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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 12-16, ene. 28, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354268

ABSTRACT

El neuroblastoma olfativo, también conocido como estesioneuroblastoma, es un tumor derivado de la capa basal del epitelio olfativo. Se presenta como una masa de tejido blando en la porción superior de la cavidad nasal que involucra las células de aire etmoides anteriores y medias en un lado y se extiende a través de la placa cribiforme en la fosa craneal anterior, es poco frecuente y representa menos del 3 % de las neoplasias intranasales. De acuerdo con la evolución epidemiológica, su distribución por edades es bimodal con un pico en pacientes adultos en la segunda década de la vida y otro en los quinta y sexta, sin existir predilección por género reconocida


Olfactory neuroblastoma, also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a tumor derived from the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium. It presents as a soft tissue mass in the upper portion of the nasal cavity that involves the anterior and middle ethmoid air cells on one side and extends through the cribriform plate in the anterior cranial fossa, it is rare and represents less 3% of intranasal neoplasms. According to the epidemiological evolution, its age distribution is bimodal with a peak in adult patients in the second decade of life and another in the fifth and sixth, with no recognized gender predilection


Subject(s)
Olfactory Mucosa , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory , Epithelium , Nasal Cavity , Patients , Air , Neoplasms
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 39-45, 30 Diciembre 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368273

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Existe relación entre la exposición de contaminantes en el aire y problemas respiratorios que van desde síntomas leves en vías respiratorias altas hasta enfermedades que pueden comprometer la vida de los pacientes como: neumonía, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y cáncer pulmonar. OBJETIVO. Registrar los síntomas respiratorios presentados por agentes civiles de tránsito expuestos a smog. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 3 458 y muestra de 454 participantes entre agentes civiles de tránsito, fiscalizadores de tránsito y personal administrativo de la Agencia Metropolitana de Tránsito en el año 2021, seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple estratificado para los dos grupos de participantes; se aplicó un sondeo digital basado en las encuestas: European Community Respiratory Health Survey y condiciones de trabajo. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó la herramienta EPI INFO, donde se realizó pruebas estadísticas bivariadas de Chi2 y análisis multivariado como regresiones logísticas crudas y ajustadas. RESULTADOS. Se observó que la población de trabajadores operativos en vía tuvo alrededor de dos veces más riesgo de desarrollar sibilancias en comparación a la población administrativa OR=2,1 (IC 95% 1,01­4,39); el personal operativo tuvo más del doble de riesgo de desarrollar bronquitis crónica versus la población administrativa OR=2,5 (IC 95% 1,14­5,73). Los resultados fueron ajustados mediante regresión logística con variables de condiciones de trabajo y salud (p=<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN. Se registró una relación significativa entre la contaminación ambiental por smog y enfermedades respiratorias a largo plazo.


INTRODUCTION. There is a relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory problems ranging from mild upper respiratory symptoms to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer is evident. OBJECTIVE. To record the respiratory symptoms presented by civilian traffic officers exposed to smog. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 3 458 and sample of 454 participants among civilian traffic agents, traffic inspectors and administrative personnel of the Metropolitan Traffic Agency in the year 2021, selected by simple stratified random sampling for the two groups of participants; a digital survey was applied based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and working conditions. For data analysis, the EPI INFO tool was used, where bivariate Chi2 statistical tests and multivariate analysis such as crude and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS. It was observed that the population of operational track workers had about twice the risk of developing wheezing compared to the administrative population OR=2,1 (95% CI 1,01-4,39); operational personnel had more than twice the risk of developing chronic bronchitis versus the administrative population OR=2,5 (95% CI 1,14­5,73). Results were adjusted by logist regression with working conditions and health variables (p=<0,05). CONCLUSION. There was a significant relationship between smog pollution and long-term respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Vehicle Emissions/toxicity , Police , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollution , Traffic-Related Pollution , Bronchitis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Air , Air Pollutants , Air Contamination Effects , Asthma, Occupational , Occupational Diseases
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 18-24, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115597

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: comparar la magnitud del dolor y el perímetro abdominal; la incidencia del dolor y la distensión abdominal, y las complicaciones según el agente insuflante utilizado. Pacientes y método: estudio prospectivo analítico de cohorte. Se recolectaron datos de 43 colangiopancreatografías retrógradas endoscópicas (CPRE) y 20 colonoscopias insufladas con dióxido de carbono (CO2); para cada una se buscó un examen control con aire ambiente. En total, se sumaron 86 CPRE y 40 colonoscopias. Además, se realizó una caracterización clínica, un análisis bivariado y multivariado. Resultados: el procedimiento más doloroso fue la colonoscopia; sin embargo, el 60 % de los pacientes de colonoscopia, y el 70 % de aquellos de CPRE, no presentaron dolor 15 minutos después de haber despertado luego del examen. Asimismo, no se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas según la indicación del examen, la presencia o intensidad de dolor al momento del procedimiento, la edad, el sexo o el diagnóstico. El riesgo relativo (RR) de dolor inmediato fue 4,8 veces superior, cuando la insuflación se realizó con aire en vez de CO2 (RR = 4,8; intervalo de confianza [IC], 95 %: 2,3 a 9,2; p <0,001). Entre tanto, el riesgo de distensión abdominal en el grupo con aire fue 2,6 veces superior, en comparación con el grupo insuflado con CO2 (RR = 2,6; IC, 95 %: 1,8 a 3,9; p <0,001). El CO2 redujo la probabilidad y la magnitud de la distensión abdominal y de los dolores inmediatos, posteriores a la colonoscopia o a la CPRE. No hubo complicaciones en ninguno de los 126 pacientes. Conclusiones: el dolor y la distensión abdominal se presentan con menor frecuencia e intensidad cuando se usa CO2 como agente insuflante. Ninguno de los procedimientos presentó complicaciones mayores.


Abstract Objective: This study compares the incidence of abdominal pain and distension, the magnitude of pain, abdominal perimeter, and related complications related to two different insufflating agents. Patients and Method: Prospective analytical cohort study. Data were collected from 43 performances of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCPs) and 20 colonoscopies in which patients were insufflated with CO2. A control examination using ambient air for insufflation was performed for each patient. In total, 86 ERCPs and 40 colonoscopies were performed. The study includes clinical characterizations, bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: The most painful procedure was colonoscopy, but 60% of colonoscopy patients and 70% of ERCP patients had no pain 15 minutes after waking up following their examinations. No statistically significant differences related to reasons for examination, presence or intensity of pain at the time of the procedure, age, sex or diagnosis were found. The relative risk (RR) of immediate pain is 4.8 times higher when insufflation is done with air instead of CO2 (RR = 4.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 9.2; p <0.001). The risk of abdominal distension in the air group was 2.6 times higher than that of the group insufflated with CO2 (RR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.8 to 3.9; p <0.001). CO2 reduces the likelihood and extent of abdominal distension and immediate post colonoscopy or ERCP pain. There were no complications in any of the 126 patients. Conclusions: Abdominal pain and bloating occur less frequently and less intensely when CO2 is used as an insufflating agent. None of the procedures presented major complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain Measurement , Carbon Dioxide , Endoscopy , Colonoscopy , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Air
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18660, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132061

ABSTRACT

The effect of drying method, a process variable, on the powder and compaction properties of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the partial acid hydrolysis of bleached alpha (α) cellulose content of matured linters of Gossypium herbaceum (GH) was investigated. A portion of the wet MCC obtained was fluid bed dried at 60 ± 1 ºC, inlet air of 30 m3 min-1 for 3 h (coded MCC-GossF). The second portion was lyophilized at - 45 ± 2 ºC for 6 h (coded MCC-GossL). The physicochemical, scanning electron micrographs, X ray diffraction patterns and micromeritic properties of the derived MCCs were determined using standard methods. The cohesiveness and compactibility of the powders were investigated using Kawakita model while the deformation and compressibility pattern were determined using Heckel model. Avicel® PH 102 (AV-102) was used as comparing standard. Ash values of < 2%, pH (6.54 ± 0.23 to 6.58 ± 0.08), degree of polymerization, DP (231.50) was obtained. MCC-GossF had higher moisture content, swellability, better flow indices, and lesser porosity than MCC-GossL. Kawakita model demonstrated good consolidation and compactibility for both powders. Compacts of MCC-GossL were significantly (p < 0.05) harder than those of MCC-GossF. Heckel analysis demonstrated good compressibility and deformation pattern that was comparable with AV-102. Compacts of MCC-GossL had better mechanical and tablet compression properties than MCC-GossF


Subject(s)
Powders , Ash/adverse effects , Cellulose/classification , Gossypium herbaceum/analysis , Bays/analysis , Air , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Methods
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 985-990, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012385

ABSTRACT

The measurement of body composition has become an important component in the diagnosis of health, physical conditioning and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of detecting body composition, bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography for athletes and non-athletes. Specifically, we compared the parameters as fat mass, fat free mass and the value of basal metabolic rate. A sample size of 52 men (age 26.2 ± 5.4 years) that included a group of mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters (n = 31, age 27.2 ± 5.5 years) and a group of the non-athletes (n =21, age 24.6 ± 5.1 years). Both groups were measured by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography. Significant differences in % body fat (p<0.05) and fat-free mass (p<0.05) were noted between bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography of non-athletes, but there were no significant differences for athletes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference (p<0.001) of basal metabolic rate between bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography, but the correlation with fat free mass was very strong for both methods. Therefore, the use of bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography may be useful for detecting changes in body composition, but their accuracy is controversial and for this reason we recommend using only one method and not combining them.


La medición de la composición corporal se ha convertido en un componente importante en el diagnóstico de la salud, el acondicionamiento físico y el estado nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar dos métodos para detectar la composición corporal, la impedancia bioeléctrica y la pletismografía de desplazamiento de aire para atletas y no atletas. Específicamente, comparamos los parámetros como masa grasa, masa libre de grasa y el valor de la tasa metabólica basal. Un tamaño de muestra de 52 hombres (edad 26,2 ± 5,4 años) de un grupo de luchadores de artes marciales mixtas (MMA) (n = 31, edad 27,2 ± 5,5 años) y un grupo de no deportistas (n = 21, edad 24,6 ± 5,1 años). Ambos grupos se midieron por impedancia bioeléctrica y pletismografía de desplazamiento de aire. Se observaron diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de grasa corporal (p<0,05) y la masa libre de grasa (p<0,05) entre la impedancia bioeléctrica y la pletismografía de desplazamiento de aire de los no deportistas, sin embargo no hubo diferencias significativas en los atletas. Además, se observó una diferencia significativa (p<0,001) de la tasa metabólica basal entre la impedancia bioeléctrica y la pletismografía de desplazamiento de aire, pero la correlación con la masa libre de grasa fue importante para ambos métodos. Por lo tanto, el uso de la pletismografía de impedancia bioeléctrica y desplazamiento de aire puede ser útil para detectar cambios en la composición corporal, pero su precisión es controvertida por lo que recomendamos usar solo un método y no una combinación de ambos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Plethysmography/methods , Body Composition , Electric Impedance , Athletes , Basal Metabolism , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Martial Arts , Air
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 162-165, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013675

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o resultado entre dois tipos de tonômetros, tendo como padrão ouro a tonometria de aplanação, relacionando com a espessura corneana e suas validações como instrumentos de rastreio populacional. Métodos: Estudo transversal comparativo, realizado com 400 olhos do ambulatório de oftalmologia da Adachi Oftalmologia, em Macapá (Amapá), entre os valores médios da pressão ocular medidos pelo tonômetro Icare®, o Tonômetro Pneumático e o Tonômetro de Aplanação de Goldmann em função da espessura corneana. Foram divididos conforme a ECC em 3 grupos. Grupo 1: 260 olhos com ECC< 530µ; grupo 2: 217 olhos com ECC entre 530µ e 590µ; e, grupo 3: 157 olhos com ECC>590µ. Resultados: A ECC média obtida na paquimetria foi de 557µ, variando de 651µ a 477µ (desvio padrão de 32.9). A PIO média obtida pela TP foi de 19,4 mmHg (com desvio padrão de 2,32); pelo Icare® foi de 16,7mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,12); e, na TAG foi de 15.5 mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,02). Para paquimetrias inferiores a 530µ e superiores a 590µ a PIOm não diferiu significativamente entre a TAG e Icare® (p = 0,232), sendo estatisticamente significativa diferença obtida para córneas com ECC entre 530 e 590 µ. A PIOm obtida pelo TP foi significativamente maior do que a pressão ocular média dos TAG e Icare® (p < 0,001 para ambos) em todos os grupos. Conclusões: Os três métodos podem ser utilizados em campanhas de rastreamento, porém o Icare® se mostrou mais confiável que a TP, com valores obtidos estatisticamente mais confiáveis quando comparados à TP. Existe suficiente concordância entre o Icare e a TAG para recomendar o seu uso.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the result between two types of tonometres, using as gold standard the aplanation tonometry, relating to the corneal thickness and its validations as instruments of population screening. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 eyes from the ophthalmology clinic of Adachi Ophthalmology, in Macapá (Amapá), between the mean values of ocular pressure measured by the Icare® tonometro, the Pneumatic Tonometer and the Goldmann Flattening Tonometro as a function of corneal thickness. They were divided according to ECC in 3 groups. Group 1: 260 eyes with ECC <530µ; group 2: 217 eyes with ECC between 530µ and 590µ; and, group 3: 157 eyes with ECC> 590µ. Results: The mean ECC obtained in pachymetry was 557µ, ranging from 651µ to 477µ (standard deviation of 32.9). The mean IOP obtained by PT was 19.4 mmHg (with a standard deviation of 2.32); by Icare® was 16.7mmHg (standard deviation of 2.12); and in the TAG it was 15.5 mmHg (standard deviation of 2.02). For pachymetry less than 530µ and greater than 590µ, PIOm did not differ significantly between TAG and Icare® (p = 0.232), and a statistically significant difference was obtained for corneas with ECC between 530 and 590 µ. The IOP obtained by the PT was significantly higher than the mean ocular pressure of the TAG and Icare® (p <0.001 for both) in all groups. Conclusions: All three methods can be used in screening campaigns, but Icare® proved to be more reliable than TP, with values obtained statistically more reliable when compared to TP. There is sufficient agreement between Icare and TAG to recommend its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air , Equipment Design , Corneal Pachymetry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690651

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The changes in serum adipokines and cytokines related to oxidative stress were examined during 3 months 'Off to On' and 'On to Off' periods using negatively charged particle-dominant indoor air conditions (NCPDIAC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seven volunteers participated in the study, which included 'OFF to 3 months ON' periods (ON trials) for a total of 16 times, and 'ON to 3 months OFF' (OFF trials) periods for a total of 13 times.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>With the exception of one case, serum amyloid A (SAA) levels decreased significantly during the ON trials.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Considering that SAA is an acute phase reactive protein such as C reactive protein (CRP), this observed decrease might indicate the prevention of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic changes, since an increase in high-sensitive CRP is associated with the subsequent detection of these events.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Air , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Metabolism
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 75-77, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042643

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se analiza el desarrollo histórico de los términos "infección" y "miasma". Se entendía por miasma un tipo de aire corrupto o pestilente que emanaba de cuerpos en putrefacción y que propalaba las enfermedades infecciones. Dicho concepto fue el dominante para comprender la causa de las enfermedades infecciosas desde la antigüedad hasta los albores de la teoría microbiana. El concepto de infección tuvo inicialmente un significado similar al de miasma, pero actualmente se define como la invasión de un hospedero por un agente infeccioso. En este trabajo se discutirá que ambos términos derivan del mismo concepto original.


The historical development of the terms "infection" and "miasma" is analyzed. Miasma was understood as a kind of corrupt or pestilent air that emanated from putrefactive bodies and spread infectious diseases. This concept was the dominant one to understand the cause of infectious diseases from antiquity to the dawn of the microbial theory. The concept of infection initially had a similar meaning to miasma, but is currently defined as the invasion of a host by an infectious agent. It will be discussed in this paper that both terms derive from the same original concept.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, Ancient , Semantics , Air , Air Pollution , Infections/history , Postmortem Changes , Cartoons as Topic , Infections/etiology , Terminology as Topic , Odorants
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 16: e17052, jan.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-884032

ABSTRACT

Aim: The propagation of S. aureus in hospital and dental environments is considered an important public health problem since resistant strains can cause serious infections in humans. The genetic variability of 99 oxacillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (ORSA) from the dental patients (oral cavity) and environments (air) was studied by isoenzyme genotyping. Methods: S. aureus isolates were studied using isoenzyme markers (alcohol dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose dehydrogenase, D-galactose dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and α/ß-esterase) and genetic (Nei's statistics) and cluster analysis (UPGMA algorithm). Results: A highly frequent polyclonal pattern was observed in this population of ORSA isolates, suggesting various sources of contamination or microbial dispersion. Genetic relationship analysis showed a high degree of polymorphism between the strains, and it revealed three taxa (A, B and C) distantly genetically related (0.653≤dij≤1.432) and fifteen clusters (I to XV) moderately related (0.282≤dij<0.653). These clusters harbored two or more highly related strains (0≤dij<0.282), and the existence of microevolutionary processes in the population of ORSA. Conclusion: This research reinforces the hypothesis of the existence of several sources of contamination and/or dispersal of ORSA of clinical and epidemiologically importance, which could be associated with carriers (patients) and dental environmental (air) (AU)


Subject(s)
Air , Dental Offices , Isoenzymes , Mouth , Oxacillin , Staphylococcus aureus , Genotyping Techniques
10.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 1 sept. 2017. a) f: 15 l:23 p. graf, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 54).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1103995

ABSTRACT

La atmósfera contiene varios gases que, en concentraciones mayores que las normales, pueden ser peligrosos para los seres humanos, animales y plantas. Todos estos gases potencialmente tóxicos se denominan "contaminantes del aire". Entre ellos se encuentran: monóxido de carbono (CO), el dióxido de azufre (SO2) y el dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2). Además de los gases, la atmósfera contiene una gran variedad de partículas sólidas y líquidas, de variados tamaños. El material particulado en suspensión (MPS) en el aire incluye partículas totales en suspensión (PTS), material particulado con diámetro aerodinámico mediano inferior a 10 µm (MP 10) y 2,5 µm (MP 2,5) respectivamente, partículas finas y ultrafinas. Se presentan una serie de gráficos que permiten observar los valores de Material Particulado menor a 10 micrones (PM 10), en las estaciones de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire que posee la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (La Boca,Parque Centenario y Córdoba), las cuales registran las concentraciones de éste contaminante en forma continua (durante 24 horas, los 365 días del año), mediante métodos homologados internacionalmente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Monitoring Stations , Air Monitoring , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/classification , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Toxic Substances , Air
11.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(3): 177-181, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885724

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: In Brazil, an increasing number of people are submitted to colonoscopy, either for screening or for therapeutic purposes. Aim: To evaluate whether there are advantages of using carbon dioxide (CO2) over air for insufflation. Methods: Two hundred and ten of 219 patients were considered eligible for this study and were randomized into two groups according to the gas insufflation used: Air Group (n=104) and CO2 Group (n=97). The study employed a double-blind design. Results: The Air and CO2 Groups were similar in respect to bowel preparation evaluated using the Boston scale, age, gender, previous surgery, maneuvers necessary for the advancement of the device, and presence of polyps, tumors or signs of diverticulitis. However, "waking up with pain" and "pain at discharge" were more prevalent in the Air Group, albeit not statistically significant, with post-exam bloating seen only in the Air Group. The responses to a questionnaire, applied to analyze the late post-exam period, showed more comfort with the use of CO2. Conclusions: The use of CO2 is better than air as it avoids post-examination bloating, thereby providing greater comfort to patients.


RESUMO Racional: No Brasil, estima-se crescente aumento da população submetida à colonoscopia, apesar do desconforto do exame, decorrente sobretudo da insuflação colônica. Objetivo: Verificar se há vantagens do uso de CO2 sobre o ar como elemento de insuflação. Métodos: Um total de 219 participantes foram submetidos à análise de elegibilidade e dele extraíram-se 210 eleitos, que foram randomizados em dois grupos, de acordo com o elemento utilizado: ar, n=104 e CO2, n=97. O ensaio seguiu o modelo duplo-cego. Resultados: Os grupos demonstraram-se similares quando cotejados preparo intestinal avaliado pela Escala de Boston, idade, gênero, operação prévia, manobras necessárias para progressão do aparelho, presença de pólipo, tumor ou sinais de diverticulite, valorizando a comparação entre eles quanto ao elemento de insuflação. Então, observou-se que "acordar com dor" e a presença de dor na ocasião da alta foram bem mais prevalentes no "Grupo Ar", embora sem diferença estatisticamente significante, sendo a distensão pós-exame observada apenas no "Grupo Ar". De acordo com o questionário clínico aplicado para análise do período tardio pós-exame, as respostas apontaram muito mais conforto com o uso do CO2. Os elementos de insuflação não pareceram modificar substancialmente os aspectos técnicos do exame nem provocar índices expressivos de enantema da mucosa. Conclusão: O uso do dióxido de carbono é superior ao ar, pois evita a distensão abdominal pós-exame conferindo maior conforto aos pacientes no período pós-exame.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Carbon Dioxide , Insufflation/methods , Colonoscopy/methods , Air , Double-Blind Method
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(1): 97-104, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-839119

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion on t®m phase transformation, roughness, topography and the elemental composition of three Y-TZP (Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) dental ceramics: two conventional (Lava Frame and IPS ZirCad) and one with high-translucency (Lava Plus). Plates obtained from sintered blocks of each ceramic were divided into four groups: AS (as-sintered); 30 (air-abrasion with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles); 50 (air-abrasion with 50 mm Al2O3 particles) and 150 (air-abrasion with 150 mm Al2O3 particles). After the treatments, the plates were submitted to X-ray diffractometry; 3-D profilometry and SEM/EDS. The AS surfaces were composed of Zr and t phases. All treatments produced t®m phase transformation in the ceramics. The diameter of air-abrasion particles influenced the roughness (150>50>30>AS) and the topography. SEM analysis showed that the three treatments produced groove-shaped microretentions on the ceramic surfaces, which increased with the diameter of air-abrasion particles. EDS showed a decrease in Zr content along with the emergence of O and Al elements after air-abrasion. Presence of Si was also detected on the plates air-abraded with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles. It was concluded that irrespective of the type and diameter of the particles, air-abrasion produced t®m phase transformation, increased the roughness and changed the elemental composition of the three Y-TZP dental ceramics. Lava Plus also behaved similarly to the conventional Y-TZP ceramics, indicating that this high translucency ceramic could be more suitable to build monolithic ceramic restorations in the aesthetic restorative dentistry field.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito da abrasão a ar na transformação de fase t®m, na rugosidade, topografia e composição elementar de três cerâmicas Y-TZP (Zircônia tetragonal policristalina estabilizada por ítrio): duas convencionais (Lava Frame e ZirCad) e uma de alta translucidez (Lava Plus). Placas obtidas de blocos sinterizados de cada cerâmica foram divididos em quatro grupos: AS (pré-sinterizado); 30 (jateamento com partículas de Al2O3 de 30 mm cobertas com Si); 50 (jateamento com partículas de Al2O3 de 50 mm) e 150 (jateamento com partículas de Al2O3 de 150 mm). Após os tratamentos, as placas foram submetidas à difratometria de Rx, perfilometria 3-D e microscopia eletrônica de varredura com espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de Rx (SEM/EDS). As superfícies pré-sinterizadas apresentaram predominantemente Zr e fase tetragonal. Todos os tratamentos superficiais produziram transformação t®m nas cerâmicas avaliadas. A topografia e a rugosidade foram influenciadas pelo diâmetro das partículas abrasivas (150>50>30>AS). A análise através de SEM mostrou que os três tratamentos produziram fendas retentivas nas superfícies das cerâmicas, por influência do tamanho das partículas. A análise através de EDS mostrou uma diminuição da concentração de Zr, paralela ao surgimento de O e Al, após o jateamento. No grupo tratado com partículas de Al2O3 de 30 mm cobertas com Si foi também observado um aumento de Si após o jateamento. Concluiu-se que, independente do tipo e do diâmetro das partículas, o jateamento produziu transformação t®m, aumentou a rugosidade e alterou a composição elementar das cerâmicas avaliadas. A Lava Plus apresentou comportamento semelhante às cerâmicas convencionais, indicando que esta cerâmica de alta translucidez pode ser mais adequada à confecção de restaurações monolíticas no campo da odontologia estética restauradora.


Subject(s)
Air
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 299-302, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the effect of 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) with that of air on graft detachment rates for intraocular tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Methods: Forty-two eyes of patients who underwent DMEK by a single surgeon (A.S.J.) at Wilmer Eye Institute between January 2012 and 2014 were identified; 21 received air for intraocular tamponade and the next consecutive 21 received SF6. The main outcome measure was the graft detachment rate; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The graft detachment rate was 67% in the air group and 19% in the SF6 group (p<0.05). No complete graft detachments occurred, and all partial detachments underwent intervention with injection of intraocular air. The percentages of eyes with 20/25 or better vision were not different between the groups (67% vs. 71%). Univariate analysis showed significantly higher detachment rates with air tamponade (OR, 8.50; p<0.005) and larger donor graft size (OR, 14.96; p<0.05). Multivariate analysis with gas but not graft size included showed that gas was an independent statistically significant predictor of outcome (OR, 6.65; p<0.05). When graft size was included as a covariate, gas was no longer a statistically significant predictor of detachment but maintained OR of 7.81 (p=0.063) similar to the results of univariate and multivariate analyses without graft size. Conclusion: In comparison with air, graft detachment rates for intraocular tamponade in DMEK were significantly reduced by 20% SF6.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as taxas de descolamento do botão endotelial com o uso de gás hexafluoreto de enxofre a 20% (SF6) em relação ao ar para o tamponamento intraocular na ceratoplastia endotelial da membrana de Descemet (DMEK). Métodos: Quarenta e dois olhos foram operados com a técnica de DMEK por um único cirurgião (A.S.J.) no Wilmer Eye Institute entre janeiro de 2012 a 2014. Os primeiros 21 olhos receberam ar para o tamponamento intraocular após o enxerto do botão endotelial e os 21 olhos seguintes receberam SF6. O desfecho primário medido foi a taxa de descolamento do botão endotelial por análise univariada e multivariada. Resultados: A taxa de descolamento do botão endotelial foi de 67% no grupo que recebeu ar vs 19% no grupo que recebeu SF6 (p<0,05). Não houve nenhum descolamento total de botão e todos os parciais foram tratados com injeção de ar intraocular. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos em relação a AV de 20/25 ou melhor (67% vs 71%). A análise univariada demonstrou maior taxa de descolamento com o tamponamento por ar intraocular (OR 8,50, p<0,005) e com botões doadores maiores (OR 14,96, p<0,05). Na análise multivariada, incluindo gás, mas não o tamanho do botão doador, o tipo de gás usado permaneceu sendo um fator preditivo independente e estatisticamente significativo para o desfecho primário, com OR de 6,65 (p<0,05). Porém, quando o tamanho do botão doador foi incluso como covariável, o gás perdeu a sua significância como preditor de descolamento, mantendo o OR de 7,81 (p=0,063), semelhante as análises univariada e multivariada excluindo o tamanho do botão doador. Conclusão: O uso de gás hexafluoreto de enxofre a 20% (SF6) para o tamponamento intraocular reduz a taxa de descolamento do botão endotelial quando comparado ao uso de ar no DMEK.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Sulfur Hexafluoride/administration & dosage , Endothelium, Corneal/transplantation , Descemet Membrane/surgery , Air , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty/methods , Endotamponade/methods , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Visual Acuity/physiology , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Intraocular Pressure
14.
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2015; 8 (2): 202-206
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178063

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the patients, staff, air and environments of an ICU in a hospital in Tehran. During this study, 37 S. aureus isolates were collected and analyzed via the spa typing method. Of the 37 S. aureus isolates, 35 [94%] were methicillin resistant [MRSA], 28 [76%] were identified as SCCmec types III or IIIA, four [10%] were identified as SCCmec types I or IA and three [8%] were identified a SCCmec type IV. All of the MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin and contained mecA. The isolates were all spa typed and found to comprise 11 spa types, including t7688, t7689, and t7789, which have not previously been reported. The spa type t7688 was isolated from the hands of two ICU personnel. The spa type t7689 was observed among five isolates from the air and the environment. The spa type t7789 was observed among three isolates from the patients, ventilators and the air. The majority of the isolates [43%] belonged to spa types t030 and t037. Our results revealed that MRSA strains that were isolated from the air, the environment of the ICU and the patients who were colonized or infected with MRSA often exhibited the same spa and SCCmec types. These results also reveal that the isolates from the patients and environment were usually indistinguishable


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Patients , Health Personnel , Air , Air Microbiology , Environment , Intensive Care Units , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326057

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determination of disulfiram in the workplace atmosphere by liquid chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sampling with glass fiber filter, eluting with methanol, separating with C18 column, and determination with liquid chromatography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The bearing capacity of glass fiber filter exceeded 3.45 mg per piece. The elution efficiency was 97.8%∼101.0% The relative standard deviation varied from 1.09% to 1.44%. The limit of detection was 0.1 µg/ml. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.011 mg/m³ (with sampled air volume of 45 L).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method has high selectivity, accuracy, and precision and strong applicability.</p>


Subject(s)
Air , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Chromatography, Liquid , Methods , Disulfiram , Workplace
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determination of allyl chloride in the workplace atmosphere by solvent desorption-capillary column gas chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Allyl chloride in the atmosphere was adsorbed by activated charcoal tubes and desorbed using dichloromethane, and was then separated by capillary column gas chromatography and determined by flame ionization detector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The concentration of allyl chloride showed a good linear relationship within the range of 0∼200 µg/ml. The linear regression equation was y = 1.27x-0.22 with the correlation coefficient r being 0.999 8. The limit of detection was 0.20 µg /mL. If 7.5 L of air was sampled, the minimum detectable concentration was 0.03 mg/m³. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) of repetitive measurement at the high, middle, and low concentration levels were 2.7%∼4.8%. The average sampling efficiency was 100%. The overall desorption efficiency was 94.4%. The breakthrough volume was over 0.59 mg (100 mg activated charcoal).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method applies to the determination of allyl chloride in the workplace atmosphere.</p>


Subject(s)
Air , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Allyl Compounds , Chromatography, Gas , Methods , Linear Models , Methylene Chloride , Solvents , Workplace
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326053

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determination of N-isopropylaniline in the workplace atmosphere by gas chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Air samples were collected by silica gel tube and desorbed by acetone. Then they were separated through DB-WAX columns and N-isopropylaniline was determined by flame ionization detector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The concentration of N-isopropylaniline showed a good linear relationship within the range of 1.40∼665.0 µg/ml. The sampling efficiency was 100%. The accuracy was 96%∼ 99% and the precision was 2.1%∼7.0%. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.056 mg/m(3) (with sampled air volume of 7.5 L).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method meets the requirements of analysis and applies to the determination of N-isopropylaniline in the workplace atmosphere.</p>


Subject(s)
Air , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Aniline Compounds , Chromatography, Gas , Methods , Workplace
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326052

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for the determination of N-butylbenzene in the workplace atmosphere by gas chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>N-butylbenzene in the workplace atmosphere was collected by activated charcoal tube, desorbed using carbon disulfide, and determined by capillary column gas chromatography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The method showed a linear relationship within the range of 0∼100 µg/ml. The regression equation was y = 0.870x-0.014, with the correlation coefficient r being 0.999 9. The limit of detection was 0.32 µg/ml. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.21 mg/m³ (with sampled air volume of 1.5 L). The average spike recovery rate was 97.8%∼102.6%. The within-run precision was 3.06% and the between-run precision was 3.64%. The rate of average desorption was 99.6%. The breakthrough volume was 6.34 mg. The sampling efficiency was 100%. The samples could be stored for at least 7 days at room temperature.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All parameters of the method meet the requirements of GBZ/T 210.4-2008 "Guide for establishing occupational health standards-Part 4 Determination methods of air chemicals in workplace" and can be applied for the determination of N-butylbenzene in workplace atmosphere.</p>


Subject(s)
Air , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Benzene Derivatives , Chromatography, Gas , Methods , Linear Models , Workplace
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 720-724, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302095

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the impacts of air temperature on years of life lost (YLL) among the residents in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, Guangdong province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Daily mortality and meteorology data in Guangzhou and Zhuhai were collected, and distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to evaluate the cumulative and delayed effects of daily air temperature on YLL of total non-accident mortality. The accumulative effect of air temperature on mortality under the extreme high temperature (0-1 days) and extreme low temperature (0-13 days) situation in Guangzhou and Zhuhai were analyzed respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average YLL was 1 928.0 in Guangzhou and 202.5 in Zhuhai. The exposure-response functions seemed to be non-linear. The hot effect seemed to be acute and reached the peak at the same day, while the cold effect reached the peak at 5(th) days and lasted for about two weeks. Low temperature had stronger gross effect than high temperature had. The cold effect among males was greater than that among females in Guangzhou. The hot/cold effect on YLL was greater in people aged ≥ 65 years than in people aged < 65 years and in people suffering from respiratory disease than in people suffering from cardiovascular disease in both Guangzhou and Zhuhai.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The effects of high and low temperatures on YLL were obvious, and the impact of low temperature was greater. The elderly and people suffering from respiratory disease or cardiovascular disease are the vulnerable populations.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Air , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Extreme Cold Weather , Extreme Heat , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality, Premature , Nonlinear Dynamics , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Epidemiology , Time Factors
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 728-738
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153753

ABSTRACT

Effect of environmental hypertonicity, due to exposure to 300 mM mannitol solution for 7 days, on the induction of ureogenesis and also on amino acid metabolism was studied in the air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus, which is already known to have the capacity to face the problem of osmolarity stress in addition to other environmental stresses in its natural habitats. Exposure to hypertonic mannitol solution led to reduction of ammonia excretion rate by about 2-fold with a concomitant increase of urea-N excretion rate by about 2-fold. This was accompanied by significant increase in the levels of both ammonia and urea in different tissues and also in plasma. Further, the environmental hypertonicity also led to significant accumulation of different non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) and to some extent the essential FAAs, thereby causing a total increase of non-essential FAA pool by 2-3-fold and essential FAA pool by 1.5-2.0-fold in most of the tissues studied including the plasma. The activities of three ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase in liver and kidney tissues, and four key amino acid metabolism-related enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase (reductive amination), alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase were also significantly up-regulated in different tissues of the fish while exposing to hypertonic environment. Thus, more accumulation and excretion of urea-N observed during hypertonic exposure were probably associated with the induction of ureogenesis through the induced OUC, and the increase of amino acid pool was probably mainly associated with the up-regulation of amino acid synthesizing machineries in this catfish in hypertonic environment. These might have helped the walking catfish in defending the osmotic stress and to acclimatize better under hypertonic environment, which is very much uncommon among freshwater teleosts.


Subject(s)
Air , Amino Acids/metabolism , Ammonia/analysis , Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Environment , Hypertonic Solutions/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Ornithine/metabolism , Osmosis/drug effects , Respiration , Urea/analysis , Urea/metabolism , Walking
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