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Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392318


OBJETIVO: Determinar los riesgos y beneficios del uso de vigabatrina comparada con hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH) para el tratamiento de espasmos infantiles. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en Epistemonikos. Se extrajeron datos desde las revisiones identificadas. Se realizó un metaanálisis a partir de estudios primarios y se utilizó el método GRADE para la presentación de resultados. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron nueve revisiones sistemáticas. Se observó que el uso de vigabatrina en comparación con ACTH disminuye la resolución de espasmos (RR 0,8, IC 95% 0,65 - 0,98) y podría disminuir la resolución de hipsarritmia (RR 0,71, IC 95% 0,48 - 1,05). No fue posible determinar si el uso de vigabatrina disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar efectos adversos (RR 0,75, IC 95% 0,23 - 2,45) por certeza de evidencia muy baja. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia parece inclinarse a favor del uso de ACTH. Sin embargo debe considerarse la necesidad de nuevas investigaciones para esclarecer su seguridad.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risks and benefits of the use of vigabatrin compared to ACTH for the treatment of infantile spasms. METHOD: A search in Epistemonikos was performed. Data were extracted from the identified reviews. A meta-analysis was performed from primary studies and the GRADE method was used to present the results. RESULTS: Nine systematic reviews were identified. Vigabatrin use compared to ACTH was found to decrease resolution of spasms (RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.65 - 0.98) and might decrease resolution of hypsarrhythmia (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0 .48 - 1.05). It was not possible to determine whether the use of vigabatrin reduces the risk of developing adverse effects (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.23 - 2.45) due to very low certainty of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence seems to lean in favor of the use of ACTH. However, the need for new research should be considered to clarify its safety.

Humans , Spasms, Infantile/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , Vigabatrin/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , GRADE Approach
Cambios rev. méd ; 21(1): 766, 30 Junio 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400392


INTRODUCCIÓN. La crisis suprarrenal se refiere a la insuficiencia suprarrenal aguda; la cual es un trastorno en el que la corteza adrenal no produce suficientes hormonas esteroides (en especial cortisol) para satisfacer las demandas del cuerpo, de acuerdo al mecanismo fisiopatológico se la puede clasificar como primaria, secundaria y terciaria, siendo más común en pacientes con insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. Es una emergencia potencialmente mortal que requiere tratamiento inmediato. OBJETIVO. Establecer una estrategia de prevención y tratamiento de la crisis suprarrenal, así como la farmacoterapia ideal y sus alternativas válidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en varias revistas virtuales de alto carácter científico como Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE a través de PubMed y Se seleccionaron revisiones sistemáticas con o sin metaanálisis, ensayos clínicos y recomendaciones de expertos relacionados con prevención y tratamiento de crisis suprarrenal en general. RESULTADOS. Se obtuvieron 1819 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 20 artículos con mayor validez y replicabilidad en el medio para establecer un protocolo unificado de actuación. CONCLUSIÓN. El objetivo de la terapia es el tratamiento de la hipotensión y reversión de las anomalías electrolíticas y de la deficiencia de cortisol. Se deben infundir por vía intravenosa grandes volúmenes (1 a 3 litros) de solución salina al 0,9% o dextrosa al 5% en solución salina al 0,9% y la administración de hidrocortisona (bolo de 100 mg), seguido de 50 mg cada 6 horas (o 200 mg / 24 horas como infusión continua durante las primeras 24 horas). Si no se dispone de hidrocortisona, las alternativas incluyen prednisolona, prednisona y dexametasona.

INTRODUCTION. Adrenal crisis refers to acute adrenal insufficiency; which is a disorder in which the adrenal cortex does not produce enough steroid hormones (especially cortisol) to meet the body's demands, according to the pathophysiological mechanism it can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary, being more common in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. It is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. OBJECTIVE. To establish a strategy for the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis, as well as the ideal pharmacotherapy and its valid alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A literature review was performed in several highly scientific virtual journals such as Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE through PubMed and Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis, clinical trials and expert recommendations related to prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis in general were selected. RESULTS. A total of 1819 results were obtained, from which 20 articles with greater validity and replicability in the setting were selected to establish a unified protocol for action. CONCLUSIONS. The aim of therapy is the treatment of hypotension and reversal of electrolyte abnormalities and cortisol deficiency. Large volumes (1 to 3 liters) of 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline and administration of hydrocortisone (100 mg bolus), followed by 50 mg every 6 hours (or 200 mg / 24 hours as a continuous infusion for the first 24 hours) should be infused intravenously. If hydrocortisone is not available, alternatives include prednisolone, prednisone, and dexamethasone.

Humans , Male , Female , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy , Hypotension , Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase , Dexamethasone , Prednisolone , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Ecuador , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 92-96, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364301


SUMMARY We report a rare case of Cushing's syndrome in a 37-year-old female who initially presented with localized acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. In January 2014, she underwent a right parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and adjuvant radiotherapy. In August 2018, she presented a histologically-proven local regional relapse. The patient was considered for salvage surgery with facial nerve sacrifice and remained with no evidence of disease. One year later the patient developed pulmonary dissemination and started to gain weight and developed facial plethora and acne on the face and upper trunk. In a physical examination, the patient presented moon face, buffalo hump, acne and stage 2 hypertension. Biochemical evaluation confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. IHC for ACTH in the lung biopsy revealed strong positive staining for ACTH confirming a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion by a metastatic parotid acinic cell carcinoma. Ketoconazole (600 mg/d) was started to treat the CS. In addition, as chemotherapy was initiated to treat the metastatic disease. After the fifth cycle of chemotherapy, ketoconazole was suspended and the patient remained in remission of CS for four months, when CS recurred. A unique feature of this case is related to the clinical CS relapse associated with disease progression, which needed prompt treatment with ketoconazole, resulting in a significant improvement in the patient's condition. Although rare, should be attentive for possible CS features in patients with high-grade salivary gland carcinomas, since the diagnosis of ectopic secretion of ACTH may significantly impact their management and outcomes.

Humans , Female , Adult , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic/complications , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic/diagnosis , Parotid Neoplasms/complications , Carcinoma/complications , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Cushing Syndrome/etiology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.

Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939667


OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of somatostatin on postoperative gastrointestinal function and stress level in children with acute abdomen.@*METHODS@#A total of 102 children with acute abdomen who underwent surgery in Xuzhou Children's Hospital from August 2019 to June 2021 were enrolled as subjects and were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 51 children in each group. The children in the control group were given conventional treatment such as hemostasis and anti-infective therapy after surgery, and those in the observation group were given somatostatin in addition to conventional treatment. Peripheral blood samples were collected from both groups before surgery and on days 1 and 5 after surgery. The two groups were compared in terms of the serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, gastrin, and motilin, postoperative recovery, and the incidence rate of complications.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ET-1, ACTH, cortisol, gastrin, and motilin between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly lower serum levels of ET-1, ACTH, and cortisol on days 1 and 5 after surgery (P<0.05) and significantly higher levels of motilin and gastrin on day 5 after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter time to first passage of flatus, first bowel sounds, and first defecation after surgery, as well as a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). The incidence rate of complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (6% vs 24%, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acute abdomen, somatostatin can significantly reduce postoperative stress response, improve gastrointestinal function, and reduce the incidence rate of complications, thereby helping to achieve a good prognosis.

Child , Humans , Abdomen , Abdomen, Acute , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Gastrins , Hydrocortisone , Motilin , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Somatostatin/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936161


Pituitary immune-related adverse events induced by programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors in advanced lung cancer patients: A report of 3 cases SUMMARY Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been widely used in lung cancer treatment, but their immune-related adverse events (irAEs) require intensive attention. Pituitary irAEs, including hypophysitis and hypopituitarism, are commonly induced by cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibitors, but rarely by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) deficiency (IAD) is a special subtype of pituitary irAEs, without any other pituitary hormone dysfunction, and with no enlargement of pituitary gland, either. Here, we described three patients with advanced lung cancer who developed IAD and other irAEs, after PD-1 inhibitor treatment. Case 1 was a 68-year-old male diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with high expression of PD-L1. He was treated with pembrolizumab monotherapy, and developed immune-related hepatitis, which was cured by high-dose methylprednisolone [0.5-1.0 mg/(kg·d)]. Eleven months later, the patient was diagnosed with primary gastric adenocarcinoma, and was treated with apatinib, in addition to pembrolizumab. After 17 doses of pembrolizumab, he developed severe nausea and asthenia, when methylprednisolone had been stopped for 10 months. His blood tests showed severe hyponatremia (121 mmol/L, reference 137-147 mmol/L, the same below), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (< 1 μg/dL, reference 5-25 μg/dL, the same below) and ACTH (2.2 ng/L, reference 7.2-63.3 ng/L, the same below), and normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. Meanwhile, both his lung cancer and gastric cancer remained under good control. Case 2 was a 66-year-old male with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, who was treated with a new PD-1 inhibitor, HX008, combined with chemotherapy (clinical trial number: CTR20202387). After 5 months of treatment (7 doses in total), his cancer exhibited partial response, but his nausea and vomiting suddenly exacerbated, with mild dyspnea and weakness in his lower limbs. His blood tests showed mild hyponatremia (135 mmol/L), low levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol (4.3 μg/dL) and ACTH (1.5 ng/L), and normal thyroid function. His thoracic computed tomography revealed moderate immune-related pneumonitis simultaneously. Case 3 was a 63-year-old male with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma. He was treated with first-line sintilimab combined with chemotherapy, which resulted in partial response, with mild immune-related rash. His cancer progressed after 5 cycles of treatment, and sintilimab was discontinued. Six months later, he developed asymptomatic hypoadrenocorticism, with low level of cortisol (1.5 μg/dL) at 8:00 a.m. and unresponsive ACTH (8.0 ng/L). After being rechallenged with another PD-1 inhibitor, teslelizumab, combined with chemotherapy, he had pulmonary infection, persistent low-grade fever, moderate asthenia, and severe hyponatremia (116 mmol/L). Meanwhile, his blood levels of 8:00 a.m. cortisol and ACTH were 3.1 μg/dL and 7.2 ng/L, respectively, with normal thyroid function, sex hormone and prolactin. All of the three patients had no headache or visual disturbance. Their pituitary magnetic resonance image showed no pituitary enlargement or stalk thickening, and no dynamic changes. They were all on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with prednisone (2.5-5.0 mg/d), and resumed the PD-1 inhibitor treatment when symptoms relieved. In particular, Case 2 started with high-dose prednisone [1 mg/(kg·d)] because of simultaneous immune-related pneumonitis, and then tapered it to the HRT dose. His cortisol and ACTH levels returned to and stayed normal. However, the other two patients' hypopituitarism did not recover. In summary, these cases demonstrated that the pituitary irAEs induced by PD-1 inhibitors could present as IAD, with a large time span of onset, non-specific clinical presentation, and different recovery patterns. Clinicians should monitor patients' pituitary hormone regularly, during and at least 6 months after PD-1 inhibitor treatment, especially in patients with good oncological response to the treatment.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , B7-H1 Antigen/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Nausea/drug therapy , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pneumonia , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Prolactin/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 334-338, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935697


Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in children with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Methods: The clinical data of 38 children with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology, the Children Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The general information, clinical manifestations, laboratory data of the children and follow-up (till 12 months after treatment) were collected. The patients were divided into ACTH group and Glucocorticoid (GC) group according to treatment plan. Cumulative remission, average recurrence rate, GC dosage, height and weight change and peripheral blood CD19+B lymphocyte count were compared between the two groups to evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of ACTH. Fisher's exact test, t test or rank sum test was used for comparison between groups. Results: Among the 38 patients, 28 were male and 10 were female, aged 84 (24, 180) months; 19 were in ACTH group and 19 were in GC group. The cumulative remission rate of 12 months in ACTH group was higher than that in GC group (9/19 vs. 2/19,χ²=6.81,P=0.009), the average recurrence rate was lower than that in GC group ((0.7±0.8) vs. (1.7±1.1) times, t=-3.27, P=0.011), and the average dosage of GC was lower than that in GC group ((0.27±0.16) vs. (0.51±0.27) mg/(kg·d), t=-3.21, P=0.014). The increase in height was higher than that in the GC group (4 (3,5) vs. 3 (2, 3) cm/year, Z=2.58, P=0.010), and the peripheral blood CD19+B lymphocyte count was lower than that in the GC group ((223±149)×106 vs. (410±213)×106/L,t=-3.35, P=0.009). In safety, 19 cases had transient decreased urine volume, 7 cases had hyperglycemia, and 3 cases had hypertension during the infusion of ACTH, which could be relieved after drug withdrawal. Conclusion: ACTH has a better effect on children with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, which can improve cumulative sustained remission rate, lower relapses rate and decrease the dosage of GC, with good safety.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 512-519, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940954


Objective: To investigate the characteristics and comprehensive treatment of infected wounds in patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From May 2012 to December 2021, the data of 19 patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome discharged from the Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were collected, including 8 males and 11 females, aged 28-71 (56±11) years, with 12 cases of infected acute wounds and 7 cases of infected chronic wounds. The lesions were located in the limbs, perianal, and sacrococcygeal regions, with original infection ranging from 9 cm×5 cm to 85 cm×45 cm. After admission, the patients were performed with multidisciplinary assisted diagnosis and treatment, and the wounds were treated with debridement and vacuum sealing drainage, according to the size, severity of infection, suture tension, and bone and tendon tissue exposure of wounds, direct suture or autologous skin and/or artificial dermis and/or autologous tissue flap transplantation was selected for wound repair. The levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) of patients at 8:00, 16:00, and 24:00 within 24 h after admission were counted. After admission, the number of operations, wound repair methods, and wound and skin/flap donor site healing of patients were recorded. During follow-up, the wounds were observed for recurrent infection. Results: The cortisol levels of 16 patients at 8:00, 16:00, and 24:00 within 24 h after admission were (130±54), (80±16), and (109±39) nmol/L, respectively, and ACTH levels were (7.2±2.8), (4.1±1.8), and (6.0±3.0) pg/mL, respectively; and the other 3 patients had no such statistical results. After admission, the number of surgical operation for patients was 3.4±0.9. The following methods were used for wound repair, including direct suturing in 4 cases and autologous skin and/or artificial dermis grafting in 9 cases, of which 2 cases underwent stage Ⅱ autologous skin grafting after artificial dermis grafting in stage Ⅰ, and 6 cases had pedicled retrograde island flap+autologous skin grafting. The wound healing was observed, showing that all directly sutured wounds healed well; the wounds in 6 cases of autologous skin and/or artificial dermis grafting healed well, and the wounds in 3 cases also healed well after the secondary skin grafting; the flaps in 4 cases survived well with the wounds in 2 cases with distal perforators flap arteries circumfluence obstacle of posterior leg healed after stage Ⅱ debridement and autologous skin grafting. The healing status of skin/flap donor sites was followed showing that the donor sites of medium-thickness skin grafts in the thigh of 4 cases were well healed after transplanted with autologous split-thickness grafts from scalp; the donor sites of medium-thickness skin grafts in 3 cases did not undergo split-thickness skin grafting, of which 2 cases had poor healing but healed well after secondary skin grafting 2 weeks after surgery; the donor sites of split-thickness skin grafts in the head of 2 patients healed well; and all donor sites of flaps healed well after autologous skin grafting. During follow-up of more than half a year, 3 gout patients were hospitalized again for surgical treatment due to gout stone rupture, 4 patients were hospitalized again for surgical treatment due to infection, and no recurrent infection was found in the rest of patients. Conclusions: The infected wounds in patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome have poor ability to regenerate and are prone to repeated infection. Local wound treatment together with multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment should be performed to control infection and close wounds in a timely manner, so as to maximize the benefits of patients.

Female , Humans , Male , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , China , Cushing Syndrome/surgery , Gout , Hydrocortisone , Iatrogenic Disease , Skin, Artificial , Wound Infection
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 512-516, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339101


SUMMARY Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to thymic carcinoid is a rare disorder. We report a case of cyclic CS due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting atypical thymic carcinoid tumor and reviewed similar cases published in the literature. Our patient had hypercortisolemia lasting approximately one month, followed by normal cortisol secretion, with relapse one year later. Histopathology revealed an atypical ACTH-positive thymic carcinoid. Ectopic CS can be derived from atypical thymic carcinoids, which can be aggressive tumors with early relapse, suggesting that this type of tumor probably needs aggressive treatment.

Humans , Thymus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic , Carcinoid Tumor , Cushing Syndrome/etiology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 608-613, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131138


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether a combination of the low-dose (1 µg) adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test and glucagon stimulation test (GST) could overcome the problem of equivocal results with the GST or ACTH test alone in patients with pituitary disorders. Subjects and methods The study included 41 adult patients with pituitary disorders and 20 healthy subjects who underwent evaluation of cortisol response to ACTH, GST, and a combination of both tests. Blood samples for cortisol measurement were obtained at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after intravenous administration of ACTH 1 μg and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes after subcutaneous injection of glucagon 1 mg. The combination test was performed by injecting ACTH 1 µg at the 180-minute time point of the GST, with blood samples for cortisol measurement obtained at 210 and 240 minutes. Results Overall, 28 patients with normal cortisol response to both tests also had a normal cortisol response to the combination test. Ten patients with adrenal insufficiency in both tests also had adrenal insufficiency in the combination test, including a patient who had a peak cortisol value of 12.4 µg/dL (which is the cutoff value for the combination test). Two patients with adrenal insufficiency in the ACTH stimulation test and one patient with adrenal insufficiency in the GST had normal cortisol responses to the combination test. Conclusion By using an appropriate cutoff value, the combination test may offer additional information in patients with equivocal results in the GST and ACTH stimulation test.

Humans , Adult , Pituitary Diseases/diagnosis , Glucagon , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e167299, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122175


The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function may be impaired in patients with critical illnesses, especially cases of sepsis, named critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). This study examined the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in normal dogs (n = 10) and dogs with critical diseases (n = 16), through determinations of endogenous ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), basal cortisol and cortisol after stimulation in low doses of synthetic ACTH (1.0µg/kg/IV). The stimulation test with ACTH dose tested was verified as effective for evaluation of adrenal function in healthy and sick dogs. Ill dogs differed from healthy dogs by presenting higher basal cortisol values. Eight sick dogs presented a decrease in endogenous ACTH, basal cortisol, or Δ-cortisol. No significant differences were found between the control groups and critically ill dogs for the values of endogenous ACTH, cortisol after stimulation or Δ-cortisol. We concluded that the stimulation test with low-dose ACTH was effective for evaluation of adrenal function, as well as the fact that a considerable portion of critically ill dogs studied here, especially with sepsis, had evidence of inadequate corticosteroid response to stress.(AU)

A função do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal pode estar comprometida em pacientes com doenças críticas, em especial casos de sepse, sendo nomeada de Insuficiência Corticosteroide Relacionada à Doença Crítica (ICRDC). O presente trabalho analisou a função do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal em cães normais (n=10) e cães portadores de doenças críticas (n=16), por meio de determinações de ACTH (hormônio adrenocorticotrófico) endógeno, de cortisol basal e de cortisol após estímulo com baixa dose de ACTH sintético (1,0µg/kg/IV). Constatou-se que o teste de estimulação com ACTH na dose testada se mostrou eficaz para avaliação da função adrenal em cães sadios e doentes. Os cães doentes diferiram dos sadios ao apresentar valores maiores de cortisol basal. Oito cães doentes apresentaram diminuição do ACTH endógeno, do cortisol basal ou do Δ-cortisol. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos Controle e Criticamente enfermos para os valores de ACTH endógeno, cortisol após estimulação ou Δ-cortisol. Concluiu-se que o teste de estimulação com baixa dose de ACTH mostrou-se eficaz para avaliação da função adrenal, assim como, uma parcela considerável da população de cães críticos aqui estudados, em especial com sepse, apresentaram evidências de resposta corticosteroide inadequada frente ao estresse.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Cosyntropin/administration & dosage , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Sepsis/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Catastrophic Illness
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 598-605, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058190


INTRODUCCIÓN: La radioterapia, quimioterapia y la cirugía empleada en el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales tienen efectos en el eje hipotálamo-hipofisario y pueden resultar en disfunción endocrina hasta en el 96% de los casos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo en pacientes diagnos ticados de meduloblastoma sometidos a tratamiento con quimio y radioterapia en los últimos 20 años en un hospital terciario. Se analizan variables edad, sexo, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) al final del seguimiento, estadio de maduración sexual, niveles séricos de TSH y T4 libre, ACTH/cortisol e IGF-1, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterona, perfil lipídico (colesterol total) y prueba de función dinámica de hormona de crecimiento. RESULTADOS: Muestra total de 23 pacientes. El déficit de hormona de crecimiento es la secuela más frecuente (82 %) seguido de disfunción ti roidea (44,8%) y disfunción puberal (24,1%). Solo se diagnosticó un caso de diabetes insípida y 2 casos de déficit de corticotrofina. CONCLUSIONES: El seguimiento a largo plazo de los supervivientes de meduloblastoma tratados con quimio y radioterapia revela una prevalencia muy alta de disfun ción endocrina, particularmente de deficiencia de hormona del crecimiento y de hipotiroidismo. Creemos oportuna la monitorización y el seguimiento a largo plazo de estos pacientes con el fin de garantizar un manejo terapéutico adecuado de aquellas disfunciones tratables.

INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery used to treat brain tumors have effects on the hy pothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and can result in endocrine dysfunction in up to 96% of cases. PATIENTS Y METHOD: Retrospective and descriptive study in patients diagnosed with medulloblasto ma who underwent treatment with chemo and radiotherapy in the last 20 years in a tertiary hospital. The variables analyzed were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) at the end of follow-up, sexual maturity stage, serum levels of TSH and free T4, ACTH/cortisol and IGF-1, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, lipid profile (total cholesterol), and growth hormone dynamic function test. RESULTS: Total sample of 23 patients. Growth hormone deficiency is the most frequent sequelae (82%) fo llowed by thyroid dysfunction (44.8%), and disorders of puberty (24.1%). Only one case of diabetes insipidus and two cases of corticotropin deficiency were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow- up of medulloblastoma survivors treated with chemo and radiotherapy reveals a very high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction, especially growth hormone deficiency and hypothyroidism. We believe that monitoring and long-term follow-up of these patients is necessary in order to ensure adequate therapeutic management of those treatable dysfunctions.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cerebellar Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Medulloblastoma/therapy , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Cerebellar Neoplasms/blood , Retrospective Studies , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Diabetes Insipidus/etiology , Endocrine System Diseases/etiology , Overweight/etiology , Cancer Survivors , Hypogonadism/etiology , Medulloblastoma/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 503-513, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012320


ABSTRACT Purpose: The purposes of the present study were to evaluate growth rate of nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) and their development to hormonal hypersecretion on follow-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted from the electronic medical records. A total of 314 patients were diagnosed with adrenal tumors between 2000 and 2016. After excluding patients who had overt adrenal endocrine disorders or whose adrenal tumors were clinically diagnosed as metastatic malignancies, we investigated 108 patients with nonfunctioning AIs including characteristics, the treatment, the way of follow-up and pathology. Results: Fifteen patients received immediate adrenalectomy because of the initial tumor size or patient's preference. Pathological examination revealed malignancy in 2 patients. In the remaining 93 patients, radiological examinations were performed periodically. Tumor enlargement of ≥ 1.0cm was observed in 8.6% of the patients who were followed up as nonfunctioning AIs with a median follow-up period of 61.5 months (range: 4-192). Eleven patients underwent adrenalectomy. On the pathological examinations, all of the tumors, which showed a size increase, were diagnosed as benign tumors. Regarding the followed up patients without adrenalectomy, only 2.4% of the patients had tumor enlargement during the prolonged follow-up. Furthermore, none of the patients developed hormonal hypersecretion or clinical signs such as obesity, glucose intolerance or poorly controlled hypertension. Conclusions: Tumor enlargement of AIs did not correlate with malignancy. The value of repeat radiological and hormonal examinations may be limited in the long-term follow-up of patients whose AIs are not enlarged.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/blood , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/metabolism , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenalectomy/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Burden , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 175-181, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001221


SUMMARY Cushing's syndrome (CS) is an uncommon condition that leads to high morbidity and mortality. The majority of endogenous CS is caused by excessive ACTH secretion, mainly due to a pituitary tumor - the so-called Cushing's disease (CD) - followed by ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS), an extra-pituitary tumor that produces ACTH; adrenal causes of CS are even rarer. Several methods are used to differentiate the two main etiologies: specific laboratory tests and imaging procedures, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) for ACTH determination; however, identification of the source of ACTH overproduction is often a challenge. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with ACTH-dependent CS. All tests were mostly definite, but several confounding factors provoked an extended delay in identifying the origin of ACTH secretion, prompting a worsening of her clinical condition, with difficulty controlling hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and hypertension. During this period, clinical treatment was decisive, and measurement of morning salivary cortisol was a differential for monitoring cortisol levels. This report shows that clinical reasoning, experience and use of recent methods of nuclear medicine were decisive for the elucidation of the case.

Humans , Female , Adult , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Saliva/metabolism , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic/etiology , Hydrocortisone/blood , Petrosal Sinus Sampling , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/complications , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(1): 35-37, jan.-mar. 2019. graf., tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026181


A doença de Addison é uma endocrinopatia rara, de etiologia autoimune. É caracterizada por défice na secreção de glicocorticoides e mineralocorticoides. A esclerose múltipla consiste em patologia neurológica, de origem autoimune, que resulta na desmielinização da bainha de mielina. O objetivo deste relato foi demonstrar a associação rara entre essas duas patologias e suas possíveis relações imunológicas. A paciente analisada é do sexo feminino, 41 anos, portadora de esclerose múltipla, que posteriormente foi diagnosticada com insuficiência adrenal primária. (AU)

Addison's disease is a rare endocrinopathy of autoimmune etiology. It is characterized by a secretion's deficit of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological pathology of autoimmune origin, which results in demyelination of the myelin sheath. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the uncommon association between these two pathologies and their possible immunological relationships. The analyzed patient is a woman, 41 years old, with multiple sclerosis, who was later diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Addison Disease/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Potassium/blood , Asthenia , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Sodium/blood , Vomiting , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/blood , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Addison Disease/complications , Addison Disease/genetics , Addison Disease/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography , Weight Loss , Abdominal Pain , Hyperpigmentation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypotension/etiology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Nausea
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 67-75, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973833


Abstract Background: Prenatal stress may increase risk of developing cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. The cardiotoxic effects of catecholamines are mediated via prolonged adrenergic receptor stimulation and increased oxidative stress upon their degradation by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Objectives: We investigated long-term effects of prenatal stress on β (1, 2, 3) adrenergic receptors and MAO-A gene expression in the hearts of adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to unpredictable mild stress during the third week of gestation. RNA was isolated from left ventricular apex and base of adult offspring. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression in collected ventricular tissue samples. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Results: β3 adrenergic receptor mRNA was undetectable in rat left ventricle. β1 adrenergic receptor was the predominantly expressed subtype at the apical and basal left ventricular myocardium in the control females. Male offspring from unstressed mothers displayed higher apical cardiac β1 than β2 adrenergic receptor mRNA levels. However, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor mRNAs were similarly expressed at the ventricular basal myocardium in males. Unlike males, prenatally stressed females exhibited decreased β1 adrenergic receptor mRNA expression at the apical myocardium. Prenatal stress did not affect cardiac MAO-A gene expression. Conclusions: Collectively, our results show that prenatal stress may have exerted region- and sex-specific β1 and β2 adrenergic receptor expression patterns within the left ventricle.

Resumo Fundamento: Estresse pré-natal pode aumentar os riscos de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares na idade adulta. Os efeitos cardiotóxicos de catecolaminas são mediados pela estimulação prolongada dos receptores adrenérgicos e pelo aumento do estresse oxidativo após sua degradação pela monoamina oxidase A (MAO-A). Objetivos: Investigamos os efeitos a longo prazo de estresse pré-natal nos receptores β (1, 2, 3) adrenérgicos e na expressão do gene MAO-A nos corações da prole adulta de ratos. Método: Ratas prenhes foram expostas a estresse crônico moderado imprevisível durante a terceira semana de gestação. O RNA foi isolado do ápice e da base do ventrículo esquerdo da prole adulta. Utilizou-se PCR quantitativa em tempo real para medir a expressão gênica nas amostras de tecido ventricular coletadas. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em p < 0,05. Resultados: Foi indetectável o mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β3 no ventrículo esquerdo dos ratos. O receptor adrenérgico β1 foi o subtipo mais expresso no miocárdio ventricular esquerdo apical e basal nas fêmeas controle. A prole masculina das mães não estressadas apresentou níveis cardíacos apicais de mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 mais altos do que os de β2. Porém, mRNAs dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 foram expressos de forma semelhante no miocárdio basal ventricular na prole masculina em geral. Ao contrário da prole masculina, a prole feminina exposta ao estresse pré-natal exibiu uma expressão diminuída do mRNA do receptor adrenérgico β1 no miocárdio apical. O estresse pré-natal não afetou a expressão gênica de MAO-A cardíaca. Conclusões: Coletivamente, nossos resultados mostram que estresse pré-natal pode ter exercido padrões de expressão região- e sexo-específica dos receptores adrenérgicos β1 e β2 no ventrículo esquerdo.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Pregnancy, Animal/psychology , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/analysis , Monoamine Oxidase/analysis , Myocardium/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reference Values , Stress, Psychological/genetics , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Gene Expression , Sex Factors , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Monoamine Oxidase/genetics , Mothers/psychology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788742


OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA).METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared.RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05).CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.

Female , Humans , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765968


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report poor sleep quality. Whether poor sleep is associated with tryptophan (Trp) metabolites is unknown. We compared serum Trp metabolites in women with IBS and healthy controls (HCs) using targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based profiling. In IBS only, we explored whether Trp metabolites are associated with IBS symptoms and subjective and objective sleep indices, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol/ACTH levels. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained every 80 minutes in 21 HCs and 38 IBS subjects following an anticipation-of-public-speaking stressor during a sleep laboratory protocol. Subjects completed symptom diaries for 28 days. Adjacent values of metabolites were averaged to represent 4 time-periods: awake, early sleep, mid-sleep, and mid-to-late sleep. Thirteen of 20 targeted Trp metabolites were identified. RESULTS: Ten of 13 Trp metabolites decreased across the night, while nicotinamide increased in both groups. A MANOVA omnibus test performed after principal component analysis showed a significant difference in these 13 principal component (P = 0.014) between groups. Compared to HCs, nicotinamide levels were higher and indole-3-lactic acid levels lower in the IBS group. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid levels were associated with several subjective/objective sleep measures; decreased stool consistency/frequency and abdominal pain were positively associated with melatonin and serotonin in the IBS group. The kynurenine and kynurenic acid were associated with ACTH (positively) and cortisol/ACTH (negatively). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime Trp metabolites may provide clues to poor sleep and stress with IBS. Further study of the mechanism of metabolite action is warranted.

Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Chromatography, Liquid , Hydrocortisone , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mass Spectrometry , Melatonin , Niacinamide , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Serotonin , Tryptophan
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765313


OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA). METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.

Female , Humans , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763710


BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT) has been reported to act as a growth regulator in various tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of OXT on cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas. This study aimed to examine whether OXT affects cell growth in pituitary tumor cell lines (AtT20 and GH3 cells) with a focus on corticotroph adenoma cells. METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted with AtT20 cells to confirm the effects of OXT on hormonal activity; flow cytometry was used to assess changes in the cell cycle after OXT treatment. Moreover, the impact of OXT on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear factor κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: OXT treatment of 50 nM changed the gene expression of OXT receptor and pro-opiomelanocortin within a short time. In addition, OXT significantly reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion within 1 hour. S and G2/M populations of AtT20 cells treated with OXT for 24 hours were significantly decreased compared to the control. Furthermore, OXT treatment decreased the protein levels of PCNA and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) in AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: Although the cytotoxic effect of OXT in AtT20 cells was not definite, OXT may blunt cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas by altering the cell cycle or reducing PCNA and P-ERK levels. Further research is required to investigate the role of OXT as a potential therapeutic target in corticotroph adenomas.

ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Corticotrophs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Oxytocin , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Reverse Transcription