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1.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-7, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363287

ABSTRACT

Background: the current research studies why it is effective using Anrederacordifolia, Psidium guajava, and Pogostemon cablin by the local community as a traditional medicine for diarrhea treatment caused by Escherichiacoli bacteria. Objectives: We compared the inhibitor effectiveness of three leaf extracts against Escherichia coli; we also identified the anti-bacterial substances contained in leaf extracts. Methods: We determined the bacterial test activity using the "agar diffusion" method and the thin layer chromatography (TLC) as qualitative analysis for determining the anti-bacterial substances contained in the extract. Results: The Pogostemon cablin leaf extract contained terpenoids, phenolic, and flavonoids compound as bacterial inhibitors, and the comparison showed that Pogostemon cablin leaf extract had the greatest bacterial inhibition power. Conclusion: The antibiotic substances found in the leaf extracts of Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava, and Pogostemon cablin can be used as traditional medicine. The breakthrough was evidenced by the ability to inhibit Escherichia coli bacteria. This research shows that traditional medicine has ancient knowledge used by this paper


Antecedentes: la presente investigación estudia la eficacia del uso de Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava y Pogostemoncablin por la comunidad local como medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diarrea causada por la bacteria Escherichia coli. Objetivos: Comparamos la eficacia inhibidora de los extractos de tres hojas contra Escherichia coli; también identificamos las sustancias antibacterianas contenidas en los extractos de hojas. Métodos: Determinamos la actividad de la prueba bacteriana mediante el método de "difusión en agar" y la cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) como análisis cualitativo para determinar las sustancias antibacterianas contenidas en el extracto. Resultados: el extracto de hoja de Pogostemoncablin contenía compuestos terpenoides, fenólicos y flavonoides como inhibidores bacterianos, y la comparación mostró que el extracto de hoja de Pogostemon cablin tenía el mayor poder de inhibición bacteriana. Conclusión: El contenido de sustancias antibióticas que se encuentran en el extracto de hoja de Anredera cordifolia, Psidium guajava y Pogostemoncablin puede utilizarse como medicina tradicional. Esto se evidencia por la capacidad de inhibir la bacteria Escherichiacoli. Esta investigación muestra que la medicina tradicional tiene un conocimiento antiguo utilizado por este artículo


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Agar , Psidium , Escherichia coli , Pogostemon , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 75-80, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116352

ABSTRACT

Os fungos desempenham vários papéis que impactam a humanidade de diversas maneiras. Suas características metabólicas são importantes na biotecnologia, porém, tais microrganismos podem desencadear alguns problemas de saúde pública e até mesmo serem letais. Objetivo: detectar a presença de fungos no acervo de uma biblioteca no município de São José do Rio Preto. Metodologia: foram coletadas quarenta amostras nas superfícies inanimadas (livros, estantes, documentos, mapas, artigos e revistas) das principais salas da biblioteca com o auxílio de swabs umedecidos em solução salina estéril, posteriormente encaminhados ao laboratório de Biomedicina da Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP. As amostras foram semeadas em meio de cultura ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (SDA), tendo adicionado cloranfenicol e incubadas a 30 °C. Foi realizada a colônia gigante em todas as cepas crescidas em SDA para a realização da técnica de microcultivo para a identificação dos fungos, de acordo com o Manual de Detecção e Identificação dos Fungos de Importância Médica da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Houve positividade em trinta e uma amostras (78%) e em quatro delas foi observado mais de um tipo de colônia (13%). Das vinte e duas superfícies de livros analisadas, foram isolados e identificados: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. e Nigrospora sp. Nas oito superfícies de estantes: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. e Scopulariopsis sp. e, nos dez documentos: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. e Trichoderma sp. Conclusão: Os fungos encontrados estão amplamente distribuídos no ambiente como solo e ar e, por diversos fatores, instalam-se em locais como bibliotecas. Em condições favoráveis, podem infectar o homem e causar perdas patrimoniais para os acervos.


Fungi play many roles that impact humankind in different ways. Their metabolic characteristics are important in biotechnology; however, these microorganisms can trigger some public health problems or may even be lethal. Objective: detect the presence of fungi in the collection of a public library in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Methods: a total of forty samples were collected from inanimate surfaces (books, shelves, documents, maps, articles and magazines) located in the main rooms of the library with swabs soaked in sterile saline solution and sent to the Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP laboratories. The samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 °C. The colonies that grew in SDA were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar for performing the slide culture technique for the identification of the fungi, performed according to the Manual of Detection and Identification of Fungi of Medical Importance from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Results: Thirty-one samples (78%) were positive, and in four of them more than one fungus genus was observed (13%). From the twenty-two book surfaces analyzed, the following fungi were isolated and identified: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. and Nigrospora sp. On the eight shelves: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. The ten documents analyzed presented the following fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. and Trichoderma sp.. Conclusion: These fungi are widely distributed in the environment such as in the soil and air, and due to several factors, they colonize public places, such as libraries. In favorable conditions, they may infect humans and cause diseases.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Library Materials , Fungi , Penicillium , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus niger , Trichoderma , Biotechnology , Cladosporium , Cunninghamella , Agar , Infections
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1034-1038, May-June, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129736

ABSTRACT

Algumas espécies de Staphylococcus causam infecções crônicas intramamárias e podem levar à formação de biofilme. No presente estudo, levantou-se a hipótese de que as espécies de Staphylococcus isolados da mastite bovina são capazes de formar biofilme in vitro associado à presença dos genes icaA, icaD ou bap. Um total de 200 isolados de Staphylococcus, sendo 100 Staphylococcus aureus de casos de mastite subclínica e 100 estafilococos não aureus (ENA) de casos de mastite subclínica e clínica, obtidos em duas fazendas leiteiras, no estado de São Paulo, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de produzir biofilmes in vitro. A presença de icaA, icaD e bap foi confirmada por PCR, e a produção de biofilme em ágar vermelho congo (Congo Red Agar - CRA) e em teste de microplaca (Microtiter Plate - MtP) foi avaliada nos isolados de S. aureus e ENA. Os resultados mostraram a presença dos genes icaA, icaD e bap em S. aureus, mas não em ENA. A produção de biofilme pode estar associada à presença de outros fatores ou genes que estimulam a produção de biofilme in vitro. O ensaio de MtP serve como um modelo quantitativo para o estudo da aderência de espécies de estafilococos associados à mastite bovina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Biofilms , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Agar
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762470

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance culture (ASC) can help detect hidden reservoirs, but the routine use of ASC for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is controversial in an endemic situation. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (EBSL-Kpn) colonization among intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients. Prospective screening of ESBL-Kpn colonization was performed for ICU-admitted patients within 48 hours for two months. A perirectal swab sample was inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL ceftazidime. ESBL genotype was determined by PCR-sequencing, and clonal relatedness was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The risk factors of ESBL-Kpn colonization were evaluated. The ESBL-Kpn colonization rate among the 281 patients at ICU admission was 6.4% (18/281), and bla(CTX-M-15) was detected in all isolates. ESBL producers also showed resistance to fluoroquinolone (38.9%, 7/18). All isolates had the same ESBL genotype (bla(CTX-M-15)) and a highly clustered PFGE pattern, suggesting cross-transmission without a documented outbreak. In univariate analysis, the risk factor for ESBL-Kpn colonization over the control was the length of hospital stay (odds ratio=1.062; P=0.019). Routine use of ASC could help control endemic ESBL–Kpn for ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Agar , Ceftazidime , Colon , Critical Care , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785392

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for accurate and rapid diagnostic assays capable of identifying carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). We assessed the performance of the RESIST-4 O.K.N.V. (OKNV) assay (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium) for the identification of oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like-, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-, and Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae grown on sheep blood agar (SBA) and the CHROMagar KPC medium. Sixty-five carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates with characterized carbapenemase content were used to evaluate the OKNV assay. The assay correctly identified all 30 isolates that produced one of the four targeted carbapenemase families. Additionally, it correctly identified 15 isolates that co-produced KPC and NDM, VIM and NDM or OXA-48-like and NDM, but failed to identify an NDM-1 and OXA-232 co-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. All 16 non-carbapenemase-producing CRE and four CPE isolates exhibited negative results, and no cross-reaction was observed. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 97.8% and 100%, respectively. The OKNV assay is an accurate and rapid assay for identifying OXA-48-like, KPC, NDM, and VIM carbapenemases produced by Enterobacteriaceae isolates cultured on both SBA and the CHROMagar KPC media in the clinical microbiology laboratory.


Subject(s)
Agar , Enterobacteriaceae , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sheep
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect microorganisms in a comprehensive reference database. To date, NGS has been successfully applied to samples such as urine, blood, and synovial fluid. However, there is no data for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) fluid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of microbiome analysis of CAPD fluids for the diagnosis of CAPD peritonitis.METHODS: We included 21 patients with high suspicion of CAPD peritonitis. Routine CAPD fluid culture was performed using a pellet of 50 mL CAPD fluid onto the chocolate and blood agar for two days, and thioglycollate broth for one week. 16S rRNA gene-targeted NGS of pellets, stored at −70℃ was performed with MiSeq (Illumina, USA).RESULTS: Many colonized or pathogenic bacteria were detected from CAPD fluids using NGS and the microbiomes were composed of 1 to 29 genera with a cut-off 1.0. Compared to the culture results, NGS detected the same pathogens in 6 of 18 valid results (three samples failed with low read count). Additionally, using NGS, anaerobes such as Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. were detected in six patients. In two of five samples in which no bacterial growth was detected, possible pathogens were detected by NGS.CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report about the application of 16S rRNA gene-targeted NGS for diagnosis of CAPD peritonitis. Etiology of culture-negative CAPD peritonitis can be better defined in NGS. Furthermore, it also helped the detection of anaerobic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bacteria , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Bacteroides , Cacao , Colon , Diagnosis , Humans , Microbiota , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Peritonitis , Prevotella , Synovial Fluid
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135535

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial effect of Listerine-green tea mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans (SM) in comparison with 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Listerine-Zero. Material and Methods: The sensitivity and growth inhibition of SM bacterial species were evaluated and compared between Listerine-green tea, 0.12% CHX and Listerine-Zero mouthwashes. Sixty plates containing SM colonies were prepared in three groups (n=20), and growth inhibition zones were measured using the disk diffusion agar test in mm. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the efficacy of the three mouthwashes tested. Post hoc Tukey tests were used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results: Analysis of data showed significant differences between the three groups (p<0.001); 0.12% CHX was the most effective mouthwash, and Listerine-Zero exhibited the least effect on the growth inhibition of SM (p<0.004). Conclusion: All three mouthwashes were significantly effective in inhibiting the growth of SM. The effect of Listerine-green tea mouthwash was higher than that of Listerine-Zero and less than that of 0.12% CHX.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans , Tea , In Vitro Techniques , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Mouthwashes/analysis , Chlorhexidine , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agar , Iran/epidemiology
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of different concentrations of the ethanol extract of Plantago major (plantain) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Material and Methods: Bacterial susceptibility tests were used in conjunction with the agar diffusion test and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the broth macrodilution technique. Results: Different concentrations of ethanol extract (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) dissolved in 70% ethanol were used, with a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine + 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride) and a negative control (70% alcohol). The extracts at 75% and 100% showed inhibition halos against both strains studied. With 0.12% chlorhexidine + 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride, inhibition halos averaged 14.9 mm, in contrast to 70º alcohol, where no bacterial inhibition was observed. The MIC was 50% for both species. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Plantago major presents an in vitro antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plantago major , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/immunology , Peru/epidemiology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Analysis of Variance , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agar , Microbiology
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare colony forming unit (CFU) of oral bacterial from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal tongue among patients with a dental implant and normal oral hygiene individuals without a dental implant. Material and Methods: Twenty-six individuals with a dental implant and twenty-six individuals without dental implants were included in this study. The samples were sent to the laboratory to culture with Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI), prepared serial dilution and then spread to the blood agar. CFU was counted when a single layer of bacteria is formed on the blood agar at any dilution level. An independent-T test was used to compare the means different of CFU oral bacterial between control and test groups from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal mucosa, respectively. Results: Buccal mucosa control group (186.19 ± 5.61) and test group (186.65 ± 6.24) (p>0.05). The result from the lingual buccal tongue control group (198.38 ± 6.12) and test group (197.96 ± 6.50) (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and test group CFU bacterial load. Conclusion: The presence of implants in the oral cavity do not interfere or worsen the oral condition; nevertheless, the effect of implants surrounding oral flora is similar to natural teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene/education , Bacteria , Dental Implants , Dental Materials , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Tongue , Control Groups , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agar , Bacterial Load , Malaysia/epidemiology
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial and smear layer removal ability of Trigonella foenum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula seed extracts against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Material and Methods: Agar well diffusion, micro broth dilution assay and time-kill curve assay were performed to determine the antibacterial activity. The ability of the herbal extracts to remove the smear layer on the root canal surface was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Antibacterial activity was observed for the extracts of S. cumini and T. chebula on E. faecalis dentinal biofilm and its planktonic counterparts. The smear layer was efficiently removed by the seed extracts of T. chebula alone. Seed extracts of T. foenum neither possessed antibacterial effect nor smear layer removal ability. Conclusion: The extracts of T. chebula seeds may replace conventional irrigant due to its antibacterial properties and smear layer removing the ability. The extracts of S. cumini may be used as an intracanal medicament as it exhibited a bactericidal effect against the E. faecalis dentinal biofilm following 18 hours of incubation.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Syzygium/microbiology , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Endodontics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms , Agar , India/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 133 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290877

ABSTRACT

O método de difusão em ágar tem sido utilizado na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana desde a descoberta da penicilina. Apesar disso, pouco avanço ocorreu no sentido de reduzir o tempo necessário para a determinação dos halos de inibição de crescimento. O objetivo deste projeto foi desenvolver, otimizar e validar métodos microbiológicos rápidos (MMRs) para a avaliação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos, além de identificar, quantificar e avaliar as principais fontes de incerteza associadas à determinação da potência. O projeto foi dividido em quatro etapas: 1) influência da composição do meio de cultura na formação dos halos de inibição; 2) estudo da incerteza de medição associada à determinação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos; 3) desenvolvimento, otimização e validação de métodos microbiológicos rápidos (MMRs) para determinação da potência de agentes antimicrobianos e 4) determinação dos parâmetros envolvidos na formação dos halos de inibição de crescimento e estudo dos mecanismos de difusão e crescimento microbiano. Os resultados deste projeto possibilitaram a redução do tempo necessário para a determinação do tamanho dos halos de inibição. Adicionalmente, contribuiu com a elucidação dos mecanismos de difusão e crescimento microbiano, possibilitando identificar e quantificar as principais fontes de incerteza de medição associadas à formação dos halos de inibição


Agar diffusion method has been used in the evaluation of antimicrobial activity since the discovery of penicillin. Nevertheless, little progress has occurred in order to reduce the time required for the determination of growth inhibition zones. The goal of this project was to develop, optimize and validate rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) for evaluation of potency of antimicrobials, as well as to identify, quantify and assess the main sources of uncertainty associated with potency. The project was divided into four steps: 1) influence of culture medium composition on inhibition zones; 2) study of measurement uncertainty associated with antimicrobials potencies; 3) development, optimization and validation of rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) for the determination of antimicrobials potencies and 4) determination of the parameters involved in the formation of inhibition zones and study of mechanisms of diffusion and microbial growth. The results of this project allowed the reduction of the time required for the determination of inhibition zone sizes. Additionally, it contributed to the elucidation of the mechanisms of diffusion and microbial growth, making it possible to identify and quantify the main sources of measurement uncertainty associated with formation of inhibition zone sizes


Subject(s)
Agar/administration & dosage , Uncertainty , Methods , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Penicillins/administration & dosage , Growth and Development , Diffusion , Process Optimization/classification
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758885

ABSTRACT

To diagnose colibacillosis, detection of O-serogroups and virulence genes has been recommended worldwide. The prevalence of virulence factors can fluctuate over time. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of O-serogroups, virulence genes, and F18 subtypes among pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea in Korea. Between 2008 and 2016, 362 E. coli were isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea. Hemolysis was determined in blood agar, and O-serogroups were identified using the slide agglutination technique. The genes for the toxins and fimbriae were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR was conducted to discriminate between F18 subtypes. Although the most prevalent serogroup was O149 (11.3%) in the last 9 years, O139 (19.1%) became the most prevalent in recent years (2015–2016). The most predominant pathotype was enterotoxigenic E. coli (61.3%). The frequencies of Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (23.4%), O139 (19.1%), Stx2e (35.1%), and F18ab (48.7%) increased over the most recent years. Although enterotoxigenic E. coli was the most predominant pathotype, the frequencies of O139, Stx2e, STEC, and F18ab have increased in recent years. These results demonstrate that there have been temporal changes in the predominant O-serogroups and virulence genes over the last decade in Korea. These findings can be practicable for use in epidemiology and control measures for enteric colibacillosis in Korean piggeries.


Subject(s)
Agar , Agglutination , Diarrhea , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Hemolysis , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Virulence Factors , Virulence
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection, one of the complications associated with procedures, can cause fatal outcomes for patients. Although the local anesthetic agent we use is less susceptible to infection due to its antibacterial action, we performed this study to check the change in the antibacterial effect of lidocaine in various clinical conditions. METHODS: After exposing lidocaine to five contaminated environments, we checked on whether the bacteria could be cultured in blood agar plate (BAP) media. In each contaminated environment, lidocaine was exposed for 4 h (n = 9) and 8 h (n = 9), and the results were compared. Lidocaine was swabbed with chlorhexidine (group A), brought into contact with saliva (group B), skin (group C), an operating room floor and an outpatient room floor (group D), operating room air for 24 h (group A-a), and outpatient room air for 24 h (group A-b). After exposure, the culture was initiated. RESULTS: In 2 of 9 BAP media where lidocaine was exposed to saliva (group B) for 8 h, growth of a colony was observed. In gram staining, it was found to be Streptococcus viridans. No bacteria were found in any other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Though lidocaine has strong antibacterial activity, it has been found that long-term exposure to a contaminated environment reduces its antibacterial activity and that drug contamination can be heavily affected not only by environmental but also human effects. Therefore, the use of aseptic drugs is necessary, and stopping the reuse of the drug is a way to prevent complications, including infection.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bacteria , Chlorhexidine , Drug Contamination , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Lidocaine , Operating Rooms , Outpatients , Saliva , Skin , Viridans Streptococci
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine methods of dental caries prevention by investigating the use of compounds of Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) peel, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), and Canavalia gladiata (C. gladiata) extracts to limit the cariogenic traits of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), such as their ability to proliferate and adhere to the tooth surface. METHODS: Broth microdilution and the agar spreading assay were used to determine the antimicrobial effect and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. mutans extracts. In order to identify the adhesive ability of S. mutans at varying concentrations, culture plates were first stained with 1 ml of 0.01% crystal violet for 15 minutes at room temperature, and then eluted with 1 ml of EtOH:Acetone (8:2) solution for 15 minutes in a 37℃ incubator. Eluted solutions were then evaluated by use of a spectrophotometer at 575 nm. RESULTS: Experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata extracts on limiting the proliferation of S. mutans. The MIC was measured as an indication of whether the antibacterial activity of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata extracts had a significant bacteriostatic effect on S. mutans. M. charantia extract was effective for growth inhibition on S. mutans at a minimum concentration of 0.25%. From the adhesion ability assay, M. charantia extract had an anti-adhesive effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that M. charantia extract demonstrates antibacterial activity and has an anti-adhesive effect on S. mutans. Due to these properties, M. charantia extract may be used to prevent dental caries.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Agar , Canavalia , Dental Caries , Diospyros , Gentian Violet , Incubators , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Momordica charantia , Momordica , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Thiram , Tooth
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764439

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a toothbrush with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on periodontitis-associated dental biofilm attached to a zirconia surface by static and dynamic methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia disks (12 mm diameter, 2.5 mm thickness) were inserted into a 24-well plate (static method) or inside a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) biofilm reactor (dynamic method) to form dental biofilms using Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The disks with biofilm were subdivided into five treatment groups-control, commercial photodynamic therapy (PDT), toothbrush alone (B), brush with LED (BL), and brush with LED+erythrosine (BLE). After treatment, the disks were agitated to detach the bacteria, and the resulting solutions were spread directly on selective agar. The number of viable bacteria and percentage of bacterial reduction were determined from colony counts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to visualize alterations in bacterial morphology. RESULTS: No significant difference in biofilm formation was observed between dynamic and static methods. A significant difference was observed in the number of viable bacteria between the control and all experimental groups (P < 0.05). The percentage of bacterial reduction in the BLE group was significantly higher than in the other treated groups (P < 0.05). SEM revealed damaged bacterial cell walls in the PDT, BL, and BLE groups, but intact cell walls in the control and B groups. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that an LED toothbrush with erythrosine is more effective than other treatments in reducing the viability of periodontitis-associated bacteria attached to zirconia in vitro.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bacteria , Biofilms , Cell Wall , Dihydroergotamine , Erythrosine , Fusobacterium nucleatum , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Photochemotherapy , Streptococcus gordonii , Toothbrushing
17.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 246-248, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760510

ABSTRACT

Chryseobacterium hominis is non-fermenting Gram-negative rod that was first identified as a novel species in 2007. Here, we report the first clinical case of C. hominis bacteremia, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A 16-year-old boy diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was hospitalized for three months. Two sets of blood culture test through a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was inserted a month ago, was performed when his white blood cell count declined and he had a high fever. Colonies of medium sizes that looked round, mucoid, sticky, and grayish on blood and chocolate agar plates were observed. Identification of bacteria using the VITEK MALDI-TOF MS system (BioMérieux, France) was not successful and the VITEK 2 system (BioMérieux, USA) indicated Sphingomonas paucimobilis, with a questionable level of confidence (92%). However, Microflex LT Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) showed C. homins (log score: 1.81) and sequence of 16S rRNA showed a 100% identity with C. hominis. Piperacillin-tazobactam was administered since the isolate was susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam but C. hominis showed growth in the next four follow-up culture of blood drawn through PICC. The fever subsided only after PICC was changed. The clinical prognosis and antimicrobial susceptibility test of C. hominis should be further studied.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Agar , Bacteremia , Bacteria , Cacao , Catheters , Chryseobacterium , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Sphingomonas
18.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 177-180, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760497

ABSTRACT

Catabacter hongkongensis is an anaerobic gram-positive coccobacillus that was first isolated in Hong Kong. It is infectious and causes high mortality in patients with rare but underlying diseases. Alistipes indistinctus is an anaerobic gram-negative coccobacillus. This bacterium is a common member of the human intestinal microbiota. We report a case of C. hongkongensis and A. indistinctus isolated from blood cultures of a patient with acute appendicitis. A 35-year-old female patient with no specific medical history was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea experienced on the day before admission. On admission, laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, neutropenia, and elevated C–reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. Following an abdominal computed tomography showing acute appendicitis with suspected perforation, emergency surgery was performed. Growth was observed in two anaerobic blood culture bottles after four days. After further culturing of the bacteria on Brucella Blood Agar, two types of bacteria were obtained. The two bacterial isolates, one gram-positive and one gram-negative, were unable to be identified using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Thus, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed, resulting in identification of the bacteria as C. hongkongensis and A. indistinctus. The patient was administered antibiotics and discharged two days after surgery. Although MALDI-TOF MS enables fast and accurate identification of bacteria, C. hongkongensis and A. indistinctus were not listed in the spectral library, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was useful for identifying the two bacteria.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Agar , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Appendicitis , Bacteria , Brucella , Diarrhea , Emergencies , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, rRNA , Hong Kong , Humans , Leukocytosis , Mass Spectrometry , Mortality , Nausea , Neutropenia , Sequence Analysis , Vomiting
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 181-184, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760496

ABSTRACT

Brevibacterium spp. are gram-positive rods that are considered to be strictly nonpathogenic, and a very few cases of their infection in humans have been reported. In this study, we report a case of otitis caused by Brevibacterium otitidis. A 53-year-old woman, who visited the hospital, complained of symptoms, such as otorrhea from both ears, ear fullness, tinnitus, and hearing impairment, for several months. Ear discharge was cultured on blood agar for pathogen identification. Bacteria from the isolated colony were initially identified as Actinomyces odontolyticus by VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France), whereas VITEK® MS (bioMerieux, France) identified them as Brevibacterium luteolum. Subsequently, bacteria from the isolated colony were confirmed as B. otitidis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed their sensitivity to vancomycin and linezolid and resistance to clindamycin and penicillin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of otitis caused by B. otitidis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Actinomyces , Agar , Bacteria , Brevibacterium , Clindamycin , Ear , Female , Gram-Positive Rods , Hearing Loss , Humans , Korea , Linezolid , Middle Aged , Otitis , Penicillins , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tinnitus , Vancomycin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of resistant bacteria is being increasingly reported around the world, potentially threatening millions of lives. Amongst resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most challenging to treat. This is due to emergent MRSA strains and less effective traditional antibiotic therapies to Staphylococcal infections. The use of bacteriophages (phages) against MRSA is a new, potential alternate therapy. In this study, morphology, genetic and protein structure of lytic phages against MRSA have been analysed. METHODS: Isolation of livestock and sewage bacteriophages were performed using 0.4 μm membrane filters. Plaque assays were used to determine phage quantification by double layer agar method. Pure plaques were then amplified for further characterization. Sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA were run for protein evaluation, and genotyping respectively. Transmission electron microscope was also used to detect the structure and taxonomic classification of phage visually. RESULTS: Head and tail morphology of bacteriophages against MRSA were identified by transmission electron microscopy and assigned to the Siphoviridae family and the Caudovirales order. CONCLUSION: Bacteriophages are the most abundant microorganism on Earth and coexist with the bacterial population. They can destroy bacterial cells successfully and effectively. They cannot enter mammalian cells which saves the eukaryotic cells from lytic phage activity. In conclusion, phage therapy may have many potential applications in microbiology and human medicine with no side effect on eukaryotic cells.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bacteria , Bacteriophages , Caudovirales , Classification , DNA , Electrophoresis , Eukaryotic Cells , Head , Humans , Livestock , Membranes , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Sewage , Siphoviridae , Staphylococcal Infections , Tail
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