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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310144, abr. 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537966

ABSTRACT

El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por la picadura del mosquito Aedes aegypti. El comportamiento del dengue en Argentina es epidémico; la mayoría de los casos se observan en los meses de mayor temperatura. Hasta la semana epidemiológica (SE) 20/2023, se registraron en Argentina 106 672 casos; se vieron afectadas 18 de las 24 provincias que conforman el país. Dentro de los principales grupos de riesgo, se incluyen los menores de 2 años. Reconocer los signos, síntomas e identificar los factores de riesgo es fundamental para el manejo de casos con mayor riesgo de gravedad. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 32 días de vida que se internó por síndrome febril sin foco, con diagnósticos diferenciales de meningitis viral y sepsis, evolucionó con leucocitosis, plaquetopenia, hipoalbuminemia, asociado a exantema y edemas. Se llegó al diagnóstico de dengue por la clínica, epidemiologia e IgM positiva.


Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In Argentina, dengue fever is an epidemic disease; most cases are reported during the hot months.Until epidemiological week (EW) 20/2023, 106 672 cases were reported across 18 of the 24 provinces of Argentina. Children younger than 2 years are among the main groups at risk. Recognizing signs and symptoms and identifying risk factors is fundamental for the management of cases at a higher risk of severity. Here we describe the case of a 32-day-old female patient who was hospitalized due to febrile syndrome without a source, who had a differential diagnosis of viral meningitis and sepsis and progressed to leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia in association with rash and edema. The diagnosis of dengue fever was established based on clinical, epidemiological, and positive IgM data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Infant , Aedes , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Argentina , Risk Factors , Diagnosis, Differential
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 834, 16 octubre 2023. ilus., tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526566

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El dengue es una enfermedad infecciosa de origen viral, transmitida principalmente por el mosquito Aedes aegypti. Es un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, en las Américas y en el Ecuador. OBJETIVOS. Analizar el comportamiento epidemiológico del dengue desde 1980 hasta el 2020, los factores de riesgo que mantienen la transmisión y las acciones que el país ha implementado para su prevención y control. METODOLOGÍA. Revisión bibliográfica narrativa, teniendo como fuente las páginas web de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador, artículos de revistas de bibliotecas virtuales e informes técnicos publicados en Google académico, Scielo, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud y PubMed. RESULTADOS. Los registros encontrados sobre presencia de casos de dengue datan de 1988 cuando se presentó la gran epidemia de dengue en Guayaquil. Posteriormente, mantiene un comportamiento endemo-epidémico. A partir del año 2000 se presentan casos de dengue grave. Su pico más alto de letalidad fue de 2,44% en el 2010. El serotipo DEN 1 es el más frecuente, pero a partir del 2000 circulan los 4 serotipos. Las acciones de prevención y control no han sido sostenidas. CONCLUSIONES. El dengue en Ecuador en los últimos cuarenta años mantiene una importante trasmisión, caracterizada por años epidémicos. No ha podido ser controlado el vector, el cual ha ido infestando más localidades. Las condicionantes climáticas y ecológicas, explican en parte la persistencia, pero la determinación más importante está dada por las inequidades sociales, falta de servicios básicos, y la poca continuidad e impacto de las medidas de prevención y control.


INTRODUCTION. Dengue is an infectious disease of viral origin, transmitted mainly by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a serious public health problem worldwide, in the Americas and in Ecuador. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the epidemiological behavior of dengue fever from 1980 to 2020, the risk factors that maintain transmission and the actions that the country has implemented for its prevention and control. METHODOLOGY. Narrative bibliographic review, taking as sources the web pages of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador, journal articles from virtual libraries and technical reports published in Google Scholar, Scielo, Virtual Health Library and PubMed. RESULTS. The records found on the presence of dengue cases date back to 1988 when the great dengue epidemic occurred in Guayaquil. Subsequently, it maintained an endemic-epidemic behavior. Beginning in 2000, severe cases of dengue fever occurred. Its highest lethality peak was 2.44% in 2010. DEN 1 serotype is the most frequent, but since 2000 all 4 serotypes have been circulating. Prevention and control actions have not been sustained. CONCLUSIONS. Dengue in Ecuador over the last forty years has maintained an important transmission, characterized by epidemic years. It has not been possible to control the vector, which has been infesting more localities. Climatic and ecological conditions partly explain its persistence, but the most important determinant is given by social inequalities, lack of basic services, and the lack of continuity and impact of prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Aedes , Dengue , Dengue Virus , Ecuador , Insect Vectors , Epidemiology , Severe Dengue
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 222-243, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533927

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El desarrollo de la resistencia a insecticidas de Aedes aegypti representa una gran amenaza para la salud pública. La vigilancia y el monitoreo de la eficacia biológica a los insecticidas y la sensibilidad de las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti es de fundamental importancia para prolongar la vida útil de estas moléculas. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia biológica de los insecticidas deltametrina y ciflutrina y la sensibilidad de poblaciones de Aedes aegypti a estos insecticidas durante el brote epidémico de virus del Zika en Kuna Yala, Panamá. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de la deltametrina y la ciflutrina, y la sensibilidad a estos insecticidas de poblaciones de la cepa Aedes aegypti Ustupo, mediante bioensayos estandarizados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud durante el brote epidémico de virus del Zika en Kuna Yala, Panamá. Resultados. En los bioensayos con Aedes aegypti Ustupo se observó posible resistencia a deltametrina y a ciflutrina con un porcentaje de mortalidad del 95,3 y 94 %, respectivamente. Se registró baja eficacia biológica con la cepa Aedes aegypti Ustupo para la deltametrina y la ciflutrina, con medias de porcentajes de mortalidad de 75 y 31,1 %, en el intradomicilio, mientras que en el peridomicilio fue de 63,7 y 26,1 %, respectivamente. Conclusión. Los resultados de este estudio representan un desafío que debe enfrentar el Programa Nacional de Control de Aedes para lograr cuidar y mantener el efecto tóxico de los insecticidas aplicados contra las poblaciones de Aedes. Es necesario que el Programa Nacional de Control de Aedes establezca unos lineamientos de manejo de la resistencia para caracterizarla y evaluar la distribución geográfica de las poblaciones afectadas. Lo anterior con el propósito de garantizar la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones antivectoriales contra las poblaciones de Aedes.


Introduction. The development of resistance to insecticides in Aedes aegypti represents a major threat to public health. Surveillance and monitoring of the biological efficacy and sensibility of Aedes aegypti populations to insecticides is fundamental to prolong the useful life of insecticide molecules. Objective. To evaluate the biological efficacy of deltamethrin and cyfluthrin and sensibility to insecticides in Aedes aegypti during the zika epidemic outbreak in Kuna Yala, Panama. Materials and methods. We assessed the biological efficacy of deltamethrin and cyfluthrin, and sensibility in the strain Aedes aegypti Ustupo using bioassays standardized by the World Health Organization during the Zika epidemic outbreak in Kuna Yala, Panama. Results. In the bioassays with Aedes aegypti Ustupo, we observed a possible resistance to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin with a mortality rate of 95,3 and 94%, respectively. The obtained results registered low biological efficacy of deltamethrin and cyfluthrin with average percentages of mortality of 75 and 31.1% in the intradomicile, and 63,7 and 26.1% in the peridomicile. Conclusion. The results of this study represent a challenge for the National Aedes Control Program to care for and maintain the toxic effect of insecticides applied against Aedes populations. There is a need for the National Aedes Control Program to establish some guidelines about resistance assessment and resistant populations' geographic distribution to guarantee the sustainability of anti-vector interventions against Aedes populations.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Zika Virus , Vector Control of Diseases , Dengue
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 296-304, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533938

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dengue es un problema de salud pública para el departamento de La Guajira. El control se ha enfocado en el vector con el uso de insecticidas, entre ellos los organofosforados. Objetivo. Evaluar el estado de la sensibilidad a insecticidas organofosforados de quince poblaciones de Aedes aegypti (L.) en el departamento de La Guajira, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron bioensayos para temefos, malatión y pirimifos- metil en larvas de tercer estadio y mosquitos adultos de Ae. aegypti en los municipios de Albania, Barrancas, Dibulla, Distracción, El Molino, Fonseca, Hatonuevo, La Jagua del Pilar, Maicao, Manaure, Riohacha, San Juan del Cesar, Uribia, Urumita y Villanueva, siguiendo la metodología de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y la técnica de botellas usando la guía de los de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectivamente. Se determinó la sensibilidad por medio de la relación de resistencia a CL50 y CL95 (RRCL50, RRCL95) para temefos y a dosis y tiempo diagnóstico para temefos, malatión y pirimifos-metil en las poblaciones de campo evaluadas, usando como control la cepa sensible Rockefeller. Resultados. Las 15 poblaciones del departamento de La Guajira son sensibles a: temefos (relación de la resistencia a CL50<5,0; relación de resistencia a CL95<5,0; 98 a 100 % de mortalidad); pirimifos-metil (99 a 100 % de mortalidad) y malatión (100 % de mortalidad). Conclusión. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, es factible el uso de temefos, malatión y pirimifos-metil para el control de Ae. aegypti en las poblaciones evaluadas.


Introduction. Dengue is a public health problem in La Guajira region. Control has focused on the vector using insecticides, including organophosphates. Objective. To evaluate the state of susceptibility to organophosphates insecticides in fifteen Aedes aegypti (L.) populations in La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. We collected samples of third-instar larvae and adult mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti in the municipalities of Albania, Barrancas, Dibulla, Distracción, El Molino, Fonseca, Hatonuevo, La Jagua del Pilar, Maicao, Manaure, Riohacha, San Juan del Cesar, Uribia, Urumita, Villanueva. Bioassays for temefos, malathion, and pirimiphos-methyl were carried out following the methodology of the World Health Organization, and the bottle technique using the guidance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Susceptibility to temefos was determined through the resistance ratio between lethal concentration 50 and lethal concentration 95; for the compounds temefos, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, susceptibility was calculated using diagnostic dose and diagnostic time in the populations evaluated. Rockefeller susceptible strain was used as a control. Results. All evaluated populations of Ae. aegypti from La Guajira were found to be susceptible to temefos (ratio resistance to CL50<5.0; ratio resistance to CL95<5.0; 98 - 100 % mortality); pirimiphosmethyl (99 - 100 % mortality), and malathion (100 % mortality). Conclusion. Based on the results, the use of temefos, malathion, and pirimiphosmethyl is feasible for the control of Ae. aegypti in the evaluated populations.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Temefos , Insecticide Resistance , Colombia , Malathion
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(1): 206-224, jan.-marc. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419254

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti é o principal vetor dos agentes etiológicos de dengue, zika e chikungunya, doenças para as quais não existem vacinas totalmente eficazes. Alternativas de controle visando mitigar essas arboviroses são primordiais. Entre essas, o controle mecânico aborda práticas de eliminação e/ou limpeza de criadouros do vetor. Neste relato, apresentamos e avaliamos criticamente ações realizadas pelo grupo, ocorridas entre 2016 e 2019, nas quais divulgamos informação científica clara através do diálogo com a população. Os métodos utilizados foram: 1) palestras em escolas (público infantojuvenil) utilizando slides, fotos e vídeos; 2) oficinas (público misto), estande com material in vivo do ciclo de vida do Aedes, jogos e desenhos. Analisamos dez palestras em escolas do ensino fundamental e médio e vinte oficinas realizadas em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Concluímos que tais ações e suas análises críticas devem ser realizadas continuamente para que sejam bem-sucedidas


Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, zika, and chikungunya etiological agents, diseases for which no effective vaccines are available. Control alternatives aimed at mitigating these arboviruses are essential. Among such, mechanical control addresses practices of elimination and/or cleaning of vector breeding sites. Here, we presented and critically evaluated actions carried out by ourselves. These actions took place between 2016 and 2019, where we disseminated clear scientific information through dialogue with the population. The following methods were employed: 1) lectures in schools (children and youth audiences) using slides, photos, and videos; 2) workshops (mixed audience), stand with in vivo material from the Aedeslife cycle, games, and drawings. Ten lectures in elementary and high schools and twenty workshops held in different regions of Brazil were analyzed. It was concluded that such actions and their critical analyzes must be carried out continuously to be successful


Aedes aegypti es el principal vector de los agentes etiológicos del dengue, zika y chikungunya, enfermedades para las que no existen vacunas totalmente eficaces. Las alternativas de control para mitigar estas arbovirosis son fundamentales. El control mecánico, representa una de estas alternativas, aborda prácticas de eliminación y/o limpieza de criaderos del vector. En este informe presentamos y evaluamos de manera crítica las acciones realizadas por el grupo entre los años 2016 y 2019. Presentamos información científica clara a través del diálogo con la población mediante los siguientes métodos: 1) conferencias en escuelas (público infantil) utilizando diapositivas, fotos y videos; 2) Talleres (público mixto), stand con material in vivo del ciclo de vida del Aedes, juegos y dibujos. Analizamos diez conferencias en escuelas (primarias y secundarias) y veinte talleres realizados en diferentes regiones de Brasil. Concluimos que tales acciones y el análisis crítico de las mismas deben llevarse a cabo de manera continua para que resulten exitosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Mosquito Control , Health Education/methods , Aedes/growth & development , Educational and Promotional Materials , Teaching Materials , Brazil , Health Fairs , Dengue/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(1): 131-144, mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533915

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La pandemia por COVID-19 presionó los sistemas de salud para mantener alerta y activos los programas de control y prevención de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, y generó cambios en las estrategias de control vectorial en áreas urbanas afectadas por el dengue, el Zika y el chikunguña. Objetivo. Describir las adaptaciones del programa de vigilancia y control de vectores en Medellín durante la contingencia sanitaria por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Iniciada la emergencia sanitaria, se elaboraron protocolos de bioseguridad. Se fortaleció la vigilancia entomológica institucional en lugar de las viviendas. La información se recolectó en Medellín durante los años 2018 a 2021, en las actividades del programa de vigilancia y control de vectores, que incluyen la vigilancia epidemiológica y entomo-virológica, el levantamiento de los índices entomológicos, el monitoreo de ovitrampas, la movilización social y comunitaria, la búsqueda y eliminación de criaderos, y el control químico; estas acciones se adaptarons o incrementaron para favorecer, de una parte, el autocuidado de las comunidades en confinamiento total y parcial, y de desarrollar las acciones de prevención y control. Resultados. Se incrementó en un 40 % la vigilancia del mosquito mediante ovitrampas, la vigilancia entomo-virológica presentó un incremento de 34,4 % en el 2020 respecto al 2019, y se utilizaron herramientas virtuales para mantener y mejorar el contacto con la comunidad. Conclusión. La pandemia por COVID-19 causó gran impacto en los programas de prevención y control de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Medellín adaptó rápidamente las actividades de vigilancia entomo-virológica, las acciones de control y la comunicación con la comunidad durante la pandemia, y esto permitió mantener activo el programa del manejo integrado de vectores en la ciudad.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic pressured health care systems to remain alert and active in their vector-borne disease control and prevention programs, leading to changes in vector control strategies in urban areas affected by dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Objective: To describe the adaptations made to the vector control and surveillance program in Medellín during the COVID-19 health emergency. Materials and methods: Once the health emergency started, biosecurity protocols were developed. Entomological surveillance was strengthened from the institutional environment instead of homes. Data was collected in Medellín from 2018 to 2021 during the vector control and surveillance program activities, which included epidemiological and entomo- virological surveillance, entomological index survey, ovitrap monitoring, community mobilization, search and elimination of mosquito breading sites, and chemical control. These actions were adapted and/or increased to promote self-care among communities in total and partial confinement, and to develop prevention and control measures. Results: Mosquito monitoring was increased by 40% using ovitraps, entomological- virological surveillance showed an increase in 2020 of 34,4% compared to 2019 and virtual media was used to keep and improve contact with the community. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on arbovirus prevention and control programs. The city of Medellín quickly adapted its entomo-virological surveillance activities, control measures, and the contact with the community during the pandemic, which allow the Integrated Vector Management program to remain active in the city.


Subject(s)
Vector Borne Diseases , COVID-19 , Arboviruses , Aedes , Dengue
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 954-959, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985619

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impact of health management measures for entry personnel (entry management measures) against COVID-19 on the epidemiological characteristics of imported Dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2020 to 2022. Methods: Data of imported Dengue fever from January 1, 2016 to August 31, 2022, mosquito density surveillance from 2016 to 2021, and international airline passengers and Dengue fever annual reported cases from 2011 to 2021 in Guangdong were collected. Comparative analysis was conducted to explore changes in the epidemic characteristics of imported Dengue fever before the implementation of entry management measures (from January 1, 2016 to March 20, 2020) and after the implementation (from March 21, 2020 to August 31, 2022). Results: From March 21, 2020, to August 31, 2022, a total of 52 cases of imported Dengue fever cases were reported, with an imported risk intensity of 0.12, which were lower than those before implementation of entry management measures (1 828, 5.29). No significant differences were found in the characteristics of imported cases before and after implementation of entry management measures, including seasonality, sex, age, career, and imported countries (all P>0.05). 59.62% (31/52) of cases were found at the centralized isolation sites and 38.46% (20/52) at the entry ports. However, before implementation of entry management measures, 95.08% (1 738/1 828) of cases were found in hospitals. Among 51 cases who had provided entry dates, 82.35% (42/51) and 98.04% (50/51) of cases were found within seven days and fourteen days after entry, slightly higher than before implementation [(72.69%(362/498) and 97.59% (486/498)]. There was significant difference between the monthly mean values of Aedes mosquito larval density (Bretto index) from 2020 to 2021 and those from 2016 to 2019 (Z=2.83, P=0.005). There is a strong positive correlation between the annual international airline passengers volume in Guangdong from 2011 to 2021 and the annual imported Dengue fever cases (r=0.94, P<0.001), and a positive correlation also existed between the international passenger volume and the annual indigenous Dengue fever cases (r=0.72, P=0.013). Conclusions: In Guangdong, the entry management measures of centralized isolation for fourteen days after entry from abroad had been implemented, and most imported Dengue fever cases were found within fourteen days after entry. The risk of local transmission caused by imported cases has reduced significantly.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , COVID-19 , Aedes , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468805

ABSTRACT

For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-¹ and 1.0 mg mL-¹ MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-¹). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-¹, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-¹ e 1,0 mg mL-¹ foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-¹ de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-¹, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Onions/drug effects , Onions/genetics , Onions/toxicity , Organophosphate Poisoning , Malathion
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468822

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-¹ were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-¹ for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-¹ for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-¹ for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-¹ para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-¹ para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-¹ para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-¹ para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Artemia , Cymbopogon/enzymology , Cymbopogon/toxicity , Esters/toxicity
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468828

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Citrus/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Limonene/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468870

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses [...].


O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d’água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/classification , Anopheles/classification , Biodiversity , Culex/classification , Culicidae
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468917

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Fusarium/pathogenicity
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Insect Repellents , Insecticides/toxicity , Esterification , Larva
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes , Fusarium , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pakistan , Soil , Plant Extracts , Forests , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1204-1222, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425455

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Arbovírus são causadores de doenças humanas, sendo que mudança ecológicas e aumento do contato humano-vetor aumenta a possibilidade de surtos. Objetivo: Detectar, identificar e caracterizar arbovírus presentes em mosquitos vetores capturados em regiões de mata próximas a Três Lagoas, MS. Metodologia: Mosquitos foram capturados utilizando armadilhas de luz em regiões de mata circunvizinha a Três Lagoas. Os mosquitos capturados foram classificados por gênero (chave morfológica) e agrupados em pools com até 20 espécimes, e utilizados através da reação de RT-PCR com posterior sequenciamento e análise filogenética. Resultados: Foram capturados 851 dos gêneros: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) e outros gêneros não identificados. Sequencias de vírus Dengue (DENV) foram amplificadas de 2/13 (15,38%) pools de Aedes spp. e uma sequência de vírus Mayaro (MAYV) 1/7 (7,7%) foi amplificada de pools de Haemagogus spp. As análises filogenéticas mostraram que as sequências de DENV agrupava-se no clado de DENV1 e DENV2. A sequência de MAYV agrupou-se junto a sequências de amostras de infecções humana por MAYV do grupo L. Conclusão: Estes resultados reforçam a circulação de DENV, que é causador de surtos anuais de doenças febris agudas no município, e detecção, por primeira vez na região, a circulação de MAYV, reforçando a necessidade de monitoramento viral constante nessa região.


Introduction: Arboviruses cause human diseases, and ecological changes and increased human-vector contact increase the possibility of outbreaks. Objective: To detect, identify and characterize arboviruses present in mosquito vectors captured in forest regions close to Tres Lagoas, MS. Methodology: Mosquitoes were captured using light traps in forest regions surrounding Tres Lagoas. The captured mosquitoes were classified by gender (morphological key) and grouped into pools with up to 20 specimens and used through the RT-PCR reaction with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: 851 of the genera were captured: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) and other unidentified genera. Dengue virus (DENV) sequences were amplified from 2/13 (15.38%) pools of Aedes spp. and a Mayaro virus (MAYV) sequence 1/7 (7.7%) were amplified from pools of Haemagogus spp. Phylogenetic analyzes showed that one of the DENV sequences clustered in the DENV1 and DENV2 clade. The MAYV sequence was grouped together with sequences from samples of human MAYV infections of the L group. Conclusion: These results reinforce the circulation of DENV, which causes annual outbreaks of acute febrile illnesses in the municipality, and detection, for the first time in the region, the circulation of MAYV, reinforcing the need for constant viral monitoring in this region.


Introducción: Los arbovirus causan enfermedades humanas, y los cambios ecológicos y el mayor contacto humano-vector aumentan la posibilidad de brotes. Objetivo: Detectar, identificar y caracterizar arbovirus presentes en mosquitos vectores capturados en regiones de selva próximas a Tres Lagoas, MS. Metodología: Los mosquitos fueron capturados utilizando trampas de luz en las regiones forestales que rodean Tres Lagoas. Los mosquitos capturados fueron clasificados por género (clave morfológica) y agrupados en pools de hasta 20 ejemplares, y utilizados mediante la reacción RT-PCR con posterior secuenciación y análisis filogenético. Resultados: Se capturaron 851 de los géneros: Culex spp. (11 pools); Aedes spp. (13 pools); Haemagogus spp. (7 pools) y otros géneros no identificados. Las secuencias del virus del dengue (DENV) se amplificaron a partir de 2/13 (15,38 %) grupos de Aedes spp. y una secuencia de virus Mayaro (MAYV) 1/7 (7,7%) de pools de Haemagogus spp. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron que una de las secuencias de DENV se agrupaba en el clado DENV1 y DENV2. La secuencia de MAYV se agrupó con secuencias de muestras de infecciones humanas de MAYV del grupo L. Conclusión: Estos resultados refuerzan la circulación de DENV, causante de brotes anuales de enfermedades febriles agudas en el municipio, y la detección, por primera vez en la región, la circulación de MAYV, reforzando la necesidad de un monitoreo viral constante en esta región.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alphavirus , Aedes/classification , Culex/microbiology , Flavivirus , Mosquito Vectors/microbiology , RNA, Viral , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology/instrumentation , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Culicidae/microbiology
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39026, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425189

ABSTRACT

Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) is a shrub, commonly known as ginger bush or false myrrh, and several studies have shown that T. riparia exhibits a variety of biological properties. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition of T. riparia essential oil and its fractions, investigate their anticholinesterase activity, and assess their larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus and the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Eleven essential oil fractions were obtained by fractionation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Larvicidal activity against R. microplus and third-instar A. aegypti was assessed using a larval packet test and a larval immersion test, respectively. Anticholinesterase activity was determined by a bioautographic method. Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil, of which the major classes were oxygenated sesquiterpenes (45.95%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (35.20%) and the major components were isospathulenol (17.40%), ß-caryophyllene (15.61%), 14-hydroxy-9-epi-caryophyllene (10.07%), 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (8.32%), and 9ß,13ß-epoxy-7-abietene (5.53%). Bioassays showed that T. riparia essential oil (LC50 = 1.56 µg/mL) and FR3 (LC50 = 0.30 µg/mL) were the most active against R. microplus and A. aegypti larvae, respectively. The essential oil and FR1, FR2, and FR3 exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. These results indicate that T. riparia essential oil and its fractions hold promise in the development of novel, environmentally safe agents for the control of R. microplus and A. aegypti larvae.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Aedes , Lamiaceae/toxicity , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Larvicides
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 70 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511793

ABSTRACT

Embora as bromélias sejam identificadas como os principais criadouros de algumas espécies de culicídeos dos gêneros Anopheles, Culex, Wyomyia e Runchomyia em áreas preservadas ou com pouca interferência humana, ainda não há consenso sobre sua relevância como habitat para mosquitos das espécies Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em áreas urbanas. Isso representa um desafio para a vigilância entomológica e para o sucesso das ações que visam orientar a população sobre as medidas de prevenção e controle vetorial nessas plantas. Foi realizada a caracterização a fauna de culicídeos presentes nesses reservatórios e a caracterização de aspectos morfológicos das bromélias domesticadas presentes em condomínios residenciais. A pesquisa ocorreu entre os meses de outubro de 2021 e julho de 2022, foram inspecionadas 660 bromélias domesticadas presentes em condomínios residenciais situados em área urbana do município de Paulínia/SP. Os imaturos de culicídeos foram coletados e identificados através de chaves dicotômicas. Os caracteres morfológicos altura, diâmetro, líquido coletado e capacidade de armazenar líquido das bromélias foram coletados e analisados. O teste de Mann-Whitney e o Coeficiente de Spearman resultaram em p<0,001 para todas as variáveis, quando avaliada a presença ou ausência de imaturos. Este último apresentou correlação positiva moderada com a quantidade de imaturos coletados. A frequência de bromélias positivas para imaturos de culicídeos foi de 47,12% entre as plantas que continham líquido armazenado. Foram coletados 6.721 imaturos, destes, 81,80% pertencem à espécie Aedes aegypti e 5,19% à espécie Aedes albopictus. Em áreas urbanizadas, onde há uma concentração maior de bromélias em condomínios residenciais, a proliferação desses vetores pode ser ainda mais preocupante devido à frequência de regas e à redução dos predadores e competidores da espécie. As bromélias do gênero Alcantarea apresentaram maior frequência quanto à presença de culicídeos (77,4% de positividade). Portanto, é fundamental o monitoramento desses criadouros nesse cenário. Essa análise pode fornecer informações valiosas sobre a extensão do problema e auxiliar na implementação de estratégias de controle mais eficazes. A compreensão da distribuição e da densidade das bromélias em diferentes regiões urbanizadas é essencial para direcionar ações de prevenção e controle de doenças transmitidas por culicídeos, tais como a dengue, zika e chikungunya.


Although bromeliads are identified as the main breeding sites for some species of culicids in the genera Anopheles, Culex, Wyomyia, and Runchomyia in preserved, there is still no consensus on their relevance as habitats for mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in urban areas. This represents a challenge for entomological surveillance and the success of actions aimed at guiding the population on prevention and vector control measures in these plants. The fauna of culicids present in these reservoirs and the morphological aspects of domesticated bromeliads in gated community were characterized. Between October 2021 and July 2022, 660 domesticated bromeliads present in gated community located in the urban area of Paulínia, São Paulo, were inspected. Culicid immatures were collected and identified using dichotomous keys. The morphological characteristics of height, diameter, collected liquid, and liquid storage capacity of the bromeliads were collected and analyzed. The Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's coefficient resulted in p<0.001 for all variables when evaluating the presence or absence of immatures. The latter showed a moderate positive correlation with the quantity of immatures collected. The frequency of bromeliads positive for culicid immatures was 47.12% among the plants that contained stored liquid. A total of 6,721 immatures were collected, of which 81.80% belonged to the species Aedes aegypti and 5.19% to the species Aedes albopictus. In urbanized areas, where there is a higher concentration of bromeliads in gated community, the proliferation of these vectors can be even more concerning due to the frequency of watering and the reduction of predators and competitors of the species. Bromeliads of the genus Alcantarea showed a higher frequency of culicid presence (77.4%). Therefore, monitoring these breeding sites in this scenario is fundamental. This analysis can provide valuable information about the extent of the problem and assist in the implementation of more effective control strategies. Understanding the distribution and density of bromeliads in different urbanized regions is essential to guide actions for the prevention and control of diseases transmitted by culicids, such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya.


Subject(s)
Urban Area , Aedes , Vector Control of Diseases , Bromelia , Dengue , Culicidae
20.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-15, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411686

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Realizar um levantamento das contribuições científicas produzidas entre 2017 e 2021 acerca do efeito larvicida de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais no controle de Aedes spp, Anopheles spp e Culex spp. Métodos: de setembro a outubro de 2022, foi realizado um levantamento de artigos científicos publicados entre os anos de 2017 e 2021, nas bases de dados Portal Periódicos Capes, Scielo, Science Direct e Scopus. Foram utilizados os descritores "larvicide", "essential oil" e "plant extracts" com a interposição do operador boleano "AND". Resultados: inicialmente, foram obtidos 246 artigos, dos quais 110 foram excluídos (68 não estavam disponíveis na íntegra e 42 apareceram em mais de uma base de dados). Dos 136 artigos restantes, 36 foram excluídos por não terem realizado ensaio larvicida. Dos 100 artigos remanescentes, 63 foram excluídos por não mencionarem valores de CL50, enquanto 3 não especificaram a estrutura vegetal de obtenção dos produtos naturais, restando, portanto, 34 artigos para análise. Foram utilizadas 57 espécies vegetais para a obtenção dos produtos vegetais utilizados contra larvas de Aedes spp; 11 espécies nos ensaios contra Anopheles spp, e 36 espécies nos ensaios contra Culex spp. Os óleos essenciais predominaram nos ensaios contra Aedes spp, enquanto os extratos, contra Anopheles spp. A maior parte dos produtos testados exibiu CL50 < 100 ppm. Conclusão: a atividade larvicida demonstrada por uma grande variedade de extratos vegetais e óleos essenciais representa uma alternativa promissora ao tradicional controle químico feito à base de inseticidas sintéticos em programas de manejo integrado de vetores.


Objectives: Conduct a survey of the scientific contributions produced between 2017 and 2021 on the larvicidal effect of essential oils and plant extracts in the control of Aedes spp, Anopheles spp, and Culex spp. Methods: from September to October 2022, a survey was carried out of scientific articles published between 2017 and 2021 in the Portal Periódicos Capes, Scielo, Science Direct, and Scopus databases. The descriptors "larvicide", "essential oil" and "plant extracts" were used with the Boolean operator "AND". Results: initially, 246 articles were obtained, of which 110 were excluded (68 were not available, and 42 appeared in more than one database). Of the remaining 136 articles, 36 were excluded because they did not perform a larvicide assay. Of the 100 remaining articles, 63 were excluded for not mentioning LC50 values, while three did not specify the plant structure for obtaining natural products, thus leaving 34 articles for analysis. A total of 57 plant species were used to obtain plant products used against Aedes spp larvae; 11 species in the tests against Anopheles spp, and 36 species in the tests against Culex spp. Essential oils predominated in the tests against Aedes spp, while extracts against Anopheles spp. Most of the products tested exhibited an LC50 < 100 ppm. Conclusion: the larvicidal activity demonstrated by a wide variety of plant extracts and essential oils represents a promising alternative to traditional chemical control based on synthetic insecticides in integrated vector management programs.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Larvicides , Biological Control Agents/pharmacology
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