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Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190323, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285545


HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria decumbens pasture associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume represents an alternative for higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Higher lime doses presented high rates of AMF and improved soil chemical properties (SCP). Higher lime doses were the most influential technological factor than the type of pasture and the N, P, K fertilizer sources on AMF.

Abstract In order to improve the sustainability of livestock systems at Cumaral, Meta, under tropical conditions of Colombia, implementation of different Brachiaria decumbens production technologies can be beneficial for a better soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two pastures type (Factor A): (a) Brachiaria decumbens grass (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) Factor B: Four lime (CaCO3) doses: L0 = 0 tons ha-1, L1 = 1.1 tons ha-1, L2 = 2.2 tons ha-1 and L3 = 3.3 tons ha-1; and (c) Factor C: three N, P, K fertilizers sources: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate (TSP) and 100 kg ha-1 potassium chloride (PCl) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical properties (SCP). Cluster analysis showed that B2*L3, L2*Urea, TSP, PCl increased the number of AMF spores per g soil and improved soil chemical properties (SCP), as B1*L3*Urea, TSP, PCl, in cluster 1, higher lime doses were the most influential factor, indistinctly pasture type, as N, P, K fertilizer sources showed low effect in cluster conformation. Farmers in the area can implement these B. decumbens technological practices that help improve the sustainability of livestock systems at tropical zones.

Soil Biology/methods , Brachiaria , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190495, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142509


Abstract The occupation of sandy soils in Brazil has occurred with poor adoption of management technology, which has caused its degradation. The recovery of organic matter, particularly when growing annual plants and cover crops, with mulch residue allows the maintenance of the productive potential of these soils. Thus, the shoot dry mass production (SDMP) of winter cover crops was evaluated in an Ultisol under no-tillage system and in rotation with soybean and maize using 0, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 year-1 of poultry litter, mineral fertilizer exclusively and 2 t ha-1 year-1 of poultry litter associated with a half-dose of mineral fertilizer. The experimental design included randomized blocks with four replicates. The use of poultry litter increased the SDMP of the cover crops; the production was relatively high when high doses of poultry litter were applied; on the other hand, the yield of SDMP and grain was limited by the exclusive use of mineral fertilizer. Organic matter and nutrient status improvement by cover crops were one of the reasons for the increase in soybean and maize grain yields.

Humans , Animals , Nutrients , Sandy Soils/analysis , Agriculture/methods , Organic Matter , Fertilizers , Minerals , Soybeans , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0582019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145879


The objective of this study was to collect information about peanut cultivation methods adopted by family farmers in the Bahian Recôncavo (region that surrounds the bay in the state of Bahia, Brazil), using a specific form and also direct information from farmers. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the mesoregion of the Bahian Recôncavo in the following municipalities: Conceição do Almeida, Cruz das Almas, Maragogipe, São Felipe, São Felix, Sapeaçú and Laje (Vale do Jequiriçá), where 60 local farmers answered a nonstructured questionnaire about peanut cultivation. The cultivation system was estimated based on technical coefficients related to peanut cultivation in the area evaluated. The peanut cultivation system is carried out by family farmers from the Bahian Recôncavo who employ outdated practices and do not use the required basic steps. The technical coefficients analyzed show that the cultivation of peanut is an unprofitable activity when considering the high cost of production in this region, even though productivity is higher than in the entire state as well as in the Northeast region. Farmers in the Bahian Recôncavo do not consider the actual production costs of peanuts since they use seeds from previous crops and do not account for the labor costs of family members. There is a lack of active and continuous technical assistance to family farmers, not only in relation to the cultivation system, but also the possibility of other destinations for peanuts produced in the region.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi levantar informações sobre os métodos de cultivo da cultura do amendoim, adotados por agricultores familiares do Recôncavo Baiano, utilizando-se de um formulário específico e de informações diretas dos agricultores. Foi realizado um levantamento etnobotânico nos municípios da mesorregião do Recôncavo Baiano: Conceição do Almeida, Cruz das Almas, Maragogipe, São Felipe, São Félix, Sapeaçú e no município de Laje (Vale do Jequiriçá), onde 60 agricultores foram entrevistados, por meio de um questionário não estruturado, referente ao cultivo do amendoinzeiro no Recôncavo Baiano. A estimativa do sistema de cultivo foi realizada com base em coeficientes técnicos referentes ao cultivo do amendoinzeiro na área de estudo. O sistema de cultivo do amendoim é realizado por agricultores familiares do Recôncavo Baiano utilizando práticas ultrapassadas, destituídas das etapas básicas necessárias. Os coeficientes técnicos analisados demonstram que o cultivo do amendoinzeiro é uma atividade pouco lucrativa ao se levar em consideração o alto custo de produção nessa região, mesmo a produtividade sendo maior quando comparada com a do estado, assim como com a da região Nordeste. Os agricultores do Recôncavo Baiano não consideram os custos de produção real do amendoim, uma vez que utilizam sementes de cultivos anteriores e não contabilizam os custos de mão de obra dos familiares. Falta aos agricultores familiares assistência técnica atuante e continuada, não só com relação ao sistema de cultivo como também com a possibilidade de outras destinações para o amendoim produzido na região.(AU)

Arachis , Agriculture/methods , Technical Cooperation , Data Collection , Costs and Cost Analysis , Efficiency , Farmers
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 232-239, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889220


Abstract Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality.

Animals , Plant Diseases/therapy , Tylenchoidea/growth & development , Plant Roots/parasitology , Trichosanthes/growth & development , Trichosanthes/parasitology , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers , Plant Growth Regulators/analysis , Trichosanthes/chemistry , Plant Development
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(2): 341-350, mar./apr. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966644


Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has a representative agricultural holding, not only for the economic value of its production, but also for the large area of growing in Brazil. In the harvest 2016/17, this work was conducted in a Quartzarenic Neosol in the municipality of Cassilândia, MS. The objective of this work was to characterize the structure and magnitude of the spatial distribution of phenological indices of the common bean crop and to map the phenological indices in order to visualize the spatial distribution and to evaluate the spatial correlation among common bean yield and plant variables: grain yield (YIE), mass of one hundred grains (MHG), number of grains per plant (NG), number of grains per pod (NGP), number of pods per plant (NP), dry matter (DM), plant length (PL) and stem diameter (SD), sampled in a grid of 117 georeferenced points (81 points of base grid and 36 points of higher density grid). Analysis of these data through statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the production and yield components presented spatial dependence. There was a positive spatial correlation among common bean yield and the mass of one hundred grains, number of grains per pod and plant length, demonstrating that they have a strong spatial dependence.

A cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) tem representativa exploração agrícola, não só pelo valor econômico de sua produção, como também pela grande área de cultivo no Brasil. No ano agrícola de 2016/17, este trabalho foi conduzido em um Neossolo Quartzarênico no município de Cassilândia, MS. O trabalho objetivou caracterizar a estrutura e a magnitude da distribuição espacial de índices fenológicos da planta em lavoura de feijão e realizar o mapeamento desses índices fenológicos, de forma a visualizar a distribuição espacial, e avaliar a correlação espacial existente entre a produtividade do feijoeiro e as variáveis da planta: produtividade de grãos (PG), massa de cem grãos (MC), número de grãos por uma planta (GP), número de grãos por uma vagem (GV), número de vagem por uma planta (VP), massa seca de uma planta (MS), comprimento da planta (CO), diâmetro do colmo (DC), amostrados em uma malha de 117 pontos georreferenciados (81 pontos da malha base e 36 pontos de malha com maior densidade). A análise destes dados por meio das técnicas estatísticas e da geoestatística possibilitaram constatar que os componentes de produção e produtividade do feijão apresentaram dependência espacial. Houve destaque na correlação espacial positiva entre a produtividade do feijoeiro e a massa de cem grãos, grãos por vagem e comprimento da planta, demonstrando que as mesmas possuem uma dependência espacial forte.

Soil , Agricultural Cultivation , Phaseolus , Agriculture/methods
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 731-744, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888811


Abstract Simplified environments characterize agroecosystems, reducing the diversity of associated plants, which are not cultivated for economic purposes, causing unbalances that can promote the emergence of cultivated plants pests, as well as the reduction of their natural enemies. Management systems that increase diversity in agroecosystems can extend the action of natural enemies of pests. Studies to understand the diversity of insects associated with rice cultivation and determine their ecological guilds can provide information about the composition and structure of such ecosystems, which can be applied to integrated pest management. Therefore, the study aimed to describe and compare groups of insects in irrigated rice fields, with organic management using two different systems of levees vegetation management, and relate them to the phenological states of rice cultivation (seedling, vegetative, and reproductive). Samples were taken in a plantation located in Águas Claras district of Viamão, RS. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two. A subarea called not cut (NC), where wild vegetation of levees was maintained, and the subarea named cut (C), where monthly cuts were made to levees vegetation, from the beginning of soil preparation until the harvest. From October 2012 to March 2013 were held weekly collections in quadrats randomly located in both the rice fields and the levees. A total of 800 insects were collected, 429 in the C subarea and 371 in the NC. There were identified 97 morphospecies in the C and 108 in NC, being 54 shared between the subareas. The captured insects were grouped into guilds: saprophages (C = 38.2%; NC = 27.5%), phytophagous (C = 28.5%; NC = 33.2%), entomophagous (grouping parasitoids and predators) (C = 29.4%; NC = 35%) and finally other insects (C = 4 %; NC = 4.3%). The peak abundance of phytophagous and entomophagous was registered in the vegetative stage of rice. At the same stage the UPGMA analysis showed that similarity in species composition was greater than 90% in the groups obtained in the paddy fields of C and NC subareas. The vegetation of levees can positively influence the presence of entomophagous in the field. Although the abundance did not change clearly, the greatest diversity in the NC areas of all the groups, may contribute to the maintenance of ecological services expanding the system resilience.

Resumo Os agroecossistemas se caracterizam por ambientes simplificados, com redução da diversidade de plantas associadas, que não são as cultivadas para fins econômicos, causando desequilíbrios que podem levar ao surgimento de insetos nocivos, assim como a diminuição de seus inimigos naturais. Sistemas de manejo que priorizem o aumento da diversidade no agroecossistema podem ampliar a ação de inimigos naturais de pragas. Estudos que busquem entender a diversidade de insetos associados ao cultivo de arroz irrigado, bem como determinar as guildas ou grupos ecológicos aos quais pertencem, podem trazer informações sobre a composição e estrutura dos ecossistemas que possam ser aplicadas no manejo integrado de pragas. Neste sentido, o estudo objetivou conhecer e comparar a diversidade de insetos entre áreas de cultivo orgânico de arroz irrigado, diferenciadas pelo manejo da vegetação das taipas e relacionar com os estádios fenológicos da cultura. As amostragens foram realizadas no distrito de Águas Claras, município de Viamão, RS. A área total de 18 ha foi subdividida em duas. Numa subárea, denominada não roçada (NR) a vegetação espontânea das taipas foi mantida, na outra, roçada (R), foram feitas roçadas mensais das taipas, desde o início do preparo do solo, até a colheita. Entre outubro de 2012 a março de 2013 realizaram-se coletas semanais, em quadrats, situados aleatoriamente tanto nas quadras de arroz quanto nas taipas. Foi coletado um total de 800 insetos, 429 na R e 371 na NR. Foram identificadas 97 morfoespécies na R e 108 na NR, das quais 54 foram compartilhadas entre as subáreas. As guildas registradas foram: saprófagos (R = 38,2%; NR = 27,5%), fitófagos (R = 28,5%; NR = 33,2%), entomófagos (reunindo parasitoides e predadores) (R = 29,4%; NR = 35%) e outros (R = 4%; NR = 4,3%). O pico de abundância de fitófagos e entomófagos foi registrado na fase vegetativa do arroz. Nesta mesma fase, a análise de UPGMA apontou que a similaridade na composição de espécies foi superior a 90% nos grupos obtidos nas lavouras das subáreas R e NR. A vegetação das taipas pode influenciar positivamente a presença de insetos entomófagos no campo. Embora a abundância não tenha variado significativamente entre as áreas, a maior diversidade na área não roçada em todos os grupos, pode contribuir na manutenção de serviços ecológicos aumentando a resiliência dos sistemas.

Animals , Oryza/growth & development , Biodiversity , Agriculture/methods , Insecta/physiology , Brazil , Environment
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(12): e00099816, 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889651


Resumo: Desde 2009, legislação do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar do Brasil (PNAE) institucionaliza a sua vinculação com a agricultura familiar ao estabelecer a obrigatoriedade de que, pelo menos, 30% do total dos recursos financeiros repassados pelo governo federal aos estados e municípios para a alimentação escolar devem ser utilizados na compra de produtos diretamente desse setor. Este estudo analisa o processo de construção desta legislação mediante contextualização histórica, focando nos elementos relacionados à compra da agricultura familiar e, também, apresenta uma representação gráfica com os principais elementos da vinculação: objetivos, público-alvo, ações implementadas e resultados esperados. Foram entrevistados atores envolvidos na construção da legislação. As análises evidenciam que a compra da agricultura familiar pelo PNAE é uma iniciativa de amplo alcance, do ponto de vista conceitual, de execução e de resultados. Também se evidenciou que, para o seu êxito, é fundamental uma ampla articulação entre os atores e órgãos dos vários setores envolvidos, assim como múltiplas estratégias implementadas pelas distintas esferas de governo. Dessa maneira, setores da educação, agricultura, planejamento, compras e sociedade civil devem articular-se em nível nacional, estadual e local. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que iniciativas como essas, de compras institucionais da agricultura familiar, que estão sendo implantadas atualmente em vários países, configuram-se como importante estratégia de segurança alimentar e nutricional, de cumprimento do direito humano à alimentação adequada e de promoção do desenvolvimento sustentável a longo prazo.

Resumen: Desde 2009, la legislación del Programa de Nacional Alimentación Escolar de Brasil (PNAE) institucionaliza su vinculación con la agricultura familiar, al establecer la obligatoriedad de que por lo menos un 30% del total de los recursos financieros asignados por el gobierno federal a los departamentos y municipios para la alimentación escolar, deben ser utilizados en la compra de productos directamente de ese sector. Este estudio analiza el proceso de creación de esta legislación, mediante contextualización histórica, enfocándose en los elementos relacionados con la compra de la agricultura familiar y, también, presenta una representación gráfica con los principales elementos de la vinculación: objetivos, público-objetivo, acciones implementadas y resultados esperados. Se entrevistaron a actores involucrados en la construcción de la legislación. Los análisis evidencian que la compra de la agricultura familiar por parte del PNAE es una iniciativa de amplio alcance, desde el punto de vista conceptual, de ejecución y de resultados. También se evidenció que, para su éxito, es fundamental una amplia articulación entre los actores y órganos de los diferentes sectores involucrados, así como múltiples estrategias implementadas por las distintas esferas de gobierno. De esta manera, sectores de educación, agricultura, planeamiento, compras y sociedad civil deben coordinarse en nivel nacional, departamental y local. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que iniciativas como estas, de compras institucionales de la agricultura familiar, que están siendo implantadas actualmente en varios países, constituyen importante estrategia de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional, de cumplimiento del derecho humano a la alimentación adecuada y de promoción del desarrollo sostenible a largo plazo.

Abstract: Since 2009, legislation of the National School Feeding Program of Brazil (PNAE) institutionalizes its linkage with family farming as it establishes the requirement that at least 30% out of the total financial resources allocated by the federal government to the states and municipalities for school feeding must be used in the purchase of products directly from this sector. This study analyzes the process of drafting this legislation, focusing on the elements related to the procurement from family farming, through a historical contextualization, and it also presents a graphical representation with the main elements of this linkage: its objectives, target population, actions implemented and expected results. Actors involved with the drafting of the legislation were interviewed. The analyses show that the procurement from family farming is a far-reaching initiative in terms of the concept, execution and results. It has also showed that a strong articulation between the actors and institutions of the different sectors involved is critical to its success. The education, agriculture, planning, procurement and civil society sectors should work articulately at national, state and local level. The results of this study demonstrate that initiatives like this, of institutional procurement from family farming, which are currently being implemented in several countries, constitute as an important strategy of food and nutrition security, for the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food and the promotion of long-term sustainable development.

Humans , Schools , Agriculture/methods , Food Assistance/trends , Food Services/trends , Food Supply/methods , Brazil , Program Evaluation , Family , Nutrition Policy
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2485-2493, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886819


ABSTRACT Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro) made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.

Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Saccharum/growth & development , Agriculture/economics , Agriculture/legislation & jurisprudence , Agriculture/methods , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Interviews as Topic
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 6, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845903


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to verify the adequacy profile of the cities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in relation to the purchase of products of family farming by the Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE - National Program of School Meals). METHODS This is a quantitative descriptive study, with secondary data analysis (public calls-to-bid). The sample consisted of approximately 10% (n = 52) of the cities in the State, establishing a representation by mesoregion and size of the population. We have assessed the percentage of food purchased from family farming, as well as the type of product, requirements of frequency, delivery points, and presence of prices in 114 notices of public calls-to-bid, in 2013. RESULTS Of the cities analyzed, 71.2% (n = 37) reached 30% of food purchased from family farming. Most public calls-to-bid demanded both products of plant (90.4%; n = 103) and animal origin (79.8%; n = 91). Regarding the degree of processing, fresh products appeared in 92.1% (n = 105) of the public calls-to-bid. In relation to the delivery of products, centralized (49.1%; n = 56) and weekly deliveries (47.4%; n = 54) were the most described. Only 60% (n = 68) of the public calls-to-bid contained the price of products. CONCLUSIONS Most of the cities analyzed have fulfilled what is determined by the legislation of the PNAE. We have found in the public calls-to-bid a wide variety of food, both of plant and animal origin, and most of it is fresh. In relation to the delivery of the products, the centralized and weekly options prevailed.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Verificar o perfil de adequação dos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul no que tange à aquisição de produtos da agricultura familiar pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. MÉTODOS Trata-se de estudo quantitativo descritivo, com análise de dados secundários (chamadas públicas). A amostra foi composta por aproximadamente 10% (n = 52) dos municípios do estado, tomando-se o cuidado de estabelecer uma representatividade por mesorregião e tamanho da população. Foi avaliado o percentual destinado às compras de gêneros alimentícios da agricultura familiar, bem como o tipo de produto, exigências de periodicidade, pontos de entrega e presença de preços em 114 editais de chamadas públicas, no ano de 2013. RESULTADOS Dos municípios analisados, 71,2% (n = 37) atingiram 30% de gêneros alimentícios oriundos de agricultura familiar. A maioria das chamadas públicas demandou tanto produtos de origem vegetal (90,4%; n = 103) como de origem animal (79,8%; n = 91). Quanto ao grau de processamento dos alimentos, os produtos in natura apareceram em 92,1% (n = 105) das chamadas públicas. Em relação à entrega dos produtos, a centralizada (49,1%; n = 56) e as entregas semanais (47,4%; n = 54) foram as mais descritas. Apenas 60% (n = 68) das chamadas públicas continham preço dos produtos. CONCLUSÕES A maioria dos municípios analisados cumpriu o determinado pela legislação do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. Encontrou-se nas chamadas públicas uma grande diversidade de alimentos, tanto de origem vegetal quanto de origem animal, sendo a maior parte deles in natura. Em relação à entrega dos produtos, prevaleceu a centralizada e a semanal.

Humans , Agriculture/methods , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Competitive Bidding/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Agriculture/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Geographic Mapping , Meals
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 894-905, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768185


Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

Resumo O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de café e diferentes sistemas de manejo têm sido aplicados para melhorar a sustentabilidade e a qualidade do solo. Pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos ambientais desses sistemas de manejo, assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi utilizar parâmetros biológicos do solo como indicadores de mudanças nos sistemas. Foram amostrados, na região sudeste do Brasil, solos com cultivo convencional (CC), orgânico (OC) e sistema integrado de cultivo consorciado com Brachiaria decumbens (IB) ou com Arachis pintoi (IA) na entrelinha. Foram avaliados o carbono orgânico total (TOC), carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana (MBC e MBN), atividade microbiana (C-CO2), quociente metabólico (qCO2), as enzimas desidrogenase, urease, fosfatase ácida e arilsulfatase, a colonização e número de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF) e a fauna do solo. A maior diferença entre os sistemas de manejo foram verificadas no teor de matéria orgânica do solo. O maior teor de TOC foi encontrado no OC, e o menor teor encontrado no sistema IA. O teor de TOC influenciou os parâmetros biológicos e a diferenciação da fauna do solo. O uso combinado de todos os atributos foi necessário para diferenciar os quatro sistemas de cultivo. Cada manejo apresentou estruturas diferentes de fauna, e dados obtidos com o método de armadilhas tipo pitfall foi mais confiável do que o método TSBF (Solos Tropicais). A análise de correlação canônica mostrou que Isopoda foi correlacionado com TOC e a ordem mais abundante em OC. Isoptera foi a ordem da fauna mais abundante em IA e foi correlacionada com MBC. Em geral, OC apresentou os maiores valores para a maioria dos atributos biológicos, inclusive para abundância de indivíduos de Oligochaeta e Isopoda, corroborando com o conceito de que OC é um sistema mais sustentável.

Animals , Agriculture/methods , Biodiversity , Coffee/growth & development , Invertebrates/physiology , Soil Microbiology , Biomass , Brazil , Carbon/analysis , Environment , Soil
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(4): 301-307, jul. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907493


La evidencia empírica obtenida por los agricultores del sector de Huechelepún (comuna de Melipeuco, Región de La Araucanía, Chile) indica que la especie Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, además de presentar propiedades medicinales, es una alternativa forrajera invernal. Esta propiedad junto con su condición de especie endémica de los bosques de Chile obliga a compatibilizar el uso y la conservación de esta especie. El objetivo de este estudio fue propagar D. diacanthoides mediante esquejes semilignificados y determinar el efecto de la presencia de espinas en los esquejes y la exposición Norte o Sur de las plantas madres en el enraizamiento. El estudio se realizó utilizando recursos endógenos, por lo que las variables evaluadas se determinaron sobre la base del conocimiento de los agricultores. El diseño experimental incluyó cuatro tratamientos: T1: estacas de plantas con exposición sur y espinas, T2: estacas de plantas con exposición sur sin espinas, T3: estacas de plantas con exposición norte sin espinas y T4: estacas de plantas con exposición norte con espinas. Cada tratamiento constó de 25 réplicas y se utilizó un diseño completo aleatorio para la ubicación de las estacas en el invernadero. Las estacas de plantas en laderas Norte tuvieron porcentajes mayores de sobrevivencia, enraizamiento y formación de callos que las de plantas en laderas S. La prueba U de Mann- Whitney evidenció diferencias significativas entre estacas con y sin espinas con exposición norte sólo para la longitud de raíces (p ≤ 0,05). La propagación vegetativa de D. diacanthoides mediante esquejes semilignificados es factible. Los mejores resultados se obtienen con estacas sin espinas de plantas madres con exposición Norte.

The empirical evidence obtained by farmers of Huechelepún area (commune of Melipeuco, La Araucania, Chile) indicates that the specie Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, besides presenting medicinal properties, is a winter forage alternative. This property along with its status as endemic forests of Chile requires reconciling the use and conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to propagate D. diacanthoides by semi lignified cuttings and determine the effect of the presence of thorns in the cuttings and North or South exposure mother plants in rooting. The study was performed using endogenous resources, so the evaluated variables were determined on the basis of knowledge of farmers. The experimental design included four treatments: T1: cuttings of plants with southern exposure and thorns, T2: Stakes southern exposure plants without thorns, T3: cuttings of plants with northern exposure spineless and T4: cuttings of plants with northern exposure with thorns. Each treatment consisted of 25 replicates and a complete randomized design for location of the cuttings in the greenhouse was used. Cuttings from plants in North slopes had higher percentages of survival, rooting and callus formation the plant on hillsides South. Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between stakes with and without spines north only exposure length roots (p ≤ 0.05). The vegetative propagation of cuttings D. diacanthoides by semi lignified is feasible. The best results are obtained with stakes thornless plants mothers with Northern exposure.

Agriculture/methods , Asteraceae/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Chile , Rural Population , Sustainable Agriculture
Salud colect ; 11(2): 177-189, abr.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752670


El estudio explora la relación entre el capital social y la información para la salud en agricultores de pequeña escala, en el contexto de su modo de vida. Tener información al respecto promovería la adopción de prácticas agrícolas con menos impacto en su salud debido a la reducción del uso de pesticidas de alta toxicidad. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un diseño longitudinal de medidas repetidas, en julio de 2007 (T1) y febrero de 2010 (T2), en 12 comunidades agrícolas de Ecuador (n=208). La información respecto a las prácticas de producción agrícola, entre ellas, el manejo integrado de plagas, y la toxicidad de los pesticidas constituyeron las variables dependientes. La participación en organizaciones, y la cohesión social, entre otros aspectos del capital social fueron tratados en el análisis como variables independientes. Los hallazgos sugieren que la información para la salud es transmitida por las estructuras del capital social en dependencia de su valor de uso en el marco del modo de producción agrícola.

The study explores the relationship between social capital and health information among small-scale farmers in the context of their livelihoods. Having such information could promote the use of agriculture practices with fewer health impacts by reducing farmers' exposure to highly toxic pesticides. We implemented a longitudinal study design with measurements in July 2007 (T1) and February 2010 (T2), within 12 agricultural communities in Ecuador (n=208 farmers). The dependent variables were based on information regarding agricultural production practices, among them: integrated pest management (IPM) and pesticide toxicity. Independent variables included participation in organizations and social cohesion, among other aspects of social capital. Results suggest that health information is disseminated through structures of social capital, depending on its value of use in the context of the mode of production in which small scale agriculture is developed.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pesticides/toxicity , Pest Control/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Consumer Health Information , Farmers , Rural Health , Longitudinal Studies , Agriculture/methods , Ecuador , Social Capital
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 191-197, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752514


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o desenvolvimento e a mobilização de competências relacionais, centrais no processo de cuidar, pelo estudante de enfermagem ao longo do seu processo de formação. Método: estudo descritivo-correlacional de abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi constituída pelos estudantes do curso de enfermagem de uma Escola Superior de Saúde, no litoral de Portugal e os dados foram coletados através do Inventário de Competências Relacionais de Ajuda, já testado. Resultados: os estudantes adquirem gradualmente as competências genéricas, competências de comunicação e competências de contacto, atingindo a média mais alta no último ano do curso, enquanto na subescala competências empáticas os estudantes do 2º ano apresentam um valor médio superior. Conclusão: a idade e o ano do curso são variáveis decisivas na aquisição de competências específicas (empáticas e comunicação) pelos estudantes de enfermagem. .

RESUMEN Objetivo: este estudio analiza el desarrollo y la movilización de expertos relacional, central en la atención al estudiante de enfermería a lo largo de su processo formación. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-correlacional de enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra incluyó a los alumnos del curso de enfermería de la Escuela de Salud, en la costa de Portugal y los datos fueron recogidos a través del Inventario de Habilidades Relational Ayuda, ya probado. Resultados: los resultados obtenidos indican que los estudantes adquirir gradualmente “habilidades blandas”, “habilidades de comunicación” y “habilidades de contacto”, alcanzando el promedio más alto en el último año, mientras que en subescala de “habilidades empáticas” estudiantes de segundo año tienen un valor promedio más alto. Conclusión: la edad y el año del curso son variables determinantes en la adquisición de habilidades específicas (Empática y la comunicación) de los estudiantes de enfermería. .

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the development and mobilization of relational skills central to the caring process among nursing students throughout their professional training. Method: this was a quantitative study, descriptive and cross-sectional in design. The sample consisted of nursing undergraduate students from the Higher School of Health Sciences, in the city of Évora, Portugal. Data were collected using the previously validated Helping Relational Skills Inventory. Results: the students gradually acquired “generic skills”, “communication skills” and “contact skills”, presenting the highest mean score in the last year of the program. However, the highest mean score for the “empathetic skills” subscale was presented by second-year students. Conclusion: age and year in program were found to be decisive variables regarding the acquisition of specifi c skills (empathetic and communication) by nursing students. .

Humans , Animals , Agriculture/methods , Arthropods/classification , Food Chain , Grassland , Models, Statistical , Arthropods/physiology , Biodiversity , Biomass , Carnivory/physiology , Germany , Herbivory/physiology , Poaceae/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 887-897, jul.-sep. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753659


Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p<0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 887-897. Epub 2014 September 01.

Muchos de los ecosistemas boscosos naturales de la provincia de Limón, Costa Rica, se han convertido en monocultivos de banano y piña, lo que ha reducido la biodiversidad y la calidad de los suelos. El manejo agroforestal del cacao (Theobroma cacao) es un sistema alternativo, que puede generar ingresos para los agricultores de la región mientras imita mejor los ecosistemas nativos. En esta investigación se compararon los indicadores físicos, biológicos, y químicos de la calidad del suelo en un cacaotal orgánico y agroforestal, una plantación bananera, una piñera, un potrero y un bosque natural. En general, el suelo del cacaotal tuvo características físicas, biológicas y químicas mejores que los monocultivos de banano y piña, mientras las tendencias en comparación con el potrero fueron menos marcadas. Aunque algunas características del suelo en el cacaotal orgánico, como densidad y cantidad de carbono, fueron inferiores al bosque nativo, la calidad del suelo en el cacaotal imitó mejor la del bosque nativo. Los resultados de esta investigación apoyan el cultivo de cacao como una alternativa deseable al monocultivo de banano y piña.

Animals , Cattle , Agriculture/methods , Crops, Agricultural , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Agriculture/standards , Cacao , Carbon Cycle , Costa Rica , Organic Agriculture , Soil/standards
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 995-1005, July-Sept. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727031


Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

Agriculture/methods , Biodiversity , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Saccharum/microbiology , Brazil , Mycorrhizae/classification , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 457-465, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723100


The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Agriculture/methods , Cellulose , Fermentation , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Temperature , Triticum/metabolism , Waste Products
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 52-61, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715594


Widely spread in the tropics, yams were introduced into Brazil during the colonial period and are currently grown throughout the country. Despite its importance as a pharmacological and food source, there is a lack of studies describing how and where this tuber is grown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the cultivation and distribution of Dioscorea alata in different Brazilian regions. A total of 63 farmers were visited in different municipalities and communities in four regions in the country: South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, use, management and diversity data for this crop. The majority of interviewers were men, married, with children, using retirement benefits and agriculture as income and family labour as the main support in the yam cultivation. A wide distribution of this species was found, with the occurrence of D. alata in the four sampled regions. A variety of vernacular names for this species was collected, differing according to the region where it is cultivated. Most farmers cultivate yams in fields, however an increased usage of home gardens for the cultivation of this tuber was found. Also, most farmers cultivate yams in association with other crops in areas of different sizes and slash and burn practices, although mostly disappearing, are still being used by many farmers. The results of this study provide more concrete data on the distribution and diversity of this important crop.

Amplamente difundido nos trópicos, o inhame entrou no Brasil na época da colonização e atualmente é cultivado em todo o país. Apesar de sua importância como cultura alimentícia e farmacológica, são raros os estudos que identifiquem como e onde esse tubérculo está sendo cultivado no Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um panorama do cultivo e distribuição da espécie Dioscorea alata L. em diversas regiões do Brasil. Para tanto, foram visitados 63 agricultores em diferentes municípios, distribuídos entre o Sul, Sudeste, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste do país. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, nas quais foram levantados dados socioeconômicos, bem como sobre o uso, manejo e diversidade dessa espécie. A maioria dos entrevistados eram homens casados, com filhos, que possuíam aposentadoria e a agricultura como principais fontes de renda. Constatou-se que a mão-de-obra familiar está bastante envolvida com o cultivo de inhame. Uma ampla distribuição da espécie foi observada, com a ocorrência de D. alata nas quatro regiões amostradas. Grande diversidade de nomes populares foi observada para a espécie neste estudo, com diferenças na nomenclatura popular em função das diferentes regiões onde a mesma é cultivada. A maioria dos agricultores cultiva inhame em roças, no entanto a importância dos quintais foi observada em vários municípios. Verificou-se também que a maioria dos entrevistados cultiva o inhame em consorciação com outras culturas e que a prática do pousio ainda é utilizada por muitos dos agricultores. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram gerar dados mais concretos sobre a distribuição e diversidade desta importante cultura.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Agriculture/methods , Biodiversity , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Dioscorea/classification , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Geography , Interviews as Topic , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(3): 405-414, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-684158


O cultivo orgânico é preconizado para o capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf.) como planta medicinal promissora ao desenvolvimento de fármacos no Brasil. Objetivou-se avaliar técnicas de controle de plantas invasoras sobre componentes de produção de capim limão em cultivos orgânico e convencional. Dois experimentos foram instalados sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2x2x3, considerando-se duas áreas (orgânico e convencional) e os tratamentos combinando cobertura morta (presente e ausente) e técnicas de controle de plantas invasoras (capina manual, roçada e nenhuma). Altura, perfilhamento, teor e rendimento total de óleo essencial de capim-limão no cultivo orgânico foram superiores ao convencional, mas a produtividade de biomassa aérea seca não diferiu entre ambos. A capina, com ou sem cobertura morta, favoreceu o rendimento de óleo no cultivo orgânico.

Organic farming is recommended for lemongrass as a promising medicinal plant for drug development in Brazil. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the techniques to control weed on the plant height, tillering, biomass productivity, content and yield of the essential oil of lemon grass in organic and conventional crops. Two experiments were set in a completely randomized design with four replications, at a 2x2x3 factorial scheme, considering two areas (organic and conventional) and treatments combining mulching (present and absent) and weed control techniques (hoeing, skimming and none). Plant height, tillering, content and yield of the essential oil of lemongrass were better in the organic crop, but the biomass productivity did not differ between both areas. The biomass production was better in the conventional crop as to weed control, with or without mulching, and for organic crop under hoeing or skimming with mulching. Hoeing or skimming with no mulching improved the oil content in organic crops. Hoeing or skimming with mulching was better than any other weed control technique with no mulching, and hoeing was better than skimming, justifying its recommendation as a technique for this crop system.

Agriculture/methods , Cymbopogon/growth & development , Organic Agriculture/methods , Weed Control/instrumentation
Braz. j. biol ; 72(3,supl): 775-785, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649327


Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha-1 year-1). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

Áreas agrícolas trocam enormes fluxos de CO2, oferecendo uma oportunidade para mitigar o efeito estufa. Neste trabalho, estudou-se o potencial de sequestro de carbono em razão da conversão no manejo das principais atividades agrícolas do Brasil. Dados de vários estudos têm indicado que no sistema soja/milho e nas respectivas rotações, ocorre um sequestro de carbono no solo significativo ao longo dos anos de conversão do plantio convencional para o plantio direto, com uma média de 0,41 Mg C ha-1 ano-1. O mesmo efeito tem sido observado nos canaviais, porém há maiores acúmulos de carbono no solo quando as áreas de cana-de-açúcar são convertidas da colheita baseada na queima para a mecanizada, em que grandes quantidades de palha são deixadas na superfície do solo (1,8 Mg C ha-1 ano-1). Esse maior potencial de acúmulo de carbono no solo nos canaviais, comparado com outras culturas, está diretamente relacionado com a maior produção primária dessa cultura. Apesar disso, muito desse potencial de sequestro é perdido, uma vez que os canaviais são reformados, sob preparo intensivo do solo. As áreas de pasto mostram uma depleção nos estoques de carbono, quando convertidas de áreas naturais; porém, a integração dessas áreas com agricultura pode promover o aumento nos estoques de carbono do solo. Os trabalhos têm mostrado que as principais atividades agrícolas do Brasil possuem um grande potencial de mitigação, especialmente na forma de acúmulo de carbono no solo, sendo uma oportunidade para estratégias futuras.

Humans , Agriculture/methods , Carbon/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Brazil , Carbon Sequestration , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Environmental Monitoring , Greenhouse Effect , Soil/analysis