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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 488-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between short-term exposure to indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) among young female adults.@*METHODS@#This panel study recruited 50 young females from one university in Beijing, China from December 2021 to April 2022. All the participants underwent two sequential visits. During each visit, real time indoor TVOC concentration was monitored using an indoor air quality detector. The real time levels of indoor temperature, relative humidity, noise, carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter were monitored using a temperature and humidity meter, a noise meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a particulate counter, respectively. HRV parameters were measured using a 12-lead Holter. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the TVOC and HRV parameters and establish the exposure-response relationships, and two-pollutant models were applied to examine the robustness of the results.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 50 female subjects was (22.5±2.3) years, and the mean body mass index was (20.4±1.9) kg/m2. During this study, the median (interquartile range) of indoor TVOC concentrations was 0.069 (0.046) mg/m3, the median (interquartile range) of indoor temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, noise level and fine particulate matter concentration were 24.3 (2.7) ℃, 38.5% (15.0%), 0.1% (0.1%), 52.7 (5.8) dB(A) and 10.3 (21.5) μg/m3, respectively. Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant changes in time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters, and the exposure metric for most HRV parameters with the most significant changes was 1 h-moving average. Along with a 0.01 mg/m3 increment in 1 h-moving average concentration of indoor TVOC, this study observed decreases of 1.89% (95%CI: -2.28%, -1.50%) in standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), 1.92% (95%CI: -2.32%, -1.51%) in standard deviation of average normal to normal intervals (SDANN), 0.64% (95%CI: -1.13%, -0.14%) in percentage of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), 3.52% (95%CI: -4.30%, -2.74%) in total power (TP), 5.01% (95%CI: -6.21%, -3.79%) in very low frequency (VLF) power, and 4.36% (95%CI: -5.16%, -3.55%) in low frequency (LF) power. The exposure-response curves showed that indoor TVOC was negatively correlated with SDNN, SDANN, TP, and VLF when the concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. The two-pollutant models indicated that the results were generally robust after controlling indoor noise and fine particulate matter.@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant negative changes in nocturnal HRV of young women. This study provides an important scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants
4.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 4-4, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital malformations in humans. Inconsistent results emerged in the existed studies on associations between air pollution and congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of gestational exposure to air pollutants with congenital heart disease, and to explore the critical exposure windows for congenital heart disease.@*METHODS@#The nested case-control study collected birth records and the following health data in Tianjin Women and Children's Health Center, China. All of the cases of congenital heart disease from 2013 to 2015 were selected matching five healthy controls for each case. Inverse distance weighting was used to estimate individual exposure based on daily air pollution data. Furthermore, the conditional logistic regression with distributed lag non-linear model was performed to identify the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and congenital heart disease.@*RESULTS@#A total of 8,748 mother-infant pairs were entered into the analysis, of which 1,458 infants suffered from congenital heart disease. For each 10 µg/m3 increase of gestational exposure to PM2.5, the ORs (95% confidence interval, 95%CI) ranged from 1.008 (1.001-1.016) to 1.013 (1.001-1.024) during the 1st-2nd gestation weeks. Similar weak but increased risks of congenital heart disease were associated with O3 exposure during the 1st week and SO2 exposure during 6th-7th weeks in the first trimester, while no significant findings for other air pollutants.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study highlighted that gestational exposure to PM2.5, O3, and SO2 had lag effects on congenital heart disease. Our results support potential benefits for pregnancy women to the mitigation of air pollution exposure in the early stage, especially when a critical exposure time window of air pollutants may precede heart development.


Subject(s)
Infant , Pregnancy , Child , Humans , Female , Air Pollutants/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , China/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
5.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 3-3, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Weather conditions are a possible contributing factor to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of irreversible loss of vision. The present study evaluated the joint effects of meteorological factors and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on AMD.@*METHODS@#Data was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey conducted across 10 provinces in rural China. A total of 36,081 participants aged 40 and older were recruited. AMD was diagnosed clinically by slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Meteorological data were calculated by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis and were matched to participants' home addresses by latitude and longitude. Participants' individual PM2.5 exposure concentrations were calculated by a satellite-based model at a 1-km resolution level. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models paired with interaction analysis were performed to investigate the joint effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of AMD in the study population was 2.6% (95% CI 2.42-2.76%). The average annual PM2.5 level during the study period was 63.1 ± 15.3 µg/m3. A significant positive association was detected between AMD and PM2.5 level, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH), in both the independent and the combined effect models. For PM2.5, compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across increasing quartiles were 0.828 (0.674,1.018), 1.105 (0.799,1.528), and 2.602 (1.516,4.468). Positive associations were observed between AMD and temperature, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.625 (1.059,2.494), 1.619 (1.026,2.553), and 3.276 (1.841,5.830), across increasing quartiles. In the interaction analysis, the estimated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the attributable proportion (AP) for combined atmospheric pressure and PM2.5 was 0.864 (0.586,1.141) and 1.180 (0.768,1.592), respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between PM2.5 and atmospheric pressure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study is among the first to characterize the coordinated effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD. The findings warrant further investigation to elucidate the relationship between ambient environment and AMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Meteorological Concepts
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 213-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970740

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the level of PCDD/Fs exposure of occupational workers in the waste incineration industry and explore the risk of occupational exposure. Methods: In September 2021, literature on environmental PCDD/Fs exposure in waste incineration plants published from the establishment of the database to February 10, 2021 was retrieved from CNKI database. A total of 1365 literatures were retrieved, and 7 met the criteria for inclusion. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inhalation risk model was used to assess and analyze carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of PCDD/Fs exposure among occupational workers in the waste incineration industry. Results: A total of 86 sampling sites were included in incineration plants in 7 regions. The study of Wuhan area showed that the concentration of working environment near the waste incinerator in the same factory was the highest, followed by the rest and office area in the factory. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in waste incinerators was the highest in Southwest China (4880.00-24880.00 pg TEQ/m(3)), and the lowest in Shenzhen (0.02-0.44 pg TEQ/m(3)). According to the cancer risk assessment, with the increase of exposure years, the risk of cancer increased. The highest risk of cancer was found in the waste incineration plants in Southwest China. When the exposure period was 1 year, the risk was moderate (22.40×10(-6)-114.20×10(-6)). When the exposure time was more than 5 years, the risk of cancer was high. In Jinan, workers working near the incinerator had a moderate risk of cancer after five years of exposure. In Zhejiang, workers were at medium risk of cancer after exposure for more than 20 years. Workers in Wuhan, Shanghai, Zhejiang Province, Shenzhen and the Pearl River Delta were still at low risk of cancer after 40 years of occupational exposure. HQ>1 of workers working near the waste incinerators in Jinan, Zhejiang Province and Southwest China, and the qualitative evaluation results showed that the non-carcinogenic risk was unacceptable. Conclusion: There are great differences in PCDD/Fs of occupational exposure in waste incineration industry, and the occupational exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limit has higher carcinogenic and non carcinogenic risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dibenzofurans , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Incineration , Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated/analysis , China/epidemiology , Benzofurans , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Carcinogens , Risk Assessment , Neoplasms , Environmental Monitoring/methods
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 38-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the association of ambient PM2.5 exposure with blood pressure (BP) at the population level in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 14,080 participants who had at least two valid blood pressure records were selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey during 2011-2015. Their long-term PM2.5 exposure was assessed at the geographical level, on the basis of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° grid over China. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess associations.@*RESULTS@#Each decrease of 10 μg/m3 in the 1 year-mean PM2.5 concentration (FPM1Y) was associated with a decrease of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.64] mmHg systolic BP (SBP) and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25-0.75) mmHg diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. A robust association was observed between the long-term decrease in PM2.5 and decreased BP in the middle-aged and older population. Using a generalized additive mixed model, we further found that SBP increased nonlinearly overall with FPM1Y but in an approximately linear range when the FPM1Y concentration was < 70 µg/m3; In contrast, DBP increased approximately linearly without a clear threshold.@*CONCLUSION@#Efficient control of PM2.5 air pollution may promote vascular health in China. Our study provides robust scientific support for making the related air pollution control policies.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Particulate Matter/analysis , Blood Pressure , Air Pollutants/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/etiology , East Asian People , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 159-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969861

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications and has serious implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. In recent years, studies have confirmed that air pollution is one of the main risk factors for diabetes, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution exposure is closely related to the occurrence of gestational diabetes. However, current studies on the association between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of gestational diabetes are inconsistent, and the window period of pollutant exposure is still unclear. Limited mechanistic studies suggest that airborne particulate matter and gaseous pollutants may affect GDM through multiple mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress, disruption of adipokine secretion, and imbalance of intestinal flora. This review summarizes the relationship between air pollutant exposure and the incidence of GDM in recent years, as well as the possible molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of GDM caused by air pollutants, in order to provide scientific basis for preventing pollutant exposure, reducing the risk of GDM, improving maternal and fetal outcomes and improving the quality of the birth population.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 318-323, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927882

ABSTRACT

Air pollution has severe detrimental effects on public health.A substantial number of studies have demonstrated that air pollution exposure is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and a cause of non-communicable diseases.Both long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution are associated with respiratory diseases,stroke,coronary artery disease,and diabetes.Aiming to better understand the association,we reviewed the latest studies about the association of air pollution with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,especially stroke,coronary heart disease,arrhythmia,hypertension,and heart failure,and summarized the underlying mechanisms of the health damage caused by long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke/complications
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 188-198, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927865

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of air temperature on the hospitalization of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases and its lag effect in Dingxi city. Methods The meteorological data and air pollution data of Dingxi city from 2018 to 2019,as well as the daily hospitalization data of rural residents due to cardiovascular diseases,were collected.The distributed lag non-linear models were employed to analyze the relationship between daily mean air temperature and the number of inpatients with cardiovascular diseases.Meanwhile,stratified analysis was carried out according to gender,age,and disease. Results There was a non-linear relationship between air temperature and the number of hospitalized rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city.The exposure-response curve approximated a bell shape.The curves for different cardiovascular diseases appeared similar shapes,with different temperature thresholds.Low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) exhibited a cumulative lag effect on the number of patients hospitalized with cardiovascular diseases.With a cumulative lag of 7 days at -7 ℃ and 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values peaked,which were 1.121(95% CI=1.002-1.255) and 1.198(95% CI=1.123-1.278),respectively.With a cumulative lag of 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values were 1.034(95% CI=1.003-1.077) and 1.039(95% CI=1.004-1.066) for the number of hospitalized patients with ischemic heart disease and heart rhythm disorders,respectively.The cumulative lag effects of moderately high temperature(17 ℃) and high temperature(21 ℃) on ischemic heart disease,heart rhythm disorders,and cerebrovascular disease all peaked on that day.Specifically,the RR values at 17 ℃ and 21 ℃ were 1.148(95% CI=1.092-1.206) and 1.176(95% CI=1.096-1.261) for ischemic heart disease,1.071(95% CI=1.001-1.147) and 1.112(95% CI=1.011-1.223) for heart rhythm disorders,and 1.084(95% CI=1.025-1.145) and 1.094(95% CI=1.013-1.182) for cerebrovascular disease,respectively.There was no cumulative lag effect of air temperature on the number of hospitalized patients with heart failure.In addition,stratified analysis showed that low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected the number of hospitalized female patients with cardiovascular diseases,and only moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected males.The cumulative lag effect of high temperature on females was higher than that on males.Air temperature exhibited a stronger impact on female patients than on male patients. Additionally,the population aged<65 years old was more sensitive to low temperature and high temperature than that aged ≥65 years old. Conclusions Air temperature changes increase the hospitalization risk of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city,which presents a lag effect.The effects of air temperature on patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases varied among different etiologies,genders,and ages.It is necessary to emphasize on the impact of temperature changes on health in residents,especially for key populations such as females,people aged<65 years old,and those with ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders , China/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Temperature
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 201-206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935371

ABSTRACT

Objective: To forecast the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China by 2030 and evaluate the effectiveness of controlling risk factors based on the predictive model. Methods: Based on the relationship between the death of COPD and exposure to risk factors and the theory of comparative risk assessment, we used the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD2015) for China, targets for controlling risk factors, and proportion change model to project the number of deaths, standardized mortality rate, and probability of premature mortality from chronic respiratory diseases by 2030 in different scenarios and to evaluate the impact of controlling the included risk factors to the disease burden of COPD in 2030. Results: If the trends in exposure to risk factors from 1990 to 2015 continued, the number of deaths and the mortality for COPD would be 1.06 million and 73.85 per 100 000 population in China by 2030, respectively, with an increase of 15.81% and 10.69% compared to those in 2015. Compared to 2015, the age-standardized mortality rate would decrease by 38.88%, and the premature mortality would reduce by 52.73% by 2030. If the smoking rate and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration separately achieve their control targets by 2030, there would be 0.34 and 0.27 million deaths that could be avoided compared to the predicted numbers based on the natural trends in exposure to risk factors and the probability of premature death would reduce to 0.59% and 0.52%, respectively. If the control targets of all included risk factors were achieved by 2030, a total of 0.53 million deaths would be averted, and the probability of premature death would decrease to 0.44%. Conclusions: If the exposures to risk factors continued as showed from 1990 to 2015, the number of deaths and mortality for COPD would increase by 2030 compared to 2015, and the standardized mortality and the probability of premature death would decrease significantly, which would achieve the targets of preventing and controlling COPD. If the exposure to the included risk factors all achieved the targets by 2030, the burden of COPD would be reduced, suggesting that the control of tobacco use and air pollution should be enhanced to prevent and control COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Risk Factors
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 561-566, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935325

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution on depression hospitalization cost and length of stay in 57 cities of China. Methods: A total of 84 207 patients with depression in 57 cities of China from January 2013 to December 2017 were selected as the subjects. The demographic characteristics and hospitalization status of the patients were obtained from the database of basic medical insurance for urban workers and urban residents in China. The environmental exposure data of the same period were obtained from the national air quality real-time release platform of China Environmental Monitoring Station. A generalized additive model based on quasi-Poisson distribution was used to analyze PM2.5 exposure effect in each city, and the nonlinear mixing of moving average temperature, relative humidity and date was controlled by natural smooth spline function. Results: Among the included cities, southern cities accounted for 50.88% (29), and the number of female inpatients, hospitalization costs and hospitalization days accounted for 62.65%, 63.50% and 60.85% (42 735 cases, 567.78 million yuan and 1.14 million days, respectively). The proportion of hospitalized cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay in the age group of 40 to 64 years old were 59.15% (40 346 cases), 53.92% (482.15 million yuan) and 52.07% (0.98 million days), respectively. PM2.5 level was positively correlated with the number of hospitalized cases with depression, hospitalization cost and length of stay. When the 3-day moving average of PM2.5 exposure level increased by 10 μg/m3, the number of hospitalization cases increased by 0.64%. The attributed percentage (95%CI) of hospitalized cases, hospitalization costs and length of stay were 3.35% (0.57%-6.04%), 3.04% (0.52%-5.48%) and 3.07% (0.49%-5.56%), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the attributed percentage of hospitalization cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay to PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3.97% to 4.68%, 4.04% to 4.33% and 4.13% to 4.30% in northern China, male and cold season, respectively. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increase of hospitalization cost and length of stay among Chinese urban population with depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Depression , Dust/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 328-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935288

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the association between short-term exposure level of nitrogen dioxide and the hospitalization risk of heart failure. Methods: Based on China-PEACE Retrospective Heart Failure Study, 117 364 hospitalized patients with heart failure were recruited from 92 hospitals in 62 cities throughout China between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015. The daily exposure level of nitrogen dioxide, temperature, and humidity in the same cities during the same period were also collected. We applied the generalized additive model and Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify the lagged effect and cumulative effect of short-term (0-3 days) exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide on the hospitalization risk of heart failure. We further conducted stratified analyses by age, region, and season to identify any difference in the associations between short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure and heart failure among subgroups. Results: The mean age for participants in the analysis was (70.32±12.22) years. The median, minimum and maximum of daily nitrogen dioxide concentration in 62 cities from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 was 26.4 μg/m3, 2.33 μg/m3 and 150.25 μg/m3, respectively. The exposure level of nitrogen dioxide at the same day was associated with the hospitalization risk of heart failure (OR=1.022, 95%CI: 1.012, 1.031). Significant effects were also observed in the moving average concentrations from lag 0-1 to lag 0-3 day (OR=1.020, 95%CI: 1.009, 1.030; OR=1.016, 95%CI: 1.004, 1.028; OR=1.013, 95%CI: 1.001, 1.026). Moreover, all of the associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the risk of heart failure hospitalization were statistically significant, with no significant difference in all subgroups stratified by age, region, and season. Conclusion: A higher level of short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide could trigger more hospitalizations with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
14.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 322-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935287

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the association between size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNC) and respiratory health in children. Methods: From November 2018 to June 2019, there were 65 children aged 6-9 years from an elementary school in shanghai recruited in this panel study with three rounds of follow-up. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels were measured and buccal mucosa samples of children were collected at each follow-up visit. The level of PNC, temperature and humidity of the elementary school was monitored from 3 days before each physical examination to the end of the physical examination. The linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the association between PNC and indicators of respiratory health in children. Results: Linear mixed effects model analysis revealed that, at lag 2 day, an interquartile range increase in PNC for particles measuring 0.25-0.40 μm was associated with the absolute changes in FVC, FEV1 and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) about -60.15 ml (95%CI:-88.97 ml, -31.32 ml), -34.26 ml (95%CI:-63.22 ml, -5.31 ml), -6.00 (95%CI:-9.15, -2.84) and percentage change in FeNO about 12.10% (95%CI: 3.05%, 21.95%), respectively. These adverse health effects increased with the decrease of particle size. Conclusion: The short-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with reduced lung function, buccal microbe diversity and higher airway inflammation level among children. These adverse health effects may increase with the decrease of particle size.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Lung , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vital Capacity
15.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 227-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effects of ozone (O3) concentrations measured with different approaches across different seasons on the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits, as well as the differentiation of such effects across different groups of patients.@*METHODS@#The outpatient data of three grade A tertiary hospitals in Lanzhou City spanning from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017, as well as air pollution and meteorological data during the same period were collected. Considering the nonlinear relationship between O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits and meteorological factors, a generalized additive temporal sequence model was employed to analyze the short-term association between changes in O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. Taking into account of the variations in O3 concentrations within 1 day, this study adopted different measurement approaches to address the three types of O3 exposures, namely, the maximum 1 h daily concentration (O3max1h), the maximum 8 h daily concentration (O38h) and the mean 24 h daily concentration (O324h) as the short term exposure indicators to O3, followed by a model-based analysis.@*RESULTS@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer had a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. With lag0 for the current day, every 10 μg/m3 increase in atmospheric concentration of O3max1h was associated with an increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits by 3.351% (95%CI: 1.231%-5.516%); for every 10 μg/m3 increase in O38h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits increased by 3.320% (95%CI: 0.197%-3.829%); for every 10 μg/m3increase in O324h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits in summer increased by 6.600% (95%CI: 0.914%-12.607%); moreover, an increase in exposure to O3max1h also led to a significant rise in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits among the males.@*CONCLUSION@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer in Lanzhou City has a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits; O3max1h is more closely correlated with the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/etiology , China/epidemiology , Outpatients , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter , Seasons , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 856-863, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389538

ABSTRACT

Background: In southern Chile cities, the emission of air pollutants, especially the use of firewood for heating is restricted during critical air pollution periods. Aim: To analyze how restrictions applied during the management of air pollution critical episodes have contributed to reduce emergency room admissions for respiratory diseases in two Chilean cities between 2013 and 2019. Material and Methods: Poisson regression models were estimated with daily data including explanatory variables, such as the daily and lag concentration of respirable particulate material (PM10), temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, seasonal factors, and implementation of different types of critical episodes. Results: The implementation of restrictions during the management of critical pollution episodes decreased emergency room admissions for upper respiratory infections and bronchial obstructive crises, especially when an environmental emergency was decreed during the critical episode. However, the effect on each group of respiratory diseases was heterogeneous between cities, which could be related to avoidance behavior, indoor air pollution, the composition of PM10, or the presence of other pollutants, and not just a reduction in the daily concentration of PM10. Conclusions: The management of critical pollution episodes with restrictions to pollutant emissions is a useful measure to improve population health in cities that have implemented environmental decontamination plans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Emergency Service, Hospital , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization
18.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 39-44, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380375

ABSTRACT

Medir la concentración del polen en la atmósfera se ha convertido en objeto de interés a nivel mundial debido al aumento de las enfermedades alérgicas, ya que en muchas personas es causa de polinosis. Objetivos: se centró en la elaboración de un calendario de polen del olivo, basado en medir su concentración en las ciudades de Tacna (desde 2015 al 2018) y Arica (periodo 2018), y determinar la prevalencia de resultados positivos para extracto alergénico de polen del olivo en pacientes con síntomas de rinitis y/o asma provenientes de las ciudades de Tacna y Arica (periodo 2015-2018). Métodos: Se midió la concentración de polen, mediante el método volumétrico tipo Hirst, según estándares establecidos por el comité de aerobiología de la Sociedad Española de Alergología e Inmunología Clínica (SEAIC). Se incluyó una muestra total de 350 sujetos con síntomas respiratorios (200 de Tacna y 150 de Arica). Resultados: En Tacna, en 2015, 2016, 2017 y 2018, la concentración máxima de polen de olivo fue de 246 granos/m3 ; 110 granos/m3 ; 78 granos/ m3 y 688 granos/m3 respectivamente. En Arica en 2018, la concentración máxima de polen del olivo fue de 318 granos/ m3 . Se encontró que un 34% (68/200) y un 28% (42/150) de sujetos con síntomas respiratorios estaban sensibilizados u obtuvieron pruebas positivas al extracto de polen del olivo en sujetos de las ciudades de Tacna y Arica respectivamente. Conclusión: En ambas ciudades las concentraciones máximas de polen del olivo se encontraron principalmente entre los meses de septiembre a noviembre, siendo octubre el mes de mayores conteos. Se identificó sujetos alérgicos por test cutáneo al polen del olivo en las ciudades de Tacna y Arica.


The measurement of the concentration of pollen in the atmosphere has become an object of interest worldwide for the increase of allergy diseases, since in many people it is the cause of pollinosis. Objectives: focused on the elaboration of a calendar of olive tree pollen based on the measurement of the pollen concentration in Tacna (since 2015 to 2018) and Arica (period 2018) cities, and to determine the prevalence of positive results for allergenic extract of olive pollen in patients with symptoms of rhinitis and / or asthma, who came from Tacna and Arica cities (period 2015 to 2018). Methods. The pollen concentration was measured using the volumetric method according to standards established by the Aerobiology Committee of the Spanish Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SEAIC), we included 350 subjects (200 from Tacna and 150 from Arica). Results: In Tacna, in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, the maximum concentration of olive pollen was 246 grains/m3; 110 grains/m3; 78 grains/m3 and 688 grains/m3 respectively. In Arica in 2018, the maximum concentration of olive pollen was 318 grains/m3. We found 34% (68/200) and 28% (42/150) were sensitized or results positive test to the olive pollen extract in subjects with respiratory symptoms from Tacna and Arica cities respectively. Conclusion: The olive pollen in the atmosphere of Tacna and Arica is mainly concentrated in the months of September to November, being October the month with higher count. Allergic subjects were identified by skin test to olive pollen in Tacna and Arica cities.


Subject(s)
Pollen , Allergens/analysis , Olea , Air Pollutants/analysis , Chile , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 74-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient fine particle (PM@*METHODS@#A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM@*RESULTS@#Each 10 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Birth season which reflects the early-life PM


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Life Expectancy , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiration Disorders/mortality , Seasons
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 1-1, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Household air pollution from biomass fuels burning in traditional cookstoves currently appeared as one of the most serious threats to public health with a recent burden estimate of 2.6 million premature deaths every year worldwide, ranking highest among environmental risk factors and one of the major risk factors of any type globally. Improved cookstove interventions have been widely practiced as potential solutions. However, studies on the effect of improved cookstove interventions are limited and heterogeneous which suggested the need for further research.@*METHODS@#A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted to assess the effect of biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention on the concentration of household air pollution compared with the continuation of an open burning traditional cookstove. A total of 36 clusters were randomly allocated to both arms at a 1:1 ratio, and improved cookstove intervention was delivered to all households allocated into the treatment arm. All households in the included clusters were biomass fuel users and relatively homogenous in terms of basic socio-demographic and cooking-related characteristics. Household air pollution was determined by measuring the concentration of indoor fine particulate, and the effect of the intervention was estimated using the Generalized Estimating Equation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2031 household was enrolled in the study across 36 randomly selected clusters in both arms, among which data were obtained from a total of 1977 households for at least one follow-up visit which establishes the intention-to-treat population dataset for analysis. The improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution by about 343 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#The biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution compared to the traditional method. This suggests that the implementation of these cookstove technologies may be necessary to achieve household air pollution exposure reductions.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#The trial project was retrospectively registered on August 2, 2018, at the clinical trials.gov registry database ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ) with the NCT03612362 registration identifier number.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Biomass , Cluster Analysis , Cooking/methods , Ethiopia
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