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Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollutants , Brazil , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitals , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935770


Objective: To screen the differential methylation sites, genes and pathways of air pollution fine particles (PM(2.5)) on human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by methylation chip and bioinformation technology, so as to provide scientific basis for further study of the toxicological mechanism of PM(2.5) on HBE cells. Methods: In August 2020, HBE cells were infected with 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml PM(2.5) aqueous solution for 24 h, namely PM(2.5) 10 μg/ml exposure group (low dose group) and PM(2.5) 50 μg/ml exposure group (high dose group) ; uninfected HBE cells were used as control group. The DNA fragments were hybridized with the chip, the chip scanned and read the data, analyzed the data, screened the differential methylation sites, carried out GO analysis and KEGG analysis of the differential methylation sites, and analyzed the interaction relationship of the overall differential methylation sites by functional epigenetic modules (FEMs). Results: Compared with the control group, 127 differential methylation sites were screened in the low-dose group, including 89 genes, including 55 sites with increased methylation level and 72 sites with decreased methylation level. The differential methylation sites were mainly concentrated in the Body region and UTR region. Compared with the control group, 238 differential methylation sites were screened in the high-dose group, including 168 genes, of which 127 sites had increased methylation level and 111 sites had decreased methylation level. The differential heterotopic sites were mainly concentrated in the Body region and UTR region. Through FEMs analysis, 8 genes with the most interaction were screened, of which 6 genes had significant changes in methylation level. MALT1 gene related to apoptosis was found in the heterotopic site of methylation difference in low-dose group; PIK3CA and ARID1A genes related to carcinogenesis were found in the heterotopic sites of methylation difference in high-dose group; TNF genes related to tumor inhibition were found in the results of FEMs analysis. Conclusion: After PM(2.5) exposure to HBE cells, the DNA methylation level is significantly changed, and genes related to apoptosis and carcinogenesis are screened out, suggesting that the carcinogenic mutagenic effect of PM(2.5) may be related to DNA methylation.

Air Pollutants/toxicity , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/analysis , Carcinogenesis , DNA Methylation , Humans , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Technology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935338


Ambient fine particulate matters (PM2.5) refer to particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm. PM2.5 enter the body through the target organ-lung, and can induce a variety of adverse health effects (such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, respiratory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and adverse birth outcomes). PM2.5 are known to have complex compositions (including water-soluble/-insoluble components and biological components), diverse sources and capacity of secondary transformation. Numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies indicated that different components of PM2.5 may induce adverse health effects through different biological mechanisms. In adddition, co-exposure of different components and their interaction should also be considered. Thus here we have systematically reviewed studies in recent years about the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of different components of ambient fine particulate matters, including inflammatory response, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and so on. The information may give some insights into the prevention and treatment of adverse health effects caused by exposure to different components of PM2.5.

Air Pollutants/toxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Humans , Lung , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/toxicity
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 591-597, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352300


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants is associated with hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths. OBJECTIVE: To estimate years of life lost (YLL) due to premature deaths and their financial costs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, Brazil, in 2016. METHODS: Data on deaths among residents of this city in 2016 were assessed to estimate the financial cost of premature deaths associated with air pollution. The diagnoses studied were ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease, according to YLL. The fractions attributable to deaths associated with air pollutant exposure and to each potential year of life lost were calculated using negative binomial regression with lags of 0-7 days between exposure and outcome. Nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and ozone concentrations were included in the model and adjusted for temperature, humidity and seasonality. RESULTS: Exposure to particulate matter was significant at lag 3 days. There were 2177 hospitalizations over the study period, with 201 deaths (9.2%). Premature deaths led to 2035.69 years of life lost. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations was correlated with 8.0% of the hospitalizations, which corresponded to 152.67 YLL (81.67 for males and 71.00 for females). The cost generated was approximately US$ 9.1 million in 2016. CONCLUSION: In this first study conducted in a medium-sized Brazilian city, using the YLL methodology, we identified an excess expense attributable to air pollution.

Humans , Male , Female , Air Pollutants , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Mortality, Premature
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 856-863, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389538


Background: In southern Chile cities, the emission of air pollutants, especially the use of firewood for heating is restricted during critical air pollution periods. Aim: To analyze how restrictions applied during the management of air pollution critical episodes have contributed to reduce emergency room admissions for respiratory diseases in two Chilean cities between 2013 and 2019. Material and Methods: Poisson regression models were estimated with daily data including explanatory variables, such as the daily and lag concentration of respirable particulate material (PM10), temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, seasonal factors, and implementation of different types of critical episodes. Results: The implementation of restrictions during the management of critical pollution episodes decreased emergency room admissions for upper respiratory infections and bronchial obstructive crises, especially when an environmental emergency was decreed during the critical episode. However, the effect on each group of respiratory diseases was heterogeneous between cities, which could be related to avoidance behavior, indoor air pollution, the composition of PM10, or the presence of other pollutants, and not just a reduction in the daily concentration of PM10. Conclusions: The management of critical pollution episodes with restrictions to pollutant emissions is a useful measure to improve population health in cities that have implemented environmental decontamination plans.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Emergency Service, Hospital , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319


Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM

A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433


SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.

RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448


SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.

RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Fires/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(11): 4133-4140, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039528


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o impacto das emissões da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em uma região canavieira. Registros de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias foram adquiridas a partir da base de dados referentes ao sistema de informações hospitalares do sistema único de saúde (SIH-SUS), no período de 28 de março de 2011 a 28 de dezembro de 2012. Níveis de MP10, NO2, O3, temperatura e umidade relativa foram registradas. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar a associação entre o número total de internações, poluentes atmosféricos e variáveis meteorológicas. Foram registradas 1.179 internações, dentre elas a pneumonia mostrou aumento significativo no período de queima (p = 0,005). Neste mesmo período observou-se que o cluster MP10 e NO2 influenciou 67,9% (IC95%: 11,111-2,537), seguido do cluster MP10, NO2, O3 e temperatura que influenciou 91,1% (IC95%: 1,116; 3,271) no número total de internações. Durante o período de queima houve maior número de internações por doenças respiratórias, principalmente de pneumonia, quando foi observada a influência dos poluentes e temperatura no processo de adoecimento da população.

Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the impact of emissions from sugarcane burning on hospital admission numbers for respiratory diseases in a sugarcane region. Hospital admission records for respiratory diseases were acquired from the database of the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period from March 28, 2011 to December 28, 2012. Levels of PM10, NO2, O3, Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded. Logistic regression models were created to analyze the association between the total number of hospitalizations, atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. A total of 1,179 hospitalization admissions were recorded, with a significant increase in cases of pneumonia in the burning period (p = 0.005). Likewise, it was observed that the cluster of PM10 and NO2 was influenced 67.9% (95% CI: 11.111-2.537) followed by cluster PM10, NO2, O3 and Temperature that influenced 91.1% (95% CI: 1.116; 3.271) in the total number of hospitalization admissions. During the sugarcane burning period there were more hospitalization admissions due to respiratory tract diseases, mainly pneumonia, where the influence of air pollutants and temperature in the process of illness in the population was detected.

Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Saccharum , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Temperature , Brazil , Databases, Factual , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fires , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humidity , National Health Programs
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 166-174, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003734


INTRODUCCIÓN: Santiago de Chile con 7 millones de habitantes alcanza elevados niveles de contaminación atmosférica en invierno, el material particulado habitualmente excede los estándares de la OMS. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado en las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños, entre 2001 y 2005 en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, independientemente de la presencia ambiental de virus sincicial respiratorio (VRS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 72.479 hospitalizaciones públicas y privadas por enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 15 años residentes en la región del estudio se analizaron con un diseño de caso control alternante, con estratificación temporal. Se evaluó principalmente: hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias (J00-J99), neumonía (J12-J18); asma (J21.0 - J21.9) y bronquiolitis (J45 - J46). Recopilándose diariamente temperatura, MP10, MP2,5, ozono, virus respiratorios (VRS) y humedad ambientales. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de MP10 y MP2,5 fueron 81,5 y 41,2 pg/m3 respectivamente. El promedio de temperatura fue 12,8 °C y de la humedad del aire 72,6 %. Un aumento de 10 pg/m3 de MP25 con 1 y 2 días de rezago se asoció con un incremento de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias cercano a 2%, este porcentaje aumentó a 5% cuando la exposición fue con 8 días de rezago, reflejando sinergismo entre material particulado y virus respiratorio (VRS). CONCLUSIÓN: La exposición breve a contaminación atmosférica puede provocar hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños.

INTRODUCTION: With seven million inhabitants, Santiago de Chile reaches high levels of air pollution in winter, the particulate matter usually exceeds WHO standards. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of air pollution caused by particulate matter on children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases between 2001 and 2005 in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, independently from the environmental presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 72,479 public and private hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases of children under 15 years of age residing in the study region were analyzed using a time-stratified alternating case-control design. The main evaluations were: hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases (J00-J99), pneumonia (J12-J18); asthma (J21.0 - J21.9), and bronchiolitis (J45 - J46). Daily compilation of temperature data, PM10, PM2,5, ozone, respiratory virus (RSV), and environmental humidity. RESULTS: Mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 were 81.5 and 41.2 pg/m3 respec tively. The average temperature was 12.8 °C and air humidity 72.6%. An increase of 10 pg/m3 of PM25 with one and two days of lag was associated with an hospitalizations increase due to respiratory diseases close to 2%, this percentage increased to 5% when the exposure was with eight days of lag, reflecting synergism between particulate matter and respiratory viruses (RSV). CONCLUSION: Short air pollution exposure can lead to children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(3): 1083-1090, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989593


Abstract Hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases generate financial costs for the Health System in addition to social costs. Objective of this study was to develop and validate a fuzzy linguistic model for prediction of hospitalization due to respiratory diseases. We constructed a fuzzy model for prediction of hospitalizations due to pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma second exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in residents of Volta Redonda, RJ, in 2012. The model contains two inputs, PM2.5 and temperature, with three membership functions for each input, and an output with three membership functions for admissions, which were obtained from DATASUS. There were 752 hospitalizations in the period, the average concentration of PM2.5 was 17.1 µg/m3 (SD = 4.4). The model showed a good accuracy with PM2.5, the result was between 90% and 76.5% for lags 1, 2 and 3, a sensitivity of up to 95%. This study provides support for creating executable software with a low investment, along with the use of a portable instrument could allow number of hospital admission due to respiratory diseases and provide support to local health managers. Furthermore, the fuzzy model is very simple and involves low computational costs, an implementation making possible.

Resumo Internações por doenças respiratórias geram custos financeiros para o Sistema de Saúde além de custos sociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar e validar um modelo linguístico "fuzzy" para previsão do número de internações por doenças respiratórias. Foi construído um modelo "fuzzy" para predição de internações por pneumonias, bronquite, bronquiolite e asma segundo exposição ao material particulado fino (PM2,5) em residentes de Volta Redonda, RJ, em 2012. O modelo contém duas entradas PM2,5 e temperatura, com três funções de pertinência para cada entrada, e uma saída com três funções de pertinência para internações, que foram obtidas do DATASUS. Foram 752 internações no período, a concentração média do PM2,5 foi 17,1 µg/m3 (dp = 4,4). O modelo mostrou uma boa acurácia com PM2,5, o resultado foi entre 90% e 76,5% para os lags 1, 2 e 3, com sensibilidade de até 95%. Este estudo fornece subsídios para a criação de programa executável, que não exige um grande investimento, juntamente com o uso de um instrumento portátil pode permitir uma estimativa do número de internações e prestar apoio aos gestores municipais de saúde. Além disso, o modelo "fuzzy" é muito simples e implica em baixas despesas computacionais, tornando possível uma implementação.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Fuzzy Logic , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/economics
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(1): 102-114, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990892


Resumen: Las centrales termoeléctricas (CTE) a carbón representan un riesgo para la salud de las comunidades expuestas. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica nacional e internacional enfocada en los efectos en salud de niños y la exposición a emisiones al aire provenientes de CTE a carbón. Se inclu yeron 21 artículos para su revisión en texto completo, donde se midieron efectos en salud infantil relacionados a presencia de biomarcadores de exposición y efecto, daños perinatales, neuroconductuales y respiratorios principalmente. La exposición a emisiones de CTE a carbón en el embarazo se asoció a niños con bajo peso y muy bajo peso al nacer, menor talla, menor diámetro de Circunfe rencia del Cráneo (CC) y prematuridad; el diámetro de CC aumentó en recién nacidos después del cierre de CTE. Se encontraron menor coeficiente de desarrollo (CD) y coeficiente intelectual (CI) en niños expuestos a emisiones de CTE a carbón comparados con no expuestos; CD aumentó cuando la central fue cerrada. Por otro lado, vivir en zonas con fuentes de emisión de mercurio (asociadas a CTE y plantas de cemento que funcionan con carbón) se asoció con mayor riesgo de autismo. En salud respiratoria, los artículos fueron consistentes en reportar menor función pulmonar en niños residentes en zonas expuestas a fuentes de combustión de carbón comparados con grupos de niños no expuestos. Es muy necesario abrir el debate en Chile sobre los riesgos controlables a los que se enfrenta la población infantil a consecuencia de plantas generadoras de energía instaladas en Chile.

Abstract: Coal-fired power plants (CFPP) represent a health risk to the exposed communities. A review of national and international scientific literature was made focused on the health effects on children and exposure to air emissions from CFPP. Twenty-one articles were included for full-text review, where effects on child health mainly related to the biomarkers presence of exposure and effect, pe rinatal, neurobehavioral and respiratory damages were measured. Exposure to CFPP emissions in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight and very low birth weight, shorter height, smaller head circumference (HC) diameter, and prematurity; the HC diameter increased in newborns after the CFPP closure. Lower coefficient of development (CD) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were found in children exposed to CFPP emissions compared with unexposed ones; CD increased when the plant was closed. On the other hand, living in areas with mercury emission sources (associated with CFPP and cement plants that work with coal) was associated with an increased risk of autism. In respira tory health, the articles were consistent with reporting lower pulmonary function in children living in areas exposed to coal combustion sources compared with groups of unexposed children. There is a great need to open the debate in Chile on the controllable risks faced by the child population as a result of power generation plants located in Chile.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Power Plants , Child Health , Coal , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Child Development , Chile , Global Health
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00006617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889900


Exposição a poluentes do ar, que costumam ser quantificados por agências ambientais que não estão presentes em todos os estados, pode estar associada a internações por doenças respiratórias de crianças. Foi desenvolvido um estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados referentes às internações por algumas doenças respiratórias de crianças menores de dez anos de idade, em 2012, na cidade de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os níveis médios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) foram estimados por modelo matemático, os dados de temperatura mínima e umidade relativa do ar foram obtidos do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, e número de focos de queimadas do Sistema de Informações Ambientais. A abordagem estatística utilizou o modelo aditivo generalizado da regressão de Poisson com defasagens de 0 a 7 dias. Foram estimados os custos financeiros e aumentos do número de internações decorrentes de elevações de PM2,5. Foram 565 internações (média de 1,54/dia; DP = 1,52) e concentração de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DP = 3,2). Foram encontradas associações entre exposição e internações no segundo semestre, nos lags 2 e 3, e quando analisado o ano todo, no lag 2. Uma elevação de 5µg/m3 do PM2,5 implicou o aumento de 89 internações e custos acima dos R$ 95 mil para o Sistema Único de Saúde. Dados estimados por modelo matemático podem ser utilizados em locais onde não há monitoramento de poluentes.

La exposición a contaminantes del aire, que suelen ser cuantificados por agencias ambientales que no están presentes en todos los estados, puede estar asociada a internamientos por enfermedades respiratorias de niños. Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico de series temporales con datos referentes a los internamientos por algunas enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 10 años de edad, en 2012, en la ciudad de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Los niveles medios de material particulado fino (PM2,5) se estimaron mediante un modelo matemático, los datos de temperatura mínima y humedad relativa del aire se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología, y el número de focos de incendios del Sistema de Información Ambiental. El enfoque estadístico usó el modelo aditivo generalizado de la regresión de Poisson con desfases de 0 a 7 días. Se estimaron los costes financieros y aumentos del número de internamientos derivados de elevaciones de PM2,5. Fueron 565 internamientos (media de 1,54/día; DE = 1,52) y concentración de PM2,5 de 15,7µg/m3 (DE = 3,2). Se encontraron asociaciones entre exposición e internamientos en el segundo semestre, en los lags 2 y 3, y cuando se analizó todo el año, en el lag 2. Una elevación de 5µg/m3 del PM2,5 implicó el aumento de 89 internamientos y costes por encima de los BRL 95 mil para el Sistema Único de Salud. Los datos estimados por el modelo matemático pueden ser utilizados en lugares, donde no existe un monitoreo de contaminantes.

Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System. The statistical approach used the Poisson regression generalized additive model with lags of 0 to 7 days. The financial costs and increases in hospitalizations due to increments in PM2.5 were estimated. There were 565 hospitalizations (mean 1.54 admissions/day; SD = 1.52), and mean PM2.5 concentration was 15.7µg/m3 (SD = 3.2). Associations were observed between exposure and hospitalizations in the second semester at lags 2 and 3, and at lag 2 when the entire year was analyzed. An increment of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with an increase of 89 hospitalizations and costs exceeding BRL 95,000 (≈ USD 38,000) for the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Data estimated by mathematical models can be used in locations where pollutants are not monitored.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Child Health , Risk Factors , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Hospitalization/economics
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 26 mayo 2017. a) f: 16 l:20 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 40).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104283


El nitrógeno (N) es un gas sin olor, color ni sabor, que constituye el 78% del aire atmosférico, y en concentraciones dentro de límites normales, no es perjudicial para la salud. Su importancia como contaminante deriva de su capacidad de combinación con el oxígeno para formar diversos óxidos de nitrógeno. El dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) es un gas más denso que el aire, de color marrón rojizo y olor acre. Es definido como un contaminante, criterio que altera de manera importante el aire urbano. El NO2 es un contaminante en sí mismo y un precursor en la generación de otras moléculas nocivas para la salud. se presentan una serie de gráficos que permiten observar los valores de NO2 en las estaciones de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire que posee la Ciudad (La Boca, Parque Centenario y Córdoba), las cuales registran las concentraciones de este contaminante en forma continua (durante 24 horas, los 365 días del año) mediante métodos homologados internacionalmente. (AU)

Air Quality Control , Air Monitoring , Environmental Quality , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Health Surveillance , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/toxicity
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(11): 1371-1377, nov. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902456


Background Air pollution has a direct influence on health. Aim To determine the association between particulate matter and contaminant gas concentrations in the environment with the number of consultations for respiratory diseases in emergency rooms in Metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods During five years, the daily number emergency consultations for respiratory diseases and the daily concentrations of particulate matter and contaminant gases in a community of Santiago, were recorded. The degree of change of these variables during summer and winter was determined. Their correlation coefficients with a 0 to 100 days gap, were calculated. Results During winter, there was a higher number of consultations and higher pollution levels, except for O3, which increased in summer. There were positive correlations between the concentrations of different pollutants (mainly 2.5 and 10 μm particulate matter, CO and NO2). There was a negative association between consultations for respiratory diseases and O3 concentrations, an almost negligible association with SO2 and variable positive and significant associations with the concentration of other pollutants, with variations according to the time gap. Conclusions Pollution and respiratory diseases increase during winter. There are variable associations between pollutant concentrations and the number of consultations for respiratory diseases.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/classification , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
Rev. medica electron ; 39(5): 1160-1170, set.-oct. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127721


El crecimiento urbano e industrial de las últimas décadas ha ocasionado un aumento de la contaminación atmosférica y por tanto un mayor riesgo para la salud. La mayoría de los contaminantes atmosféricos producen efectos perjudiciales en función de su concentración, por lo que se hace necesario identificar su existencia y el control de los niveles de cada uno de estos elementos potencialmente peligrosos. La contaminación atmosférica es un problema que afecta por igual a países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Las fuentes principales de contaminación de origen humano son el transporte, la producción de energía y las actividades industriales, así como los compuestos inorgánicos gaseosos, que son extremadamente peligrosos para la salud de la población. La contaminación atmosférica por diferentes sustancias químicas presenta en la actualidad, una gran connotación en el mundo entero, dado los efectos nocivos sobre los ecosistemas y en particular, sobre la salud humana y materiales metálicos. El desarrollo urbano, la modificación de la superficie de la tierra y el cambio climático son fenómenos derivados de una explosión demográfica mundial y están alterando la composición del aire lo que perjudica no solamente a las personas, sino también, a los animales y las plantas del ecosistema. Es por eso que el objetivo del trabajo consiste fue identificar los principales contaminantes atmosféricos y las fuentes antropogénicas que causan desviaciones a la salud (AU).

The industrial and urban growth of the last decades has caused an increment of the atmospheric contamination, and therefore a higher risk for health. Most of the atmospheric contaminants produce harmful effects in dependence of their concentration, so it is necessary to identify their existence and to control the levels of each of these potentially dangerous elements. Atmospheric contamination is a problem affecting both, the developed and developing countries in the same way. The main human-originated contamination sources are transportation means, energy production and industrial activities, and also the gaseous inorganic compounds that are extremely dangerous for the population's health. Atmospheric contamination caused by different chemical substances has currently a great connotation around the world, due to the noxious effects on the ecosystems and particularly on the human health and on the metallic materials. The urban development, the modification of the earth surface and the climatic change are phenomena derived from a world demographic explosion that are harming not only people but also the ecosystem´s animals and plants. That is why the objective of the work was to identify the main atmospheric contaminants and the anthropogenic sources causing health deviations (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Health , Impacts of Polution on Health/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Comment , Impacts of Polution on Health/analysis , Health Risk , Air Pollutants/toxicity
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(10): 3269-3280, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890166


Resumo O Brasil é o principal consumidor de agrotóxicos do mundo. O uso em larga escala destes produtos é capaz de contaminar os principais compartimentos ambientais e expor um maior número de pessoas a seus efeitos tóxicos. Portanto, realizou-se esta revisão de literatura com o objetivo de buscar subsídios para uma discussão qualificada sobre a atuação da Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental (VSA) no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde relacionada com a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos à saúde. Doze artigos foram selecionados e analisados nesta revisão de literatura. Destes, apenas um foi publicado em periódico especializado na área da saúde pública. Apesar disso, dois estudos epidemiológicos publicados na área das ciências ambientais investigaram a associação entre o ar contaminado por agrotóxicos e desfechos específicos como, linfoma não Hodgkin (LNH) e esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Nossos achados refletem a carência de estudos abordando o tema pela saúde pública. A discussão sobre a contaminação atmosférica por agrotóxicos e riscos potenciais à saúde humana deve ser ampliada pela ciência brasileira, a fim de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o assunto e respaldar a capacidade de atuação da VSA.

Abstract Brazil is the main consumer of pesticides in the world. Large-scale use of these products is likely to contaminate major environmental compartments and expose more people to their toxic effects. Therefore, this literature review was carried out to seek supporting elements for a qualified discussion about the performance of Environmental Surveillance (HS) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) related to air contamination by pesticides and health risks. Twelve papers were selected and analyzed in this literature review. Of these, only one was published in a specialized public health journal. Notwithstanding this, two epidemiological studies published in the field of environmental sciences investigated the association between air contaminated by pesticides and specific outcomes such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our findings reflect the lack of studies addressing such issue by public health. The discussion on air contamination by pesticides and potential risks to human health should be expanded by Brazilian science in order to further increase knowledge on the subject and support the HS performance capacity.

Humans , Pesticides/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Health , Public Health , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , National Health Programs/organization & administration
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(9): 614-619, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888332


ABSTRACT The link between various air pollutants and hospitalization for epilepsy has come under scrutiny. We have proposed that exposure to air pollution and specifically the pervasive agricultural air pollutant and greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), may provoke susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence supports a role of N2O exposure in reducing epileptiform seizure activity, while withdrawal from the drug has been shown to induce seizure-like activity. Therefore, we show here that the statewide use of anthropogenic nitrogen fertilizers (the most recognized causal contributor to environmental N2O burden) is significantly negatively associated with hospitalization for epilepsy in all three pre-specified hospitalization categories, even after multiple pollutant comparison correction (p<.007), while the other identified pollutants were not consistently statistically significantly associated with hospitalization for epilepsy. We discuss potential neurological mechanisms underpinning this association between air pollutants associated with farm use of anthropogenic nitrogen fertilizers and hospitalization for epilepsy.

RESUMO A ligação entre vários poluentes do ar e a hospitalização por epilepsia tem sido examinada. Propusemos que a exposição à poluição do ar, especificamente ao poluente atmosférico generalizado e ao gás de efeito estufa, o óxido nitroso (N2O), poderiam fomentar a susceptibilidade a distúrbios do desenvolvimento neurológico. A evidência apoia o papel da exposição ao N2O na redução da atividade convulsiva epileptiforme, enquanto mostra que a retirada do fármaco induz atividade pseudo-convulsiva. Portanto, mostramos aqui que o uso a nível estatal de fertilizantes nitrogenados antropogênicos (o agente causal mais reconhecido para a carga ambiental de N2O) está significativa e negativamente associado à hospitalização por epilepsia nas três categorias de hospitalização pré-especificadas, mesmo após a correção de comparação de poluentes múltiplos (p <0,007 ), enquanto os outros poluentes identificados não foram consistentemente associados de forma estatística com a hospitalização por epilepsia. Discutimos possíveis mecanismos neurológicos subjacentes a esta associação entre poluentes atmosféricos associados ao uso agrícola de fertilizantes nitrogenados antropogênicos, e hospitalização por epilepsia.

Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/chemically induced , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Fertilizers/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Poisson Distribution , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/classification , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Nitrous Oxide/toxicity
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 1 sept. 2017. a) f: 15 l:23 p. graf, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 54).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1103995


La atmósfera contiene varios gases que, en concentraciones mayores que las normales, pueden ser peligrosos para los seres humanos, animales y plantas. Todos estos gases potencialmente tóxicos se denominan "contaminantes del aire". Entre ellos se encuentran: monóxido de carbono (CO), el dióxido de azufre (SO2) y el dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2). Además de los gases, la atmósfera contiene una gran variedad de partículas sólidas y líquidas, de variados tamaños. El material particulado en suspensión (MPS) en el aire incluye partículas totales en suspensión (PTS), material particulado con diámetro aerodinámico mediano inferior a 10 µm (MP 10) y 2,5 µm (MP 2,5) respectivamente, partículas finas y ultrafinas. Se presentan una serie de gráficos que permiten observar los valores de Material Particulado menor a 10 micrones (PM 10), en las estaciones de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire que posee la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (La Boca,Parque Centenario y Córdoba), las cuales registran las concentraciones de éste contaminante en forma continua (durante 24 horas, los 365 días del año), mediante métodos homologados internacionalmente. (AU)

Monitoring Stations , Air Monitoring , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/classification , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Toxic Substances , Air