; 11 controls were CYP17 wild types (WT). WT and cCYP17D patients had S and U samples drawn to measure: cortisol (F), corticosterone (B), deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 18OH-B, 18OH-DOC, and 17OHP; and tetrahydro (TH)-B, THA, THDOC, THF+5α-THF, TH-cortisone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5-pregnenediol, 17OH-pregnenolone and pregnanetriol. RESULTS: Compared to WT, cCYP17D patients had marked elevations of B, DOC, 18OH-B and 18OH-DOC, whereas 17OHP, F and adrenal androgens (AA) were reduced; U steroids parallel S findings. Metabolite ratios revealed that both 17OH and 17,20L activities were impaired in cCYP17D. There were nodifferences between W406R andR362C mutations. CONCLUSIONS: cCYP17D patients show parallel overproduction/overexcretion of 17-deoxysteroids, and marked reduction of F and AA. In addition to 17OH, 17,20-L activity was also impaired in cCYP17D. W406 and R362C mutations disclose similar Sand U patterns.


OBJETIVOS: (1) Caracterizar os esteroides séricos (S) e urinários (U) na deficiência completa da CYP17 (DcCYP17); (2) analisar as atividades da 17α-hidroxilase (17OH) e 17,20-liase (17, 20 L) in vivo; e (3) comparar as duas mutações mais prevalentes no Brasil. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: 20 pacientes genotipados para a DcCYP17, de uma coorte anterior, eram homozigotos para W406R ou R362C (8 cada); 11 controles eram CYP17 wild types (WT). Amostras de S e U foram colhidas dos WT e pacientes para dosagem de: cortisol (F), corticosterona (B), deoxicorticosterona (DOC), 18-OH-B, 18OH-DOC e 17OHP; e tetraidro(TH)-B, THA, TH-DOC, THF+5α-THF, THE, androsterona, etiocolanolona, 5-pregnenediol, 17OH-pregnenolona e pregnanetriol. RESULTADOS: Comparados aos WT, os pacientes com DcCYP17 revelaram elevações acentuadas de B, DOC, 18OHB e 18OHDOC, enquanto 17OHP, F e andrógenos adrenais (AA) estavam reduzidos. Os esteroides na U acompanham os achados no S. As relações de metabólitos mostraram que as atividades de 17OH e 17,20L estavam reduzidas em pacientes com DcCYP17. Não houve diferenças entre pacientes com as mutações W406R e R362C. CONCLUSÕES: Na DcCYP17, a produção e a excreção dos 17-deoxiesteroides estão aumentadas em paralelo, em contraste com a reduzida produção/excreção de F e AA. As atividades da 17OH e 17,20-L estão diminuídas na DcCYP17. As mutações W406 e R362C apresentam achados semelhantes em S e U.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/urine , /urine , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Androgens/urine , Case-Control Studies , Hydrocortisone/urine , Mutation/genetics , /genetics
14.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(8): 711-716, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578344

ABSTRACT

In 2004, Costa-Santos and cols. reported 24 patients from 19 Brazilian families with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency and showed that p.W406R and p.R362C corresponded to 50 percent and 32 percent of CYP17A1 mutant alleles, respectively. The present report describes clinical and molecular data of six patients from three inbred Brazilian families with 17α-hydroxlyse deficiency. All patients had hypogonadism, amenorrhea and hypertension at diagnosis. Two sisters were found to be 46,XY with both gonads palpable in the inguinal region. All patients presented hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, with high levels of ACTH (> 104 ng/mL), suppressed plasmatic renin activity, low levels of potassium (< 2.8 mEq/L) and elevated progesterone levels (> 4.4 ng/mL). Three of them, including two sisters, were homozygous for p.W406R mutation and the other three (two sisters and one cousin) were homozygous for p.R362C. The finding of p.W406R and p.R362C in the CYP17A1 gene here reported in additional families, confirms them as the most frequent mutations causing complete combined 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency in Brazilian patients.


Em 2004, segundo Costa-Santos e cols., p.W406R e p.R362C correspondiam a 50 por cento e 32 por cento dos alelos mutantes do gene CYP17A1, respectivamente, em 24 pacientes de 19 famílias brasileiras com deficiência da 17α-hidroxilase. Apresentamos os dados clνnicos e moleculares de seis pacientes de três famílias consanguíneas brasileiras com deficiência da 17α-hidroxilase. Todas as pacientes apresentavam hipogonadismo, amenorreia e hipertensão ao diagnóstico. Duas irmãs tinham cariótipo 46,XY, ambas com gônadas palpáveis na região inguinal. Todas tinham hipogonadismo hipergonadotrófico, com nível aumentado de ACTH (> 104 ng/mL), atividade de renina plasmática suprimida, baixos níveis de potássio (< 2,8 mEq/L) e progesterona aumentada (> 4,4 ng/mL). Três delas, incluindo duas irmãs, apresentaram homozigose para a mutação p.W406R e as outras três (duas irmãs e uma prima) foram homozigotas para a mutação p.R362C. A recorrência das mutações p.W406R e p.R362C no gene CYP17A1 aqui relatada em famílias adicionais confirma que essas são as mais frequentes causadoras do fenótipo completo da deficiência combinada de 17α-hidroxilase/17,20-liase em pacientes brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , /genetics , Alleles , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , Brazil , Mutation , Pedigree
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(8): 744-748, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578350

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease and the second most common form of CAH in Brazil. We describe the case of a Brazilian patient with CYP17 deficiency (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency) caused by a homozygous p.R96W mutation on exon 1 of the CYP17 gene, an unusual genotype in Brazilian patients with this form of CAH. The patient, raised as a normal female, sought medical care for lack of pubertal signs and primary amenorrhea at the age of 16 years. At evaluation, the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, hypertension and hypokalemia were observed. We emphasize the recognition of CYP17 deficiency in the differential diagnosis of cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism and hypertension in young patients who need specific treatment for both situations.


A hiperplasia adrenal congênita (HAC), em razão da deficiência de 17α-hidroxilase/17,20-liase, é uma doença autossômica recessiva rara e a segunda causa mais comum de HAC no Brasil. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente brasileiro portador da deficiência 17α-hidroxilase/17,20- liase (CYP17) em homozigose para a mutação p.R96W no éxon 1 do gene da CYP17A1, uma mutação incomum entre os casos brasileiros descritos com essa forma de HAC. Esse paciente, criado como um indivíduo normal do sexo feminino, procurou atendimento por ausência de sinais puberais e amenorreia primária aos 16 anos de idade. Durante a avaliação, constataram-se um cariótipo 46,XY e a presença de hipertensão e hipocalemia. Enfatizamos o reconhecimento da deficiência da CYP17 dentre os possíveis diagnósticos em um paciente jovem com hipogonadismo hipergonadotrófico e hipertensão, os quais necessitam de tratamento particularizado para ambas as situações.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Hypogonadism/genetics , Mutation/genetics , /genetics , Brazil , Homozygote , Hypertension/genetics
16.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(8): 768-774, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578354

ABSTRACT

Type II 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase (3β-HSD2), encoded by the HSD3B2 gene, is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of all the classes of steroid hormones. Deleterious mutations in the HSD3B2 gene cause the classical deficiency of 3β-HSD2, which is a rare autosomal recessive disease that leads to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH is the most frequent cause of ambiguous genitalia and adrenal insufficiency in newborn infants with variable degrees of salt losing. Here we report the molecular and structural analysis of the HSD3B2 gene in a 46,XY child, who was born from consanguineous parents, and presented with ambiguous genitalia and salt losing. The patient carries a homozygous nucleotide c.665C>A change in exon 4 that putatively substitutes the proline at codon 222 for glutamine. Molecular homology modeling of normal and mutant 3β-HSD2 enzymes emphasizes codon 222 as an important residue for the folding pattern of the enzyme and validates a suitable model for analysis of new mutations.


A enzima 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase do tipo 2 (3β-HSD2), codificada pelo gene HSD3B2, é importante na biossíntese de todas as classes de hormônios esteroides. As mutações no gene HSD3B2 podem causar deficiência da 3β-HSD2 da forma clássica. É de herança autossômica recessiva e uma das causas mais raras de hiperplasia congênita da adrenal (HCA). A deficiência dessa enzima leva frequentemente à ambiguidade genital e à insuficiência da adrenal em recém-nascidos com vários níveis de perda de sal. Neste trabalho, foi feito o estudo estrutural e molecular do gene HSD3B2 gene em um paciente 46,XY, filho de pais consanguíneos, com ambiguidade genital e perda de sal. O paciente é homozigoto para a troca nucleotídica c.665C>A no éxon 4, que putativamente leva à substituição de uma prolina do códon 222 por uma glutamina. A modelagem molecular por homologia das enzimas 3β-HSD2 normal e mutantes ressaltou que a prolina no códon 222 é um resíduo importante no enovelamento da enzima e validou um modelo adequado para avaliações de novas mutações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , /deficiency , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Progesterone Reductase/genetics , /genetics , Codon , Homozygote , Mutation, Missense
18.
Med. infant ; 17(2): 109-114, Junio 2010. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1247536

ABSTRACT

La forma no clásica, post natal, de la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita tiene una incidencia de 1 en 1000 en la población general y afecta al 6% de las mujeres hirsutas. En este estudio se estableció la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la respuesta de los niveles séricos de 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP4) al estímulo agudo con ACTH en 203 pacientes de ambos sexos, pre y post puberales, con hiperandrogenismo, en los cuales se analizó si tenían una alteración molecular del gen CYP21A2. Posteriormente al estudio molecular, los pacientes fueron clasificados en tres grupos de acuerdo al genotipo: Gr0, n=61: ningún alelo mutado (no portadores de mutación); Gr1, n=55: un alelo mutado (portadores) y Gr2, n=87: dos alelos mutados (afectados). Por análisis de regresión logística (curvas ROC) se compararon los valores basales del Gr2 vs Gr0 y se obtuvo un valor de 17OHP4 de 7,2 ng/ml con una sensibilidad del 83% y una especificidad del 85%. Se sugiere entonces que en los pacientes con este nivel basal no se debería realizar el test de ACTH, y habría que confirmar el diagnóstico con el estudio molecular. Los niveles 17OHP4 a los 60 minutos post estímulo con ACTH mayores a 20 ng/ml son confirmatorios del diagnóstico con 84% de sensibilidad y 88% de especificidad. No sería necesario entonces realizar estudios moleculares. Un valor de 15,6 ng/ml diferencia Gr2 de Gr0 con una sensibilidad del 89% y una especificidad del 95%. Este es un buen valor predictivo, pero el análisis molecular no debería obviarse en aquellos casos en los que exista una fuerte sospecha clínica. (AU)


The incidence of non classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is 1:1000 in the general population and it is present in 6% of hirsute women. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP4) response to acute ACTH stimulation was evaluated in 203 prepubertal and pubertal patients of the two sexes with hyperandrogenism, in whom the CYP21A2 gene was analyzed. After molecular analysis patients were divided in 3 groups according to genotype: Gr0, n=61, no mutated allele (no mutation carrier); Gr1, n=55, one mutated allele (carrier); and Gr2, n=81, two mutated alleles (affected patient). Using logistic regression analysis (ROC curves), basal values in Gr2 vs. Gr0 were compared and a cutoff value of 7.2 ng/ml was defined to separate groups, with 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. It is suggested then that in patients with levels higher than 7,2 no ACTH test is necessary and molecular analysis is required to confirm diagnosis. Serum 17OHP4 values above 20 ng/ml 60 minutes after ACTH are confirmatory of diagnosis, with 84% sensitivity and 88% specificity. No molecular studies should be necessary. A 15.6 ng/ml cutoff value is able to differentiate Gr2 from Gr0, with 89% sensitivity and 95% specificity. It is a good predictive value, but carrying out molecular analysis is only advisable if clinical evidence is strong (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Hyperandrogenism/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine , Genotype
19.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 21(1)ene.-abr. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-575499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la hiperplasia adrenal congénita es un trastorno hereditario de la esteroidogénesis suprarrenal, trasmitido por mutaciones genéticas con carácter autosómico recesivo, las cuales afectan las enzimas que intervienen en la biosíntesis del cortisol. La causa la constituye en 90 a 95 por ciento de los casos la deficiencia de la enzima 21 hidroxilasa. OBJETIVO: exponer la experiencia de los autores de este trabajo en la forma no clásica de esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: se realizó la caracterización de 7 pacientes diagnosticados en la sala de endocrinología pediátrica del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología, ubicada en el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro, durante el período 1998-2008. Todos los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino. RESULTADOS: los síntomas se iniciaron a una edad promedio de 8,8 años y más de la mitad de los casos presentaron pubarquia precoz. La menarquia se produjo a una edad media de 10,7 años. Se logró el diagnóstico bioquímico al obtenerse valores elevados de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (en condiciones basales). Se emplearon distintas modalidades de tratamiento según la edad de cada paciente y los síntomas predominantes en cada caso. CONCLUSIONES: se corroboró la mayor frecuencia de diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el sexo femenino, así como la importancia del estudio y el seguimiento ante un paciente con pubarquia precoz(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder of suprarenal esteroidogenesis, transmitted by genetic mutations with a autosomal recessive character affecting the enzymes intervening in cortisol biosynthesis. In the 90 to 95 percent of cases, the cause is a deficiency of Hydroxylase enzyme 21. OBJECTIVE: to show the current paper authors' experience in the non-classic way of this entity. METHODS: we made a characterization of 7 female patients diagnosed in the Children Endocrinology Ward of the National Institute of Endocrinology located in the Children Hospital, Cerro municipality during 1998-2008. RESULTS: symptoms started at a mean age of 8,8 years and more the a half of cases had an early pubarche. Menarche appeared at a mean age of 19,7 years. We made a biochemical diagnosis achieving higher values of 17 hydroxyprogesterone (in basal conditions). Different treatment modalities were used according to each patient and predominant symptoms in each case. CONCLUSIONS: we verified the great frequency of this entity in female sex, as well as the study and follow-up significance in face of a patient presenting early pubarche(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Oligomenorrhea/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Hirsutism/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 3(1): 36-42, ene. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-610310

ABSTRACT

Nonclassical adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is caused by a deficiency in the activity of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme and is the most common autosomal recessive disorder. The clinical features of the disease sre highly variable, and therefore the diagnosis may be overseen. The disorder is characterized by hyperandrogenism of adrenal origin that may become evident during childhood, adolescence or adulthood. The symptoms vary from premature pubarche, mestrual disturbances, hirsutism and virilization to those cases without any clinical evidence of the disease, as described in the cryptic form. The diagnostic approach includes an initial measurement of plasmatic 17OH-progesterone (17OHP) and androgen levels, and an ACTH test in those with elevated baseline 17OHP. The definitive diagnosis of this entity is performed with the documentation of abnormalities in both alleles of the CYP21A2 gene. This paper reviews the clinical, molecular and treatment of patients with NC-CAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , /analysis , Androgens/analysis , /genetics , Genetic Testing , Genotype , Hyperandrogenism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Infertility , Mutation , Puberty, Precocious
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL