Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.248
Filter
1.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 45-54, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361185

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El efecto deletéreo de material particulado fino exterior sobre la salud respiratoria de la población de niños y de adultos mayores, es de interés en salud pública. Objetivo: Establecer el efecto de la contaminación por Material Particulado de menos de 2,5 μm de diámetro (PM2,5), sobre la Enfermedad Respiratoria Aguda (ERA) en los menores de 5 y personas de mínimo 65 años, ajustado por variables meteorológicas y climáticas, en los municipios del Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (Colombia), 2008 a 2015. Materiales y métodos: Estudio ecológico con información de la red de vigilancia de calidad del aire y de registros de prestación de servicios de salud. Se construyeron Modelos Aditivos Generalizados con función de enlace Poisson y suavización spline. Para cada rezago distribuido se calculó la medida de la asociación e intervalo de confianza. Resultados: Los casos de ERA aumentaron significativamente en los menores de 5 años en Envigado y Caldas (43,3% vs 29,6%) y en los de 65 y más años, en Medellín (13,2%) por cada incremento de 10 µg/m3 en PM2,5 al día quince a partir de la exposición. Conclusiones: Los eventos diarios respiratorios tuvieron especial frecuencia en Medellín y en municipios de la zona sur.


Introduction: The harmful effect of fine particulate matter on the respiratory health of child and elderly populations is a concern for public health. Objective: To establish the effect of pollution by less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) particulate matter on Acute Respiratory Disease (ARD) during 2008-2015 in children younger than 5 and adults older than 65 from the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia), adjusting for meteorological and climate variables. Materials and methods: Ecological study with information from the air quality surveillance network and individual records of health providers. Generalized Additive Models were developed using smoothing spline Poisson models. The assessment of the association and confidence intervals were calculated for each distributed lag. Results: For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2,5 and the day 15 post-exposure, ARD cases increased significantly in populations who are younger than 5 and older than 65 in Envigado and Caldas (43.3% vs. 29.6%) and Medellín (13.2%), respectively. Conclusions: Daily respiratory events had a special frequency in Medellín and the municipalities of the southern region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health , Environment , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Public Health , Disease , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollution , Particulate Matter
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371392

ABSTRACT

Introdução. O material particulado (MP) emitido pela queima de combustíveis fósseis de origem veicular é a principal fonte de exposição ambiental à elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPTs) presentes no ar atmosférico dos centros urbanos, entre eles arsênio, níquel e chumbo. Objetivos. Este estudo avaliou os riscos à saúde humana de efeitos não carcinogênicos e efeitos carcinogênicos associados a exposição inalatória de arsênio, níquel e chumbo no MP10 de origem veicular, coletado em uma das estações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, na cidade de São Paulo, ao longo dos anos 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012. Métodos. Os dados de concentração dos EPTs foram obtidos pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB) e estão disponíveis no website da agência. As amostras semanais foram coletadas em todas as estações do ano, durante 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012 na estação de monitoramento Cerqueira César, localizada próximo a uma via de intenso tráfego veicular. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Software R (versão 4.0.5) e RStudio (versão 1.2). O software ProUCL foi usado para estimar os valores UCL95%. A avaliação de risco à saúde humana foi realizada de acordo com os métodos da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Resultados. As concentrações de arsênio e chumbo no ar apresentaram médias mais elevadas durante o inverno do que nas outras estações (p <0,05). O chumbo apresentou o maior risco de efeitos não carcinogênicos (HQ> 1,0). Arsênio e níquel apresentaram o maior risco de efeitos carcinogênicos, inclusive acima de 1E-06. O risco para ambos os efeitos foi maior no inverno. Conclusão. Esses achados destacam a importância da poluição do ar como fator de risco para a saúde da população, principalmente em centros urbanos com intenso tráfego veicular. Ações para reduzir a exposição à poluição do ar ambiente devem ser priorizadas nas agendas de políticas ambientais e de saúde.


Background. Particulate matter (PM) emitted from the burning of fuels by vehicles is the main source of environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) present in atmospheric air in urban centers, between them arsenic, nickel and lead. Objective. This study evaluated the risk to human health from non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects associated with airborne arsenic, nickel and lead in PM10 exposure of the vehicular source collected at one of the air quality monitoring stations in the city of Sao Paulo over the years 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Methods. The concentration data of the PTEs were obtained by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) and are available on the agency's website. The statistical analysis was performed using the Software R (version 4.0.5) and RStudio (version 1.2). ProUCL software was used to estimate UCL95% values. The risk assessment for human health was carried out according to the methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results. Airborne arsenic and lead concentrations showed higher means during the winter than in other seasons (p<0.05). Lead had the greatest risk of non-carcinogenic effects (HQ>1.0). Arsenic and nickel had the highest risk of carcinogenic effects, including above 1E-06. The risk for both effects was greatest in winter. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of air pollution as a risk factor for population health, especially in urban centers with high vehicular traffic. Actions to reduce air pollution exposure should be prioritized in environmental and health policies agendas.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Toxic Substances , Inhalation Exposure , Health Risk , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Arsenic , Lead , Nickel
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 95 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363995

ABSTRACT

As emissões de poluentes atmosféricos causam um grande problema à saúde. A maior parte da poluição gerada no Estado de São Paulo é proveniente de veículos automotores, que são responsáveis pela emissão de 96% do CO, 73% de HC, 62% de NOX e 40% de MP10, sendo os veículos diesel os maiores responsáveis pelas emissões de MP e NOX no Estado. No Brasil, as medidas tomadas pelo PROCONVE, que visam a mitigação da poluição causada por veículos, se mostram eficazes para homologação de veículos novos, porém requerem que a continuidade do trabalho seja realizada com inspeções dos veículos em uso. A tecnologia de sensoriamento remoto, desenvolvida no final dos anos 1980, tem sido amplamente utilizada para de monitoramento de frotas, assim como em programas de Inspeção e Manutenção em diversos locais do mundo. Os resultados alcançados são satisfatórios e, de forma geral, indicam grandes reduções nos níveis de emissão de poluentes. Estudos apontam que as emissões de NOX foram as que tiveram menores reduções reais entre fases das regulamentações. O Estado de São Paulo possui controle de poluentes de veículos do ciclo diesel em uso através de fiscalizações por opacidade, Escala de Ringelmann e sistema SCR. O sistema de sensoriamento remoto mostra-se como um bom complemento ao que é realizado atualmente. Foram propostos dois sistemas de legislação de inspeções veiculares que contemplam o SR como ferramenta de seleção dos veículos diesel. Além disso, foi mostrado como poderiam ser escolhidos limites para high e low emitters, assim como procedimentos para escolha dos pontos de instalação do sistema.


Emissions of air pollutants cause a big health problem. Most of the pollution generated in the State of São Paulo comes from motor vehicles, which are responsible for the emission of 96% of CO, 73% of HC, 62% of NOX, and 40% of PM10, with diesel vehicles being the biggest responsible for the emissions of PM and NOX in the state. In Brazil, the actions taken by PROCONVE, aimed at mitigating pollution caused by vehicles, prove to be effective for the approval of new vehicles but require that the continuity of the work be carried out by inspections of in-use vehicles. Remote sensing technology, developed in the late 1980s, has been widely used for fleet monitoring, as well as in Inspection and Maintenance programs in many locations around the world. The results achieved are satisfactory and, in general, indicate large reductions in pollutant emission levels. Studies show that NOX emissions were the ones that had the smallest real reductions between phases of regulations. The State of São Paulo controls in-use diesel vehicles pollutants by inspections of opacity, Ringelmann Scale, and SCR system. The remote sensing system proves to be a good complement to what is currently performed. Two systems of procedures for diesel vehicle inspections were proposed, which include the SR as a tool for the selection of diesel vehicles. In addition, it was shown how limits for high and low emitters could be chosen, as well as procedures for selecting the system installation points.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Air Pollution , Remote Sensing Technology , Legislation, Environmental , Motor Vehicles
4.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-8, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1283061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los estudios espirométricos se recomienda que cada población cuente con sus propios valores de referencia debido a condiciones regionales y a características de tipo étnico, etario, social, geográfico y climático. Estudios previos muestran elevados niveles de material particulado, hidrocarburos policíclicos y compuestos volátiles en el aire de La Plata y alrededores, con correlación entre exposición crónica a contaminantes y efectos adversos sobre desarrollo y función pulmonar. El objetivo fue establecer valores de referencia regionales para parámetros espirométricos en jóvenes de La Plata, siguiendo las recomendaciones de la American Thoracic Society (ATS) y la European Respiratory Society (ERS). MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo. Se realizaron y analizaron 171 espirometrías a jóvenes sanos de 13-17 años. Se llevaron a cabo medidas de correlación, identificando las variables predictoras. Para las ecuaciones de predicción se ajustaron modelos de regresión en función del sexo. RESULTADOS: La mayor correlación se encontró con talla y peso. Se desarrollaron ecuaciones para capacidad vital forzada (FVC) y volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (FEV1) según género. DISCUSIÓN: El cálculo de nuevos parámetros con valores menores a los propuestos por un estudio en Barcelona y adaptados por la Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica (SEPAR) confirmó la importancia de contar con valores de referencia regionales.


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Volatile Organic Compounds
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887870

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of air pollution on the number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in residents at different ages and its seasonal changes in Lanzhou,so as to provide a scientific basis for the early prevention of respiratory diseases in Lanzhou. Methods The daily number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in three class A hospitals in Lanzhou from January 1,2013 to December 31,2017,as well as the air pollutants and meteorological data of Lanzhou in the same period,was collected.After controlling the confounding factors including long-term trend of time,meteorological factors and day-of-week effect using a generalized additive model,we analyzed the relationships between air pollutants and the daily number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases,and explored whether there was a lag effect of air pollutants.Results From 2013 to 2017,the emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou had a total number of 124 871,with an average of 69(1-367)visits per day.The single pollutant model showed that among the six conventional air pollutants monitored in Lanzhou,PM


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Seasons , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have explored the modifications by family stress and male gender in the relationship between early exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic rhinitis (AR) risk in preschool children.@*METHODS@#We conducted a case-control study of 388 children aged 2-4 years in Shenyang, China. These children AR were diagnosed by clinicians. By using measured concentrations from monitoring stations, we estimated the exposures of particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of AR in children aged 2-4 years (6.4%) was related to early TRAP exposure. With an IQR (20 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Family stress and male gender may increase the risk of AR in preschool children with early exposure to PM


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Traffic-Related Pollution/adverse effects
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.@*METHODS@#Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Republic of Korea
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The physical environment can facilitate or hinder physical activity. A challenge in promoting physical activity is ensuring that the physical environment is supportive and that these supports are appropriately tailored to the individual or group in question. Ideally, aspects of the environment that impact physical activity would be enhanced, but environmental changes take time, and identifying ways to provide more precision to physical activity recommendations might be helpful for specific individuals or groups. Therefore, moving beyond a "one size fits all" to a precision-based approach is critical.@*MAIN BODY@#To this end, we considered 4 critical aspects of the physical environment that influence physical activity (walkability, green space, traffic-related air pollution, and heat) and how these aspects could enhance our ability to precisely guide physical activity. Strategies to increase physical activity could include optimizing design of the built environment or mitigating of some of the environmental impediments to activity through personalized or population-wide interventions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although at present non-personalized approaches may be more widespread than those tailored to one person's physical environment, targeting intrinsic personal elements (e.g., medical conditions, sex, age, socioeconomic status) has interesting potential to enhance the likelihood and ability of individuals to participate in physical activity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Built Environment , Environment , Exercise/psychology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Precision Medicine/psychology , Residence Characteristics
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200267, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154684

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Environmental air pollution is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Environmental air pollution has a direct impact on human health, being responsible for an increase in the incidence of and number of deaths due to cardiopulmonary, neoplastic, and metabolic diseases; it also contributes to global warming and the consequent climate change associated with extreme events and environmental imbalances. In this review, we present articles that show the impact that exposure to different sources and types of air pollutants has on the respiratory system; we present the acute effects—such as increases in symptoms and in the number of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and deaths—and the chronic effects—such as increases in the incidence of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, as well as a rapid decline in lung function. The effects of air pollution in more susceptible populations and the effects associated with physical exercise in polluted environments are also presented and discussed. Finally, we present the major studies on the subject conducted in Brazil. Health care and disease prevention services should be aware of this important risk factor in order to counsel more susceptible individuals about protective measures that can facilitate their treatment, as well as promoting the adoption of environmental measures that contribute to the reduction of such emissions.


RESUMO A poluição do ar ambiental é um dos principais fatores de risco de morbidade e mortalidade global. Ela tem impacto direto na saúde humana, sendo responsável pelo aumento de incidência e de óbitos por doenças cardiorrespiratórias, neoplásicas e metabólicas; também contribui para o aquecimento global e para as consequentes alterações do clima associadas a eventos extremos e aos desequilíbrios ambientais. Nesta revisão, apresentamos artigos que evidenciam o impacto da exposição a diferentes fontes e tipos de poluentes do ar no sistema respiratório; apresentamos os efeitos agudos — como aumento de sintomas e no número de atendimentos em serviços de emergência, internações e óbitos — e crônicos — como o aumento da incidência de asma, DPOC e câncer de pulmão, assim como o declínio acelerado da função pulmonar. Também são apresentados e discutidos os efeitos da poluição atmosférica em populações mais suscetíveis e dos efeitos associados à realização de exercícios físicos em ambientes poluídos. Por fim, apresentamos os principais estudos brasileiros sobre o assunto. Os serviços de atenção à saúde e de prevenção de doenças devem ficar atentos a esse importante fator de risco para orientar indivíduos mais suscetíveis sobre medidas de proteção que possam facilitar seu tratamento, além de estimular a adoção de medidas ambientais que contribuam para a redução dessas emissões.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Respiratory System , Brazil
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 167 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349224

ABSTRACT

Os veículos automotores movidos a diesel, classificados como fontes móveis, são importantes emissores de poluentes atmosféricos. As principais emissões associadas aos veículos diesel são o Material Particulado (MP), óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx) e dióxido de enxofre (SO2). Ao longo dos anos, normas legais foram estabelecidas e medidas foram implementadas para diminuição de congestionamentos na cidade que se refletem na diminuição de emissões veiculares. Entre elas estão as medidas restritivas à circulação de veículos nos centros urbanos. Dentre as medidas adotadas na cidade de São Paulo, este trabalho considerou, como estudo de caso, o volume de tráfego de caminhões na Av. dos Bandeirantes de 2005 a 2010 e o período de maior restrição ao tráfego de caminhões de 2010 a 2015, de acordo com a Portaria da Secretaria Municipal de Transportes - SMT nº 84 de 24 de agosto de 2010 e sua influência na qualidade do ar. Na análise dos dados foi utilizada estatística descritiva e análise de correlação e de regressão entre o fluxo de veículos e os dados de qualidade do ar, tendo sido gerados gráficos de dispersão e determinada a correlação, coeficiente de correlação r e valor p, para nível de confiança 95%, entre poluentes e volume de tráfego, de acordo com os sentidos da via e períodos do dia, manhã e tarde. Observou-se diminuição da concentração no ar dos poluentes analisados, MP10, NOx e SO2, de acordo com os dados obtidos no período anterior e posterior à Portaria 84. Os resultados apresentaram correlação positiva estatisticamente significante, com menor concentração de poluentes relacionada com menor número de caminhões trafegando na via. Isto mostra que maiores volumes de caminhões circulando em determinadas vias da cidade aumenta significativamente as concentrações de MP10, NOx e SO2 no ar. Em relação ao MP2,5 não foram obtidas correlações com significância estatística, provavelmente devido ao menor período de coleta dos dados, apresentando número de observações menor em relação aos outros poluentes. Com este estudo conclui-se que algumas medidas de restrição à circulação de veículos, além de reduzir congestionamentos, são relevantes para diminuição da concentração de poluentes no ar em áreas próximas a importantes vias de tráfego da cidade. Portanto, a implementação de outras áreas de restrição à circulação de caminhões no município de São Paulo, em vias próximas a áreas residenciais, e que apresentam grande fluxo de caminhões, serão benéficas para melhoria da qualidade do ar na cidade.


Diesel-powered motor vehicles, classified as mobile sources, are important emitters of atmospheric pollutants. The main emissions associated with diesel vehicles are Particulate Matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Over the years, legal norms have been established and measures have been implemented to reduce congestion in the city that are reflected in the reduction of vehicular emissions. Among them are measures restricting vehicle circulation in urban centres. Among the measures adopted in the city of São Paulo, this study considered, as a case study, the volume of truck traffic on Av. dos Bandeirantes from 2005 to 2010 and the period of greater restriction on truck traffic from 2010 to 2015, according to the Ordinance of the Municipal Transportation Secretary - SMT No. 84 of August 24, 2010 and its influence on air quality. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics and correlation and regression analysis were used between the vehicle flow and air quality data, and scatter plots were generated and the correlation, correlation coefficient r and p value were determined, for confidence level 95%, between pollutants and traffic volume, according to the directions of flow of the road and periods of the day, morning and afternoon. It was observed a decrease in the concentration in the air of the analyzed pollutants, MP10, NOx and SO2, according to the data obtained in the period before and after the Ordinance 84. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation, with a lower concentration of pollutants related to a lower number of trucks traveling on the road. This shows that higher volumes of trucks circulating in certain streets of the city significantly increases the concentrations of MP10, NOx and SO2 in the air. In relation to MP2.5 no correlations with statistical significance were obtained, probably due to the shorter period of data collection, presenting a smaller number of observations compared to the other pollutants. With this study we conclude that some measures to restrict the circulation of vehicles, in addition to reducing congestion, are relevant to the reduction of the concentration of pollutants in the air in areas near important traffic routes of the city. Therefore, the implementation of other areas of restriction on the circulation of trucks in the city of São Paulo, on roads near residential areas, and which present a large flow of trucks, will be beneficial for the improvement of air quality in the city.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Vehicle Emissions , Gasoline , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution
17.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 157-160, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361914

ABSTRACT

Se describen impactos sobre la salud poblacional debido a la contaminación atmosférica y a la temperatura producto del cambio climático. Se ilustra la situación en Chile respecto de algunos indicadores como son los días de altas temperaturas u olas de calor, y la superficie de terreno afectado por incendios forestales. También se sistematizan los principales resultados de estudios ecológicos multicéntricos en los que se ha incorporado información nacional. Estos tuvieron como finalidad estimar el impacto de la temperatura y la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado, monóxido de carbono y dióxido de nitrógeno mediante un enfoque multicéntrico que abarcó varios continentes, países y localidades.


Impacts on population health due to air pollution and temperature caused by climate change are described. The situation in Chile is illustrated with respect to some indicators such as days of high temperatures or heat waves, and the area of land affected by forest fires. The main results of multicenter ecological studies in which national information has been incorporated are also systematized. These were aimed at estimating the impact of temperature and air pollution by particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide through a multicenter approach that spanned several continents, countries, and localities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Environmental Health , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Population Health
18.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 164-166, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362138

ABSTRACT

El asma en niños es una condición prevalente y con un significativo impacto en la calidad de vida del niño y su cuidador. Un alto porcentaje de los niños están expuestos a la contaminación atmosférica, lo que se traduce en un significativo impacto en su salud respiratoria. Los niños son un grupo especialmente vulnerable por razones fisiológicas, medioambientales y de comportamientos propios de la edad. Existe suficiente evidencia que algunos contaminantes atmosféricos son capaces de aumentar los síntomas de asma y desencadenar exacerbaciones en niños asmáticos. También existe evidencia creciente que la exposición prolongada y precoz a contaminantes atmosféricos pueden aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar asma, especialmente los contaminantes relacionados con el tráfico vehicular. Estos efectos adversos disminuyen cuando disminuye la contaminación atmosférica producto de las regulaciones ambientales. Estudios sobre la carga atribuible estiman que un 13% de los nuevos niños asmáticos pueden deberse a la contaminación atmosférica. El sistema respiratorio y el sistema inmunológico del niño están en desarrollo, por lo que exposiciones a contaminantes atmosféricos pueden tener consecuencias de largo plazo. Existen varios mecanismos identificados que apoyan los resultados de los estudios epidemiológicos destacando el daño por estrés oxidativo. Los médicos que atienden niños tienen que tomar en cuenta este conocimiento e incorporarlo a su práctica clínica.


Asthma in children is a prevalent condition with a significant impact on the quality of life of the child and their caregiver. A high percentage of children are exposed to air pollution, which has a significant impact on their respiratory health. Children are a particularly vulnerable group for age-specific physiological, environmental and behavioral reasons. There is sufficient evidence that some air pollutants are capable of increasing asthma symptoms and triggering exacerbations in asthmatic children. There is also growing evidence that early and prolonged exposure to air pollutants can increase the risk of developing asthma, especially traffic-related air pollution. These adverse effects decrease when atmospheric pollution decreases as a result of environmental regulations. Studies on attributable burden estimate that 13% of new asthmatics in children may occur due to air pollution. The respiratory system and the immune system of the child are developing, so exposure to air pollutants can have long-term consequences. There are several identified mechanisms that support the results of epidemiological studies highlighting damage from oxidative stress. Physicians caring for children need to take this knowledge into account and incorporate it into their clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 167-171, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362145

ABSTRACT

La exposición a las emanaciones de incendios forestales es un importante problema de salud pública nacional e internacional. El cambio climático que conlleva sequía y aumento de la temperatura estival aumenta el riesgo y magnitud de los episodios de incendios forestales, generándose grandes incendios cuyas emanaciones pueden afectar a poblaciones distanciadas del epicentro. La asociación entre la exposición a las emanaciones de los incendios forestales, el aumento de las concentraciones de material particulado aéreo y la morbilidad respiratoria (exacerbación de asma y enfermedades respiratorias crónicas) ha sido evidenciada en diversos estudios. Sin embargo, es difícil realizar un metaanálisis de ellos, ya que la metodología empleada es muy disímil. Entre los principales mecanismos de morbilidad se encontrarían: la producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias, la activación endotelial y la disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo. Ante la exposición al humo de incendios forestales, se produce daño tisular, aumento de los mecanismos protrombóticos, aumento de la presión arterial y cambios en el ritmo cardiaco, que explicaría los efectos cardiovasculares. Los sujetos con patología cardiovascular preexistente podrían tener mayor riesgo cardiovascular; sin embargo, existen factores confundentes en esta asociación. Por otra parte, el posible riesgo cancerígeno con la exposición a estas emanaciones requiere mayores estudios poblacionales.


Exposure to forest fire fumes is a major national and international public health issue. Climate change that leads to drought and increased summer temperature increases the risk and magnitude of wildfires episodes, generating mega-fires whose fumes not only affect the boundary population, but they may become transcontinental. Association between exposure to forest fire fumes, mainly increased concentrations of air born particulate matter and respiratory morbidity (exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases) has been evidenced by diverse studies. However, it is difficult to carry out meta-analysis with them since the methodology used is dissimilar. Among the main causes of morbidity have been postulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial activation and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Occurrence of tissue damage, increased prothrombotic mechanisms, increased blood pressure and changes in heart rate, would explain the cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to smoke from these fires. However, epidemiological outcomes have not been entirely consistent, as the association between cardiovascular morbidity and exposure to wildfire fumes may be mixed with confounding factors. Despite this, patients with pre-existing cardiovascular pathology may be at increased risk. Finally, the potential risk of carcinogen with exposure to these fumes requires further population studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Wildfires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL