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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868


Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.

Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.

Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 434-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982763


Objective:To explore the impact of PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai on the incidence of allergic rhinitis(AR) in the population, and provide strategies for early warning and prevention of AR. Methods:Collect daily average concentrations of atmospheric pollutants monitored in Shanghai from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, and clinical data of AR patients from five hospitals in Shanghai during the same period. We used a time-series analysis additive Poisson regression model to analyze the correlation between PM 2.5 levels and outpatient attendance for AR patients. Results:During the study period, a total of 56 500 AR patients were included, and the daily average concentration of PM 2.5 was(35.28±23.07)μg/m³. There is a correlation between the concentration of PM 2.5 and the number of outpatient attendance for AR cases. There is a positive correlation between the daily average number of outpatient for AR and levels of PM 2.5 air pollution((P<0.05)) . We found that every 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5, the impact of on the number of AR visits was statistically significant on the same day, the first day behind, and the second day behind, with the strongest impact being the exposure on the same day. Every 10 μg/m³ increases in PM 2.5, the number of outpatient visits increased by 0.526% on the same day(95%CI 1.000 50-1.010 04). Conclusion:The atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai is positively correlated with the number of outpatient for AR, and PM 2.5 exposure is an independent factor in the onset of AR. This provides an important theoretical basis for AR.

Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00242320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345626


On March 24, 2020, a partial lockdown was decreed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, as a measure to hinder the spread of COVID-19, which consisted in prohibiting crowding and advising people to stay home, except for urgent or extremely necessary matters. Based on studies performed in other countries, this study aims to assess the impacts of the lockdown on the air quality of five cities in the state of São Paulo. Our study was conducted by using particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide as air quality indicators, and by correlating the contaminants concentrations with weather data. The results showed an increase in these contaminants in all cities within the first weeks after the lockdown compared with the weeks before the decree and with the same period in previous years. This result is inconsistent with the literature. Therefore, a secondary goal was set to investigate the possible cause (or causes) of such deterioration in air quality, which led to the increased number of wildfires. The anomalous dry weather favored the burning of vegetation in agricultural rural areas and in small, vegetated areas near the municipalities, and limited pollution scavenging by rainfall, both of which contributed to higher pollution concentration. We hypothesize the possible effects of worse air quality on the aggravation of COVID-19, but further research is necessary to obtain a complete assessment.

Em 24 de março de 2020, foi decretado confinamento parcial no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, como medida para desacelerar a disseminação da COVID-19. O decreto consistia na proibição de aglomerações e na recomendação para as pessoas permanecerem em casa, exceto em situações urgentes ou de extrema necessidade. Na esteira de estudos realizados em outros países, o artigo busca avaliar os impactos do confinamento na qualidade do ar em cinco cidades no Estado de São Paulo. Nosso estudo foi realizado com o material particulado e dióxido de nitrogênio enquanto indicadores da qualidade do ar e pela correlação das concentrações dos contaminantes com dados meteorológicos. Os resultados mostraram um aumento desses contaminantes em todas as cinco cidades dentro das primeiras semanas depois do confinamento, comparado às semanas que antecederam o decreto e com o mesmo período em anos anteriores. O resultado é inconsistente com os achados usualmente relatados em outros estudos. Portanto, foi definido um objetivo secundário a fim de investigar a possível causa (ou causas) da piora na qualidade do ar, o que revelou um aumento no número de incêndios. O tempo anormalmente seco favoreceu a queima de vegetação nas áreas agrícolas rurais e em pequenas áreas de vegetação próximas às cidades, além do limitado escoamento da poluição pela chuva, o que contribuiu à maior concentração de poluentes. Os achados sugerem hipóteses sobre os possíveis efeitos dessa situação de pior qualidade do ar sobre o agravamento de casos de COVID-19, porém são necessários mais estudos para uma avaliação completa.

El 24 de marzo de 2020 se decretó un confinamiento parcial en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil, como medida para evitar la propagación de la COVID-19, que consistió en prohibir aglomeraciones de personas y avisar a la gente que permaneciera en casa, salvo para asuntos urgentes o extremadamente necesarios. Siguiendo algunos estudios realizados en otros países, el objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los impactos del confinamiento en la calidad del aire de ciudades en el estado de São Paulo. Nuestro estudio fue realizado usando material particulado y dióxido de nitrógeno, como indicadores de la calidad del aire, y mediante la correlación de las concentraciones de contaminantes con los datos meteorológicos. Los resultados mostraron un incremento en estos contaminantes en todas las ciudades dentro de las primeras semanas tras el confinamiento, comparando las semanas antes del decreto y dentro del mismo periodo en los años previos. Este resultado es inconsistente con aquellos que han sido informados en otros estudios. Por ello, un objetivo secundario fue investigar la posible causa (o causas) de tal deterioro en la calidad del aire, que conduce a un incremento en el número de incendios. La climatología seca anómala favoreció la quema de vegetación en las áreas rurales agrícolas, y en áreas con poca vegetación cerca de las ciudades, y la eliminación limitada de la contaminación gracias a la lluvia, ambos contribuyeron a una mayor concentración de contaminación. Se especula que los posibles efectos de esta situación de una peor calidad del aire podrían afectar en el agravamiento de los casos de COVID-19, pero son quizás necesarias más investigaciones para conseguir una evaluación completa.

Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 72-72, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606


BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM

Adult , Animals , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 20-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880339


BACKGROUND@#Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.@*METHODS@#Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.

Adult , Female , Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Republic of Korea
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 15-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM

Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 7-7, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880325


BACKGROUND@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become a severe global burden in terms of both health and the economy. Few studies, however, have thoroughly assessed the influence of air pollution on COPD-related mortality among elderly people in developing areas in the hinterland of southwestern China. This study is the first to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient airborne pollutants and COPD-related mortality among elderly people in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China.@*METHODS@#Data on COPD-related mortality among elderly people aged 60 and older were obtained from the Population Death Information Registration and Management System (PDIRMS). Data on airborne pollutants comprised of particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 61,058 COPD-related deaths of people aged 60 and older were obtained. Controlling the influences of daily temperature and relative humidity, interquartile range (IQR) concentration increases of PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increased concentrations of ambient airborne pollutants composed of PM

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Time Factors
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200267, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154684


ABSTRACT Environmental air pollution is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Environmental air pollution has a direct impact on human health, being responsible for an increase in the incidence of and number of deaths due to cardiopulmonary, neoplastic, and metabolic diseases; it also contributes to global warming and the consequent climate change associated with extreme events and environmental imbalances. In this review, we present articles that show the impact that exposure to different sources and types of air pollutants has on the respiratory system; we present the acute effects—such as increases in symptoms and in the number of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths—and the chronic effects—such as increases in the incidence of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, as well as a rapid decline in lung function. The effects of air pollution in more susceptible populations and the effects associated with physical exercise in polluted environments are also presented and discussed. Finally, we present the major studies on the subject conducted in Brazil. Health care and disease prevention services should be aware of this important risk factor in order to counsel more susceptible individuals about protective measures that can facilitate their treatment, as well as promoting the adoption of environmental measures that contribute to the reduction of such emissions.

RESUMO A poluição do ar ambiental é um dos principais fatores de risco de morbidade e mortalidade global. Ela tem impacto direto na saúde humana, sendo responsável pelo aumento de incidência e de óbitos por doenças cardiorrespiratórias, neoplásicas e metabólicas; também contribui para o aquecimento global e para as consequentes alterações do clima associadas a eventos extremos e aos desequilíbrios ambientais. Nesta revisão, apresentamos artigos que evidenciam o impacto da exposição a diferentes fontes e tipos de poluentes do ar no sistema respiratório; apresentamos os efeitos agudos — como aumento de sintomas e no número de atendimentos em serviços de emergência, internações e óbitos — e crônicos — como o aumento da incidência de asma, DPOC e câncer de pulmão, assim como o declínio acelerado da função pulmonar. Também são apresentados e discutidos os efeitos da poluição atmosférica em populações mais suscetíveis e dos efeitos associados à realização de exercícios físicos em ambientes poluídos. Por fim, apresentamos os principais estudos brasileiros sobre o assunto. Os serviços de atenção à saúde e de prevenção de doenças devem ficar atentos a esse importante fator de risco para orientar indivíduos mais suscetíveis sobre medidas de proteção que possam facilitar seu tratamento, além de estimular a adoção de medidas ambientais que contribuam para a redução dessas emissões.

Humans , Asthma , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Respiratory System , Brazil
Salud pública Méx ; 62(5): 468-476, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390309


Resumen Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de mortalidad asociado con la exposición a partículas finas (PM2.5) y gruesas (PM2.5-10) en la Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey (ZMM). Material y métodos: Estudio ecológico con análisis retrospectivo de series de tiempo (2004-2014) de mortalidad total y específica diaria, y promedio de PM2.5y PM2.5-10. Modelos aditivos generalizados Poisson con rezagos distribuidos ajustados por tendencia, estacionalidad, día de la semana, condiciones meteorológicas y contaminantes gaseosos. Resultados: El promedio (DE) de PM2.5y PM2.5-10fue 26.59 (11.06) y 48.83 (21.15) μg/m3. Cada 10 μg/m3de aumento de PM2.5(lag 0) incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad respiratoria en menores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 1.03-21.39) y de neumonía e influenza en mayores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 3.91-9.37). El riesgo de mortalidad asociado con las PM2.5-10fue menor. Conclusiones: Se observaron asociaciones positivas y significativas entre exposición a material particulado y la mortalidad diaria en población de la ZMM.

Abstract Objective: To estimate the mortality risk of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM). Materials and methods: A retrospective ecological time-series analysis (2000-2014) was conducted using total and specific causes of mortality, and daily mean PM2.5and PM2.5-10. Generalized additive distributed lag models controlling for trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological conditions and gaseous pollutants. Results: Mean (SD) PM2.5and PM2.5-10concentrations were 26.59 μg/m3 (11.06 μg/m3) and 48.83 μg/m3(21.15 μg/m3). An increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (lag 0) was associated with 11.16% (95%CI:1.03-21.39) increased risk of respiratory mortality in children <=5 years old and 6.6% (95%CI 3.31-9.37) increased risk of pneumonia-influenza in adults >=65 years old. The risk of mortality associated with the concentration of coarse particles was lower. Conclusions: Positive and significant associations were observed between exposure to particulate matter and daily mortality in the MAM´s population.

Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Humans , Mortality , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Retrospective Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
Salud pública Méx ; 62(5): 582-589, sep.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390321


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia sobre la relación entre la contaminación del aire y un riesgo mayor de morbimortalidad por Covid-19. Material y métodos: Se utilizó una adaptación de la metodología de revisiones rápidas de Cochrane. La búsqueda se realizó en PubMed y MedRxiv y se limitó hasta el 28 y 26 de abril, respectivamente. Los títulos y resúmenes fueron revisados por cinco investigadores que, a su vez, revisaron los textos completos de la selección final. Resultados: Se encontraron 450 manuscritos, 15 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La evidencia encontrada reporta que la incidencia y el riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad por Covid-19 se incrementan con la exposición crónica y aguda a la contaminación del aire, particularmente a material particulado (PM2.5, PM10) y dióxido de nitrógeno. Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios especialmente en ciudades latinoamericanas. Es necesario fortalecer las recomendaciones en las ciudades con mayores niveles de contaminantes y reducir sus emisiones.

Abstract Objective: To analyze the evidence on the relationship between air pollution and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from Covid-19. Materials and methods: An adaptation of the Cochrane rapid review methodology was used. The search was performed in PubMed and MedRxiv and was limited until April 28 and 26, respectively. The titles and abstracts were reviewed by five researchers who, in turn, reviewed the full texts of the final selection. Results: 450 manuscripts were found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. The evidence reports that the incidence and risk of morbidity and mortality from Covid-19 increase with chronic and acute exposure to air pollution, particularly to particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) and nitrogen dioxide. Conclusions: More studies are required especially in Latin American cities. It is necessary to strengthen the recommendations in cities with higher levels of pollutants and to reduce their emissions.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , Environmental Monitoring , Urban Health , Incidence , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Latin America/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 68-68, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880305


BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 μm (PM@*METHODS@#We obtained DNA methylation and exercise data of 496 participants (aged between 30 and 70 years) from the Taiwan Biobank (TWB) database. We also extracted PM@*RESULTS@#DLEC1 methylation and PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We found significant positive associations between PM

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , DNA Methylation/drug effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Exercise , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Taiwan , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(10): 3773-3781, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039466


Resumo Examinamos o impacto da poluição atmosférica nas internações por doenças respiratórias totais (DRT), em crianças menores de cinco anos (DRC) e por doenças cardiovasculares em maiores de 39 anos (DCV) nos municípios de Belo Horizonte (BH), Betim e Contagem, da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Modelos aditivos generalizados via regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para ajustar as séries de hospitalizações. Os poluentes, em defasagem simples e acumulada de até cinco dias, foram introduzidos como variáveis independentes e os modelos foram ajustados para temperatura, umidade, dias da semana e feriados. Em BH, o PM10 esteve relacionado às DRT (RR% 1,06 IC95%:0,41-1,72); DRC (RR% 1,25 IC95%:0,25-2,26) e DCV (RR% 2,29 IC95%:0,96-3,64). Em Betim, observou-se RR% 1,33 (IC95%:0,48-2,18) para DRT e RR% 2,38 (IC95%:1,20-3,56) para DRC. Em Contagem, observou-se RR% 1,23 (IC95%:0,32-2,15) e RR% 1,61 (IC95%:0,26-2,96) para DRT e DRC, respectivamente. SO2 e CO também apresentaram associação com as hospitalizações. As doenças respiratórias foram o desfecho mais relacionado aos poluentes investigados. Esses resultados podem ser úteis nas discussões das políticas de controle de emissões na região.

Abstract The impact of air pollution on hospitalizations for total respiratory diseases (DRT) among children under five (DRC), as well as for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients over 39 years of age, was examined in the municipalities of Belo Horizonte, Betim and Contagem, of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Generalized additive models using Poisson regression were used to adjust the daily time series of hospitalizations. Single and accumulated lagged pollutants of up to five days were introduced as independent variables and models were adjusted for temperature, humidity, weekdays and holidays. In Belo Horizonte PM10 was related to DRT (RR% 1.06 CI 95%: 0.41-1.72); DRC (%RR 1.25 CI 95%: 0.25-2.26) and CVD (RR% 2.29, CI 95%: 0.96-3.64). In Betim an RR% of 1.33 (CI 95%: 0.48-2.18) for DRT and RR% 2.38 (CI 95%: 1.20-3.56) for DRC was observed. In Contagem RR% = 1.23 (CI 95%: 0.32-2.15) and RR% = 1.61 (CI 95%: 0.26-2.96) was observed for DRT and DRC, respectively. SO2 and CO were also associated with hospitalizations. Respiratory diseases were the outcome most frequently related to air pollutants investigated. These results can be useful in discussions on emission control policies in the region.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cities , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 123-136, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002618


En los últimos años hubo un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de las enfermedades alérgicas pese a los avances en la comprensión de la patogénesis, la divulgación de guías para su control y tratamiento y la aparición de nuevos fármacos. La raz ón para este aumento no está totalmente estable cida, pero se considera que múltiples factores ambientales podrían estar involucrados en ello. El aire inspirado contiene numerosos agentes nocivos además de alérgenos ambientales; el asma y la rinitis alérgica son las principales expresiones clínicas respiratorias inmediatas posteriores a su inhalación. En la antropósfera, el entorno de la superficie terrestre habitada por los humanos, se han alterado los equilibrios naturales por la emisión de múltiples sustancias y se ha producido un creciente cambio climático. Este fenómeno global influye en la calidad del aire y consecuentemente en el desarrollo de enfermedades respiratorias. Dado que la bibliografía sobre el tema del control ambiental es muy amplia, y en ocasiones difícil de interpretar para poder realizar indicaciones precisas, válidas y sencillas de cumplir por parte de los pacientes, cuatro sociedades científicas de la República Argentina, dedicadas a este tipo de enfermedades, elaboraron un documento con información de fácil acceso a todo profesional médico que trate asma y/o rinitis, que expone medidas prácticas para los enfermos y alerta a los distintos actores involucrados en la salud pública acerca de las necesidades insatisfechas en este tema tan complejo, a fin de poder elaborar una agenda para su posible resolución.

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases despite advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, the dissemination of guidelines for its management and the emergence of new drugs. The reasons for this increase are not fully established, but it is suggested that multiple environmental factors may be involved. Inhaled air contains numerous harmful agents in addition to environmental allergens. The main immediate respiratory clinical expression after inhaling this contaminated air is asthma and rhinitis. The activity of human beings has altered the outdoor environment by the emission of multiple pollutants and has produced an increasing climate change. It also has a notable impact on the development of respiratory pathology and the modification of air quality. The bibliography on the subject of environmental control is very broad and sometimes difficult to interpret. In order to be able to make precise, valid and simple indications for patients to accomplish with, four scientific societies of the Argentine Republic that deal with this type of diseases, have elaborated a document that contains information of easy access to all medical personal involved in the treatment of patients with asthma and / or rhinitis, that provides practical measures for the patients and the different public health systems about unmet needs in this complex issue.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Allergens/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology , Climate Change , Risk Factors , Air Pollutants/adverse effects
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 166-172, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013285


ABSTRACT Objective: Identify the association between exposure to fine particulate matter and hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in children up to ten years of age in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, stratifying the analysis by sex and calculating excess costs. Methods: Ecological study of time series. The dependent variable was daily hospitalizations according to the 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10): J04.0, J12.0 to J18.9, J20.0 to J21.9 and J45.0 to J45.0. The independent variables were the concentration of fine particulate, estimated by a mathematical model, temperature and relative air humidity, controlled by short and long-term trends. Generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used. Relative risks, proportional attributable risk (PAR) and excess hospitalizations and their respective costs by the population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated. Results: 1,165 children were hospitalized, 640 males and 525 females. The mean concentration, estimated by the mathematical model, was 15.1±2.9 mcg/m3 for PM2.5. For boys, there was no significant association; for girls a relative risk of up to 1.04 of daily hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases was observed for exposure to PM 2.5 in lags 1, 2 and 6. Increase of 5 µg/m3 in these concentrations increased the percentage of the risk in 18%; with an excess 95 hospital admissions and with excess expenses in the order of US$ 35 thousand. Conclusions: Significant effect in daily hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases related to exposure to fine particulate matter was noted for girls, suggesting the need for stratification by sex in further studies.

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar associação entre exposição ao material particulado fino e internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças de até dez anos de idade, no município de Cuiabá, MT, estratificando a análise por sexo e calculando excesso de custos. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais, sendo a variável dependente o número diário de internações por doenças respiratórias, segundo a 10a Revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID): J04.0, J12.0 a J18.9, J20.0 a J21.9 e J45.0 a J45.0. As variáveis independentes foram a concentração do particulado fino, estimada pelo modelo matemático, além de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, controladas pelas tendências de curta e longa duração. Foram calculados riscos relativos, risco atribuível proporcional (RAP) e excessos de internações e seus respectivos custos pela fração atribuível populacional (FAP). Resultados: Foram internadas 1.165 crianças (640 meninos e 525 meninas). A concentração média estimada do particulado fino foi 15,1±2,9 mcg/m3 para particulado fino (PM2,5). Para meninos, não houve associação significativa. Para meninas, observou-se risco relativo (RR) de até 1,04 para o número diário de internações por doenças respiratórias em associação à exposição ao PM2,5 nos lags 1, 2 e 6. O aumento de 5 mcg/m3 nessas concentrações associou-se ao aumento do risco em 18% e o RAP atribuído à exposição foi de 20% das internações das meninas, com excesso de 95 internações e de gastos da ordem de R$ 105 mil. Conclusões: Houve associação da exposição ao particulado fino e número de internações por doenças respiratórias de meninas, sugerindo a necessidade de estratificação por sexos em estudos posteriores.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Sex Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/ethnology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena , Hospitalization/economics
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(1): 49-57, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003646


Los incendios forestales representan un problema creciente de la salud pública a nivel mundial, especialmente para la población más vulnerable (niños, ancianos, embarazadas y portadores de enfermedades cardiovasculares o respiratorias crónicas) expuesta al humo y a otros contaminantes aéreos. A diferencia de la contaminación atmosférica habitual de grandes urbes, aquella derivada de los incendios forestales tiene una composición diferente y su ocurrencia es esporádica y difícil de prever. La exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos derivados de incendios forestales se asocia a aumento de la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular, mediada por una respuesta inflamatoria pulmonar y sistémica, estrés oxidativo y disfunción endotelial. En sujetos expuestos a humo de incendios forestales se ha observado un aumento en la producción de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, activación endotelial y disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo, que produce daño tisular, aumento de los mecanismos protrombóticos, aumento de la presión arterial y cambios en el ritmo cardiaco. Esta revisión analiza los mecanismos que han sido involucrados en generar efectos nocivos para la salud de seres humanos expuestos a material particulado y gases emanados de incendios forestales.

Wildfires represent a growing global public health issue, especially to the most vulnerable segment of the population (children, old people, pregnant women, patients with cardiovascular or respiratory diseases) exposed to smoke and other air borne contaminants generated from these events. In contrast to great cities ' usual atmospheric pollution, that derives from forest fires differ in composition and its occurrence is sporadic and usually unpredictable. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants derived from forest fires has been associated to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, mediated by an inflammatory systemic response, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In people exposed to forest fire smoke an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial activation and autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been observed, that leads to tissue injury, increased prothrombotic response, increased blood pressure and changes in heart rhythm. This review analyzes the mechanisms that have been involved in generating harmful health effects in humans exposed to inhaled particulate matter and gases steaming from wildfires.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Wildfires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/chemically induced , Cytokines/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Inhalation Exposure , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
São Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 60-65, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004739


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to some air pollutants is associated with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of exposure to fine particulate matter in hospitalizations due to ischemic heart disease and the costs to the healthcare system. DESIGN AND SETTING: Time-series ecological study conducted in Taubaté, Brazil. METHODS: Data on hospitalizations due to ischemic heart diseases (ICD I-20 to I-24) in the municipality of Taubaté (SP), Brazil, among adults of both sexes aged 40 years and over, from August 2011 to July 2012, were obtained from DATASUS. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were estimated from a mathematical model. Poisson regression was used in statistical analyses to estimate the relative risks of exposure to PM2.5 for both sexes and after stratification according to sex. The excess of hospitalizations and consequent excess expenditure for the healthcare system were calculated. RESULTS: There were 1040 admissions, among which 382 had ischemic heart diseases (257 males). Themean PM2.5 concentration was 13.2 µg/m3 (SD = 5.6). Significant effects from exposure were noted 4and 5 days after exposure (lag 4 and lag 5) for both sexes and for male sex; for female sex, the effect was 2 days after exposure (lag 2). There were 59 excess hospitalizations for an increase in PM2.5 concentration of 5 µg/m3 and excess expenditure of US$ 150,000 for the National Health System. CONCLUSIONS: An excess of hospital admissions due to ischemic heart disease, with excess expenditure, was identified consequent to PM2.5 exposure.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Risk Assessment , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Humidity
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190011, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990726


RESUMO: Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos do PM2,5 e da temperatura na mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares segundo status socioeconômico e proximidade do tráfego. Método: Utilizaram-se séries temporais por meio da classe dos modelos aditivos generalizados com a opção de regressão de Poisson, a 5% de significância. Analisou-se interação entre a proximidade do tráfego e o status socioeconômico por meio de estratificação. Aproximidade do tráfego foi dividida em maior e menor que 150 m de distância. O status socioeconômico no entorno residencial foi categorizado em Alto e Baixo a partir da mediana (3,9%). Calculou-se o percentual de risco relativo (%RR) dos óbitos por doenças cardiovasculares para cada aumento linear de 10 µg/m3 nos níveis de PM2,5 e 1ºC na temperatura máxima. Resultados: A mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares apresentou %RR 1,64 (IC95% -0,03; 3,33) relacionada à temperatura máxima e %RR 4,60 (IC95% 0,78; 8,56) relacionada ao PM2,5, em áreas com alta exposição ao tráfego. Em áreas com condições de vida precárias, observou-se %RR 1,34 (IC95% -0,31; 3,01) relacionada à temperatura máxima e %RR 3,95 (IC95% -0,27; 8,34) associada ao PM2,5. Conclusão: Áreas com condições de vida precárias e com alta exposição ao tráfego apresentaram maior risco de mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares relacionados à temperatura e ao PM2,5.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To verify the effects of PM2.5 and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases according to socioeconomic status and traffic proximity. Method: Time series were used, using the generalized additive models with the Poisson regression option, at 5% significance level. Interactionbetween proximity of traffic and socioeconomic status was analyzed through stratification. The proximity to the traffic was divided into distances up to 150m or over 150m. Socioeconomic status in the residential environment was categorized as high and low based on the median (3.9%). The relative risk percentage (%RR) of cardiovascular disease deaths was calculated for each linear increase of 10 µg/m3 at PM2.5 and 1ºC at the maximum temperature. Results: Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases presented %RR 1.64 (95%CI -0.03; 3.33), related to the maximum temperature and %RR 4.60 (95%CI 0.78; 8.56) related to PM2.5, in areas with high traffic exposure. In areas with poor living conditions, %RR 1.34 (95%CI -0.31; 3.01) was observed, related to maximum temperature and RR% 3.95 (95%CI -0.27; 8.34) associated with PM2.5. Conclusion: Areas with poor living conditions and high-exposure to vehicular traffic had an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality related to high temperature and PM2.5.

Humans , Temperature , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 238-252, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010454


Several reviews have assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes during pregnancy, but the results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to assess this correlation quantitatively and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We included all published case-control or cohort studies that evaluated the correlation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). Analytical methods and inclusion criteria were provided on the PROSPERO website (CRD42018085816). We evaluated pooled effects and heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses (grouped by exposure period, study settings, study design, exposure types, data source, Newcastle-Ottawa quality score (NOS), and adjustment for smoking or meteorological factors) were also conducted and publication bias was examined. The risk of bias in systematic reviews (ROBIS) tool was used to evaluate the overall risk of bias in this review. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. We observed pooled odds ratios (ORs) of 1.03-1.21 for LBW and 0.97-1.06 for PTB when mothers were exposed to CO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM2.5, PM10, or SO2 throughout their pregnancy. For SGA, the pooled estimate was 1.02 in relation to NO2 concentrations. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis decreased the heterogeneity to some extent, such as the subgroups of continuous measures (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) and NOS>7 (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) in evaluating the association between PTB and NO2. This review was completed with a low risk of bias. High concentrations of air pollution were significantly related to the higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, the sources of heterogeneity among studies should be further explored.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bias , Environmental Exposure , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Maternal Exposure , Odds Ratio , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Assessment