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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 6037-6047, Dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350489

ABSTRACT

Resumo O uso intensivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura está associado a externalidades negativas, que afetam o meio ambiente e a saúde pública. Sabe-se que o número de registros é menor que os de intoxicações por pesticidas, ocorrendo subnotificações. Com o objetivo de compreender esse evento, analisou-se os dados de dois sistemas de informação de notificações e agravos à saúde e realizou-se estudo de caso com profissionais da 5ª Regional de Saúde e da rede de saúde de um município do Paraná. Confirmou-se que ocorrem as subnotificações nos sistemas de informações, a inconsistência de dados e a falta de comunicação entre eles, dificultando a compreensão da realidade das intoxicações. No estudo de caso identificou-se a ocorrência de subnotificação prévia: quando muitos trabalhadores não procuram os sistemas de saúde; as capacitações dos profissionais são insuficientes e neutralizadas pela grande rotatividade, especialmente de médicos; o diagnóstico, a conduta e o tratamento das intoxicações por agrotóxicos não fazem parte do currículo de muitos dos cursos da área de saúde; e a capacidade dos serviços de saúde de muitos municípios está aquém da demanda, ocasionando sobrecarga de trabalho aos profissionais e a consequente subnotificação.


Abstract The intensive use of pesticides in agriculture is associated with several negative externalities, which affect both the environment and public health. It is known that the number of records is lower than that of pesticide poisonings, and that underreporting occurs. Aiming to understand this underreporting, we analyzed the data from two information systems for notifications and health injuries and a case study was carried out with professionals from the 5th Regional Health Center and the health network of a municipality in the state of Paraná. It was concluded that underreporting occurs in the information systems, confirming the inconsistency of data and the lack of communication between them, making it difficult to understand the reality of poisonings. In the case study, the occurrence of prior underreporting was identified: when many workers do not seek health systems; the training of professionals is insufficient and neutralized by high turnover, especially among physicians; the diagnosis, conduct and treatment of pesticide poisoning are not part of the curriculum of many courses in the health area; the capacity of health services in many municipalities falls short of the demand, causing work overload to the professionals and the consequent underreporting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Poisoning , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Delivery of Health Care , Agriculture
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5187-5200, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345734

ABSTRACT

Resumo No Brasil, o crescimento do agronegócio em detrimento da agricultura familiar ocorreu ocultando danos sociais, ambientais e à saúde humana. Objetivou-se comparar as condições de vida, de trabalho e o acesso aos serviços de saúde, entre trabalhadores agrícolas e não agrícolas. Utilizaram-se os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) sobre condições de vida e trabalho, características sociodemográficas, econômicas e de acesso aos serviços de saúde de uma amostra representativa da população ocupada brasileira. Empregou-se o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson, com nível de significância de 0,05, considerando-se o desenho complexo da amostragem. Os trabalhadores agrícolas apresentaram piores condições de vida, menor poder aquisitivo, maior exposição à radiação solar e agentes químicos e maior frequência e gravidade de acidentes de trabalho em comparação aos não agrícolas. A população agrícola teve maior cobertura da ESF, buscou atendimento médico no SUS para tratar doenças, enquanto a não agrícola, buscou atendimento médico privado para ações preventivas. As diferenças encontradas entre esses trabalhadores implicam em padrões de adoecimento distintos e definem necessidades de saúde específicas.


Abstract In Brazil, the growth of agribusiness to the detriment of family agriculture occurred while concealing social, environmental and human health damages. The objective was to compare living and working conditions and access to health services between agricultural and non-agricultural workers. Data from the National Health Survey (PNS) on living and working conditions, sociodemographic, economic characteristics, and access to health services from a representative sample of the employed Brazilian population were adopted. Pearson's chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 0.05, taking the complex sampling design into consideration. Agricultural workers suffered from worse living conditions, lower purchasing power, greater exposure to solar radiation and chemical agents, and a higher frequency and severity of occupational accidents compared to non-agricultural workers. The agricultural population had greater coverage of the Family Health Service and sought medical care from the Unified Health System (SUS) to treat diseases, while the non-agricultural workers sought private medical care for preventive actions. The differences found between these workers imply different patterns of illness and define specific health needs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agriculture , Farmers , Brazil , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility
3.
Saúde Soc ; 30(4): e210103, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341684

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo discute conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas (CAP) de agricultores familiares brasileiros a respeito dos impactos na saúde e no ambiente gerados pelo uso de agrotóxicos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal misto, realizado em 2014 em São José de Ubá, RJ. A pesquisa é composta por uma etapa qualitativa, baseada em observações em campo e entrevistas com 25 participantes sobre CAP, no que se refere ao uso de agrotóxicos. A etapa quantitativa abrange avaliação sociodemográfica e de exposição aos agrotóxicos de 78 agricultores. Apesar de reconhecerem parcialmente os perigos dos agrotóxicos, os agricultores enfrentam os riscos da exposição e comumente adotam práticas laborais inadequadas. Fatores como a carência de apoio técnico e treinamento laboral, baixa escolaridade, dificuldade de compreensão das orientações de bulas e rótulos dos agrotóxicos, valor elevado e desconforto causado pelo equipamento de proteção individual (EPI), além da crença da dependência do uso de agrotóxicos, explicam parcialmente as atitudes não seguras. É preciso promover práticas agrícolas mais sustentáveis, fortalecer o apoio técnico e treinamento laboral, melhorar a comunicação e o gerenciamento dos riscos e reduzir as desigualdades de gênero entre os agricultores brasileiros, como a forma mais eficaz e imediata de prevenir os agravos relacionados ao trabalho com agrotóxicos.


Abstract This paper discusses the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the Brazilian family farmers regarding the impact of pesticides on health and the environment. This mixed cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in São José de Ubá, Rio de Janeiro. It encompasses two stages: a qualitative one, based on field observations and interviews with 25 participants on KAP about the use of pesticides; and a quantitative one, assessing sociodemographic data and exposure to pesticides among 78 farmers. Despite partially recognizing the danger of pesticides, farmers face the risks of exposure and usually adopt inappropriate work practices. Lack of technical support and occupational training, low schooling, difficulty in understanding the instructions on pesticides labels and package inserts, high price and discomfort caused by the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and the belief in the need for using pesticides, partially explain the unsafe attitudes. Effective and immediate prevention of pesticides-related injuries and diseases requires promoting more sustainable agricultural practices, strengthening technical support and occupational training, improving communication and pesticides risk management, and reducing gender inequalities among the Brazilian farmers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Perception , Occupational Risks , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Rural Health , Agrochemicals , Agriculture
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00072220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278601

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os fatores associados à asma não controlada em escolares expostos aos agrotóxicos em município de médio porte de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Estudo do tipo caso controle, realizado com escolares de 6 a 7 anos e 13 a 14 anos de Primavera do Leste, em 2016. Foram considerados casos, escolares que preencheram critérios para asma não controlada por meio de questões do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), os controles foram selecionados a partir das mesmas escolas dos casos, após randomização, numa relação de 1:1. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados os questionários da Fase I e II do ISAAC e o questionário adicional para a exposição aos agrotóxicos. Realizaram-se a análise descritiva, bivariada e regressão logística das variáveis sociodemográficas e econômicas, individuais e ambientais. Foram selecionados 319 casos e 319 controles, totalizando em 638 participantes do estudo. No modelo final da regressão logística, as variáveis renda familiar maior que quatro salários mínimos (OR = 14,36; IC95%: 8,89-23,20), ter mãe com escolaridade até Ensino Médio incompleto (OR = 16,32; IC95%: 8,96-29,75), prematuridade (OR = 13,25; IC95%: 4,83-36,41) e baixo peso ao nascer (OR = 17,08; IC95%: 5,52-52,90) mantiveram-se associadas à asma não controlada. Das variáveis de exposição aos agrotóxicos, presença de pessoas no domicílio que trabalham na agricultura (OR = 5,91; IC95%: 2,11-16,53), residir próximo da atividade agrícola (OR = 3,98; IC95%: 1,47-11,76) e a pulverização aérea próxima ao domicílio (OR = 4,20; IC95%: 1,49-11,87) relacionaram-se ao desfecho. Neste estudo, os agrotóxicos e as condições sociodemográficas e de nascimento e infância mostraram-se relacionados à asma não controlada em escolares.


Abstract: The study aimed to analyze factors associated with uncontrolled asthma in schoolchildren exposed to pesticides in a medium-sized municipality in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was a case-control study of children 6 to 7 and 13 to 14 years old in Primavera do Leste, in 2016. Cases were defined as schoolchildren that met the criteria for uncontrolled asthma based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questions, and controls were selected from the same schools as the cases, after randomization, at a 1:1 ratio. Data collection used the questionnaires from Phases I and II of ISAAC and an additional questionnaire on pesticide exposure. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic da e regression analyses were performed with the individual and environmental sociodemographic, and economic variables. 319 cases and 319 controls were selected, totaling 638 participants in the study. In the final da logistic model, the variables family income greater than 4 minimum wages (OR = 14.36; 95%CI: 8.89-23.20), maternal schooling up to incomplete secondary (OR = 16.32; 95%CI: 8.96-29.75), prematurity (OR = 13.25; 95%CI: 4.83-36.41), and low birthweight (OR = 17.08; 95%CI: 5.52-52.90) remained associated with uncontrolled asthma. Of the pesticide exposure variables, presence of household member working in agriculture (OR = 5.91; 95%CI: 2.11-16.53), living near farming activities (OR = 3.98; 95%CI: 1.47-11.76), and spraying areas near the household (OR = 4.20; 95%CI: 1.49-11.87) were related to the outcome. In this study, pesticides and sociodemographic, neonatal, and childhood conditions proved related to uncontrolled asthma in schoolchildren.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los factores asociados al asma no controlado en escolares expuestos a pesticidas en un municipio de tamaño medio de Mato Grosso, Brazil. Se trata de un estudio de tipo caso-control, realizado con escolares de 6 a 7 años y de 13 a 14 de Primavera do Leste, en 2016. Se consideraron casos los escolares que cumplieron los criterios para asma no controlado, a través de preguntas del International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), los controles se seleccionaron a partir de las mismas escuelas que los casos, tras una aleatorización, en una relación de 1:1. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron los cuestionarios de la Fase I y II del ISAAC, así como el cuestionario adicional para la exposición a los pesticidas. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, bivariado y regresión logística de las variables sociodemográficas y económicas, así como individuales y ambientales. Se seleccionaron 319 casos y 319 controles, llegando a un total de 638 participantes en el estudio. En el modelo final de regresión logística las variables: renta familiar mayor que 4 salarios mínimos (OR = 14,36; IC95%: 8,89-23,20), tener una madre con escolaridad hasta la enseñanza media incompleta (OR = 16,32; IC95%: 8,96-29,75), prematuridad (OR = 13,25; IC95%: 4,83-36,41) y bajo peso al nascer (OR = 17,08; IC95%: 5,52-52,90) se mantuvieron asociadas al asma no controlado. Respecto a las variables de exposición a los pesticidas, la presencia de personas en el domicilio que trabajan en la agricultura (OR = 5,91; IC95%: 2,11-16,53), residir cerca de la actividad agrícola (OR = 3,98; IC95%: 1,47-11,76), así como la pulverización del aérea cercana al domicilio (OR = 4,20; IC95%: 1,49-11,87) se relacionaron con el resultado. En este estudio, los pesticidas y las condiciones sociodemográficas y de nacimiento e infancia se mostraron relacionadas con el asma no controlado en escolares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Pesticides/toxicity , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/chemically induced , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Agriculture
5.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 2021. 68 p. graf.^c28 cm., ilus., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1342861

ABSTRACT

Los objetivos de este proyecto fueron desarrollar un sistema telemático de monitoreo y control de variables microambientales para un invernadero y estación acuícola, aplicando tecnología LoraWan y e-Agricultura, en beneficio de la Escuela Nacional de Agricultura ENA. Para ello se establecieron los requerimientos funcionales para un correcto análisis y desarrollo del sistema telemático aplicando e-Agricultura y se procedió a desarrollar un software de análisis de datos por medio de Inteligencia de Negocios para una correcta interpretación de datos y toma de decisiones. Se realizó un estudio de requerimientos para la selección de las herramientas óptimas del proyecto, estableciendo Laravel como framework de desarrollo, Javascript y PHP.


The objectives of this project were to develop a telematic system for the monitoring and control of microenvironmental variables for a greenhouse and aquaculture station, applying LoraWan technology and e-Agriculture, for the benefit of the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura ENA. For this, the functional requirements for a correct analysis and development of the telematics system were established and it proceeded to develop data analysis software through Intelligence Businesses for a correct interpretation of data and decision making. A study of requirements for the selection of the optimal project tools were performed, proposing Laravel as Development framework, Javascript and PHP.


Subject(s)
Monitoring , Environment, Controlled , Greenhouses , Aquaculture , Agriculture , Crop Production
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 119 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253978

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a alimentação e nutrição constituem-se direitos humanos fundamentais, que devem ser garantidos pelo Estado por meio de políticas públicas de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional com intuito de promover e proteger a saúde da população. Estudos evidenciam que as políticas públicas de apoio à agricultura familiar têm auxiliado na promoção da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, principalmente no que se refere ao papel da agricultura familiar na dimensão da produção e disponibilidade de alimentos. No entanto, é necessário levantar quais os mecanismos têm auxiliado nesse processo e quais os desafios para efetivação do Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada e da Soberania Alimentar das nações por meio das políticas públicas existentes. Objetivos: caracterizar as políticas públicas de apoio à agricultura familiar que auxiliam na promoção da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Métodos: a metodologia utilizada foi revisão de escopo e a metassíntese, segundo padrão do Instituto Joanna Briggs. A revisão sistemática exploratória foi realizada por dois revisores independentes em 16 bases de dados eletrônicas. Foram identificados 4638 documentos, sendo que 36 foram incluídos, analisados e sintetizados. A análise centrou-se no ano de publicação, idioma, localização geográfica, no tipo de política pública de apoio à AF, e na forma e mecanismos de promoção da SAN. Resultados: maior parte das pesquisas foram conduzidas nos países da América Latina e Caribe - ALC e na Europa (39% e 26% dos estudos, respectivamente) e as políticas que tiveram destaque foram: Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos - PAA, Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar- PNAE e Política Agrícola Comum - PAC. Os estudos foram divididos em três categorias emergentes do material analisado: Estratégias de Governança; Participação Social e Promoção da SAN. Os resultados indicam uma predominância de pesquisas focadas em conceitos teóricos, relacionados à promoção da sustentabilidade, por outro lado poucos estudos indicam caminhos práticos a seguir mostrando uma lacuna na práxis para se chegar ao desenvolvimento rural sustentável e à promoção da SAN, mostrando a necessidade de maior vinculação das evidências com a tomada de decisão política e a incorporação do trabalho em redes intersetoriais com uma abordagem sistêmica e cooperativa. Conclusões: esta revisão fornece uma base para o desenvolvimento de caminhos para reconfiguração dos sistemas agroalimentares afim de que haja maior incentivo aos pequenos agricultores, com uma produção, distribuição e abastecimento de alimentos propícios à mitigar os danos ambientais, propiciar o comércio justo, bem como promover à SAN e à saúde única.


Introduction: food and nutrition are fundamental human rights, which must be guaranteed by the State through public policies of Food and Nutritional Security in order to promote and protect the health of the population. Studies show that public policies to support family farming have helped to promote Food and Nutritional Security, especially with regard to the role of family farming in the dimension of food production and availability. However, it is necessary to assess which mechanisms have helped in this process and what are the challenges for the realization of the Human Right to Adequate Food and the Food Sovereignty of nations through existing public policies. Objectives: to characterize public policies to support family farming that help promote food and nutrition security. Methods: the methodology used was scope review and meta-synthesis, according to the standard of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The systematic exploratory review was carried out by two independent reviewers in 16 electronic databases. 4638 documents were identified, of which 36 were included, analyzed and synthesized. The analysis focused on the year of publication, language, geographic location, the type of public policy to support PA, and the form and mechanisms for promoting SAN. Results: most of the research was conducted in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean - LAC and in Europe (39% and 26% of the studies, respectively) and the policies that stood out were: Food Purchase Program - PAA, National Food Program School Feeding - PNAE and Common Agricultural Policy - PAC. The studies were divided into three categories emerging from the analyzed material: Governance Strategies; Social Participation and SAN Promotion. The results indicate a predominance of research focused on theoretical concepts, related to the promotion of sustainability, on the other hand, few studies indicate practical paths to follow showing a gap in the praxis to arrive at sustainable rural development and the promotion of SAN, showing the need for greater linkage of evidence with political decision-making and the incorporation of work in intersectoral networks with a systemic and cooperative approach. Conclusions: this review provides a basis for the development of ways to reconfigure agro-food systems so that there is greater incentive for small farmers, with a production, distribution and supply of food conducive to mitigating environmental damage, promoting fair trade, as well as promote SAN and one health.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Agriculture , Food Supply
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200483, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345495

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agriculture, the backbone of every country, has been an emerging field of research, particularly in the recent past. The soil type and environment are critical factors that drive agriculture, especially in terms of crop prediction. To determine which crops grow best in certain types of soil and environment, the characteristics of the latter are to be ascertained. In the past, farmers picked suitable crops for cultivation, based on first-hand experience. Today, however, identifying appropriate crops for particular areas has become a difficult proposition. The application of machine learning techniques to agriculture is an emerging field of research that helps predicts crops for easy cultivation and improved productivity. In this work, a comparative analysis is undertaken using several classifiers like the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF) and Bagging to help suggest the most suitable cultivable crop(s), based on soil and environmental characteristics, for a specific piece of land. The algorithms are trained with the training data and subsequently tested with the soil and climate-based test dataset. The results of all the approaches are evaluated to identify the best classification techniques. Experimental results show that the bagging method outclasses others with respect to all performance metrics.


Subject(s)
Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Environment , Machine Learning
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190323, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285545

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria decumbens pasture associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume represents an alternative for higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Higher lime doses presented high rates of AMF and improved soil chemical properties (SCP). Higher lime doses were the most influential technological factor than the type of pasture and the N, P, K fertilizer sources on AMF.


Abstract In order to improve the sustainability of livestock systems at Cumaral, Meta, under tropical conditions of Colombia, implementation of different Brachiaria decumbens production technologies can be beneficial for a better soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two pastures type (Factor A): (a) Brachiaria decumbens grass (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) Factor B: Four lime (CaCO3) doses: L0 = 0 tons ha-1, L1 = 1.1 tons ha-1, L2 = 2.2 tons ha-1 and L3 = 3.3 tons ha-1; and (c) Factor C: three N, P, K fertilizers sources: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate (TSP) and 100 kg ha-1 potassium chloride (PCl) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical properties (SCP). Cluster analysis showed that B2*L3, L2*Urea, TSP, PCl increased the number of AMF spores per g soil and improved soil chemical properties (SCP), as B1*L3*Urea, TSP, PCl, in cluster 1, higher lime doses were the most influential factor, indistinctly pasture type, as N, P, K fertilizer sources showed low effect in cluster conformation. Farmers in the area can implement these B. decumbens technological practices that help improve the sustainability of livestock systems at tropical zones.


Subject(s)
Soil Biology/methods , Brachiaria , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers
9.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e43, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1224560

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: apreender a relação entre riscos ocupacionais no trabalho agrícola e a negociação para a saúde do trabalhador rural. Método: estudo misto concorrente aninhado, combinado por integração (QUAN + QUAL) igualitária. Realizado com 351 agricultores, entre 2014/2015, por meio de formulário e entrevista semiestruturada. Para a análise, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva e inferencial e a classificação hierárquica descendente e a nuvem de palavras. Resultados: na fase QUAN, obteve-se idade média de 50,58 anos e predomínio de sintomas de adoecimento nos sistemas muscular, endócrino e urinário. Na fase QUAL, evidenciou-se que a negociação dos produtos agrícolas amplia a exposição dos trabalhadores a riscos físico, químico e ergonômico. O lucro representa o objetivo e permite o custeio de equipamentos, assistência à saúde e terapêutica medicamentosa, mediante o adoecimento. Conclusão: os riscos ocupacionais estão presentes no trabalho agrícola. A negociação reduz-se ao consumo de serviços e produtos de saúde em presença do adoecimento.


Objective: to understand the relationship between occupational risks in agricultural work and the negotiation for the health of rural workers. Method: mixed nested concurrent study, combined with equal integration (QUAN + QUAL). It was conducted with 351 farmers, between 2014/2015, using a form and semi-structured interview. For the analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics and the descending hierarchical classification, and the word cloud were used. Results: in the QUAN phase, the average age of 50.58 years old was obtained and a predominance of symptoms of illness in the muscular, endocrine, and urinary systems. In the QUAL phase, it became evident that the negotiation of agricultural products increases the exposure of workers to physical, chemical, and ergonomic risks. Profit represents the goal and allows for the cost of equipment, health care, and drug therapy, through illness. Conclusion: occupational risks are present in agricultural work. Negotiation is reduced to the consumption of health services and products in the presence of illness.


Objetivo: comprender la relación entre riesgos laborales en el trabajo agrícola y la negociación para la salud del trabajador rural. Método: estudio mixto concurrente anidado, combinado por integración (QUAN + QUAL) igualitaria. Fue realizado con 351 agricultores, entre 2014/2015, por medio de un formulario y una entrevista semi-estructurada. Para el análisis, se utilizó la estadística descriptiva e inferencial y la clasificación jerárquica descendiente y la nube de palabras. Resultados: en la fase QUAN, se obtuvo una edad media de 50,58 años y predominio de síntomas de enfermedades en los sistemas muscular, endócrino y urinario. En la fase QUAL, se observó que la negociación de los productos agrícolas amplia la exposición de los trabajadores a riesgos físico, químico y ergonómico. El lucro representa el objetivo y permite el costeo de equipamientos, asistencia a la salud y terapéutica medicamentosa, mediante la enfermedad. Conclusión: los riesgos laborales están presentes en el trabajo agrícola. La negociación se reduce al consumo de servicios y productos de salud en la presencia de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Rural Health , Occupational Health , Negotiating , Agriculture
10.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210004, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340242

ABSTRACT

Body size influences the effect of individuals and assemblages on ecosystem functioning and defines how they respond to ecosystem changes. We evaluated how body size structure of fish assemblages and functional groups respond to human modifications at catchment, riparian and local scales in 40 streams of the Pampa grasslands, southern Brazil. To describe body size structure, we calculated the mean, coefficient of variation, skewness, and kurtosis, using individual biomass data for the entire fish assemblages and separately by functional group. The results suggested that body size response depends on body size metrics, functional group, and the spatial scale of land use. From 11 functional groups, only five showed a clear response to land use. In general, most functional groups had a higher concentration of small sizes (left-skewed) in response to increased land use measured at distinct spatial scales (local, riparian, and catchment), and a greater concentration of sizes in a narrow and central distribution (higher kurtosis). However, the responses were complex and varied between the functional groups. We conclude that considering ecomorphological and trophic features separately by functional group and assessing multiple body size metrics contributed greatly to detecting the influence of land use on fish body size.(AU)


O tamanho corporal influencia o efeito de indivíduos e assembleias no funcionamento dos ecossistemas e define como estes respondem à alterações ambientais. Investigamos como a estrutura do tamanho corporal de assembleias e grupos funcionais de peixes responde ao uso da terra quantificado em três escalas espaciais (sub-bacia, ripária e local), em 40 riachos do Pampa, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, calculamos média, coeficiente de variação, assimetria e kurtose usando biomassa individual em nível de assembleia e grupo funcional. As respostas do tamanho corporal dependeram da métrica utilizada, do grupo funcional e da escala de uso da terra. Entre os 11 grupos funcionais identificados, apenas cinco mostraram uma resposta clara ao uso da terra. Em geral, a maioria dos grupos mostrou uma assimetria na distribuição em favor de menores tamanhos corporais e uma concentração de tamanhos em uma distribuição estreita e central (alta kurtose) em resposta ao uso da terra quantificado nas três escalas espaciais. Entretanto, as respostas foram complexas e variaram entre grupos funcionais. A consideração de atributos ecomorfológicos e tróficos separadamente por grupo funcional e a avaliação de múltiplas métricas contribuem de forma importante para detectar a influência do uso da terra no tamanho corporal de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Rivers , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Composition , Agriculture
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58(n.esp): e174365, 2021. graf, tab, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1348229

ABSTRACT

To better understand and manage the population of donkeys and mules, it is essential to know information about its size. In developing countries, these animals are often used as working animals, mainly by poor populations in agricultural and livestock labor, but their use is decreasing in Brazil. Brazilian official data regarding donkeys and mules started to be measured at the agricultural census of 1960 and, from that time, eight agricultural censuses were published. But until the writing of this paper, no scientific paper was dedicated to the analysis of the results of the official agricultural censuses on the population of donkeys and mules in Brazil. Thus, we aim to compile and analyze the official Brazilian data from 1960 until 2017 to enhance the actions of stakeholders, researchers, and decision-makers concerned with Brazilian donkeys and mules.(AU)


Para entender e gerenciar melhor a população de jumentos e mulas é essencial saber informações sobre seu tamanho. Em países em desenvolvimento, esses animais são frequentemente usados como animais de trabalho, principalmente por populações pobres na agricultura e pecuária, mas seu uso está diminuindo no Brasil. Os dados oficiais brasileiros sobre jumentos e mulas começaram a ser mensurados no censo agrícola de 1960 e a partir dessa época foram realizados oito censos agrícolas. Até a redação deste artigo, porém, nenhum trabalho científico analisou os resultados dos censos agropecuários quanto à população de jumentos e mulas no Brasil. Deste modo, nosso objetivo é compilar e analisar os dados oficiais brasileiros de 1960 até 2017, para aprimorar as ações dos stakeholders, pesquisadores e tomadores de decisão preocupados com os jumentos e mulas brasileiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Population , Equidae , Agriculture , Service Animals
12.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58(n.esp): e174335, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1348275

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the donkey unit cost of production and to contextualize it with the socio-economic condition of the Brazilian semiarid region. A study model was proposed in which the costs of maintenance and animal production were considered, assuming that the herd already existed on the property and the use of the available facilities. The production cycle of donkeys was estimated at 36 months, with an initial herd of 100 jennies and five jacks. For the estimation of forage production, native pastures to the semi-arid region were considered. The unit cost of production was estimated for donkey US$ 258.00/year. However, when the donkey is integrated into the production unit of the family farming system, this animal should be considered as a production asset (draught, pack, and ridden). In face of the growing demand for donkey hide in the international market, the absence of public policies for the protection and welfare of these animals, and even considering the possibility of integrating them into family farming systems, the following question must be asked: how long before Northeast donkeys are extinct? Estimating the unit cost of donkey production and considering them as an essential production asset in family farming could be a starting point to diminish their abandonment in several communities and the consequences of the exploitation of hides.(AU)


O estudo teve como objetivo estimar o custo de produção do jumento e contextualizar com a condição socioeconômica da região semiárida brasileira. Foi proposto um modelo de estudo no qual foram considerados os custos de manutenção e produção animal, admitindo que o rebanho já existisse na propriedade com utilização das instalações disponíveis. O ciclo de produção do jumento foi estimado em 36 meses, com rebanho inicial de 100 matrizes e cinco reprodutores. Para a estimativa de produção de forragem, foram consideradas pastagens nativas da região semiárida. Foi estimado o custo de produção do jumento em US$ 258,00/ano. Entretanto, quando o jumento está integrado à unidade produtiva do segmento da agricultura familiar, esse animal deve ser considerado como ativo de produção (tração, carga e transporte). Diante da crescente demanda da pele de jumentos no mercado internacional, da ausência de políticas públicas de proteção e bem-estar desses animais, e mesmo considerando a possibilidade de integrá-los ao sistema de agricultura familiar, permanece a pergunta: quanto tempo vai levar até que os jumentos nordestinos sejam extintos? Estimar o custo unitário da produção de jumentos e considerá-los como um ativo essencial de produção na agricultura familiar pode ser um ponto de partida para diminuir seu abandono às consequências da exploração de pele.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Equidae , Costs and Cost Analysis , Agriculture , Livestock Industry
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210098, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1346607

ABSTRACT

The expansion of agriculture in the southeast Amazon-Savanah transitional area has greatly decreased forest cover and influenced stream structure and functioning. We assessed the effects of forest cover loss on the integrity of streams by assessing stream physical conditions and the taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages in this transitional area. We hypothesize that low forest cover, especially adjacent to streams, results in poor physical conditions (e.g., warmer temperatures, less physical structure, etc.), which in turn will decrease the taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages. We detected that loss of forest cover negatively affects natural stream conditions and reduces the functional diversity of fish assemblages, but we did not find a strong effect on taxonomic diversity. Ambush and stalking predators, diurnal surface pickers (groups that exhibit opportunistic life history strategies), grazers, pickers, and browsers (groups that exhibit equilibrium life history strategies) were the functional groups with the strongest relation to altered environments. These groups can explore different niches, both with natural characteristics or altered by human activities. Our results suggest that the preservation of riparian zones can minimize the loss of specialized fish species in assemblages of Amazon-Savannah stream systems.(AU)


A expansão da agricultura na área de transição Amazônia-Savana diminuiu muito a cobertura florestal, influenciando a estrutura e o funcionamento dos sistemas de riachos. Avaliamos o efeito da perda de cobertura florestal na integridade dos riachos avaliando as condições físicas do ambiente e a diversidade taxonômica e funcional das assembleias de peixes nesta área de transição. Nossa hipótese é que a baixa cobertura florestal, especialmente adjacente ao riacho, resulta em más condições físicas (por exemplo, temperaturas mais quentes, e menos estrutura física) o que por sua vez diminuirá os valores da diversidade taxonômica e funcional das assembleias de peixes. Detectamos que a perda de cobertura florestal afeta negativamente as condições naturais e reduz a diversidade funcional das assembleias de peixes, mas não encontramos um efeito para a diversidade taxonômica. Predadores de emboscada e espreita, catadores de superfície diurnos, pastores, catadores e navegadores foram os grupos funcionais que tiveram a relação mais forte com ambientes alterados. Esses grupos podem explorar diferentes nichos, tanto com características naturais quanto alterados pela ação antrópica. Nossos resultados sugerem a preservação da zona ripária a fim de evitar a perda de espécies especializadas das assembleias de peixes de riachos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Agriculture , Environment , Fishes , Forests
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879148

ABSTRACT

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Charcoal , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879105

ABSTRACT

Weeds is one of the important parts of agricultural ecosystem of Chinese materia medica. Weeds is a double-edged sword with advantages and disadvantages for the cultivated medicinal plants. In this study, we firstly analyzed the positive and negative effects of weeds on the yield and quality of Chinese materia medica. We then explored the possible mechanisms for the weeds' positive effects from the aspects of interspecific relationship, soil microecological environment, light environment, natural control of pests and so on. We also summarized three basic principles of weed control, that is, "making medicinal plants and weeds coexist harmoniously, achieving the overall optimum growth of medicinal plants", "prevention first, integrated control" and "preserving beneficial weeds and increasing their beneficial effects, removing harmful weeds and control their adverse effects". Finally, we introduced several common weed ecological control technology in field of the cultivated medicinal plants in China, including technology of controlling weeds by no-tillage, stral mulch, rotation, alternative herbs, competitive crops, and allelopathy. This study is aimed to apply the ecology theory to guide weed management and control, so as to achieve the goal of advantages promotion and disadvantages elimination of weeds to cultivated medicinal plants, making weeds into treasure and to promote the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicinal materials production and the protection of weed diversity.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Ecosystem , Materia Medica , Plants, Medicinal
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879104

ABSTRACT

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sustainable Development
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879102

ABSTRACT

As the most advanced environment-friendly production model in the international society, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is the only way for the development of modern agriculture. With the proposal of the declaration on ecolo-gical agriculture of CMM, "Don't grab land from farmland, don't be enemies of grass and insects, don't be afraid of barren slopes and forests, and live up to the green and green mountains", the ecological planting of CMM has blossomed all over the country, and formed a scientific theory, technology and model. Based on the theory and method of economics, this paper expounds the comprehensive benefits and development advantages of ecological agriculture of CMM from the perspectives of farmers(producers), patients(consumers) and the country. From the perspective of medicinal farmers, the input and output income of conventional agriculture and ecological agriculture of CMM such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus propinquus, Atractylodes lancea, and Bupleurum chinense were compared, and it was found that ecological agriculture of CMM had obvious advantages in net income, average annual income and input-output ratio, which could better promote farmers' income. From the perspective of patients, according to the same dose, the content of active ingredients in ecologically planted CMMs is significantly higher than that in conventionally-planted herbs, and the amount of effective substances taken by patients is also higher, so as to achieve better therapeutic effect. At the national level, ecological planting of CMM is the key to ensuring the high-quality development of CMM industry, increasing farmers' income, ensuring the safety of people's drug use and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture. It is also an important part of realizing the harmonious development of economy, society and environment and promoting ecological civilization. In general, the declaration on ecological agriculture of CMM embo-dies the core characteristics and goals of ecological agriculture, and also points of the path and vision of ecological agriculture of CMM in the future. The declaration will guide production practice, promote the benefit of farmers, and lay the foundation for the sustainable development of CMM industry.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879101

ABSTRACT

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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