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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 23-28, Mar. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H2S is proved to be functioning as a signaling molecule in an array of physiological processes in the plant and animal kingdom. However, the H2S synthesis pathway and the responses to cold conditions remain unclear in postharvest mushroom. RESULTS: The biosynthesis of H2S in the Agaricus bisporus mushroom tissues exhibited an increasing tendency during postharvest storage and was significantly triggered by cold treatment. The cystathionine clyase (AbCSE) and cystathionine b-synthase (AbCBS) genes were cloned and proved responsible for H2S biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of AbCSE and AbCBS were crucial for the enzyme activities and subsequent H2S levels. However, the AbMST was not involved in this process. Moreover, the AbCSE and AbCBS genes displayed low identity to the characterized genes, but typical catalytic domains, activity sites, subunit interface sites, and cofactor binding sites were conserved in the respective protein sequences, as revealed by molecular modeling and docking study. The potential transcription factors responsible for the H2S biosynthesis in cold conditions were also provided. CONCLUSIONS: The H2S biosynthetic pathway in postharvest mushroom was unique and distinct to that of other horticultural products.


Subject(s)
Agaricus/chemistry , Cystathionine beta-Synthase/metabolism , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/metabolism , Hydrogen Sulfide/chemical synthesis , Agricultural Cultivation , Agaricus campestris , Cold Temperature , Food Storage
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 544-554, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102238

ABSTRACT

In this work, the inhibitory activity of a wide range of polysaccharide extracts from two Iranian and French strains of Agaricus subrufescens were evaluated toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Among them, two extracts S9 and S'7 obtained from Iranian and French strains under different extraction conditions showed selective AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 154.63 and 145.43 µg/mL, respectively. It should be noted that all extracts from both strains demonstrated no BChE inhibitory activity. S9 and S'7 were also tested for their effect on amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation, antioxidant activity, and neuroprotectivity. Their activity against Aß aggregation was comparable to that of donepezil as the reference drug but they induced moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging activity and negligible neuroprotectivity against Aß-induced damage.


En este trabajo, se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) y butirilcolinesterasa (BChE) para varios extractos de polisacáridos de dos cepas iraníes y francesas de Agaricus subrufescens. Los extractos más potentes mostraron valores de IC50 de 154,63 y 145 µg/ml para las cepas iraní (S9) y francesa (S'7), respectivamente, las cuales se obtuvieron de diferentes condiciones de extracción; sin embargo, todos los extractos no mostraron actividad inhibitoria de BChE. Además, S9 y S'7 se probaron para determinar su efecto sobre la agregación de beta-amiloide (Aß), así como su actividad antioxidante y neuroprotectora. Su actividad inhibitoria de la agregación de Aß fue comparable con donepezil, fármaco de referencia, pero indujeron una actividad antioxidante moderada, medida mediante la captación de radicales DPPH, y una neuroprotectora insignificante contra el daño inducido por Aß.


Subject(s)
Agaricus/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Fungal Polysaccharides/pharmacology
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 219-229, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886877

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Agaricus/chemistry , Honey , Pollen/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Bees/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Population Growth , Statistics, Nonparametric , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/drug effects
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(3): 244-250, May 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485211

ABSTRACT

A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Agaricus/chemistry , Candida albicans/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/microbiology , Mannose-Binding Lectins/immunology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(11): 1545-1555, Nov. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-464302

ABSTRACT

Agaricus blazei Murill is a native Brazilian mushroom which functions primarily as an anticancer substance in transplanted mouse tumors. However, the mechanism underlying this function of A. blazei Murill remains obscure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß, an RNA-protein complex isolated from A. blazei Murill, on human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Typical apoptotic characteristics were determined by morphological methods using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The growth suppressive effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß on HL-60 cells in vitro occurred in a dose- (5-80 mug/mL) and time-dependent (24-96 h) manner. The proliferation of HL-60 cells (1 x 10(5) cells/mL) treated with 40 mug/mL of fraction FA-2-b-ß for 24-96 h and with 5-80 mug/mL for 96 h resulted in inhibitory rates ranging from 8 to 54.5 percent, and from 4.9 to 86.3 percent, respectively. Both telomerase activity determined by TRAP-ELISA and mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene detected by RT-PCR were increased in HL-60 cells during fraction FA-2-b-ß treatment. The rate of apoptosis correlated negatively with the decrease of telomerase activity (r = 0.926, P < 0.05), but correlated positively with caspase-3 mRNA expression (r = 0.926, P < 0.05). These data show that fraction FA-2-b-ß can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis and that the combined effect of down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene could be the primary mechanism of induction of apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that fraction FA-2-b-ß could be of interest for the clinical treatment of acute leukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agaricus/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , RNA, Fungal/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , /analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , /drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Fungal/isolation & purification , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Telomerase/analysis
6.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 2(3): 295-308, Sept. 2003.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417600

ABSTRACT

The effects of crude extracts of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (Agaricaceae) on both DNA damage and placental form glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-positive liver foci induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) were investigated. Six groups of adult male Wistar rats were used. For two weeks, animals of groups 3 to 6 were treated with three aqueous solutions of A. blazei (mean dry weight of solids being 1.2, 5.6, 11.5 and 11.5 mg/ml, respectively). After this period, groups 2 to 5 were given a single ip injection 200 mg/kg DEN and groups 1 and 6 were treated with 0.9 NaCl. All animals were subjected to 70 partial hepatectomy at week five and sacrificed 4, 24 and 48 h or 8 weeks after DEN or 0.9 NaCl treatments (10th week after the beginning of the experiment). The alkaline comet assay and GST-P-positive liver foci development were used to evaluate the influence of the mushroom extracts on liver cell DNA damage and on the initiation of liver carcinogenesis, respectively. Previous treatment with the highest concentration of A. blazei (11.5 mg/ml) significantly reduced DNA damage, indicating a protective effect against DEN-induced liver cytotoxicity/genotoxicity. However, the same dose of mushroom extract significantly increased the number of GST-P-positive liver foci


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Agaricus/chemistry , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , DNA Damage/drug effects , Glutathione Transferase/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/prevention & control , Carcinogens , Comet Assay , Diethylnitrosamine , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Liver Neoplasms, Experimental/enzymology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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