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Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 51(2): 144-149, 20230000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1442514


Introducción: las infecciones profundas del cuello son patologías complejas con gran potencial de complicaciones graves, que, debido a su ubicación pueden ser de difícil reconocimiento y manejo. Es de gran importancia realizar un diagnóstico asertivo y ofrecer el tratamiento adecuado para poder disminuir las complicaciones que se pudieran presentar. La ecografía es una ayuda diagnóstica cada vez más utilizada que nos puede ayudar a guiar nuestras conductas de manera rápida y efectiva. Caso clínico: presentamos un caso de un paciente con un absceso en cuello, en el que la utilización de la ecografía de manera intraoperatoria facilitó la toma de decisiones y evitó procedimientos invasivos innecesarios. Conclusiones: el Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) es una forma rápida y práctica de resolver preguntas y facilitar la toma de decisiones objetivas en el entorno perioperatorio.

Introduction: Deep neck infections are a complex group of pathologies with great potential for serious complications due to their location. Therefore, recognition and management can be a challenge. To reduce the risk of complications it is extremely important to have an assertive diagnosis y and offer the proper treatment. An ultrasound is a diagnosis tool that is being used more often because it can help us guide our medical decisions in a quick and effective way. Clinical case: We present a case of a patient who had an intraoperative ultrasound which helped in the decision making and avoided any further invasive procedures. Conclusions: The Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) is a quick and practical way to solve questions and facilitate objective decisions in the perioperative environment.

Humans , Male , Female , Airway Management , Neck , Case Reports , Ultrasonography , Abscess
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(3): 301-304, May-June 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439607


Abstract Aspiration of gastric contents during induction of general anesthesia remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. Recent data show that pulmonary aspiration still accounts for many cases with implications on mortality despite technical and technological evolution. Practical, ethical, and methodological issues prevent high-quality research in the setting of aspiration and rapid sequence induction/intubation, and significant controversy is ongoing. Patients' position, drugs choice, dosing and timing, use of cricoid force, and a reliable risk assessment are widely debated with significant questions still unanswered. We focus our discussion on three approaches to promote a better understanding of rapid sequence induction/intubation and airway management decision-making. Firstly, we review how we can use qualitative and quantitative assessment of fasting status and gastric content with the point-of-care ultrasound as an integral part of preoperative evaluation and planning. Secondly, we propose using imaging-based mathematical models to study different patient positions and aspiration mechanisms, including identifying aspiration triggers. Thirdly, we promote the development of a global data collection system aiming to obtain precise epidemiological data. Therefore, we fill the gap between evidence-based medicine and experts' opinion through easily accessible and diffused computer-based databases. A better understanding of aspiration epidemiology obtained through focused global data gathering systems, the widespread use of ultrasound-based prandial status evaluation, and development of advanced mathematical models might potentially guide safer airway management decision making in the 21st century.

Humans , Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Incidence , Data Collection , Mathematics
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(3): 250-257, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439608


Abstract Background: High-fidelity (HF) pediatric patient simulators are expensive. This randomized study aimed to compare the quality and educational impact of a full-scale simulation workshop with an HF infant simulator (SimBaby™, Laerdal) or with a low-cost (LC) simulator composed of an inert infant manikin with SimBaby™ software that displays respiratory/hemodynamic parameters on a monitor for medical education in pediatric difficult airway management. Methods: After written informed consent, anesthetists and emergency or ICU physicians participated in teams (4 to 6 participants) in a training session that included direct participation and observation of two difficult intubation scenarios. They were randomized into two groups (HF group, n = 65 and LC group, n = 63). They filled out a simulation quality score (SQS, 0 to 50), self-evaluated their anesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) score (15 to 60), and an educational quality score (EQS, 0 to 60) immediately (T0, main criteria), as well as 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months after the training session. Results: We enrolled 128 physicians. Direct participation SQS (39 ± 5 HF group versus 38 ± 5 LC group), observation SQS (41 ± 4 H F group versus 39 ± 5 LC group), ANTS scores (38 ± 4 HF group versus 39 ± 6 LC group), T0 SQS (44 ± 5 HF group versus 43 ± 6 LC group), T3 and T6 SQS were not different between groups. Conclusion: Our low-cost simulator should be suggested as a less expensive alternative to an HF simulator for continuing medical education in pediatric difficult airway management.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Education, Medical, Continuing , Simulation Training , Clinical Competence , Airway Management
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(3): 351-353, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439623


Abstract Stenting for lower tracheal stenosis is a tricky situation and for the safe conduct of anesthesia, it is imperative to maintain spontaneous respiration. Airway topicalization is routinely recommended for anticipated difficult airway. We report a case of upper airway obstruction following lidocaine nebulization in a patient to be taken for tracheal stenting for lower tracheal stenosis. We would like to highlight that close monitoring of the patient is advisable during airway topicalization to detect any airway obstruction at the earliest and how fiberoptic intubation can play a pivotal role to secure the airway in an emergency scenario.

Humans , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Anesthesia , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 223-226, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439598


Abstract The authors report the case of a 71-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with acute ischemic stroke. She was treated with rt-PA and interventional endovascular revascularization and developed rapidly progressing angioedema that led to emergency intubation. The standard treatment was not very effective and the swelling improved after infusion of fresh frozen plasma. Angioedema after rt-PA infusion could be a life-threatening emergency that requires quick airway management by skilled professionals. As this condition is triggered by several factors, such as unregulated histamine and bradykinin production, the traditional treatment recommended by the guidelines may not be sufficient and the use of FFP can be considered as a safe and valuable aid.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Angioedema/chemically induced , Angioedema/therapy , Plasma , Histamine , Airway Management
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 357-362, 20230303. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425216


Introducción. Los tumores glómicos provienen de los cuerpos glómicos, que son estructuras con función de termorregulación y se encuentran distribuidas por todo el cuerpo humano, principalmente a nivel distal de las extremidades, donde es común encontrar lesiones características, aunque hay reportes de casos que se presentaron como neoformación en localizaciones más inusuales. Su etiología aun es desconocida. No se sospechan en muchos pacientes y el diagnostico se realiza de manera incidental, por estudios imagenológicos o anatomopatológicos. Caso clínico. Paciente femenina de 66 años, con presencia de tumor glómico en vía aérea, diagnosticado por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, que fue sometido a resección quirúrgica, con buena evolución posterior. Discusión. Esta presentación atípica de tumor glómico en vía aérea se manifiesta principalmente con síntomas y signos relacionados con obstrucción de la vía aérea. El manejo oportuno es primordial y el diagnóstico definitivo es por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, donde se observan las características de las células glómicas, estructuras vasculares, músculo liso y la positividad en la inmunotinción de marcadores como actina del músculo liso, CD34, y actina específica del músculo, entre otras. Conclusión. Los tumores glómicos son neoformaciones benignas raras, con presentación más común en zonas distales. Su aparición depende de factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos de los pacientes. Su tasa de recidiva es muy baja en comparación de otros tumores

Introduction. Glomus tumors originate from glomus bodies, which are structures with thermoregulatory function and are distributed throughout the human body, mainly at the distal level of the extremities where it is common to find these characteristic lesions. Although, there are case reports of neoformation presentations with more unusual locations. Their etiology is still unknown. Many times when there is evidence of lesions in atypical areas they are not suspected in many patients and the diagnosis is made incidentally by imaging and/or anatomopathological studies. Clinical case. A 66-year-old female patient with the presence of a glomus tumor in the airway diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, underwent surgical resection and presented good evolution after surgery. Discussion. This atypical presentation of glomus tumor in the airway presents mainly with symptoms and signs related to airway obstruction. Timely management is paramount in these patients, and the definitive diagnosis is by histopathology and immunohistochemistry where the presence of the characteristics of glomus cells, vascular structures, smooth muscle and immunostaining positivity towards some markers such as smooth muscle actin, CD34, muscle specific actin, among others, are seen. Conclusion. This type of tumors are rare benign neoformations, with common presentations in distal areas. Their appearance depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the patients and their recurrence rate is very low compared to other tumors

Humans , Tracheal Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Glomus Tumor , Trachea , Biopsy , Airway Management
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(4): 510-513, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447631


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of rare genetic inherited diseases with a progressive course due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological systems that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. Clinical manifestations are variable, multisystemic, and include severe morphological changes. The anesthetic management of these patients is complex, particularly airway management, which can be planned to include a fiberoptic airway investigation prior to surgery. We present two cases of patients with MPS type VI and VII who underwent fiberoptic airway mapping under conscious sedation, with no complications. Since MPS is a rare but challenging disease concerning the airway management, we propose a safe and effective anesthetic technique that could be used for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and allow fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation at the time of surgery.

Humans , Wakefulness , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
MedUNAB ; 25(3): [492-498], 01-12-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436139


Introducción. El manejo de la vía aérea difícil anticipada es un reto anestésico que supone la valoración preoperatoria de las características anatómicas y los factores de riesgo específicos del paciente. La intubación difícil se presenta en 1.6 de 1,000 eventos y la intubación fallida en 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar la importancia del uso de dispositivos (específicamente videolaringoscopio) en pacientes con predicción de vía aérea difícil. Presentación del caso. Hombre de 63 años con gran masa facial con extensión a nariz, labio superior, erosión a nivel del maxilar superior que ocupaba cavidad oral, con predictores de ventilación e intubación difícil, programado para rinectomía, osteotomía Lefort II, reconstrucción y traqueostomía, con intubación exitosa con videolaringoscopio en primer intento bajo sedación consciente y ventilación espontánea. Discusión. La vía aérea difícil es un escenario relacionado a factores externos e internos del paciente y a complicaciones pre e intraoperatorias. El videolaringoscopio es una herramienta útil que permite la intubación exitosa y disminuye los posibles eventos adversos (como se observó en el paciente del caso presentado) y es descrito en diferentes reportes de casos con compromiso parcial o total de la vía aérea. Conclusión. La videolaringoscopia, en casos de vía aérea difícil anticipada, está asociada con un menor tiempo de intubación, un buen perfil de seguridad y una alta tasa de éxito, comparable a la del fibrobroncoscopio, se logra la intubación en el primer intento en la mayoría de las veces y, por ello, debería considerarse como primera opción.

Introduction. Management of an anticipated difficult airway is an anesthetic challenge that involves preoperative assessment of the patient's specific anatomic characteristics and risk factors. Difficult intubation occurs in 1.6 of 1,000 events and failed intubation in 0.06 of 1,000 events. The objective of this report is to show the importance of the use of devices (specifically videolaryngoscope) in patients with predicted difficult airway. Case Presentation. 63-year-old man with large facial mass with extensión to the nose, upper lip, erosion at the level of the upper jaw occupying the oral cavity, with predictors of ventilation and difficult intubation, scheduled for rhinectomy, Lefort II osteotomy, reconstruction and tracheostomy, with successful intubation with videolaryngoscope on the first attempt under conscious sedation and spontaneous ventilation. Discussion. Difficult airway is a scenario related to external and internal patient factors and to pre- and intraoperative complications. The videolaryngoscope is a useful tool that allows successful intubation and decreases possible adverse events (as observed in the patient of the case presented) and is described in different reports of cases with partial or total airway compromise. Conclusion. Videolaryngoscopy, in cases of anticipated difficult airway, is associated with a shorter intubation time, a good safety profile and a high success rate, comparable to that of fibrobronchoscopy, intubation is achieved on the first attempt in most cases and should therefore be considered as a first choice.

Introdução. O manejo da via aérea difícil antecipada é um desafio anestésico que envolve a avaliação pré-operatória das características anatômicas e dos fatores de risco específicos do paciente. A intubação difícil ocorre em 1.6 de 1,000 eventos e a intubação falha em 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar a importância do uso de dispositivos (especificamente videolaringoscópio) em pacientes com previsão de via aérea difícil. Apresentação do caso. Homem de 63 anos com grande massa facial estendendo-se ao nariz, lábio superior e erosão ao nível do maxilar superior que ocupava a cavidade oral, com preditores de ventilação e intubação difícil, programado para rinectomia, osteotomia Lefort II, reconstrução e traqueostomia, com intubação bem-sucedida, com videolaringoscópio na primeira tentativa sob sedação consciente e ventilação espontânea. Discussão. A via aérea difícil é um cenário relacionado a fatores externos e internos do paciente e a complicações pré e intraoperatórias. O videolaringoscópio é uma ferramenta útil que permite o sucesso da intubação e reduz possíveis eventos adversos (como observado no paciente do caso apresentado) e está descrito em diversos relatos de casos com comprometimento parcial ou total da via aérea. Conclusão. A videolaringoscopia, em casos de via aérea difícil antecipada, está associada a um menor tempo de intubação, um bom perfil de segurança e uma alta taxa de sucesso, comparável à fibrobroncoscopia, a intubação é realizada na primeira tentativa na maioria dos casos e, portanto, deve ser considerada como a primeira opção.

Airway Management , Laryngoscopy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Intubation , Anesthesia
Rev. ADM ; 79(5): 271-275, sept.-oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427848


Introducción: la vía aérea difícil es aquella situación clínica en la cual un anestesiólogo entrenado convencionalmente experimenta dificultad en la aplicación de ventilación con mascarilla facial, en la intubación endotraqueal o ambas, es de vital importancia su identificación, puesto que su manejo adecuado marcará la diferencia en el desenlace de los pacientes que requieren intubación, en especial los recibidos en urgencias. Objetivo: revisar de manera sistemática el estado actual del conocimiento y evidencia clínica relacionada al manejo de la vía aérea difícil en in- tubación de emergencia. Material y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática en PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO y OVID; se emplearon los términos manejo de vía aérea difícil e intubación de emergencia. Resul- tados: la búsqueda arrojó 356 resultados, se excluyeron los estudios de revisión sistemática, metaanálisis, artículos basados en opiniones, infor- mes de casos, cartas al editor; 128 artículos fueron analizados; además, se buscó analizar artículos de distinta área de la investigación médica; se seleccionaron 21 artículos para ser analizados en esta revisión sistemática. Conclusiones: inesperadamente los artículos revisados concluyen, en su gran mayoría, que independientemente del protocolo de intubación, el aspecto que juega un rol determinante en el manejo de la vía aérea difícil es la experiencia y preparación previa del médico anestesiólogo (AU)

Introduction: difficult airway is that clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty in ventilation with a face mask, in endotracheal intubation or both. In this review article we will focus on emergency intubation. Objective: to systematically review the current state of knowledge and clinical evidence related to the management of difficult airways in emergency intubation. Material and methods: a systematic review was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane data base, EBSCO and OVID; the terms: difficult airway management and emergency intubation; only clinical trials and scientific research reports were analyzed. Results: the search yielded 356 results, of which systematic review studies, meta-analysis, opinion-based articles, case reports, letters to the editor were excluded; which gave us 128 articles, after they were analyzed; it was also sought to analyze articles from different areas of medical research; 21 articles were selected to be analyzed in this systematic review. Conclusions: unexpectedly, the majority of the reviewed articles conclude that regardless of the intubation protocol or the tools used, the aspect that plays a decisive role in the management of the difficult airway is the experience and previous preparation of the anesthesiologist (AU))

Humans , Emergencies , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngoscopy/methods , Masks
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(2): 6-11, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1398969


Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente as mudanças ocorridas nas vias aéreas superiores (VAS) pós cirurgia ortognática bimaxilar. Metodologia: A amostra compreendeu 14 pacientes, que foram divididos em dois grupos, conforme o tipo de movimentação realizada na cirurgia: grupo 1 (n = 6), avanço bimaxilar; grupo 2 (n = 8) cirurgia de avanço de maxila e recuo de mandíbula. Foram realizadas tomografias computadorizadas no pré-operatório (T0) e pós-operatório de 1 ano (T1). Através do software Dolphin Imaging procedeu-se a análise das VAS em três parâmetros: área total (AT), volume total (VT) e área axial mínima (AAM), que foram comparadas entre T0 e T1 em um mesmo grupos pelo Teste de Wilcoxon e entre grupos pelos Teste de Mann-Whitney (p < 0.05). Resultados: Ambos os grupos apresentaram aumento significativo de AT, VT e AAM entre T0 e T1. Contudo, essas variações foram estatisticamente maiores no grupo 1 quando comparadas ao grupo 2. Conclusão: As cirurgias bimaxilares promoveram o aumento da AT, VT e AAM das VAS e essas mudanças foram significativamente superiores nos pacientes submetidos ao avanço bimaxilar... (AU)

Objective: The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the changes that occurred in the upper airways (UAS) after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Methodology: The sample comprised 14 patients, who were divided into two groups, according to the type of movement performed in the surgery: group 1 (n = 6), bimaxillary advancement; group 2 (n = 8) maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery. Computed tomography scans were performed preoperatively (T0) and 1 year postoperatively (T1). Through the Dolphin Imaging software, the analysis of the UAS was carried out in three parameters: total area (TA), total volume (TV) and minimum axial area (MAA), which were compared between T0 and T1 in the same groups by the Wilcoxon Test and between groups by the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in TA, TV and MAA between T0 and T1. However, these variations were statistically higher in group 1 when compared to group 2. Conclusion: Bimaxillary surgeries promoted an increase in the TA, TV and MAA of the UAS and these changes were significantly higher in patients undergoing bimaxillary advancement... (AU)

Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar retrospectivamente los cambios ocurridos en las vías aéreas superiores (VAS) después de la cirugía ortognática bimaxilar. Metodología: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 14 pacientes, quienes fueron divididos en dos grupos, según el tipo de movimiento realizado en la cirugía: grupo 1 (n = 6), avance bimaxilar; grupo 2 (n = 8) cirugía de avance maxilar y retroceso mandibular. Las tomografías computarizadas se realizaron antes de la operación (T0) y 1 año después de la operación (T1). A través del software Dolphin Imaging se realizó el análisis de la VAS en tres parámetros: área total (AT), volumen total (VT) y área axial mínima (AAM), los cuales fueron comparados entre T0 y T1 en los mismos grupos por el Prueba de Wilcoxon y entre grupos por la prueba de Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Resultados: Ambos grupos mostraron un aumento significativo de AT, VT y AAM entre T0 y T1. Sin embargo, estas variaciones fueron estadísticamente mayores en el grupo 1 en comparación con el grupo 2. Conclusión: Las cirugías bimaxilares promovieron un aumento de la AT, VT y AAM de las VAS y estos cambios fueron significativamente mayores en los pacientes sometidos a avance bimaxilar... (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Orthognathic Surgery , Dentofacial Deformities , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Airway Management
Más Vita ; 4(2): 103-119, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392128


La combinación de los test predictores de la vía área difícil durante la evaluación preanestésica y la preparación de los pacientes quirúrgicos es fundamental para reducir el índice de morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre los test predictores de vía aérea difícil y los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia directa en los pacientes que son intervenidos en la sala de operaciones del Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. La institución de salud en mención no registra previamente un estudio de estas características. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño de investigación que se aplicó fue cualitativo, de corte transversal con enfoque descriptivo. En consecuencia, se observaron y se tomaron datos del formulario de anestesiología de 150 historias clínicas de pacientes que fueron derivados a cirugía desde febrero de 2019 hasta julio de 2019. Las variables examinadas correspondieron a paciente adulto, vía aérea difícil, test predictores de VAD y laringoscopia directa. Resultados: Mostraron que el test que alertó más casos de VAD es el de protrusión mandibular con el 59,30%, seguido de la distancia tiromentoniana con el 40,00%. Asimismo, los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia derivaron en procedimientos de intubación difícil, guardando relación con otros test predictores de VAD. Conclusiones: La combinación de varios test de VAD facultan a los médicos a planificar respuestas oportunas ante la presencia de problemas(AU)

The combination of predictive tests of the difficult airway during the pre-anesthetic evaluation and the preparation of surgical patients is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the difficult airway predictive tests and the findings under direct laryngoscopy in patients who are operated on in the operating room of the Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. The aforementioned health institution has not previously registered a study of these characteristics. Materials and Methods: The research design that was applied was qualitative, cross-sectional with a descriptive approach. Consequently, data from the anesthesiology form of 150 medical records of patients who were referred for surgery from February 2019 to July 2019 were observed and collected. The variables examined corresponded to adult patients, difficult airway, VAD predictor tests and direct laryngoscopy. Results: They showed that the test that alerted more cases of VAD is mandibular protrusion with 59.30%, followed by thyromental distance with 40.00%. Likewise, the findings under laryngoscopy led to difficult intubation procedures, being related to other VAD predictive tests. Conclusions: The combination of several VAD tests empower physicians to plan timely responses to the presence of problems(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Airway Management , Forecasting , Anesthesia, General , Laryngoscopy , Operating Rooms , Patients , Hospitals , Intubation, Intratracheal
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408151


Introducción: El manejo de la vía aérea, conceptualizado como el conjunto de maniobras y empleo de dispositivos que permiten una ventilación adecuada y segura en pacientes que por diversas condiciones clínicas lo requieren, llega a ser uno de los desafíos más importantes que enfrenta un anestesiólogo en su práctica. Se considera que el resultado final dependerá de las características del paciente, la disponibilidad de equipos, así como de su destreza y habilidades. Cuando no se tienen en cuenta estos aspectos, aumenta la incidencia de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatoria. Objetivo: Describir la conducta anestesiológica ante una paciente con diagnóstico de vía aérea difícil no prevista durante el perioperatorio. Presentación de caso: Se presenta el caso de una paciente anunciada para cirugía de urgencia, sin antecedentes patológicos personales, con antecedente de anestesia para amigdalotomía en la niñez. A pesar de un interrogatorio y examen físico minucioso, con utilización de herramientas como los test predictivos de vía aérea difícil y el empleo de dispositivos para su abordaje, no fue posible la intubación y se hizo necesario un abordaje quirúrgico de urgencia. Conclusiones: La vía aérea es parte integral del manejo anestésico. En la actualidad no se cuenta con un método clínico capaz de incluir la valoración de todos los parámetros que sugieran la presencia de vía aérea difícil. Una historia preoperatoria detallada y minuciosa evaluación de esta puede identificar factores de riesgos potenciales, pero casos como estos demuestran que a pesar de las medidas que se puedan tomar, no se está exento de fracasar en la permeabilización de la vía aérea(AU)

Introduction: The management of the airway, conceptualized as the set of maneuvers and use of devices that allow adequate and safe ventilation in patients who require it due to various clinical conditions, becomes one of the most important challenges faced by an anesthesiologist in the practice. It is considered that the final result will depend on the characteristics of the patient, the availability of equipment, as well as their dexterity and skills. When these aspects are not taken into account, the incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality increases. Objective: Describe the anesthesiological behavior in a patient with a difficult airway diagnosis not foreseen during the perioperative period. Case presentation: The case of a patient announced for emergency surgery, without a personal pathological history, with a history of anesthesia for tonsillectomy in childhood is presented. Despite a thorough interrogation and physical examination, with the use of tools such as predictive tests of difficult airway and the use of devices for their approach, intubation was not possible and an emergency surgical approach was necessary. Conclusions: The airway is an comprehensive part of anesthetic management. At present there is no clinical methods capable of including the assessment of all the parameters that suggest the presence of a difficult airway. A detailed preoperative history and thorough evaluation of this can identify potential risk factors, but cases like these show that despite the measures that can be taken, it is not exempt from failing to permeate the airway(AU)

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Airway Management/methods
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 24: 1-14, 18 jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1367722


Objetivo: Identificar as evidências científicas da literatura sobre a inserção de máscara laríngea por enfermeiros. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura, realizada em novembro de 2020, cuja busca ocorreu nas bases de dados Cumulattive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Excerpta Médica Database, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes Database Search of Healthe Web of Sciencepor meio do programa Rayyan para seleção dos estudos. Resultados: Identificaram-se 1.156 estudos, do quais oito atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Os estudos foram categorizados em dispositivos de primeira e segunda geração. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o uso de máscara laríngea de primeira e segunda geração por enfermeiros é uma alternativa recomendada por sua rapidez, sucesso e eficácia em garantir a via aérea avançada, em especial, em situações de parada cardiorrespiratória em adultos, porém, recomenda-se verificar os efeitos adversos de seu uso.

Objective: To identify evidence-based literature on the laryngeal mask airway insertion by nurses. Method: Integrative literature review conducted in November 2020, searched in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Excerpta Medica Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes Database Search of Health and Web of Science through the Rayyan Study Selection Program. Results: Eight out of the 1,156 studies identified met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized into first and second-generation devices. Conclusion: The use of a first and second-generation laryngeal mask airway by nurses is a recommended alternative for its speed, success and effectiveness in ensuring the advanced airway, especially in situations of cardiopulmonary arrest in adults. However, adverse effects of its use should be evaluated.

Intubation, Intratracheal , Airway Management , Primary Care Nursing
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(2): 144-149, 20220000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382349


Introducción: el edema pulmonar posobstructivo (EPPO), o por presión negativa, es una entidad potencialmente mortal, que se desarrolla inmediatamente luego de una obstrucción severa de la vía aérea superior. Materiales y métodos: descripción de una serie de 4 casos de EPPO ocurridos en niños, 3 de ellos secundarios a aspiración de un cuerpo extraño y el otro como complicación de una adenoamigdalectomía. Discusión: la causa más frecuente de la obstrucción de la vía aérea es el laringoespasmo asociado con la manipulación de la vía aérea durante la intubación o las intervenciones quirúrgicas de la vía aérea. Tanto la adenoamigdalectomía, como la extracción de cuerpos extraños en la vía aérea constituyen unas de las intervenciones más frecuentes de la práctica otorrinolaringológica para el tratamiento de la obstrucción de la vía aérea; sin embargo, puede potencialmente desarrollar EPPO. Conclusión: Destacamos la importancia de que el otorrinolaringólogo tenga presente esta afección en niños que presentan dificultad respiratoria tras cualquier obstrucción o intervención quirúrgica de la vía aé bien los cuerpos extraños en la vía aérea en niños suelen presentarse con crisis de asfixia, tos paroxística o dificultad respiratoria luego del evento, también debería pensarse la posibilidad de un evento de aspiración de un cuerpo extraño no presenciado ante un cuadro de edema pulmonar sin causa conocida. Si bien la adenoamigdalectomía es una de las cirugías más frecuente en la práctica otorrinolaringológica, esta potencialmente puede complicarse con EPPO.

Introduction: Post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) or by Negative Pressure, is a potentially fatal entity that develops immediately after a severe obstruction of the upper airway. Materials and methods: Description of a series of four cases of POPE in children, three of them secondary to foreign body aspiration and the remaining one as a complication of adenotonsillectomy. Discussion: The most common etiology of airway obstruction is laryngospasm associated to airway manipulation during intubation or airway surgery. Both adenotonsillectomy and removal of foreign bodies in the airway are one of the most common procedures in otorhinolaryngology practice for management of airway obstruction, however, they can potentially develop EPPO. Conclusion: Although airway foreign bodies in children usually present with sudden episode of choking, paroxysmal cough and/or respiratory distress, the likelihood of an unwitnessed foreign body aspiration event in the presence of unexplained pulmonary edema should also be considered. Although adenotonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in ENT practice, it can potentially be complicated by EPPO. We emphasize the importance of the otorhinolaryngologist keeping this condition in mind in children who present respiratory distress after any obstruction or surgical intervention of the airway.

Humans , Pulmonary Edema , Airway Management , Foreign Bodies
Singapore medical journal ; : 152-156, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927273


INTRODUCTION@#General anaesthesia is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality when compared with regional anaesthesia, related mainly to failure of intubation, hypoxia and aspiration. The aim of this retrospective review was to define the incidence of failed and difficult intubation in parturients undergoing general anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery at a high-volume obstetric hospital in Singapore.@*METHODS@#All parturients who underwent Caesarean delivery under general anaesthesia from 2013 to 2016 were identified and their medical records were reviewed to extract pertinent data. Difficult intubation was defined as 'requiring more than one attempt at intubation or documented as such, based on the opinion of the anaesthetist'. A failed intubation was defined as 'inability to intubate the trachea, with subsequent abandonment of intubation as a means of airway management'.@*RESULTS@#Records of 660 Caesarean sections under general anaesthesia were extracted. The mean age of the parturients was 32.1 ± 5.5 years and the median body mass index was 27.5 (interquartile range 24.6-31.1) kg/m2. Rapid sequence induction with cricoid pressure was employed for all patients, with thiopentone and succinylcholine being administered for 91.2% and 98.1% of patients, respectively. There were 33 difficult intubations among 660 patients, yielding an incidence of 5.0%. Junior trainees performed about 90% of all intubations and 28 (84.8%) out of 33 difficult intubations. Repeat intubations were performed by senior residents/fellows (57.1%) and consultants (14.3%). No instance of failed intubation was reported.@*CONCLUSION@#The local incidence of difficult obstetric intubation was one in 20. No failure of intubation was observed.

Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Cesarean Section , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e764, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351979


Introducción: A finales del año 2019 se reportaron casos de neumonía atípica en Wuhan provocados por un nuevo coronavirus. La intubación endotraqueal puede causar contaminación del personal de salud. Las pautas recientes prefieren la videolaringoscopia porque aumenta las posibilidades de intubación y evita del contacto cercano con el paciente. Objetivos: Describir el abordaje de la vía aérea con videolaringoscopia en pacientes con COVID-19 e identificar las principales complicaciones aparecidas durante la intubación endotraqueal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el periodo de diciembre de 2020 a febrero de 2021, en el Centro Médico Naval de la Ciudad de México. El universo estuvo conformado por 178 pacientes con COVID-19 que requirieron intubación endotraqueal. Se tomó una muestra de 103 pacientes los cuales fueron atendidos por los médicos cubanos. Resultados: Los pacientes mayores de 60 años representaron el 63,1 por ciento de los casos y el sexo masculino el 65 por ciento El 42,1 por ciento tuvieron un predictor de vía aérea difícil y el 30,1 por ciento, dos o más predictores. Se visualizó completamente la glotis en el 39,8 por ciento de los casos y, parcialmente, en un 57,3 por ciento. La intubación al primer intento se logró en el 73,8 por ciento. Las principales complicaciones encontradas fueron la desaturación (33 por ciento) y la hipotensión arterial (37,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: La videolaringoscopia podría mejorar la visualización de la apertura glótica y la intubación endotraqueal al primer intento. La desaturación y la hipotensión arterial fueron complicaciones que podrían esperarse en los pacientes con la COVID-19 durante este procedimiento(AU)

Introduction: At the end of 2019, cases of atypical pneumonia were reported in Wuhan caused by a new coronavirus. Endotracheal intubation may cause contamination of healthcare personnel. According to recent guidelines, videolaryngoscopy is preferred, because it increases the chances of intubation and avoids close contact with the patient. Objectives: To describe airway management with videolaryngoscopy in patients with COVID-19 and to identify the main complications that appeared during endotracheal intubation. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, in the period from December 2020 to February 2021, at the Naval Medical Center in Mexico City. The universe consisted of 178 patients with COVID-19 who required endotracheal intubation. A sample of 103 patients was taken, who were cared for by Cuban doctors. Results: Patients older than 60 years represented 63.1 percent of the cases, while the male sex represented 65 percent. 42.1 percent had one predictor of difficult airway and 30.1 percent had two or more predictors. The glottis was visualized fully in 39.8 percent of cases and partially in 57.3 percent. Intubation on the first attempt was achieved in 73.8 percent. The main complications found were desaturation (33 percent) and arterial hypotension (37.9 percent). Conclusions: Videolaryngoscopy could improve visualization of the glottic opening and endotracheal intubation on the first attempt. Desaturation and hypotension were complications that could be expected in COVID-19 patients during this procedure(AU)

Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Capsule Endoscopes/standards , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guidelines as Topic
Rev. medica electron ; 43(4): 1056-1068, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341535


RESUMEN El manejo de la vía respiratoria es uno de los aspectos más importantes en Anestesia. Entre el 50 y 70 % de los paros cardiacos durante la anestesia general obedecen a dificultades en la intubación. Los pacientes obesos tienen un 30 % más de probabilidades de presentar intubación difícil con respecto a pacientes normopesos. También desarrollan desaturación de oxígeno más rápido, lo que aumenta el riesgo de complicaciones. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se decidió realizar este trabajo, con el objetivo de actualizar sobre el uso de los métodos para el abordaje de la vía respiratoria en dichos pacientes. Se mostraron los criterios y resultados de investigaciones de autores sobre el tema. Se concluye que, a pesar de que el método más utilizado para abordar la vía aérea en obesos es la intubación orotraqueal con visión directa, se debe considerar el uso de máscara laríngea de intubación, fibroscopio flexible y videolaringoscopios, sobre todo en personas superobesas (AU).

ABSTRACT The respiratory tract management is one of the most important topics in anesthesia. Between 50 and 70 % of the heart arrests occurring during general anesthesia are due to intubation difficulties. Obese patients are 30 % more likely of presenting difficult intubation with respect to normal weight patients. They also develop oxygen desaturation faster, increasing the complication risk. Taking into consideration the above reasons, the authors decided to write this article, with the aim of updating on the methods to approach the respiratory tract in those patients. The authors' criteria and research outcomes on the theme are showed. It was concluded that even though the most used method to approach the airway in obese patients is the orotracheal intubation with direct vision, the use of a laryngeal intubation mask, flexible fiberscope and video laryngoscopes should be considered, especially in superobese patients (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Airway Management/methods , Obesity/complications , Laryngeal Masks/standards , Intubation/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Obesity/metabolism
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 108-103, jul. 29, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282080


La intubación submentoniana es útil en procedimientos quirúrgicos en donde la intubación nasotraqueal está contraindicada y la intubación orotraqueal no es ideal debido a la fijación intermaxilar. Este informe describe dos pacientes masculinos que se presentaron al Hospital Nacional Rosales, en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial de El Salvador, con historia de sufrir accidente de tránsito. El primer caso evidenció al examen radiológico fractura simple y desplazada de sínfisis mandibular, fractura simple huesos propios nasales y desviación del tabique nasal. El segundo caso es un paciente con fractura de sínfisis y doble cóndilo mandibular que presentaba imposibilidad a la apertura bucal. A través de la técnica del cirujano maxilofacial Hernández Altemir (España), el tubo endotraqueal atraviesa una incisión extraoral en la región submentoniana del suelo de la boca, para poder practicar reducción abierta de fracturas faciales, logrando adecuada oclusión, con mínimos cuidados posoperatorios y con una cicatriz estética. Al terminar la cirugía, la posición del tubo endotraqueal regresa a su posición original y el paciente evoluciona satisfactoriamente

Submental intubation is useful in surgical procedures where nasotracheal intubation is contraindicated and orotracheal intubation is not ideal due to intermaxillary fixation. This report describes two male patients who presented to the Rosales National Hospital, in the Maxillofacial Surgery service of El Salvador, with a history of suffering a traffic accident. The first case showed a simple and displaced fracture of the mandibular symphysis, simple nasal bone fracture and deviation of the nasal septum on radiological examination. The second case is a patient with a symphysis fracture and a double mandibular condyle that presented an inability to open the mouth. Through the technique of the maxillofacial surgeon Hernández Altemir (Spain), the endotracheal tube passes through an extraoral incision in the submental region of the floor of the mouth, in order to perform open reduction of facial fractures, achieving adequate occlusion, with minimal postoperative care and with an aesthetic scar. At the end of the surgery, the position of the endotracheal tube returns to its original position and the patient evolves satisfactorily

Humans , Airway Management , Intubation , Maxillofacial Injuries
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e400, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251500


Abstract Perioperative morbidity and mortality are high among patients in the extremes of life undergoing anesthesia. Complications in children occur mainly as a result of airway management-related events such as difficult approach, laryngospasm, bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia, which may result in cardiac arrest, neurological deficit or death. Reports and new considerations that have changed clinical practice in pediatric airway management have emerged in recent years. This narrative literature review seeks to summarize and detail the findings on the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric anesthesia and to highlight those things that anesthetists need to be aware of, according to the scientific reports that have been changing practice in pediatric anesthesia. This review focuses on the identification of "new" and specific practices that have emerged over the past 10 years and have helped reduce complications associated with pediatric airway management. At least 9 practices grouped into 4 groups are described: assessment, approach techniques, devices, and algorithms. The same devices used in adults are essentially all available for the management of the pediatric airway, and anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality can be reduced through improved quality of care in pediatrics.

Resumen Los pacientes en extremos de la vida sometidos a anestesia tienen la más alta morbimortalidad perioperatoria. Los niños se complican principalmente por eventos derivados del manejo de la vía aérea pediátrica (VAP), como dificultad en su abordaje, laringoespasmo, broncoespasmo e hipoxemia severa, que pueden terminar en paro cardiaco, déficit neurológico o muerte. En los últimos años se han informado y retomado aspectos que cambian la práctica clínica sobre la VAP Esta revisión narrativa de la literatura busca concretar y resumir estos hallazgos sobre la primera causa de morbimortalidad en anestesia pediátrica y enfatizar en lo que los anestesiólogos deben conocer, con base en los informes científicos que vienen cambiando la práctica anestésica pediátrica. Esta revisión busca identificar las conductas "nuevas" y concretas que han surgido en los últimos 10 años, y que ayudan a disminuir las complicaciones derivadas del manejo de la VAP Se señalan y describen al menos nueve conductas agrupadas en 4 bloques: Evaluación, técnicas de abordaje, dispositivos y algoritmos. Actualmente se cuenta con prácticamente todos los dispositivos de adultos para el manejo de la VAP y con consideraciones específicas se puede mejorar la calidad de la atención y reducir la morbimortalidad anestésica en pediatría.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Algorithms , Airway Management , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Equipment and Supplies , Anesthesia