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1.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353359

ABSTRACT

Background: As a novel and deadly acute respiratory syndrome, which later became known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), spread beyond China in late January 2020, there were no laboratories in Africa that could test for the disease. However, in early March, just over a month later, 42 African countries had developed the expertise and resources to perform COVID-19 testing. Our goal was to document this public health success story, learn from it, and use it to inform future public health action. Intervention: Three groups were primarily responsible for establishing COVID-19 testing capacity in Africa. The first group comprised early test manufacturers who reacted with incredible speed and ingenuity early in the pandemic, such as the German company TIB MolBiol that developed a molecular test for COVID-19 before the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence was available. The second group included private and public donors such as the Jack Ma Foundation, and the last were the coordinators of the rollout, such as the World Health Organization and the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Lessons learnt: The first lesson was that speed is critical, especially during a crisis. It was also demonstrated that being a predictable and transparent trusted institution opens doors and improves effectiveness. Africa CDC, which was only three years old, was able to secure significant resources from external partners and rapidly build substantial testing capacity within Africa because it is a trusted institution. Recommendations: Low- and middle-income countries must build local trusted institutions to better prepare for public health challenges


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Health Laboratory Services , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Africa , Diagnosis
2.
Estilos clín ; 25(3): 377-393, maio-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1286396

ABSTRACT

Ter esperança é condição para ensinar. Trata-se de esperar sem expectativa, mas supondo que uma criança possa sempre aprender algo. Por parte do professor, é necessário, portanto, fazer uma aposta e sustentar esse lugar desejante que dá origem à transferência. Quando adultos podem sonhar um futuro para a criança, há efeitos e, por isso, ter, para elas, uma utopia, nos parece fundamental. Esta é a tese que buscamos defender ao longo do trabalho. Nossas reflexões nasceram a partir de experiências vivenciadas em escolas angolanas e moçambicanas. O objeto sobre o qual nos debruçamos nesta investigação foram as maneiras pelas quais a posição do sujeito pode se relacionar com o lugar desse sujeito no desejo do Outro e incidir, como efeito, na relação da criança com o conhecimento.


La esperanza es una condición para la enseñanza. Es cuestión de esperar sin expectativas, pero asumiendo que un niño siempre puede aprender algo. Por lo tanto, por parte del maestro, es necesario hacer una apuesta y sostener este lugar deseable que da lugar a la transferencia. Cuando los adultos pueden soñar un futuro para el niño, hay efectos y, por lo tanto, tener una utopía para ellos, nos parece fundamental. Esta es la tesis que buscamos defender. Nuestras reflexiones nacieron de las experiencias vividas en las escuelas de Angola y Mozambique. En esta investigación nos interesamos a las formas en que la posición del sujeto puede relacionarse con el lugar que ocupa en el deseo del Otro y afectar, como efecto, la relación del niño con el conocimiento.


Hope is a condition for teaching. It is a matter of waiting without expectation, but assuming that a child can always learn something. On the part of the teacher, therefore, it is necessary to make a bet and sustain this desiring place that gives rise to the transfer. When adults can dream of a future for the child, there are effects and, therefore, have a utopia for them, it seems fundamental to us. This is the thesis that we seek to defend throughout this work. Our reflections were born from experiences lived in Angolan and Mozambican schools. The object on which we focused in this investigation were the ways in which the position of the subject can relate to the place of that subject in the desire of the Other and affect, as an effect, the relationship of the child with knowledge.


L'espoir est une condition pour enseigner. Il s'agit d'espérer sans expectation, mais tout en supposant qu'un enfant puisse toujours apprendre quelque chose. Du côté du professeur, il est donc nécessaire de faire un pari et de soutenir ce lieu désirant qui donne origine au transfert. Lorsque des adultes peuvent songer à un avenir pour l'enfant, cela produit des effets. Avoir, pour eux, une utopie, nous semble fondamental. C'est cette thèse que nous nous emploierons à défendre tout au long de cette étude. Notre réflexion est née à partir d'expériences vécues dans des écoles angolaises et mozambicaines. Notre analyse a privilégié l'examen de traits qui semblent pointer vers une position inconsciente du sujet face au désir de l'Autre et qui, souvent, émergeaient comme des impasses dans cette position du sujet et, en conséquence, face à la connaissance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Politics , Psychoanalysis , Education , Teaching , Transference, Psychology , Utopias , Africa , Learning
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 13-28, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134098

ABSTRACT

Abstract The subdiscipline of historical epidemiology holds the promise of creating a more robust and more nuanced foundation for global public health decision-making by deepening the empirical record from which we draw lessons about past interventions. This essay draws upon historical epidemiological research on three global public health campaigns to illustrate this promise: the Rockefeller Foundation's efforts to control hookworm disease (1909-c.1930), the World Health Organization's pilot projects for malaria eradication in tropical Africa (1950s-1960s), and the international efforts to shut down the transmission of Ebola virus disease during outbreaks in tropical Africa (1974-2019).


Resumo A subdisciplina epidemiologia histórica se propõe a criar um alicerce robusto e refinado para o processo de tomada de decisões em saúde pública global, aprofundando registros empíricos que nos ensinam sobre intervenções passadas. Este artigo se baseia na pesquisa epidemiológica histórica de três campanhas globais de saúde pública para ilustrar essa proposta: os esforços da Fundação Rockefeller para controle da ancilostomose (1909-c.1930), os projetos-piloto da Organização Mundial da Saúde para erradicação da malária na África tropical (décadas de 1950-1960), e os esforços internacionais de interrupção da transmissão do vírus Ebola durante surtos na África tropical (1974-2019).


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Global Health/history , Epidemiology/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Health Promotion/history , Hookworm Infections/history , Malaria/history , World Health Organization/history , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Africa , Hookworm Infections/prevention & control , Malaria/prevention & control
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 211-230, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation. Therefore, because economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation, beginning in the early 1970s the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others began a period of sustained interest in developing both for the billions without either. During the 1980s, two massive and wildly ambitious projects showed what was possible. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and the Blue Nile Health Project aimed for nothing less than the total overhaul of the way water was developed. This was, according to the WHO, "development in the spirit of social justice."


Resumo Crescimento econômico e boa saúde dependem de acesso a saneamento e água limpa. Assim, o Banco Mundial, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e outros órgãos, a partir do início da década de 1970, inauguraram um período de contínuo interesse no desenvolvimento de ambos para bilhões de pessoas desprovidas de tais necessidades. Durante a década de 1980, dois projetos monumentais e extremamente ambiciosos demonstraram o que era viável fazer. A International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade e o Blue Nile Health Project visavam à total reestruturação do modelo de desenvolvimento da água. Tratava-se, segundo a OMS, do "desenvolvimento do espírito de justiça social".


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Water Supply/history , Public Health Practice/history , Sanitation/history , Global Health/history , United Nations/history , World Health Organization/history , Africa
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 145-164, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134088

ABSTRACT

Abstract From its inception, in 1948, the World Health Organization made control of malaria a high priority. Early successes led many to believe that eradication was possible, although there were serious doubts concerning the continent of Africa. As evidence mounted that eradicating malaria was not a simple matter, the malaria eradication programme was downgraded to a unit in 1980. Revived interest in malaria followed the Roll Back Malaria Initiative adopted in 1998. This article presents an historical account of the globally changing ideas on control and elimination of the disease and argues that insufficient attention was paid to strengthening health services and specialized human resources.


Resumo Desde sua origem, em 1948, a Organização Mundial da Saúde priorizou o controle da malária. Os primeiros êxitos induziram à crença na viabilidade da erradicação, apesar de sérias dúvidas quanto ao continente africano. À medida que se somavam comprovações de que a erradicação da malária não seria simples, o projeto com essa finalidade foi rebaixado a uma unidade em 1980. O reavivamento do interesse na malária ocorreu após a iniciativa Roll Back Malaria, criada em 1998. Este artigo apresenta um panorama histórico das mudanças nas ideias, em âmbito global, ligadas ao controle e à eliminação da doença e defende a tese de que a atenção dada ao fortalecimento dos serviços de saúde e a recursos humanos especializados foi insuficiente.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , World Health Organization/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Mosquito Control/history , Malaria/history , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mosquito Control/methods , Africa , Disease Eradication/history , Goals , Malaria/prevention & control
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago. 13, 2020. 4 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117252

ABSTRACT

Enfrentamos un reto sin precedentes, que requiere sistemas de salud sólidos y bien financiados que nos guíen en la crisis y nos ayuden a recuperarnos. No hay ninguna duda de que los países y las ciudades necesitan intervenciones significativas y sostenidas en todos los sectores para suprimir la COVID-19, proteger los avances en la salud y hacer frente a la pobreza y las desigualdades crecientes. La salud de las comunidades y de la economía depende de ello.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Health Systems/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Equity/organization & administration , Vulnerable Populations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Africa/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology
8.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268645

ABSTRACT

Heads of government in Africa responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by setting up high-level task forces at continental and national levels to coordinate preparedness and response strategies, in a bid to mitigate the spread of this virus on the continent. However, the current strategy at both continental and national levels are narrowly focused on COVID-19 and this is not sustainable. This is because Africa has a high burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and sustaining access to essential life-saving health services is also critical during this pandemic. Therefore, we call for a more holistic health systems-based model for COVID-19 outbreak response. We recommend that response strategies should be transitioned from vertical isolated programmes to a broad-based "time-bound" integrated health system intervention that links with existing health programmes as well as other government and non-governmental sectors


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Regional Health Planning
9.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268653

ABSTRACT

A recent commentary published in this journal correctly notes the important challenges that must be addressed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. While we agree with the basic assumptions and arguments of their essay, we argue that common social institutional norms in most rural settings could be marshalled for organizing preventive measures


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Delivery of Health Care , Regional Health Planning , Social Norms
10.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268654

ABSTRACT

A recent commentary published in this journal correctly notes the important challenges that must be addressed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. While we agree with the basic assumptions and arguments of their essay, we argue that common social institutional norms in most rural settings could be marshalled for organizing preventive measures


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Empathy , Health Status Indicators , Quarantine
11.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268655
12.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(2)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268658

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 in December 2019 has highlighted several lessons about Public health emergencies. One important lesson is on the role of social welfare benefits and protection in the overall management of public health emergencies. The absence of a functional and digitalized social welfare system in Africa may render ineffective public health measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The social determinant of disease illustrates the nexus between poverty and health outcomes. Therefore, COVID-19 is an opportunity for African governments to rethink their stance on social welfare benefits and protection; and adopt mechanisms that protect the most vulnerable


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Government , Public Policy , Social Welfare
13.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264603

ABSTRACT

Respiratory illnesses in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa where poverty, food insecurity, malnutrition, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are aggravating factors in many countries. These factors, in addition to under resourced health-care infrastructure, remain important barriers to improving child lung health outcomes in Africa. However, despite these challenges, there have been significant recent advancements in understanding the epidemiology, causes, measurement tools, and treatment of childhood respiratory illnesses. In this review, we highlight some advances in childhood pneumonia, tuberculosis, asthma, and other important non-communicable lung diseases common in children. Furthermore, we discuss the role of environmental influences on children's lung health in Africa and highlight novel methods of measuring lung function in children. Although children contribute a small role in the global epidemiology of COVID-19 pandemic, socioeconomic and health-care delivery disruptions caused by government responses to contain the pandemic have resulted in significant indirect setbacks to child health. We further highlight how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted areas of pediatric lung health and discuss ways to mitigate effects of COVID-19 in Africa


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Lung Diseases , Pediatrics , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tuberculosis
14.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 54(4): 107-112, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1262314

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading through Africa and governments are making frantic efforts to control spread, hospitalizations and deaths. While control measures are being taken, research into the biomedical and socio-cultural aspects of the pandemic, relevant to the African population, should not be ignored. It should not be assumed that research performed in Asian, American and European populations will always be applicable to Africa. Rather, research should be done in Africa to answer questions peculiar to the epidemic on the continent and help inform international guidelines. National guidelines for treatment and prevention, patient recoveries and discharge, and public health control measures should be based on research performed in the appropriate context for them to be effective and robust. Urgent research is needed in viral immunology and shedding, treatment and prevention trials, protection of healthcare personnel, and antimicrobial use among others. In this article, we propose ten research questions that when answered in a timely manner by scientists in Africa, will enhance Africa's response to the pandemic


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Ghana , Research
16.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256664

ABSTRACT

Since 2012, PMTCT Option B+ has been recommended by the World Health Organization to reduce vertical transmission but numerous adherence challenges remain. We conducted a qualitative study at baseline using six focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews to explore knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and challenges towards the Option B+ strategy for PMTCT among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum women and health workers engaged in Uganda's national Option B+ PMTCT programme. Data were analysed using a thematic approach to capture latent and manifest content with the social ecological model as a theoretic foundation in order to make contextual sense of key stakeholders' needs for an effective Option B+ intervention. Overall, among all study participants, we found multi-level barriers to adhering to Option B+ cutting across all levels of the social ecological model. In line with the model, our study revealed barriers at personal, relational, organizational and societal levels. Some personal beliefs such as that the baby's health is more important that the mother's, organizational (negative attitudes and behaviour of health workers), structural such as poverty, work conflicts, fear and lack of disclosure related to community stigma were all critical obstacles to women adhering to the Option B+ programme. We found that both health workers and participants in the programme have a relatively clear understanding of the benefits of adhering to their treatment; though a more nuanced understanding and thus emphasis in counselling on side effects, is critical to helping patients adhere


Subject(s)
Africa , Uganda
17.
Brasília; IPEA; 2020. 23 p. ilus.(Nota Técnica / IPEA. Dinte, 21).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1290468

ABSTRACT

Esta nota técnica traz um panorama da Covid-19 na África até o momento, considerando que os dados da conjuntura de cada país da região se atualizam a cada dia, tornando qualquer análise, necessariamente, parcial e limitada. Este panorama do continente ocorre a partir das subdivisões entre as regiões definidas pela União Africana: norte, ocidental, oriental, sul e central. Essa subdivisão se dá pela similaridade de características de um contexto geopolítico, uma vez que a África é um continente que apenas recentemente foi descolonizado e apresenta muitos Estados ainda em processo de consolidação. Este texto não pretende, de forma alguma, reduzir a realidade africana a algo único, passível de ser generalizado. Muito pelo contrário, busca-se mostrar a diversidade de realidades presentes no continente.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Epidemics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Africa
18.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 9: 1-14, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256866

ABSTRACT

Background: In Africa, primary hip osteoarthritis seems to be less frequent than in Europe. Sickle cell disease is responsible for aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with secondary hip osteoarthritis. Very little evidence is available on the influence of aetiology (primary and secondary) and radiographic status on pain and disability in a Beninese population with hip osteoarthritis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of aetiology and radiographic status on pain, disability and quality of life in a Beninese population with hip osteoarthritis. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, including participants recruited in the Clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the National Teaching Hospital in Cotonou. Assessment was based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. The main outcomes were severity of osteoarthritis, pain, range of motion, muscle strength, gait speed and quality of life. Statistical comparisons between the aetiologies were performed using a t-test or rank sum test. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the effect of radiographic status. Results: Forty-nine participants (26 women and 23 men; mean age [standard deviation] 40.5 [17.9] years) were recruited. According to the aetiology (59.2% and 40.8% of primary and secondary osteoarthritis, respectively), there were no significant differences for any of the outcomes. Grades I, II, III and IV osteoarthritis were observed in 22.4%, 14.3%, 26.5% and 36.7% of the participants, respectively. Participants with grade IV osteoarthritis were more affected than those with grades I, II and III based on the Kellgren and Lawrence classification. Conclusion: Aetiology did not influence pain, gait speed or quality of life. Participants with grade IV osteoarthritis had more pain, were more limited in walking and had a more impaired quality of life


Subject(s)
Africa , Benin , Bread , Osteoarthritis, Hip , Quality of Life , Walking Speed
19.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 3(1): 27-36, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259569

ABSTRACT

Background:Pregnant women are a vulnerable group to the COVID-19 infection; although it is expected that adaptive changes of pregnancy put them at increased risk of adverse outcome from any respiratory tract infection, interventions for the COVID-19 may put them in more danger. Nigeria is one of the leading countries with very poor maternal mortality indices and many other sub-Saharan African nations are in the same boat. Contingency plans need to beput in place to prevent precipitous deterioration in mortality rates occasioned by the dreaded SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. This mini-review of literature and WHO global statistics is aimed to determine the trends in COVID-19 transmission and mortality rates to provide evidence-based information that may enable governments to tailor their interventions to the peculiar needs, of sub-Saharan African populations.Main body:Emerging epidemiological trends on transmission and mortality within Africa and the worst affected regions of the world suggests better outcomes of this infection in sub-Saharan Africa, than in other regions of the world. Also, present data allude to similar outcomes between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The present containment measures of isolation and quarantine, including city-wide lockdowns, may put pregnant women at higher risk of death from other causes rather than COVID-19. The danger posed, is the limitation of access to emergency obstetric care services when pregnant women develop non-COVID-19 complications of pregnancy.Conclusion:The COVID-19 pandemic has lower local transmission rates and fatality in Africa, the region where the virus arrived last. While special efforts should be geared at shielding the elderly and infirm from contracting the infection, preventive measures in pregnant women must allow for access to emergency obstetric care to forestall iatrogenic adverse maternal outcomes


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa , Coronavirus Infections , Nigeria
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811267

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection in humans. The disease is endemic in some parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, and Asia, where cattle grazing is common; the disease is spread by an enteric route following the consumption of food contaminated with the eggs of the parasite. Failure to identify this parasite results in delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity to the patient. Upon diagnosis, every possible step should be taken, both surgical and medical, to prevent anaphylactic reactions from the cystic fluid. Postsurgical long-term follow up along with periodical ultrasonography of the liver and computed tomography scan of the abdomen is essential to rule out possible recurrence.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Africa , Anaphylaxis , Animals , Asia , Australia , Cattle , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Echinococcosis , Eggs , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Ovum , Parasites , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Zoonoses
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