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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Combustion/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4133-4140, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039528

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o impacto das emissões da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em uma região canavieira. Registros de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias foram adquiridas a partir da base de dados referentes ao sistema de informações hospitalares do sistema único de saúde (SIH-SUS), no período de 28 de março de 2011 a 28 de dezembro de 2012. Níveis de MP10, NO2, O3, temperatura e umidade relativa foram registradas. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar a associação entre o número total de internações, poluentes atmosféricos e variáveis meteorológicas. Foram registradas 1.179 internações, dentre elas a pneumonia mostrou aumento significativo no período de queima (p = 0,005). Neste mesmo período observou-se que o cluster MP10 e NO2 influenciou 67,9% (IC95%: 11,111-2,537), seguido do cluster MP10, NO2, O3 e temperatura que influenciou 91,1% (IC95%: 1,116; 3,271) no número total de internações. Durante o período de queima houve maior número de internações por doenças respiratórias, principalmente de pneumonia, quando foi observada a influência dos poluentes e temperatura no processo de adoecimento da população.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the impact of emissions from sugarcane burning on hospital admission numbers for respiratory diseases in a sugarcane region. Hospital admission records for respiratory diseases were acquired from the database of the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period from March 28, 2011 to December 28, 2012. Levels of PM10, NO2, O3, Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded. Logistic regression models were created to analyze the association between the total number of hospitalizations, atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. A total of 1,179 hospitalization admissions were recorded, with a significant increase in cases of pneumonia in the burning period (p = 0.005). Likewise, it was observed that the cluster of PM10 and NO2 was influenced 67.9% (95% CI: 11.111-2.537) followed by cluster PM10, NO2, O3 and Temperature that influenced 91.1% (95% CI: 1.116; 3.271) in the total number of hospitalization admissions. During the sugarcane burning period there were more hospitalization admissions due to respiratory tract diseases, mainly pneumonia, where the influence of air pollutants and temperature in the process of illness in the population was detected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Saccharum , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Temperature , Brazil , Databases, Factual , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fires , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humidity , National Health Programs
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 166-174, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003734

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Santiago de Chile con 7 millones de habitantes alcanza elevados niveles de contaminación atmosférica en invierno, el material particulado habitualmente excede los estándares de la OMS. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado en las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños, entre 2001 y 2005 en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, independientemente de la presencia ambiental de virus sincicial respiratorio (VRS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 72.479 hospitalizaciones públicas y privadas por enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 15 años residentes en la región del estudio se analizaron con un diseño de caso control alternante, con estratificación temporal. Se evaluó principalmente: hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias (J00-J99), neumonía (J12-J18); asma (J21.0 - J21.9) y bronquiolitis (J45 - J46). Recopilándose diariamente temperatura, MP10, MP2,5, ozono, virus respiratorios (VRS) y humedad ambientales. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de MP10 y MP2,5 fueron 81,5 y 41,2 pg/m3 respectivamente. El promedio de temperatura fue 12,8 °C y de la humedad del aire 72,6 %. Un aumento de 10 pg/m3 de MP25 con 1 y 2 días de rezago se asoció con un incremento de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias cercano a 2%, este porcentaje aumentó a 5% cuando la exposición fue con 8 días de rezago, reflejando sinergismo entre material particulado y virus respiratorio (VRS). CONCLUSIÓN: La exposición breve a contaminación atmosférica puede provocar hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños.


INTRODUCTION: With seven million inhabitants, Santiago de Chile reaches high levels of air pollution in winter, the particulate matter usually exceeds WHO standards. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of air pollution caused by particulate matter on children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases between 2001 and 2005 in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, independently from the environmental presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 72,479 public and private hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases of children under 15 years of age residing in the study region were analyzed using a time-stratified alternating case-control design. The main evaluations were: hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases (J00-J99), pneumonia (J12-J18); asthma (J21.0 - J21.9), and bronchiolitis (J45 - J46). Daily compilation of temperature data, PM10, PM2,5, ozone, respiratory virus (RSV), and environmental humidity. RESULTS: Mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 were 81.5 and 41.2 pg/m3 respec tively. The average temperature was 12.8 °C and air humidity 72.6%. An increase of 10 pg/m3 of PM25 with one and two days of lag was associated with an hospitalizations increase due to respiratory diseases close to 2%, this percentage increased to 5% when the exposure was with eight days of lag, reflecting synergism between particulate matter and respiratory viruses (RSV). CONCLUSION: Short air pollution exposure can lead to children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1083-1090, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989593

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases generate financial costs for the Health System in addition to social costs. Objective of this study was to develop and validate a fuzzy linguistic model for prediction of hospitalization due to respiratory diseases. We constructed a fuzzy model for prediction of hospitalizations due to pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma second exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in residents of Volta Redonda, RJ, in 2012. The model contains two inputs, PM2.5 and temperature, with three membership functions for each input, and an output with three membership functions for admissions, which were obtained from DATASUS. There were 752 hospitalizations in the period, the average concentration of PM2.5 was 17.1 µg/m3 (SD = 4.4). The model showed a good accuracy with PM2.5, the result was between 90% and 76.5% for lags 1, 2 and 3, a sensitivity of up to 95%. This study provides support for creating executable software with a low investment, along with the use of a portable instrument could allow number of hospital admission due to respiratory diseases and provide support to local health managers. Furthermore, the fuzzy model is very simple and involves low computational costs, an implementation making possible.


Resumo Internações por doenças respiratórias geram custos financeiros para o Sistema de Saúde além de custos sociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar e validar um modelo linguístico "fuzzy" para previsão do número de internações por doenças respiratórias. Foi construído um modelo "fuzzy" para predição de internações por pneumonias, bronquite, bronquiolite e asma segundo exposição ao material particulado fino (PM2,5) em residentes de Volta Redonda, RJ, em 2012. O modelo contém duas entradas PM2,5 e temperatura, com três funções de pertinência para cada entrada, e uma saída com três funções de pertinência para internações, que foram obtidas do DATASUS. Foram 752 internações no período, a concentração média do PM2,5 foi 17,1 µg/m3 (dp = 4,4). O modelo mostrou uma boa acurácia com PM2,5, o resultado foi entre 90% e 76,5% para os lags 1, 2 e 3, com sensibilidade de até 95%. Este estudo fornece subsídios para a criação de programa executável, que não exige um grande investimento, juntamente com o uso de um instrumento portátil pode permitir uma estimativa do número de internações e prestar apoio aos gestores municipais de saúde. Além disso, o modelo "fuzzy" é muito simples e implica em baixas despesas computacionais, tornando possível uma implementação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Fuzzy Logic , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/economics
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(1): 102-114, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990892

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Las centrales termoeléctricas (CTE) a carbón representan un riesgo para la salud de las comunidades expuestas. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica nacional e internacional enfocada en los efectos en salud de niños y la exposición a emisiones al aire provenientes de CTE a carbón. Se inclu yeron 21 artículos para su revisión en texto completo, donde se midieron efectos en salud infantil relacionados a presencia de biomarcadores de exposición y efecto, daños perinatales, neuroconductuales y respiratorios principalmente. La exposición a emisiones de CTE a carbón en el embarazo se asoció a niños con bajo peso y muy bajo peso al nacer, menor talla, menor diámetro de Circunfe rencia del Cráneo (CC) y prematuridad; el diámetro de CC aumentó en recién nacidos después del cierre de CTE. Se encontraron menor coeficiente de desarrollo (CD) y coeficiente intelectual (CI) en niños expuestos a emisiones de CTE a carbón comparados con no expuestos; CD aumentó cuando la central fue cerrada. Por otro lado, vivir en zonas con fuentes de emisión de mercurio (asociadas a CTE y plantas de cemento que funcionan con carbón) se asoció con mayor riesgo de autismo. En salud respiratoria, los artículos fueron consistentes en reportar menor función pulmonar en niños residentes en zonas expuestas a fuentes de combustión de carbón comparados con grupos de niños no expuestos. Es muy necesario abrir el debate en Chile sobre los riesgos controlables a los que se enfrenta la población infantil a consecuencia de plantas generadoras de energía instaladas en Chile.


Abstract: Coal-fired power plants (CFPP) represent a health risk to the exposed communities. A review of national and international scientific literature was made focused on the health effects on children and exposure to air emissions from CFPP. Twenty-one articles were included for full-text review, where effects on child health mainly related to the biomarkers presence of exposure and effect, pe rinatal, neurobehavioral and respiratory damages were measured. Exposure to CFPP emissions in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight and very low birth weight, shorter height, smaller head circumference (HC) diameter, and prematurity; the HC diameter increased in newborns after the CFPP closure. Lower coefficient of development (CD) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were found in children exposed to CFPP emissions compared with unexposed ones; CD increased when the plant was closed. On the other hand, living in areas with mercury emission sources (associated with CFPP and cement plants that work with coal) was associated with an increased risk of autism. In respira tory health, the articles were consistent with reporting lower pulmonary function in children living in areas exposed to coal combustion sources compared with groups of unexposed children. There is a great need to open the debate in Chile on the controllable risks faced by the child population as a result of power generation plants located in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Power Plants , Child Health , Coal , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Child Development , Chile , Global Health
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00006617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889900

ABSTRACT

Exposição a poluentes do ar, que costumam ser quantificados por agências ambientais que não estão presentes em todos os estados, pode estar associada a internações por doenças respiratórias de crianças. Foi desenvolvido um estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados referentes às internações por algumas doenças respiratórias de crianças menores de dez anos de idade, em 2012, na cidade de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os níveis médios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) foram estimados por modelo matemático, os dados de temperatura mínima e umidade relativa do ar foram obtidos do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, e número de focos de queimadas do Sistema de Informações Ambientais. A abordagem estatística utilizou o modelo aditivo generalizado da regressão de Poisson com defasagens de 0 a 7 dias. Foram estimados os custos financeiros e aumentos do número de internações decorrentes de elevações de PM2,5. Foram 565 internações (média de 1,54/dia; DP = 1,52) e concentração de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DP = 3,2). Foram encontradas associações entre exposição e internações no segundo semestre, nos lags 2 e 3, e quando analisado o ano todo, no lag 2. Uma elevação de 5µg/m3 do PM2,5 implicou o aumento de 89 internações e custos acima dos R$ 95 mil para o Sistema Único de Saúde. Dados estimados por modelo matemático podem ser utilizados em locais onde não há monitoramento de poluentes.


La exposición a contaminantes del aire, que suelen ser cuantificados por agencias ambientales que no están presentes en todos los estados, puede estar asociada a internamientos por enfermedades respiratorias de niños. Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico de series temporales con datos referentes a los internamientos por algunas enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 10 años de edad, en 2012, en la ciudad de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Los niveles medios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) se estimaron mediante un modelo matemático, los datos de temperatura mínima y humedad relativa del aire se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, y el número de focos de incendios del Sistema de Información Ambiental. El enfoque estadístico usó el modelo aditivo generalizado de la regresión de Poisson con desfases de 0 a 7 días. Se estimaron los costes financieros y aumentos del número de internamientos derivados de elevaciones de PM2,5. Fueron 565 internamientos (media de 1,54/día; DE = 1,52) y concentración de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DE = 3,2). Se encontraron asociaciones entre exposición e internamientos en el segundo semestre, en los lags 2 y 3, y cuando se analizó todo el año, en el lag 2. Una elevación de 5µg/m3 del PM2,5 implicó el aumento de 89 internamientos y costes por encima de los BRL 95 mil para el Sistema Único de Salud. Los datos estimados por el modelo matemático pueden ser utilizados en lugares, donde no existe un monitoreo de contaminantes.


Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System. The statistical approach used the Poisson regression generalized additive model with lags of 0 to 7 days. The financial costs and increases in hospitalizations due to increments in PM2.5 were estimated. There were 565 hospitalizations (mean 1.54 admissions/day; SD = 1.52), and mean PM2.5 concentration was 15.7µg/m3 (SD = 3.2). Associations were observed between exposure and hospitalizations in the second semester at lags 2 and 3, and at lag 2 when the entire year was analyzed. An increment of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with an increase of 89 hospitalizations and costs exceeding BRL 95,000 (≈ USD 38,000) for the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Data estimated by mathematical models can be used in locations where pollutants are not monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Child Health , Risk Factors , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Hospitalization/economics
10.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 26 mayo 2017. a) f: 16 l:20 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 40).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104283

ABSTRACT

El nitrógeno (N) es un gas sin olor, color ni sabor, que constituye el 78% del aire atmosférico, y en concentraciones dentro de límites normales, no es perjudicial para la salud. Su importancia como contaminante deriva de su capacidad de combinación con el oxígeno para formar diversos óxidos de nitrógeno. El dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) es un gas más denso que el aire, de color marrón rojizo y olor acre. Es definido como un contaminante, criterio que altera de manera importante el aire urbano. El NO2 es un contaminante en sí mismo y un precursor en la generación de otras moléculas nocivas para la salud. se presentan una serie de gráficos que permiten observar los valores de NO2 en las estaciones de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire que posee la Ciudad (La Boca, Parque Centenario y Córdoba), las cuales registran las concentraciones de este contaminante en forma continua (durante 24 horas, los 365 días del año) mediante métodos homologados internacionalmente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Air Quality Control , Air Monitoring , Environmental Quality , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Health Surveillance , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(11): 1371-1377, nov. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902456

ABSTRACT

Background Air pollution has a direct influence on health. Aim To determine the association between particulate matter and contaminant gas concentrations in the environment with the number of consultations for respiratory diseases in emergency rooms in Metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods During five years, the daily number emergency consultations for respiratory diseases and the daily concentrations of particulate matter and contaminant gases in a community of Santiago, were recorded. The degree of change of these variables during summer and winter was determined. Their correlation coefficients with a 0 to 100 days gap, were calculated. Results During winter, there was a higher number of consultations and higher pollution levels, except for O3, which increased in summer. There were positive correlations between the concentrations of different pollutants (mainly 2.5 and 10 μm particulate matter, CO and NO2). There was a negative association between consultations for respiratory diseases and O3 concentrations, an almost negligible association with SO2 and variable positive and significant associations with the concentration of other pollutants, with variations according to the time gap. Conclusions Pollution and respiratory diseases increase during winter. There are variable associations between pollutant concentrations and the number of consultations for respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/classification , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(10): 3269-3280, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890166

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil é o principal consumidor de agrotóxicos do mundo. O uso em larga escala destes produtos é capaz de contaminar os principais compartimentos ambientais e expor um maior número de pessoas a seus efeitos tóxicos. Portanto, realizou-se esta revisão de literatura com o objetivo de buscar subsídios para uma discussão qualificada sobre a atuação da Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental (VSA) no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde relacionada com a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos à saúde. Doze artigos foram selecionados e analisados nesta revisão de literatura. Destes, apenas um foi publicado em periódico especializado na área da saúde pública. Apesar disso, dois estudos epidemiológicos publicados na área das ciências ambientais investigaram a associação entre o ar contaminado por agrotóxicos e desfechos específicos como, linfoma não Hodgkin (LNH) e esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Nossos achados refletem a carência de estudos abordando o tema pela saúde pública. A discussão sobre a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos potenciais à saúde humana deve ser ampliada pela ciência brasileira, a fim de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o assunto e respaldar a capacidade de atuação da VSA.


Abstract Brazil is the main consumer of pesticides in the world. Large-scale use of these products is likely to contaminate major environmental compartments and expose more people to their toxic effects. Therefore, this literature review was carried out to seek supporting elements for a qualified discussion about the performance of Environmental Surveillance (HS) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) related to air contamination by pesticides and health risks. Twelve papers were selected and analyzed in this literature review. Of these, only one was published in a specialized public health journal. Notwithstanding this, two epidemiological studies published in the field of environmental sciences investigated the association between air contaminated by pesticides and specific outcomes such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our findings reflect the lack of studies addressing such issue by public health. The discussion on air contamination by pesticides and potential risks to human health should be expanded by Brazilian science in order to further increase knowledge on the subject and support the HS performance capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Health , Public Health , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , National Health Programs/organization & administration
13.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(5): 1160-1170, set.-oct. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127721

ABSTRACT

El crecimiento urbano e industrial de las últimas décadas ha ocasionado un aumento de la contaminación atmosférica y por tanto un mayor riesgo para la salud. La mayoría de los contaminantes atmosféricos producen efectos perjudiciales en función de su concentración, por lo que se hace necesario identificar su existencia y el control de los niveles de cada uno de estos elementos potencialmente peligrosos. La contaminación atmosférica es un problema que afecta por igual a países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Las fuentes principales de contaminación de origen humano son el transporte, la producción de energía y las actividades industriales, así como los compuestos inorgánicos gaseosos, que son extremadamente peligrosos para la salud de la población. La contaminación atmosférica por diferentes sustancias químicas presenta en la actualidad, una gran connotación en el mundo entero, dado los efectos nocivos sobre los ecosistemas y en particular, sobre la salud humana y materiales metálicos. El desarrollo urbano, la modificación de la superficie de la tierra y el cambio climático son fenómenos derivados de una explosión demográfica mundial y están alterando la composición del aire lo que perjudica no solamente a las personas, sino también, a los animales y las plantas del ecosistema. Es por eso que el objetivo del trabajo consiste fue identificar los principales contaminantes atmosféricos y las fuentes antropogénicas que causan desviaciones a la salud (AU).


The industrial and urban growth of the last decades has caused an increment of the atmospheric contamination, and therefore a higher risk for health. Most of the atmospheric contaminants produce harmful effects in dependence of their concentration, so it is necessary to identify their existence and to control the levels of each of these potentially dangerous elements. Atmospheric contamination is a problem affecting both, the developed and developing countries in the same way. The main human-originated contamination sources are transportation means, energy production and industrial activities, and also the gaseous inorganic compounds that are extremely dangerous for the population's health. Atmospheric contamination caused by different chemical substances has currently a great connotation around the world, due to the noxious effects on the ecosystems and particularly on the human health and on the metallic materials. The urban development, the modification of the earth surface and the climatic change are phenomena derived from a world demographic explosion that are harming not only people but also the ecosystem´s animals and plants. That is why the objective of the work was to identify the main atmospheric contaminants and the anthropogenic sources causing health deviations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Health , Impacts on Health/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Comment , Impacts on Health/analysis , Health Risk , Air Pollutants/toxicity
14.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 1 sept. 2017. a) f: 15 l:23 p. graf, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 54).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1103995

ABSTRACT

La atmósfera contiene varios gases que, en concentraciones mayores que las normales, pueden ser peligrosos para los seres humanos, animales y plantas. Todos estos gases potencialmente tóxicos se denominan "contaminantes del aire". Entre ellos se encuentran: monóxido de carbono (CO), el dióxido de azufre (SO2) y el dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2). Además de los gases, la atmósfera contiene una gran variedad de partículas sólidas y líquidas, de variados tamaños. El material particulado en suspensión (MPS) en el aire incluye partículas totales en suspensión (PTS), material particulado con diámetro aerodinámico mediano inferior a 10 µm (MP 10) y 2,5 µm (MP 2,5) respectivamente, partículas finas y ultrafinas. Se presentan una serie de gráficos que permiten observar los valores de Material Particulado menor a 10 micrones (PM 10), en las estaciones de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire que posee la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (La Boca,Parque Centenario y Córdoba), las cuales registran las concentraciones de éste contaminante en forma continua (durante 24 horas, los 365 días del año), mediante métodos homologados internacionalmente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Monitoring Stations , Air Monitoring , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/classification , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Toxic Substances , Air
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(9): 614-619, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The link between various air pollutants and hospitalization for epilepsy has come under scrutiny. We have proposed that exposure to air pollution and specifically the pervasive agricultural air pollutant and greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), may provoke susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence supports a role of N2O exposure in reducing epileptiform seizure activity, while withdrawal from the drug has been shown to induce seizure-like activity. Therefore, we show here that the statewide use of anthropogenic nitrogen fertilizers (the most recognized causal contributor to environmental N2O burden) is significantly negatively associated with hospitalization for epilepsy in all three pre-specified hospitalization categories, even after multiple pollutant comparison correction (p<.007), while the other identified pollutants were not consistently statistically significantly associated with hospitalization for epilepsy. We discuss potential neurological mechanisms underpinning this association between air pollutants associated with farm use of anthropogenic nitrogen fertilizers and hospitalization for epilepsy.


RESUMO A ligação entre vários poluentes do ar e a hospitalização por epilepsia tem sido examinada. Propusemos que a exposição à poluição do ar, especificamente ao poluente atmosférico generalizado e ao gás de efeito estufa, o óxido nitroso (N2O), poderiam fomentar a susceptibilidade a distúrbios do desenvolvimento neurológico. A evidência apoia o papel da exposição ao N2O na redução da atividade convulsiva epileptiforme, enquanto mostra que a retirada do fármaco induz atividade pseudo-convulsiva. Portanto, mostramos aqui que o uso a nível estatal de fertilizantes nitrogenados antropogênicos (o agente causal mais reconhecido para a carga ambiental de N2O) está significativa e negativamente associado à hospitalização por epilepsia nas três categorias de hospitalização pré-especificadas, mesmo após a correção de comparação de poluentes múltiplos (p <0,007 ), enquanto os outros poluentes identificados não foram consistentemente associados de forma estatística com a hospitalização por epilepsia. Discutimos possíveis mecanismos neurológicos subjacentes a esta associação entre poluentes atmosféricos associados ao uso agrícola de fertilizantes nitrogenados antropogênicos, e hospitalização por epilepsia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Fertilizers/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Poisson Distribution , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/classification , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Nitrous Oxide/toxicity
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(4): 347-354, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Several effects of exposure to air pollutants on human health are known. The aim of this study was to identify whether exposure of pregnant women to air pollutants contributes towards low birth weight and which sex is more affected. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study using data on newborns from mothers living in São José do Rio Preto (SP) who were exposed to air pollutants in 2012-2013. METHODS: A hierarchical model on three levels was built using maternal and newborn variables and environmental concentrations of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in quartiles. Preterm new-borns, twins and newborns with birth defects were excluded and exposure windows of 30, 60 and 90 days before delivery were considered. RESULTS: 8,948 newborns were included: 4,491 males (50.2%) and 4,457 females (49.8%); 301 newborns presented low birth weight (3.4%). The mean weight differed between males (3281.0 g) and females (3146.4 g) (P < 0.001). Exposure to ozone was significantly associated with low birth weight in both sexes in the 30-day window (odds ratio, OR = 1.38) and 90-day window (OR = 1.48); and among females, in the 30-day window (OR = 1.58) and 90-day window (OR = 1.59). Exposure to particulate matter had a paradoxical protective effect. No association was found among male newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Female newborns showed greater susceptibility to maternal exposure to air pollutants. Studies on low birth weight in relation to maternal exposure to air pollutants should deal with males and females separately.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: São vários os efeitos da exposição a poluentes do ar na saúde humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar se a exposição da gestante contribui para o baixo peso ao nascer e qual o sexo mais acometido. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo longitudinal com dados de recém-nascidos de mães residentes em São José do Rio Preto (SP) com exposição a poluentes do ar em 2012 e 2013. MÉTODOS: Foi construído modelo hierarquizado em três níveis com variáveis maternas, do recém-nascido e concentrações de material particulado, ozônio e dióxido de nitrogênio, em quartis. Foram excluídos recém-nascidos prematuros, gemelares ou com malformações e consideradas janelas de exposição de 30, 60 e 90 dias anteriores ao parto. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 8.948 recém-nascidos, 4.491 do sexo masculino (50,2%) e 4.457 do feminino (49,8%), e identificados 301 recém-nascidos com baixo peso (3,4%). Os pesos médios foram diferentes entre o sexo masculino (3.281,0 g) e o feminino (3.146,4 g) (P < 0,001). Exposição ao ozônio esteve associada significativamente ao baixo peso ao nascer em ambos os sexos nas janelas de 30 dias (odds ratio, OR = 1,38) e 90 dias (OR = 1,48) e, no sexo feminino, nas janelas de 30 dias (OR = 1,58) e 90 dias (OR =1,59). Exposição ao material particulado teve efeito protetor paradoxal. Não houve associação no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior susceptibilidade do sexo feminino aos poluentes a partir da exposição materna. Estudos sobre baixo peso ao nascer segundo exposição materna a poluentes do ar devem separar sexo masculino e feminino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Birth Weight/drug effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(3): 208-214, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893836

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. Methods: This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. Results: No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Métodos: Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias. Após a eutanásia com 200 mg/kg de ketamina/xilazina, foram coletados fragmentos de traqueia e pulmão e fixadas em formol 10%. Análises histológicas foram realizadas com coloração com H&E e picrosírius. Resultados: Não houve infiltrado inflamatório nos tecidos no GC. O processo inflamatório na análise histológica de tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar foi significativamente mais intenso no GE7 quando comparado ao GC (p < 0,05 e p < 0,01, respectivamente). Em comparação com os grupos GC e GE1, apenas no GE21 foi observada angiogênese significativa no parênquima pulmonar e aumento significativo de depósitos de colágeno em tecido de traqueia (p < 0,001 e p < 0,01, respectivamente). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, a fumaça da queima de cana-de-açúcar induziu processo inflamatório focal, difuso e agudo em tecidos de traqueia na lâmina própria, sem perda do tecido epitelial ciliado. Houve presença de edemas intersticiais e alveolares e infiltrados de células polimorfonucleares no parênquima pulmonar nos animais dos grupos experimentais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Incineration , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Saccharum , Smoke/adverse effects , Trachea/drug effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Collagen/analysis , Lung/pathology , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Trachea/pathology
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(1): 245-253, jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839890

ABSTRACT

Resumo As queimadas exercem relevante impacto sobre o ecossistema amazônico na estação seca com as emissões de poluentes atmosféricos. Os efeitos sobre a saúde das populações, principalmente na região do arco do desmatamento, tem sido objeto de recentes estudos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição espacial dos focos de queimadas e da mortalidade por doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares em idosos, no Estado de Rondônia, no período de 2001 a 2012. Os dados de mortalidade foram obtidos por meio do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade, do Ministério da Saúde. Dados de focos de queimadas foram disponibilizados pelo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Utilizou-se o estimador de Kernel. As maiores taxas de mortalidade foram observadas no centro-leste e sudeste de Rondônia. Os focos de queimadas concentraram-se na porção norte do estado, mas com quantidade relevante em outras regiões. As distribuições espaciais das áreas quentes de taxa de mortalidade e de queimadas não se mostraram diretamente associadas. Entretanto, as queimadas foram observadas em todos os municípios do estado. Os poluentes emitidos na queima podem ser transportados por milhares de quilômetros das áreas de origem e influenciar a saúde de idosos.


Abstract The burning of biomass has a significant impact on the Amazon ecosystem in the dry season due to the emissions of air pollutants. The effects on the health of the population, especially in the region of the arc of deforestation, has been the subject of recent studies. The scope of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in the state of Rondônia in the period from 2001 to 2012. Mortality data were obtained through the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. Biomass burning data were provided by the National Institute for Space Research. The Kernel estimator was used. The highest mortality rates were observed in the central-east and south-east of Rondônia. The focuses of the fires were concentrated in the northern part of the state, though with a significant amount in other regions. The spatial distribution of the hot areas of mortality and fires were not directly associated. However, fires were observed in all municipalities in the state. Pollutants emitted from biomass burning can be transported thousands of kilometers from the source areas and influence the health of the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Biomass , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fires , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Mortality/trends , Seasons , Spatial Analysis
20.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 3, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between fine particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere and hospital care by acute respiratory diseases in children. METHODS Ecological study, carried out in the region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, in the winter (June 21 to September 21, 2013) and summer (December 21, 2013 to March 19, 2014). We assessed data of daily count for outpatient care and hospitalization by respiratory diseases (ICD-10) in children from zero to 12 years in three hospitals in the Region of Grande Vitória. For collecting fine particulate matter, we used portable samplers of particles installed in six locations in the studied region. The Generalized Additive Model with Poisson distribution, fitted for the effects of predictor covariates, was used to evaluate the relationship between respiratory outcomes and concentration of fine particulate matter. RESULTS The increase of 4.2 µg/m3 (interquartile range) in the concentration of fine particulate matter increased in 3.8% and 5.6% the risk of medical care or hospitalization, respectively, on the same day and with six-day lag from the exposure. CONCLUSIONS We identified positive association between outpatient care and hospitalizations of children under 12 years due to acute respiratory diseases and the concentration of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a associação entre a concentração de material particulado fino na atmosfera e atendimento hospitalar por doenças respiratórias agudas em crianças. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico, realizado na Região da Grande Vitória, ES, no inverno (21 de junho a 21 de setembro de 2013) e no verão (21 de dezembro de 2013 a 19 de março de 2014). Foram avaliados dados de contagem diária de atendimentos ambulatoriais e hospitalizações por doenças respiratórias (CID-10) em crianças de zero a 12 anos em três hospitais da Região da Grande Vitoria. Para a coleta de material particulado fino foram utilizados amostradores portáteis de partículas instalados em seis locais na região estudada. O Modelo Aditivo Generalizado com distribuição de Poisson, ajustado para efeitos das covariáveis preditoras, foi utilizado para avaliar a relação entre os desfechos respiratórios e a concentração de material particulado fino. RESULTADOS O incremento de 4,2 µg/m3 (intervalo interquartílico) na concentração de material particulado fino aumentou em 3,8% e 5,6% o risco de atendimento ou internação, respectivamente, no mesmo dia e com seis dias de defasagem da exposição. CONCLUSÕES Foi identificada associação positiva entre atendimentos ambulatoriais e hospitalizações de crianças com até 12 anos devido a doenças respiratórias agudas e a concentração de material particulado fino na atmosfera.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Inhalation Exposure , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Seasons , Time Factors
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