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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(3): 443-450, may.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902184

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el dengue es una de las frecuentes infecciones por arbovirus que afectan al hombre en la mayoría de los países tropicales, donde las condiciones del medio ambiente favorecen el desarrollo y la proliferación del Aedes Aegypti. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes enfermos de dengue. Materiales y Métodos: estudio observacional transversal, cuya población estuvo constituida por 89 pacientes con monosuero de captura de IgM para dengue positivo, ingresados en sala J del Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Provincial "José Ramón López Tabrane" de Matanzas, durante el año 2014. Se utilizaron las variables: edad, sexo, manifestaciones clínicas, mes de presentación, municipio de procedencia, viajes a otras provincias u otros países, trombocitopenia, leucopenia y hematocrito. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen y los resultados se presentaron en tablas. Los datos personales y de identificación de los pacientes no fueron publicados. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino (51,7 %), edades entre 20 y 30 años (24,7 %). La fiebre y mialgias se presentaron en más de la mitad de los pacientes. El mes de agosto constituyó el de más ingresos, con un 24,7 %. La mayoría de los pacientes viajaron a la Habana, para un 78,9 %, seguido de Camagüey y Guantánamo para un 5,8 % y un 3,9 % respectivamente. Un 100 %, mostró trombocitopenia y la leucopenia estuvo presente en un 80 % aproximadamente. Conclusiones: no se presentó relación directa entre el sexo de los pacientes y la aparición de la enfermedad, se reportó más frecuentemente entre adultos jóvenes y en los meses de lluvia (AU).


Introduction: dengue is one of the most frequent infections caused by arbovirus affecting people in most of the tropical countries, where the environment conditions favor the development and proliferation of Aedes Aegypti. Objective: to characterize, clinically and epidemiologically, the patients with dengue. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional observational study in a population formed by 89 in-patients with positive IgM-capture monoserum for dengue who were admitted in the J ward of the Internal Medicine Service of the Provincial Hospital "José Ramón López Tabrane" of Matanzas during 2014. The used variables were: age, sex, clinical manifestations, month of presentation, municipality of origin, trips to other provinces or countries, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, and hematocrit. The percentage was used as a summary measure and the results were given in charts. The patients' personal and identification data were not published. Results: the female sex (51,7 %) and ages between 20 and 30 years (24,7 %) predominated. More than half of a patients presented fever and myalgia. August was the month with more admissions, for 24,7 %. Most of the patients travelled to Havana (78,9 %), followed by Camaguey and Guantanamo, for 5,8 % and 3.9 % respectively. 100 % of the patients showed thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia was present in almost 80 %. Conclusions: there was not found a direct relation between the patients' sex and disease onset. It was more frequently reported in young adults and in the rainy months (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Signs and Symptoms , Aedes/enzymology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/pathology , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(1): 285-292, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770663

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted in four strains of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to evaluate the enzymatic activity profiles in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, and correlate them with biochemical mechanisms of resistance to insecticides. Mosquitos were used to quantify the following detoxification enzymes: Mixed-Function Oxidase (MFO), PNPA-esterase (PNPA-EST), and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The profiles were compared statistically with profiles from the Rockefeller strain, through the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). The 99 percentile of the values of enzyme activity from the reference strain was calculated for each enzyme, and the percentage of individuals above the 99 percentile was quantified. The enzyme activities were classified as “Unchanged” (< 15%), “Identified change” (> 15% and < 50%), and “Substantially changed” (> 50%). The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the MFO and AChE profiles, which are fundamental in the determination of profiles of resistance to insecticides. Three populations were classified as “Substantially changed” for MFO. The altered enzymatic activity showed that the changes could have an important role in exposing resistance to insecticides.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado em quatro cepas de mosquitos Aedes aegypti da cidade de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, com o intuito de avaliar os perfis de atividade enzimática e correlacioná-los com os mecanismos bioquímicos de resistência a inseticidas. Mosquitos foram utilizados para quantificar as seguintes enzimas de detoxificação: oxidase de Função Mista (MFO), PNPA-esterase (PNPA-EST) e acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os perfis das populações foram comparados estatisticamente com os da cepa Rockefeller por meio do teste de Kruskal-Wallis e do de comparações múltiplas de Dunn (p < 0,05). O percentil 99 dos valores de atividade enzimática da cepa referência foi calculado para cada enzima, e o percentual de indivíduos acima desse valor foi quantificado. As atividades enzimáticas foram classificadas como “Inalterada” (< 15%), “Alteração Identificada” (> 15% e < 50%), e “Substancialmente Alterada” (> 50%). A análise estatística revelou diferenças significativas nos perfis de MFO e AChE, que são fundamentais na determinação de perfis de resistência a inseticidas. Três populações foram classificadas como “Substancialmente Alteradas” para MFO. Os níveis alterados de atividade enzimática demonstram que essa mudança pode desempenhar um importante papel na resistência a inseticidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Insecticide Resistance , Brazil , Insecticides
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 579-582, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728904

ABSTRACT

Introduction The effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of the organophosphate temephos (TE) and the role of esterases in the resistance of Aedes aegypti to this insecticide were evaluated. Methods A. aegypti L4 larvae susceptible and resistant to TE were pre-treated with PBO solutions in acetone at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% for 24h and subsequently exposed to a diagnostic concentration of 0.02mg/L aqueous TE solution. The esterase activity of the larvae extracts pre-treated with varying PBO concentrations and exposed to TE for three time periods was determined. Results At concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2%, PBO showed a significant synergistic effect with TE toxicity. High levels of esterase activity were associated with the survival of A. aegypti L4 larvae exposed to TE only. Conclusions The results of the biochemical assays suggest that PBO has a significant inhibitory effect on the total esterase activity in A. aegypti larvae. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/physiology , Insecticide Resistance , Pesticide Synergists/pharmacology , Piperonyl Butoxide/pharmacology , Temefos/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Organophosphates
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 178-184, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR) greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50) was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/metabolism , Insecticides , Temefos , Electrophoresis , Insecticide Resistance
7.
Recife; s.n; 2013. 121 p. ilus, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720618

ABSTRACT

A resistência de populações de Aedes aegypti a inseticidas químicos tem representado um desafio nos programas para seu controle. Este projeto teve como objetivos caracterizar o perfil de susceptibilidade de populações de A. aegypti de Pernambuco, relacionando-o ao histórico local de uso de tais compostos e aos mecanismos que podem estar associados à resistência. Amostras de A. aegypti de 17 municípios foram analisadas através de bioensaios com o temephos (larvicida) e diflubenzuron (regulador de crescimento) e um adulticida, a cipermetrina. Testes bioquímicos foram realizados para quantificar a atividade das enzimas acetilcolinesterase (ACE), glutationa S-transferase (GST), esterases (Alfa, Beta e PNPA) e oxidases de função mista (MFO). Também foram investigadas mutações no gene do canal de sódio: sítios 982, 1011, 1014, e 1016. Os resultados demonstraram que todas as populações estavam resistentes ao temephos, exceto a de Fernando de Noronha. A razão de resistência (RR) foi moderada apenas na população Recife, enquanto RR 100 vezes foram observadas em 10 populações. Houve uma correlação entre o consumo e a RR a este produto. Para o diflubenzuron foi construída uma linha de base dose resposta e as RR foram correlacionadas positivamente com as observadas para o temephos...


Resistance to chemical insecticides represents a challenge for Aedes aegypticontrol programs. This project aimed to characterize the susceptibility status ofA. aegypti populations fromPernambuco state, associating it to the local use history...


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Disease Susceptibility , Insecticide Resistance , Diflubenzuron , Insecticides , Larvicides , Temefos
8.
Recife; s.n; 2013. 193 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704487

ABSTRACT

A resistência a inseticidas químicos representa uma das maiores limitações em programas de controle de insetos. Dentre os diferentes mecanismos que levam o inseto à resistência, os principais são as alterações do sítio-alvo e a via metabólica. Essa última é representada por enzimas de detoxificação, como esterases, glutationas S-tranferases e oxidases. Mais de 200 genes de detoxificação foram identificados em Ae. aegypti, o que torna complexa a identificação mutações pontuais envolvidas neste mecanismo. Sendo assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e caracterizar genes envolvidos na resistência a inseticidas em Ae. aegypti. Para o mapeamento de loci de herança quantitativa (QTL), microssatélites foram utilizados para genotipar indivíduos das gerações F0 e F2, provenientes dos cruzamentos entre a linhagem resistente ao temephos RecR, e as susceptíveis Red e MoyoD. Um QTL foi mapeada no cromossomo II, respondendo a aproximadamente 97 por cento da variação da resistência ao temephos. Diferentes genes de esterase foram identificados na região de QTL, demonstrando o envolvimento de outros genes de resistência na RecR, além daqueles identificados em trabalho prévio, com um chip de microarranjos. O presente trabalho estudou a região 5' UTR do gene da oxidase CYP6N12, identificado previamente como superexpresso na linhagem RecR. A análise da região revelou na RecR a presença de um alelo (R), com 14 pb a mais, que encontrava-se associado com a resistência ao temephos (fR= 0,625). Enquanto que, o mesmo alelo foi encontrado em menor frequência na RecRev (fR = 0,12). A presença desse alelo induziu a uma expressão do gene em 10 vezes na RecR e 4 vezes na RecRev. O sequenciamento de parte do gene da acetilcolinesterase de mosquitos da RecR e da linhagem susceptível Rockefeller, demonstrou a ausência de mutações nas duas colônia. Por fim, mutações no gene do canal de sódio foram avaliadas em populações de Ae. aegypti do Ceará, resistentes à cipermetrina. A mutação Ile1011Met foi encontrada em associação com a resistência em indivíduos do Crato, enquanto que o alelo mutante 1016Ile foi detectado pela primeira vez no Crato e Juazeiro do Norte. A identificação e mapeamento dos genes de resistência a inseticidas químicos em Ae. aegypti poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico e manejo da resistência.


Subject(s)
Aedes/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Quantitative Trait Loci , Acetylcholinesterase , Aedes , Aedes/enzymology , Genetic Variation , Temefos
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(3): 333-343, jul.-set. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-663705

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resistencia fisiológica de las poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti a los insecticidas de uso en salud pública, disminuye la eficacia del control químico utilizado para interrumpir la transmisión de dengue durante los brotes y epidemias. Objetivo. Determinar el estado de la susceptibilidad al carbamato propoxur, a los organofosforados adulticidas malatión y fenitrotión y al larvicida temefos, de 13 poblaciones naturales de Ae. aegypti en ocho municipios: una de Bucaramanga y dos de Sabana de Torres en el departamento de Santander; dos de Girardot y dos de La Mesa en Cundinamarca; dos de Villavicencio y dos de Puerto López en el Meta; una de San José del Guaviare, en Guaviare, y una de Florencia en Caquetá. Materiales y métodos. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad consistieron en bioensayos estandarizados de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), 1981, y botellas de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1998. Se aplicaron pruebas colorimétricas para determinar los niveles de enzimas como posibles responsables de la reducción de la susceptibilidad a insecticidas organofosforados y al carbamato propoxur. Resultados. Todas las poblaciones presentaron susceptibilidad a malatión y propoxur. Para el temefos, solo cuatro de las trece localidades evaluadas registraron susceptibilidad. Con respecto a los posibles mecanismos de desintoxicación enzimática, en siete de las once poblaciones naturales se registraron valores superiores al punto de corte para esterasas inespecíficas, solamente en Bucaramanga se presentó un incremento en las enzimas monooxigenasas del citocromo P450, pero en ninguna población se registró acetilcolinestarasa modificada. Conclusiones. La susceptibilidad generalizada a los organofosforados adulticidas evaluados, indica que el malatión, el insecticida más utilizado en Colombia para interrumpir la transmisión del dengue, sigue siendo eficaz. Las particularidades de los resultados de la resistencia fisiológica a insecticidas de las comunas de un mismo municipio, evidenciaron un fenómeno localizado de manera específica en espacio y tiempo.


Introduction. Physiological resistance of natural population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemical control as a main control strategy during dengue outbreaks. Objective. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti was assessed for the carbamate propoxur, the adulticide malathion and the larvicide temephos on 13 natural populations of Ae. aegypti immature forms were taken from 8 Colombian localities. These included the following: Bucaramanga (1), Sabana de Torres (2), Girardot (2), La Mesa (2), Villavicencio (2), Puerto López (2), San José del Guaviare (1) and Florencia (1). Materials and methods. Susceptibility tests mainly consisted of the standardized bioassay outlined by WHO (1981) and CDC bottles (1998). Colorimetric tests were undertaken to determine enzyme levels possibly responsible for the reduction of susceptibility to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Results. All specimens demonstrated susceptibility to malathion and propoxur insecticides. Four of the 13 populations revealed susceptibility to the temephos larvicide. Seven of 11 populations showed a limited increase in values for nonspecific esterase enzymes. The Bucaramanga population was the only one which showed an increase in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enzymes. Neither population was found with modified acetilcolinesterase. Conclusions. The widespread susceptibility to organophosphates used as adulticides indicated that malathion, the most used insecticide in Colombia, remains effective in interrupting the transmission of dengue. Physiological resistance to insecticides occurring in communities of a single township proved to be a localized phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes , Dengue Virus , Insect Vectors , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Malathion , Mosquito Control , Propoxur , Temefos , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Aedes/enzymology , Aedes/growth & development , Colombia , /analysis , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Esterases/analysis , Insect Proteins/analysis , Larva , Urban Health
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 64(3): 256-267, jul.-sep. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-653844

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las enzimas esterasas han sido identificadas como mecanismo de resistencia a temefos en Aedes aegypti de Cuba, larvicida más utilizado en el mundo. Objetivo: caracterizar parcialmente la actividad de esterasas en larvas expuestas y no expuestas a dosis subletales de temefos en una cepa de Aedes aegypti resistente a este insecticida. Métodos: se utilizó una cepa de Aedes aegypti de referencia susceptible (Rockefeller) y otra resistente a temefos (SANtemF11). Se expusieron las larvas de la cepa SANtemF11 a la concentración letal 90 (CL90) de temefos (1 ppm), 10 % de larvas sobrevivientes a las 24 h (SANtem [24 h]) se transfirieron a agua limpia y sin exposición a insecticidas por otras 24 h (SANtem [48 h]). Se caracterizó de modo parcial, en estas larvas, la actividad de esterasas a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. Se estimó por duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE) el peso molecular de la esterasa (Est. A4). Resultados: la actividad de esterasas en la cepa SANtemF11 resultó significativamente mayor que en Rockefeller. Se observó una disminución significativa de la actividad de esterasas en las larvas sobrevivientes (SANtemF11 [24 h]), la cual se recuperó 24 h después sin exposición a temefos. En el zimograma se observó que en 10 % de las larvas sobrevivientes a temefos, solo apareció incrementada la banda de esterasa A4, en comparación con las observadas en SANtemF11. El peso molecular estimado de la esterasa A4 fue de 58 kDa. Conclusiones: la presencia de una banda específica de esterasa (58 kDa), en las larvas sobrevivientes a la selección con temefos, confirma su papel en la resistencia a este insecticida. Diagnosticar la función de las esterasas en la resistencia a temefos, a través de ensayos bioquímicos, no debe realizarse en larvas expuestas a dosis subletales de este insecticida, para evitar falsos negativos.


Introduction: the esterase enzymes have been defined as the mechanism of resistance to temephos in Aeges aegypti in Cuba, which is the most used larvacide worldwide. Objective: to partially characterize the activity of esterases in exposed and non-exposed larvae at sublethal doses of temephos in an Aedes aegypti strain that is resistant to this product. Methods: a susceptible reference Aedes aegypti strain (Rockefeller) and another temephos-resistant strain (SANtemFII) were used. The larvae from SANtemF11 strain were exposed to lethal concentration 90 (LC90) of temephos (1 ppm); 10 % of the surviving larvae after 24 hours (SANtem[24 h] was moved to clean water, with no exposure to insecticide for 24 hours (SANtem [48 h]). The activity of esterases was partially characterized in these larvae through biochemical assays and gel-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The molecular weight of esterase A 4 (ESt. A4) was estimated with the support of sodium duodecyl sulophate (SDS-PAGE). Results: the activity of esterases in SANtemF11 was significantly higher than in Rockefeller strain. Significant reduction of the activity of esterases in surviving larvae was observed (SANtemF11 [24 h], but it increased 24 h later without exposure to temephos. The zymogram showed that 10% of larvae that survived from temephos action, just the esterase A4 band increased if compared with those of SAntemF11. The estimated molecular weight of esterase A4 was 58 kDa. Conclusions: the presence of a specific band of esterase (58 kDa) in surviving larvae confirmed the role of these enzymes in insecticidal resistance. The diagnosis of the function of the esterases in resistance to temephos through biochemical tests should not be made in larvae exposed to sublethal doses of this insecticide, in order to avoid false negatives.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/physiology , Insecticides , Temefos , Insecticide Resistance/physiology
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(1): 1-8, July 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of increasing larval rearing temperatures on the resistance status of Trinidadian populations of Aedes aegypti to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. METHODS: In 2007-2008, bioassays and biochemical assays were conducted on A. aegypti larvae collected in 2006 from eight geographically distinct areas in Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago). Larval populations were reared at four temperatures (28 ± 2ºC, 32ºC, 34ºC, and 36ºC) prior to bioassays with OP insecticides (fenthion, malathion, and temephos) and biochemical assays for esterase enzymes. RESULTS: Most larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC were susceptible to fenthion (>98% mortality) but resistant to malathion and temephos (< 80% mortality). A positive association was found between resistance to OP insecticides and increased activities of α- and β-esterases in larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC. Although larval populations reared at higher temperatures showed variations in resistance to OPs, there was a general increase in susceptibility. However, increases or decreases in activity levels of enzymes did not always correspond with an increase or decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals reared at higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Although global warming may cause an increase in dengue transmission, based on the current results, the use of insecticides for dengue prevention and control may yet be effective if temperatures increase as projected.


OBJETIVO: Examinar los efectos del aumento de las temperaturas de desarrollo larvario sobre el estado de resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados de las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti en Trinidad. MÉTODOS: En 2007 y 2008 se llevaron a cabo ensayos biológicos y bioquímicos en larvas de A. aegypti recogidas en el 2006 de ocho áreas geográficamente separadas en Trinidad (Trinidad y Tabago). Las poblaciones larvarias se desarrollaron en cuatro temperaturas (28 ± 2 ºC, 32 ºC, 34 ºC y 36 ºC) antes de los ensayos biológicos con insecticidas organofosforados (fentión, malatión y temefós) y los análisis bioquímicos para las enzimas de esterasa. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC fueron susceptibles al fentión (mortalidad > 98%) pero resistentes al malatión y al temefós (mortalidad < 80%). Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados y la mayor actividad de αy β-esterasas en las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC. Aunque las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a temperaturas mayores mostraron variaciones en la resistencia a los organofosforados, hubo un aumento general de la sensibilidad. Sin embargo, los aumentos o las disminuciones en los niveles de actividad de las enzimas no siempre se correspondieron con un aumento o disminución en la proporción de individuos resistentes desarrollados a las temperaturas más altas. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque el recalentamiento del planeta puede causar un aumento de la transmisión del dengue, según los resultados de este estudio el uso de insecticidas para la prevención y el control del dengue todavía puede ser eficaz si las temperaturas aumentan según lo proyectado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Fenthion/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malathion/pharmacology , Temperature , Temefos/pharmacology , Aedes/enzymology , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/physiology , Global Warming , Hot Temperature , Insect Proteins/analysis , Insect Proteins/physiology , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Insecticide Resistance/physiology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/enzymology , Species Specificity , Trinidad and Tobago
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 387-395, May 2012. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624021

ABSTRACT

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main focus of dengue control campaigns. Because of widespread resistance against conventional chemical insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) are considered control alternatives. We evaluated the resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to both the organophosphate temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, which are used in Brazil to control larvae and adults, respectively. All vector populations exhibited high levels of temephos resistance and varying rates of alterations in their susceptibility to pyrethroids. The effect of the CSI novaluron on these populations was also investigated. Novaluron was effective against all populations under laboratory conditions. Field-simulated assays with partial water replacement were conducted to evaluate novaluron persistence. Bioassays were continued until an adult emergence inhibition of at least 70% was attained. We found a residual effect of eight weeks under indoor conditions and novaluron persisted for five-six weeks in assays conducted in an external area. Our data show that novaluron is effective against the Ae. aegypti populations tested, regardless of their resistance to conventional chemical insecticides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/enzymology , Chitin Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Mosquito Control/methods , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Chitin Synthase/biosynthesis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Temefos
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 546-552, Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597713

ABSTRACT

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes/enzymology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Aedes/growth & development , Head , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Pupa/enzymology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(3): 346-352, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589045

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, pyrethroids and organophosphates have been used for many years against Aedes aegypti. We aimed to establish both the resistance level of Ae. aegypti and the ultra low volume spray efficacy to provide mosquito control services with practical information to implement vector control and resistance management. Resistance to deltamethrin and fenitrothion was observed. In addition, the profound loss of efficacy of AquaK'othrine® and the moderate loss of efficacy of Paluthion® 500 were recorded. Fenitrothion remained the most effective candidate for spatial application in French Guiana until its removal in December 2010. Further investigation of the mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin demonstrated the involvement of mixed-function oxidases and, to a lesser extent, of carboxylesterases. However, these observations alone cannot explain the level of insecticide resistance we observed during tube and cage tests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Mosquito Control , Organophosphates , Pyrethrins , Aedes/enzymology , Dengue , French Guiana
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 27(1): 66-73, jan. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577025

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el estado de susceptibilidad a insecticidas piretroides deltametrina y lambdacialotrina y al organoclorado DDT, e identificar los mecanismos bioquímicos asociados con resistencia en 13 poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti recolectadas en localidades de Colombia donde el dengue es un grave problema de salud pública. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron y criaron en condiciones controladas formas inmaduras de diferentes criaderos naturales del vector para cada localidad. Con la generación F2 se realizaron bioensayos utilizando las metodologías OMS 1981 (papeles impregnados) y CDC 1998 (botellas impregnadas). En las poblaciones con mortalidades compatibles con disminución de la susceptibilidad, se midieron los niveles de esterasas no específicas (ENE), oxidasas de función mixta (OFM) y acetilcolinesterasa modificada (ACEM) mediante pruebas colorimétricas. RESULTADOS: Todas las poblaciones del mosquito evaluadas evidenciaron resistencia al organoclorado DDT. En cuanto a los piretroides, se encontró resistencia generalizada a lambdacialotrina pero no a deltametrina. Los mecanismos bioquímicos de resistencia evaluados permitieron encontrar 7 de 11 poblaciones con ENE elevadas y una población con OFM incrementadas. CONCLUSIONES: Se descarta la resistencia cruzada de tipo fisiológico entre el DDT y lambdacialotrina en las poblaciones de A. aegypti evaluadas. La resistencia fisiológica a lambdacialotrina parece asociarse con el incremento de las ENE. El comportamiento diferencial en los niveles de susceptibilidad y los valores enzimáticos entre poblaciones se asociaron con la variabilidad genética y presión de selección química a nivel local.


OBJECTIVES: To assess the susceptibility status of 13 natural populations of Aedes aegypti (collected from sites in Colombia where dengue is a serious public health problem) to the pyrethroids, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and to the organochlorine, DDT, and to identify any biochemical mechanisms associated with resistance. METHODS: Immature forms of the vector were collected from natural breeding spots at each site and then raised under controlled conditions. Using the F2 generation, bioassays were performed using the World Health Organization's 1981 methodology (impregnated paper) and United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1998 methodology (impregnated bottles). In populations where mortality rates were consistent with decreased susceptibility, levels of nonspecific esterases (NSE), mixed-function oxidases (MFO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured using colorimetric tests. RESULTS: All of the mosquito populations that were tested showed resistance to the organochlorine DDT. In the case of the pyrethroids, widespread resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin was found, but not to deltamethrin. Assessing the biochemical resistance mechanisms showed that 7 of the 11 populations had elevated NSE, and one population, increased MFO. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological cross-resistance between DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in the A. aegypti populations tested was dismissed. Physiological resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin appears to be associated with increased NSE. The differences in susceptibility levels and enzyme values among the populations were associated with genetic variations and chemicals in use locally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , DDT , Insecticides , Mosquito Control , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Aedes/enzymology , Biological Assay , Colombia , Colorimetry , Carboxylesterase/analysis , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Insect Proteins/analysis , Mixed Function Oxygenases/analysis
16.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 59(3)sep.-dic. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-489455

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio in vivo a través del uso de 2 sinergistas, el trifenil fosfato (TFF) inhibidor específico de esterasas y el ácido etacrínico (AE), inhibidor específico de la enzima glutation transferasa (GST), para determinar si estas enzimas eran responsables de la resistencia a piretroides en Aedes aegypti. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 2 cepas de Aedes aegypti resistentes a insecticidas, una cepa que fue seleccionada con temefos por 6 generaciones de selección (SAN-F6) y otra con deltametrina por 12 generaciones de selección con este insecticida (SAN-F12), ambas resultaron ser resistentes a insecticidas piretroides. Se demostró a través del uso de los sinergistas TFF y AE que las enzimas esterasas y GST son responsables de la resistencia a los piretroides en estas cepas. Esos resultados demuestran la existencia de un fenómeno de resistencia cruzada y multirresistencia, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta en las estrategias de uso de insecticidas para el control de este vector.


An in vivo study of two synergists, that is, Triphenil phosphate -specific esterase inhibitor- and ethacrynic acid specific gluthation transferase inhibitor- was performed to determine if these enzymes were responsible for pyrethroid resistance of Aedes aegypti. To this end, two insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti strains were used, one strain selected with temephos by six selection generations (SAN-F6) and the other strain with delmamethrin by 12 selection generations (SAN-F12), being both strains resistant to pyrethroid insecticices. Through the use of TPP and EA synergists, it was proved that esterase and gluthation-s-transferase (GST) enzymes were responsible for pryrethroid resistance of these strains. These results showed the existence of cross-resistance and multidrug resistance, which should be taken into account for insecticide use strategies aimed at vector control.


Subject(s)
Aedes/enzymology , Esterases/analysis , Transferases/analysis
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(5): 573-580, Aug. 2007. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-458624

ABSTRACT

To analyze the genetic relatedness and phylogeographic structure of Aedes aegypti, we collected samples from 36 localities throughout the Americas (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Guatemala, US), three from Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Uganda), and three from Asia (Singapore, Cambodia, Tahiti). Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene identified 20 distinct haplotypes, of which 14 are exclusive to the Americas, four to African/Asian countries, one is common to the Americas and Africa, and one to the Americas and Asia. Nested clade analysis (NCA), pairwise distribution, statistical parsimony, and maximum parsimony analyses were used to infer evolutionary and historic processes, and to estimate phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Two clusters were found in all the analyses. Haplotypes clustered in the two clades were separated by eight mutational steps. Phylogeographic structure detected by the NCA was consistent with distant colonization within one clade and fragmentation followed by range expansion via long distance dispersal in the other. Three percent of nucleotide divergence between these two clades is suggestive of a gene pool division that may support the hypothesis of occurrence of two subspecies of Ae. aegypti in the Americas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Aedes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetics, Population , Insect Vectors/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Aedes/enzymology , Africa , Americas , Asia , Haplotypes/genetics , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(8): 917-921, Dec. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-440581

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti populations from five districts in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed using five microsatellites and six isoenzyme markers, to assess the amount of variation and patterns of gene flow at local levels. Microsatellite loci were polymorphic enough to detect genetic differentiation of populations collected at small geographic scales (e.g. within a city). Ae. aegypti populations were highly differentiated as well in the city center as in the outskirt. Thus, dengue virus propagation by mosquitoes could be as efficient in the urban area as in the outskirt of Rio de Janeiro, the main entry point of dengue in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/genetics , Genetic Variation , Insect Vectors/genetics , Isoenzymes/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Aedes/enzymology , Brazil , Genetic Markers
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(6): 625-633, Sept. 2006. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-437055

ABSTRACT

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Venezuela. The genetic structure of this vector was investigated in 24 samples collected from eight geographic regions separated by up to 1160 km. We examined the distribution of a 359-basepair region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene among 1144 Ae. aegypti from eight collections. This gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and tested for variation using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Seven haplotypes were detected throughout Venezuela and these were sorted into two clades. Significant differentiation was detected among collections and these were genetically isolated by distance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Variation , Insect Vectors/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Aedes/enzymology , Dengue/transmission , Geography , Haplotypes/genetics , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Venezuela
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Jan; 41(1): 91-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61890

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation. About 95% head squashes were positive for dengue virus antigen on the 15th post infection day (PID). Esterase activity was determined in the homogenates prepared from the salivary glands and midguts on different PIDs of dengue virus inoculated and control mosquitoes showed that it was consistently higher in the virus-infected batches.


Subject(s)
Aedes/enzymology , Animals , Esterases/metabolism , Female , Intestines/enzymology , Salivary Glands/enzymology
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