Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 54
Filter
1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1068-1074, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727656

ABSTRACT

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Myosins/metabolism , Taurine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Cimetidine/pharmacology , Diphenhydramine/pharmacology , Enteric Nervous System/drug effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Jejunum/physiology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Taurine/antagonists & inhibitors , Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 61(2): 206-210, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582713

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Há evidências de que a passagem de informações nociceptivas pelo corno posterior da medula espinhal (CPME) seguindo para níveis rostrais do sistema nervoso central sofre profundas influências excitatórias e inibitórias. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar os efeitos da metissergida, da fentolamina e da fentolamina associada à metissergida, administrados por via subaracnoidea, sobre as fases I, intermediária e II do teste da formalina modificado em ratos. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 28 ratos Wistar machos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n = 7) para receber solução salina (GC), fentolamina (GF), metissergida (GM) ou fentolamina associada à metissergida (GFM) por via subaracnoidea. A dor foi induzida pela administração de formalina na região dorsal da pata posterior direita. O teste foi dividido em três fases; fase I, intermediária e fase II. A análise estatística dos resultados foi realizada utilizando o programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), adotando o nível de significância de 5 por cento. RESULTADOS: Na fase intermediária, o número de elevações da pata foi significativamente maior nos grupos GF, GM e GFM quando comparados com o grupo GC. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem a existência de efeito noradrenérgico e serotoninérgico no sistema inibitório descendente da dor aguda, com a possibilidade de emprego de agonistas serotoninérgicos e α1-adrenérgicos para controle da dor aguda.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that the passage of nociceptive information through the posterior horn of the spinal cord (PHSC) on its way to rostral levels of the central nervous system undergoes profound excitatory and inhibitory influences. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of the subarachnoid administration of methysergide, phentolamine, and phentolamine associated with methysergide on phases I, intermediate, and II of the modified phormaline test in rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats distributed randomly in four groups (n = 7) to received subarachnoid saline solution (GC), phentolamine (GF), methysergide (GM), or phentolamine associated with methysergide (GFM). Pain was induced by the administration of phormaline in the dorsal region of the right hind paw. The test was divided in three phases: phase I, intermediate, and phase II. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), adopting a level of significance of 5 percent. RESULTS: In the intermediate phase the number of paw elevations was significantly higher in GF, GM, and GFM groups when compared to the GC group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the existence of a noradrenergic and serotonergic effect in the inhibitory descending system of acute pain, with the possibility of using serotonergic and α1-adrenergic antagonists to control acute pain.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Existen evidencias de que el paso de informaciones nociceptivas por el cuerno posterior de la médula espinal (CPME), y que continúa hacia niveles rostrales del sistema nervioso central, sufre profundas influencias excitatorias e inhibitorias. La presente investigación quiso comparar los efectos de la metisergida, de la fentolamina y de la fentolamina asociada a la metisergida, administrados por vía subaracnoidea, sobre las fases I, intermedia y II del test de la formalina modificado en ratones. MÉTODO: Fueron utilizados en el experimento, 28 ratones Wistar machos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 7), para recibir una solución salina (GC), fentolamina (GF), metisergida (GM) o fentolamina asociada a la metisergida ((GFM). El dolor fue inducido por la administración de formalina en la región dorsal de la pata posterior derecha. El test fue dividido en tres fases: fase I, intermedia y fase II. El análisis estadístico de los resultados fue hecho utilizando el programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), [Paquete Estadístico para las Ciencias Sociales], adoptando el nivel de significancia de un 5 por ciento. RESULTADOS: En la fase intermedia, el número de elevaciones de la pata fue significativamente mayor en los grupos GF, GM y GFM cuando se comparó con el grupo GC. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados nos sugieren la existencia de un efecto noradrenérgico y serotoninérgico en el sistema inhibitorio descendiente del dolor agudo, con la posibilidad del uso de agonistas serotoninérgicos y α1-adrenérgicos para el control del dolor agudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Male , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Subarachnoid Space/anatomy & histology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Methysergide , Methysergide/pharmacology , Nociceptors/drug effects , Nociceptors/physiology , Pain Measurement , Pain/physiopathology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Methysergide/administration & dosage , Phentolamine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Subarachnoid Space , Serotonin Antagonists/administration & dosage
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 414-421, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110993

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fentanyl was reported to inhibit the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist-induced contraction. The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype primarily involved in the fentanyl-induced attenuation of phenylephrine-induced contraction in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aortic rings were suspended in order to record isometric tension. Concentration-response curves for phenylephrine (10-9 to 10-5 M) were generated in the presence or absence of one of the following drugs: fentanyl (3x10-7, 10-6, 3x10-6 M), 5-methylurapidil (3x10-8, 10-7, 3x10-7 M), chloroethylclonidine (10-5 M) and BMY 7378 (3x10-9, 10-8, 3x10-8 M). Phenylephrine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of fentanyl in rings pretreated with either 3x10-9 M prazosin, 10-9 M 5-methylurapidil or 3x10-9 M BMY 7378. RESULTS: Fentanyl (10-6, 3x10-6 M) attenuated phenylephrine-induced contraction in the rat aorta. 5-Methylurapidil and BMY 7378 produced a parallel rightward shift in the phenylephrine concentration-response curve. The pA2 values for 5-methylurapidil and BMY 7378 were estimated to be 7.71 +/- 0.15 and 8.99 +/- 0.24, respectively. Fentanyl (10-6 M) attenuated phenylephrine-induced contraction in rings pretreated with 10-9 M 5-methylurapidil, but did not alter the rings when pretreated with 3x10-9 M BMY 7378. Pretreatment of the rings with chloroethylclonidine showed a 72.9 +/- 2.3% reduction in phenylephrine-induced maximal contraction. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that fentanyl attenuates phenylephrine-induced contraction by inhibiting the pathway involved in the alpha1D-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of the rat aorta.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Aorta/drug effects , Clonidine/analogs & derivatives , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Male , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
4.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2006 Oct-Dec; 50(4): 409-15
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106608

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant action of Withania somnifera (WS) as well as its interaction with the conventional antidepressant drugs and to delineate the possible mechanism of its antidepressant action using forced swimming model in mice. Effect of different doses of WS, fluoxetine and imipramine were studied on forced swimming test induced mean immobility time (MIT). Moreover effect of WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. was observed at different time intervals. Effect produced by combination of sub therapeutic doses of WS with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were also observed. Effect of WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were observed in mice pretreated with reserpine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of prazosin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment were also observed on WS induced decrease in MIT. WS produced dose dependent decrease in MIT. Maximum effect in MIT was observed after 30 min of treatment with WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. Combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced significant decrease in the MIT. Clonidine and reserpine induced increase in MIT, was significantly reversed by treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with prazosin but not haloperidol, significantly antagonized the WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) induced decrease in MIT. It is concluded that, WS produced significant decrease in MIT in mice which could be mediated partly through a adrenoceptor as well as alteration in the level of central biogenic amines.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Clonidine/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Female , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Imipramine/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Motor Activity/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Prazosin/pharmacology , Reserpine/pharmacology , Swimming/physiology , Withania/chemistry
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(3): 365-370, Mar. 2006. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-421364

ABSTRACT

We have observed that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-type glutamatergic receptor antagonists inhibits lordosis in ovariectomized (OVX), estrogen-primed rats receiving progesterone or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). When NMDA was injected into OVX estrogen-primed rats, it induced a significant increase in lordosis. The interaction between LHRH and glutamate was previously explored by us and another groups. The noradrenergic systems have a functional role in the regulation of LHRH release. The purpose of the present study was to explore the interaction between glutamatergic and noradrenergic transmission. The action of prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2b-noradrenergic antagonist, was studied here by injecting it icv (1.75 and 3.5 µg/6 µL) prior to NMDA administration (1 µg/2 µL) in OVX estrogen-primed Sprague-Dawley rats (240-270 g). Rats manually restrained were injected over a period of 2 min, and tested 1.5 h later. The enhancing effect induced by NMDA on the lordosis/mount ratio at high doses (67.06 ± 3.28, N = 28) when compared to saline controls (6 and 2 µL, 16.59 ± 3.20, N = 27) was abolished by prazosin administration (17.04 ± 5.52, N = 17, and 9.33 ± 3.21, N = 20, P < 0.001 for both doses). Plasma LH levels decreased significantly only with the higher dose of prazosin (1.99 ± 0.24 ng/mL, N = 18, compared to saline-NMDA effect, 5.96 ± 2.01 ng/mL, N = 13, P < 0.05). Behavioral effects seem to be more sensitive to the alpha-blockade than hormonal effects. These findings strongly suggest that the facilitatory effects of NMDA on both lordosis and LH secretion in this model are mediated by alpha-noradrenergic transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Prazosin/pharmacology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Injections, Intraventricular , Luteinizing Hormone/drug effects , N-Methylaspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Norepinephrine , Ovariectomy , Posture/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 77(2): 245-257, June 2005. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-399099

ABSTRACT

Em animais anestesiados a EE do hipotálamo produz um padrão de ajustes cardiovasculares caracterizado por hipertensão arterial, taquicardia, vasodilatação muscular e vasoconstrição mesentérica, entretanto, os mecanismos periféricos envolvidos nestes ajustes cardiovasculares ainda não foram completamente esclarecidos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar os mecanismos periféricos responsáveis pela redistribuição de fluxo sanguíneo produzidas pela EE do hipotálamo. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que 1) em ratos anestesiados a EE do hipotálamo produziu hipertensão arterial, taquicardia, vasoconstrição no leito mesentérico e acentuada vasodilatação dos membros posteriores; 2) a combinação do bloqueio farmacológico de receptores a1 e a2 adrenérgicos com fentolamina mais adrenalectomia bilateral reduziu a vasoconstrição mesentérica e a vasodilatação dos membros posteriores. Nestes animais o bloqueio da síntese de NO com L-NAME provocou nova redução significante da vasodilatação dos membros posteriores; 3) a administração de L-NAME, previamente o bloqueio farmacológico com fentolamina mais adrenalectomia bilateral, reduziu as respostas de vasoconstrição mesentérica e de vasodilatação dos membros posteriores. Estes resultados sugerem a existência de pelo menos três possíveis mecanismos responsáveis pela vasodilatação dos membros posteriores induzida pela EE do hipotálamo: 1) ativação de receptores b-adrenérgicos por catecolaminas liberadas pela medula adrenal; 2) redução do tono vasoconstritor simpático e 3) um terceiro mecanismo que utiliza NO como mediador.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Electric Stimulation/methods , Hemodynamics , Hypothalamus/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Adrenalectomy , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Hemodynamics , Hindlimb/blood supply , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Pentobarbital/pharmacology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Regional Blood Flow/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism(s) of acute hypercalcemia-induced hypertension in dogs. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Adult male mongrel dogs were intravenously infused with: 1) normal saline solution, 2) CaCl2 solution, 3) CaCl2 + calcium channel blocker (verapamil), 4) CaCl2 + selective alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker (prazosin), or 5) CaCl2 + verapamil + prazosin. Either verapamil or prazosin treatment was started at forty minutes before CaCl2 infusion and then was co-administered throughout the three-hour experimental period. Systemic and renal hemodynamics parameters were determined. RESULTS: Infusion of CaCl2 caused increases in mean arterial blood pressure (p < 0.01), total peripheral resistance (p < 0.001), and renal vascular resistance (p < 0.001). Prior treatment with either verapamil or prazosin lowered baseline blood pressure (p < 0.01) and could prevent hypercalcemia-induced hypertension. This occurred accompanying regaining to near normal values of abnormal systemic hemodynamics parameters. Combination of both drugs showed more profound effects, particularly on lowering renal vascular resistance. CONCLUSION: Acute hypercalemic hypertension is caused by an increase in vascular resistance mediated via the direct effect of calcium on vascular smooth muscle as well as the indirect effect of calcium induced hypercatecholaminemia. The stimulatory effect of hypercalcemia on renal vascular resistance is more prominent than that on peripheral vascular resistance.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/physiology , Catecholamines/blood , Dogs , Hypercalcemia/blood , Hypertension/etiology , Male , Renal Circulation/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
8.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2004 Jan; 48(1): 51-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106469

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out in five cats which did not attack the rats spontaneously. Predatory attack on an anaesthetized rat was elicited by electrical stimulation of extreme lateral regions of hypothalamus. These sites were stimulated at a current strength from 300-700 microa to evoke a predatory attack on an anaesthetized rat. The attack was accompanied by minimal affective display such as alertness, pupillary dilatation, and culminated in beck biting at higher current strength. A scoring system allowed the construction of stimulus response curves, which remained fairly constant when repeated over a period of 3-4 weeks. Microinfusions of norepineprine and clonidine in 4.0 and 5.0 microg dose respectively in locus ceruleus and adjoining tegmental fields facilitated the predatory attack and there was a significant reduction in the threshold current strength for the elicitation of affective and somatomotor components. Microinfusions of yohimbine, an alpha-2 blocker, in 5 microg dose completely blocked the predatory attach response as indicated by an increase in the threshold current strength for the affective components. The somatomotor components were completely inhibited and could not be elicited even when the current strength was increased to 1000 microA. The predatory attack behavior remained completely inhibited for almost two hours following microinfusion of yohimbine. During this period, the animal was extremely drowsy and reacted very slowly even to a painful stimulus such as pinching of tail. Microinfusions of propranalol (beta-blocker), practalol (beta-1 blocker), prazosin (alpha-1 antagonist), propylene glycol as well as saline in similar volumes (0.5 microl) as control failed to produce any blocking effect, thus indicating the involvement of alpha-2 adrenoceptive mechanisms in the modulation of predatory attack in this region of midbrain. The facilitatory effects of norepinephrine and clonidine were significant at P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively with Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The inhibitory effects of yohimbine were significant at P<0.05. The present study indicates the involvement of alpha-2 adrenoceptive mechanisms in the facilitation of hypothalamically elicited predatory attack.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Cats , Clonidine/pharmacology , Electric Stimulation , Electrodes, Implanted , Female , Hypothalamus/physiology , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Male , Microinjections , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Yohimbine/pharmacology
9.
J Environ Biol ; 2003 Jan; 24(1): 39-43
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113914

ABSTRACT

Skin darkened tadpoles sometimes appear spontaneously. Darkened was artificially induced in Xenopus larvae by yohimbine or chlorpromazine. These phenomena look like that are seen at pinealectomized or hypothalamus separated Xenopus larva. In this experiment, such a morphological color changed Xenopus larva is suggested by cause of inhibition of alpha2-adrenargic receptor or dopamine receptor from gastrula stages.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development , Pigmentation , Receptors, Dopamine/physiology , Yohimbine/pharmacology
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Nov; 40(11): 1269-74
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62773

ABSTRACT

Self-mutilation or self-injurious behaviour is a well known behavioural disorder in humans. The proposition that this behaviour in animals is a response to chronic pain of peripheral nerve injury has been met with controversy. In the present study a pharmacological model, which produces no sensory or motor loss was used to study how autotomy is related to pain. In a group of rats autotomy was induced by amphetamine in phenoxybenzamine and reserpine treated animals. The pain tests, both phasic and tonic were then performed. The results of this study showed that a total analgesia was produced in both phasic and tonic pain tests, in animals that exhibited autotomy. Injection of naloxone in these animals prevented autotomy. A correlation between autotomy and no pain is suggested in this pharmacological model of autotomy.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Amphetamine/pharmacology , Analgesia , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Chronic Disease , Denervation , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pain/physiopathology , Pain Measurement , Phenoxybenzamine/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reserpine/pharmacology , Self Mutilation/chemically induced
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Jan; 40(1): 74-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55681

ABSTRACT

Zidovudine (AZT) induced concentration related aggregation in C. mrigala melanophores. Denervated melanophores failed to respond to AZT. Specific and nonspecific alpha adrenoceptor antagonists completely blocked the responses of fish melanophores to AZT. Histamine and prostaglandin antagonists also inhibited aggregation of the melanophores induced by AZT. The results suggest that AZT may release a mixture of neurotransmitter like substances, which cause the aggregation of this fish melanophores.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Fibers , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Carps , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology , Female , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Male , Melanophores/drug effects , Receptors, Serotonin/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Zidovudine/pharmacology
12.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 58(n.esp): 51-: 54-: 56-: 58-: passim-52, 54, 56, 58, dez. 2001.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-317003

ABSTRACT

Na introduçäo, os autores apresentam dados epidemiológicos da disfunçäo erétil (DE) e, em seguida, o diagnóstico clínico da DE de origem orgânica e psicogênica, bem como o diagnóstico laboratorial. O tratamento é subdividido em informaçöes gerais, medicamentos por via oral (sildenafil e análogos, ioimbina e fentolamina, apomorfina, trazodone e L-arginina), medicamentos por via uretral (alprostadil), farmacoterapia intracavernosa, bombas de vácuo e próteses penianas. Os autores concluem que existiu uma grande evoluçäo da fisiopatologia e do tratamento da DE e que esta doença é bastante comum, existindo soluçöes para restabelecer o bem-estar do paciente.(au)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/adverse effects , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Dopamine Agonists , Erectile Dysfunction , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Serotonin Receptor Agonists , Alprostadil , Penile Prosthesis
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 129(7): 813-818, jul. 2001.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-300049

ABSTRACT

Considering the prevalence of major unipolar depression, the economical costs of its management and the different medications available for its treatment, it is imperative to have a good knowledge of the basic principles used to classify anti depressive medications. A good acquaintance on their mechanisms of action on neurotransmission and receptors, wil allow a better understanding of their therapeutic action and secondary effects. Tricyclics, non selective MAO inhibitors, reversible MAO inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dopamine and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, 5-HT2 blockers with serotonin reuptake blocking effect, serotonin, noradrenalin and dopamine reuptake inhibitors, alfa 2 receptor blockers and 5-HT/2-3 inhibitors are the eight available types of antidepressants


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Depression/drug therapy , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors , Serotonin Antagonists
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Sep; 38(9): 881-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59199

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to determine the afferent and efferent pathways involved in the phenyldiguanide (PDG)-induced reflex response in rats. Intravenous (iv) injection of PDG (10 microg/kg), produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnea over a period of time. Bilateral vagotomy abolished the PDG-induced reflex changes. Atropine (2 mg/kg; iv) blocked only the bradycardiac response produced by PDG, while prazosin (0.5 mg/kg; iv) blocked the hypotensive response, and bilateral vagotomy in these animals abolished the apneic response. In separate series of experiments, intrapericardial injection of lignocaine abolished the hypotensive and bradycardiac responses evoked by PDG in artificially ventilated rats. The results reveal that the PDG-induced reflex is mediated through vagal afferents originating from the heart and efferents involve three different pathways. The bradycardiac response was through the muscarinic receptors, the hypotension is mediated through alpha1 adrenoceptors and the apnea presumably through the spinal motoneurones supplying the respiratory muscles.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local , Animals , Apnea/chemically induced , Biguanides/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Female , Heart/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypotension/chemically induced , Injections , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Male , Motor Neurons/metabolism , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Nerve Endings/drug effects , Rats , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/metabolism , Receptors, Muscarinic/metabolism , Reflex/drug effects , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Vagotomy
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1999 Apr; 37(4): 350-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63397

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of uterine muscle contraction stimulated by a triterpenoid glycoside (dalsaxin) isolated from the root of D. saxatilis was investigated by in vitro methods in the rat. Dalsaxin caused a dose-related increase in uterine muscle contraction. The contraction was single and transient and was abolished by moderate doses of isoprenaline (1.80 nmol-0.40 mumol) and salbutamol (0.13-25 mumol). Adrenaline (9.10 nmol) also caused a reversible decrease (92.6%; P < 0.01) in myometrial contraction stimulated by this glycoside (0.24 mg/ml). Uterine muscle responses to dalsaxin (0.24 mg/ml) were enhanced by the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, in a dose related manner. Atipamezole (1.50 ng/ml) but not prazosin (7.72 nmol-15.60 nmol) substantially reduced (80%; P < 0.01) myometrial contractions induced by this uterine spasmogen. The results suggest that dalsaxin enhances uterine muscle contraction by stimulating post junctional alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, presumably by inhibiting plasma membrane adenylate cyclase system and its associated increase in intracellular cAMP content.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/isolation & purification , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Animals , Fabaceae/chemistry , Female , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Uterine Contraction/drug effects
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92739

ABSTRACT

Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Comparative Study , Doxazosin/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/physiology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Prazosin/pharmacology , Rabbits , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
19.
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 5(2): 91-6, abr.-jun. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-260481

ABSTRACT

Nesta breve revisão, discutimos o uso terapêutico de uma grande família de anti-hipertensivos: os inibidores do sistema nervoso simpático. Essa família de hipotensores consiste basicamente dos alfa2-agonistas, os beta-bloqueadores, os bloqueadores dos receptores alfa 1 e o mais novo membro, a moxonidina, considerado um alfa2-agonista de segunda geração. Além das ações anti-hipertensiva, também discutimos outros aspectos farmacológicos dessas drogas, o que poderá ajudar os clínicos a tratar condições co-mórbidas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension/drug therapy , Sympatholytics/therapeutic use , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/therapeutic use , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(5): 681-90, May 1998. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212408

ABSTRACT

The antinociceptive effects of stimulating the medial (ME) and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala in rats were evaluated by the changes in the latency for the tail withdrawal reflex to noxious heating of the skin. A 30-s period of sine-wave stimulation of the ME or CE produced a significant and short increase in the duration of tail flick latency. A 15-s period of stimulation was ineffective. Repeated stimulation of these nuclei at 48-h intervals produced progressively smaller effects. The antinociception evoked from the ME was significantly reduced by the previous systemic administration of naloxone, methysergide, atropine, phenoxybenzamine, and propranolol, but not by mecamylamine, all given at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Previous systemic administration of naloxone, atropine, and propranolol, but not methysergide, phenoxy-benzamine, or mecamylamine, was effective against the effects of stimulating the CE. We conclude that the antinociceptive effects of stimulating the ME involve at least opioid, serotonergic, adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms. The effects of stimulating the CE involve at least opioid, beta-adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Amygdala/drug effects , Analgesia , Atropine/pharmacology , Ganglionic Blockers/pharmacology , Mecamylamine/pharmacology , Methysergide/pharmacology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Naloxone/pharmacology , Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacology , Phenoxybenzamine/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Electric Stimulation , Electrodes, Implanted , Rats, Wistar
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL