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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e718, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351987

ABSTRACT

La oxigenación apnéica consiste en la administración de flujos altos de oxígeno a través de algún dispositivo supraglótico mientras el paciente se mantiene en apnea. Se explica por qué el alveolo desnitrogenizado con una composición en su mayor parte de oxígeno, permite la difusión alveolo capilar y genera una presión subatmosférica capaz de arrastrar el flujo de oxigeno existente en el árbol traqueobronquial hasta el mismo alveolo, siempre y cuando no hubiera obstrucción mecánica de la vía aérea. El tiempo aumenta considerablemente hasta que la saturación de oxígeno disminuya, lo que se conoce como tiempo de apnea segura. Se presenta la experiencia de emplear esta técnica en un escolar de 5 años sin antecedentes patológicos, que ingirió un cuerpo extraño (semilla de girasol), la cual se localizaba en vía aérea bronquio principal derecho. Este se extrajo por fibrobroncoscopía bajo anestesia total intravenosa, priorizando la ventilación espontánea hasta localizarlo, y luego, debido a la dificultad que presentó su extracción, se empleó relajación muscular y apnea para optimizar las condiciones de la extracción. Durante este periodo, se empleó la técnica de oxigenación apnéica, la cual se mantuvo durante 12 min. La saturación pulsátil de oxigeno fue mayor al 92 por ciento, tiempo suficiente para culminar la extracción con éxito y sin complicaciones(AU)


Apneic oxygenation consists in the administration of high flows of oxygen through a supraglottic device while the patient remains in apnea. It is explained because the alveolus with low nitrogen concertation/accumulation, with a composition mostly of oxygen, allows capillary alveolus to diffuse, as well as it generates a subatmospheric pressure capable of dragging the oxygen flow existing in the tracheobronchial tree to the alveolus itself, as long as there is no mechanical airway obstruction. The time increases considerably until oxygen saturation decreases, which is known as the safe apnea time. The experience of using this technique is presented is it was used with a five-year-old boy with no pathological history and who swallowed a foreign body (sunflower seed), which was located in the airway, specifically the right main bronchus. The foreign body was extracted by fiberoptic bronchoscopy under total intravenous anesthesia, prioritizing spontaneous ventilation until it was located; and then, due to the difficulty for its extraction, muscle relaxation and apnea were used to optimize the extraction conditions. During this period, the apneic oxygenation technique was used and maintained for twelve minutes. Pulsatile oxygen saturation was greater than 92 percent, enough time to complete the extraction successfully and without complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ventilation , Bronchoscopy , Airway Obstruction , Foreign Bodies , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Muscle Relaxation
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e499-e503, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292670

ABSTRACT

Gracias al avance de la tecnología, es posible realizar el diagnóstico prenatal de distintas malformaciones congénitas que ponen en riesgo la vida del recién nacido. Entre estas, el teratoma oral o epignathus es una forma poco frecuente de teratoma congénito entre los que se localizan en cabeza y cuello. Suelen ser benignos y abarcan el 4 % de los teratomas neonatales.A partir del desarrollo de la técnica de tratamiento intraparto extraútero (EXIT, por su sigla en inglés), que se implementó en los años 90 para mantener la circulación fetal hasta asegurar la vía aérea del recién nacido, se logra planificar una estrategia de manejo multidisciplinario que permite el abordaje correcto de estas patologías. Se presenta un caso de teratoma oral gigante en una paciente de sexo femenino de 35 semanas de gestación, en quien se aplicó la técnica EXIT, y su evolución posterior.


Thanks to technological advances, it has been possible to carry out the prenatal diagnosis of different life-threatening congenital malformations. Among these, oral teratoma, or epignathus, is a rare form of congenital teratoma within those located in the head and neck. They are generally benign and comprise 4 % of neonatal teratomas. From the development of the EXIT technique (ex utero intrapartum treatment), which has been implemented since the 90's to support fetal circulation until the newborn's airway is secured, it is possible to plan a multidisciplinary management strategy that enables the correct approach of these pathologies.We present a case of giant epignathus in a 35-week gestation female patient, whose airway was secured using the EXIT technique, and follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Teratoma , Airway Obstruction , Prenatal Diagnosis , Cesarean Section , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Age
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e301, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149795

ABSTRACT

Abstract Complications in airway management remain a common cause of anesthesia-associated mortality. When a patient is considered with anticipated difficult airway, the management depends on several variables, however, at present, the standard of management continues to be the patient awake approach. In scenarios of acute upper airway obstruction, the only way to guarantee adequate ventilation is to obtain a translaryngeal or transtracheal access, for which, it is necessary to use local anesthesia and grade I / II sedation, avoiding loss of spontaneous ventilation. For this purpose, we propose ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block, in order to standardize an ultrasound landmark that is reproduceable, with a high success rate, which allows limiting complications related to regional anatomic techniques and thus facilitating the securing of the airway in these patients.


Resumen Las complicaciones en el manejo de la vía aérea siguen siendo una causa frecuente de mortalidad relacionada con anestesia. Cuando un paciente se considera con vía aérea difícil anticipada, el manejo depende de diversas variables, sin embargo, en la actualidad, el estándar de manejo sigue siendo el abordaje con paciente despierto. En escenarios de obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior, la única forma de garantizar una adecuada ventilación es obtener un acceso translaríngeo o transtraqueal, para lo cual, es necesario el uso de anestesia local y de sedación grado I/II evitando la pérdida de ventilación espontánea. Con este propósito, planteamos el bloqueo del nervio laríngeo superior guiado por ultrasonografía, con el fin de estandarizar una referencia ecográfica reproducible, con alto índice de éxito, la cual permita limitar complicaciones relacionadas con las técnicas regionales anatómicas y así facilitar el aseguramiento de la vía aérea en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonography , Anesthesia, Local , Laryngeal Nerves , Nerve Block , Airway Obstruction , Anesthesiologists , Intubation
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e45-e48, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147260

ABSTRACT

Cuando los recién nacidos presentan obstrucción de la vía aérea, requieren un manejo urgente y experto para evitar la mortalidad y la morbilidad. La definición de vía aérea difícil se relaciona con problemas en la intubación endotraqueal o en la ventilación a presión positiva con bolsa y máscara o reanimador de pieza en T. El manejo debe basarse en la comprensión del mecanismo fisiopatológico responsable de la vía aérea difícil. Las causas en el recién nacido pueden ser congénitas y/o adquiridas.Se presenta el caso de una recién nacida con síndrome de Treacher-Collins tipo 1 [OMIM #154500] con una disostosis mandibulofacial, micrognatia, hipoplasia malar, paladar hendido, sin cardiopatía congénita, asociado con intubación extremadamente difícil


f newborns have an airway obstruction, they require urgent and expert management to avoid mortality and morbidity. The definition of difficult airway includes problems in endotracheal intubation or positive pressure ventilation with bag and mask or T-piece resuscitator. Management should be based on an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for difficult airway. The causes of difficult airway in the newborn can be congenital or acquired.We present the case of a newborn with Treacher-Collins syndrome Type 1 [OMIM # 154500] with a mandibulofacial dysostosis, micrognathia, malar hypoplasia, cleft palate, without congenital heart disease, associated with extremely difficult intubation


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Airway Management , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Congenital Abnormalities , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Airway Obstruction , Intubation, Intratracheal
5.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03778, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1279635

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar as tecnologias desenvolvidas para educação em saúde sobre obstrução das vias aéreas. Método Revisão integrativa realizada mediante busca nas bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science e Scopus. Selecionaram-se estudos originais, sem restrições de tempo e idioma. Os dados foram extraídos por dois pesquisadores independentes e organizados em quadros sinópticos. A integração dos resultados fundamentou-se no método de redução de dados. Resultados Foram incluídos oito artigos, publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, com predominância de estudos metodológicos. As tecnologias evidenciadas foram dos tipos aplicativos, cursos online, animação 3D, cartilha e website. A temática foi abordada entre os conteúdos do Suporte Básico de Vida. Observou-se ausência de tecnologias que abordassem o tema com acessibilidade. Conclusão As tecnologias identificadas eram no formato digital e impresso e possuíam validade de conteúdo e efetividade para utilização na educação e saúde. Ainda assim, há lacuna de estudos que evidenciem tecnologias educacionais específicas sobre obstrução das vias aéreas.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las tecnologías desarrolladas para la educación en salud sobre la obstrucción de la vía aérea. Método Revisión integradora realizada mediante búsquedas en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science y Scopus. Se seleccionaron estudios originales, sin restricciones de tiempo ni de idioma. Los datos fueron extraídos por dos investigadores independientes y organizados en cuadros sinópticos. La integración de los resultados se basó en el método de reducción de datos. Resultados Se incluyeron ocho artículos publicados en revistas brasileñas e internacionales, con predominio de estudios metodológicos. Las tecnologías evidenciadas fueron de los tipos aplicaciones, cursos en línea, animación 3D, cartilla y sitio web. El tema se abordó entre los contenidos del Soporte Vital Básico. Se ha observado la carencia de tecnologías que aborden el tema con accesibilidad. Conclusión Las tecnologías identificadas estaban en formato digital e impreso y tenían validez de contenido y eficacia para su uso en educación y salud. Sin embargo, hay una carencia de estudios que evidencien tecnologías educativas específicas sobre la obstrucción de la vía aérea.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze technologies developed for health education about airway obstruction. Method Integrative review through search in the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and Scopus. Original studies, with no time and language restrictions, were selected. The data were extracted by two independent researchers and organized into synoptic tables. Result integration was based on the data reduction method. Results The eight included articles were published in Brazilian and international journals and were predominantly methodological. The identified technologies were applications, online courses, 3D animations, booklet, and website. The theme was approached among the contents of Basic Life Support. An absence of technologies approaching the theme with accessibility was observed. Conclusion The identified technologies were digital and printed, presenting content validity and effectivity for use in education and health. Even so, there is gap in studies highlighting specific educational technologies on airway obstruction.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Airway Obstruction , Teaching Materials , Review , Educational Technology , Gagging
6.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e54591, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339616

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar mudanças no conhecimento de funcionários de creches após intervenção educacional ativa em primeiros socorros com crianças no ambiente escolar. Método: estudo quase-experimental, do tipo antes e depois, com grupo único de comparação composto por 134 funcionários das seis creches públicas de um município brasileiro, mediante adesão voluntária ofertada a toda população do estudo. O treinamento em primeiros socorros contou com 16 horas/aula e utilizou métodos ativos de aprendizagem. Um questionário fechado com nove situações simuladas avaliou o conhecimento antes/após. Utilizou-se o software R Core Team 2020, nível de significância 5% e o teste não paramétrico de McNemar para efeito da intervenção. Resultados: houve um aumento estatisticamente significativo de acertos após o treinamento nos seguintes assuntos: parada cardiorrespiratória; convulsão; engasgo; choque elétrico; trauma, queda; hemorragia; e intoxicação. As principais diferenças nos acertos antes e após foram engasgo (77,6% para 98,5%), trauma (75,3% para 94,7%), intoxicação por ingestão (70,8% para 86,5%) e convulsão (87,3% para 98,5%). C onclusões: o treinamento ampliou conhecimentos acerca de todas as temáticas, com exceção de queimaduras (p=0,248). O contexto sociocultural deve ser considerado, bem como a carga horária distribuída entre teoria e práticas. Os enfermeiros podem ser os profissionais de referência para ministrar tais cursos.


Resumen Objetivo: identificar cambios en el conocimiento de empleados de guarderías tras intervención educativa activa en primeros auxilios a niños en el ambiente escolar. Método: estudio casi-experimental, del tipo antes y después, con grupo único de comparación compuesto por 134 empleados de las seis guarderías públicas de un municipio brasileño, mediante adhesión voluntaria ofrecida a toda población del estudio. El entrenamiento en primeros auxilios contó con 16 horas/clasey utilizó métodos activos de aprendizaje. Un cuestionario cerrado con nueve situaciones simuladas evaluóel conocimiento antes/después. Se utilizó el softwareR Core Team 2020, nivel de significancia 5% y la prueba no paramétrica de McNemar para efecto de la intervención. Resultados: hubo un aumento estadísticamente significativo de aciertos después del entrenamiento en los siguientes asuntos: paro cardiorrespiratorio; convulsión; atragantamiento; choque eléctrico; trauma, caída; hemorragia; e intoxicación. Las principales diferencias en los aciertos antes y después fueron atragantamiento (77,6% para 98,5%), trauma (75,3% para 94,7%), intoxicación por ingestión (70,8% para 86,5%) y convulsión (87,3% para 98,5%). Conclusiones: el entrenamiento amplió conocimientos acerca de todas las temáticas, con excepción de quemaduras (p=0,248). El contexto sociocultural debe ser considerado, así como la carga horaria distribuida entre teoría y prácticas. Los enfermeros pueden ser los profesionales de referencia para dar tales cursos.


ABSTRACT Objective: to identify changes in the knowledge of nursery workers after active educational intervention in first aid measures with children in the school environment. Method: a quasi-experimental study of the before and after type with a single comparison group composed of 134 workers from the six public nursery centers in a Brazilian municipality, through voluntary adherence offered to the entire study population. First aid training consisted of 16 hours/class and used active learning methods. A closed questionnaire with nine simulated situations assessed the knowledge before and after the intervention. The R Core Team 2020 software was used in the analysis, and a significance level of 5% and the McNemar non-parametric test were used for the purpose of the intervention. Results: there was a statistically significant increase in correct answers after training in the following subjects: cardiorespiratory arrest; convulsion; choking; electric shock; trauma, fall; bleeding, and poisoning. The main differences in terms of correct answers before and after were found for choking (77.6% to 98.5%), trauma (75.3% to 94.7%), poisoning by ingestion (70.8% to 86.5%), and convulsion (87.3% to 98.5%). Conclusions: the training expanded the knowledge about all the themes, with the exception of burns (p = 0.248). The socio-cultural context must be considered, as well as the workload distributed between theory and practices. Nurses can be the reference professionals to teach such courses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Knowledge , First Aid , Mentoring , Poisoning , Seizures , Wounds and Injuries , Burns , Health Education , Problem-Based Learning , Airway Obstruction , Eating , Courses , School Teachers , Gagging , Hemorrhage , Occupational Groups
7.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31407, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291382

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: relatar e descrever a evolução satisfatória de uma Angina de Ludwig decorrente de uma infecção amigdaliana, que evoluiu para mediastinite e choque séptico. O trabalho visa detalhar os aspectos clínicos e diagnósticos desta grave doença, além da terapêutica empregada neste caso. Método: as informações foram obtidas do prontuário do paciente, bem como dos laudos dos exames de imagem realizados. A revisão da literatura foi feita na base de dados PUBMED. Considerações finais: o caso estudado relata um raro desfecho favorável de uma Angina de Ludwig que evoluiu para mediastinite, cuja taxa de mortalidade é de até 50% dos casos. A abordagem cirúrgica combinada com antibioticoterapia precoce se mostra ser a melhor conduta para estes casos.


Objective: report and describe the satisfactory evolution of Ludwig's Angina due to a tonsillary infection, which evolved to mediastinitis and sept shock. The work aims to detail the clinical and diagnostic aspects of this serious illness, in addition to the therapy used in this case. Method: the information was obtained from the patient's medical record, as well as from the reports of the imaging tests performed. The literature review was carried out in the PUBMED database. Final considerations: the case studied has great importance for the medical community, since it reports a rare favorable outcome for a case of Ludwig's Angina complicated with an mediastinitis, whose mortality is described up to 50% of the cases. The surgical approach combined with early antibiotic therapy is shown to be the best approach for these cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ludwig's Angina , Mediastinitis , Osteomyelitis , Tonsillitis , Airway Obstruction , Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(6): e20210124, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356421

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The identification of persistent airway obstruction is key to making a diagnosis of COPD. The GOLD guidelines suggest a fixed criterion-a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 70%-to define obstruction, although other guidelines suggest that a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < the lower limit of normal (LLN) is the most accurate criterion. Methods: This was an observational study of individuals ≥ 40 years of age with risk factors for COPD who were referred to our pulmonary function laboratory for spirometry. Respiratory symptoms were also recorded. We calculated the prevalence of airway obstruction and of no airway obstruction, according to the GOLD criterion (GOLD+ and GOLD−, respectively) and according to the LLN criterion (LLN+ and LLN−, respectively). We also evaluated the level of agreement between the two criteria. Results: A total of 241 individuals were included. Airway obstruction was identified according to the GOLD criterion in 42 individuals (17.4%) and according to the LLN criterion in 23 (9.5%). The overall level of agreement between the two criteria was good (k = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.81), although it was lower among the individuals ≥ 70 years of age (k = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.12-0.72). The proportion of obese individuals was lower in the GOLD+/LLN+ category than in the GOLD+/LLN− category (p = 0.03), as was the median DLCO (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The use of the GOLD criterion appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of COPD. The agreement between the GOLD and LLN criteria also appears to be good, albeit weaker in older individuals. The use of different criteria to define airway obstruction seems to identify individuals with different characteristics. It is essential to understand the clinical meaning of discordance between such criteria. Until more data are available, we recommend a holistic, individualized approach to, as well as close follow-up of, patients with discordant results for airway obstruction.


RESUMO Objetivo: A identificação de obstrução persistente das vias aéreas é fundamental para o diagnóstico de DPOC. As diretrizes da GOLD sugerem um critério fixo - relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < 70% - para definir obstrução, embora outras diretrizes sugiram que a relação VEF1/CVF pós-broncodilatador < o limite inferior da normalidade (LIN) é o critério mais preciso. Métodos: Estudo observacional com indivíduos ≥ 40 anos de idade com fatores de risco para DPOC encaminhados ao nosso laboratório de função pulmonar para espirometria. Também foram registrados sintomas respiratórios. Calculamos a prevalência de obstrução e de ausência de obstrução das vias aéreas segundo o critério GOLD (GOLD+ e GOLD−, respectivamente) e segundo o critério LIN (LIN+ e LIN−, respectivamente). Avaliamos também o grau de concordância entre os dois critérios. Resultados: Foram incluídos 241 indivíduos. Obstrução das vias aéreas foi identificada segundo o critério GOLD em 42 indivíduos (17,4%) e segundo o critério LIN em 23 (9,5%). A concordância global entre os dois critérios foi boa (k = 0,67; IC95%: 0,52-0,81), embora tenha sido menor entre os indivíduos ≥ 70 anos de idade (k = 0,42; IC95%: 0,12-0,72). A proporção de obesos foi menor na categoria GOLD+/LIN+ do que na categoria GOLD+/LIN− (p = 0,03), assim como a mediana de DLCO (p = 0,04). Conclusões: A utilização do critério GOLD parece estar associada a uma maior prevalência de DPOC. A concordância entre os critérios GOLD e LIN também parece ser boa, embora seja mais fraca em indivíduos mais velhos. A utilização de diferentes critérios para definir obstrução das vias aéreas parece identificar indivíduos com diferentes características. É essencial compreender o significado clínico da discordância entre esses critérios. Até que mais dados estejam disponíveis, recomendamos uma abordagem holística e individualizada e também um acompanhamento cuidadoso dos pacientes com resultados discordantes para obstrução das vias aéreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/epidemiology , Spirometry , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Risk Factors
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2025-2036, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921118

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characteristic of small airway inflammation, obstruction, and emphysema. It is well known that spirometry alone cannot differentiate each separate component. Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to determine the extent of emphysema and small airway involvement in COPD. Compared with the pulmonary function test, small airway CT phenotypes can accurately reflect disease severity in patients with COPD, which is conducive to improving the prognosis of this disease. CT measurement of central airway morphology has been applied in clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic investigations as an inference of the presence and severity of small airway disease. This review will focus on presenting the current knowledge and methodologies in chest CT that aid in identifying discrete COPD phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Humans , Phenotype , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 553-555, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143970

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydatid cyst in the cervical region is an extremely rare condition that can create challenges for anesthesiologists. Timely recognition of difficult airway and preparing the management plan is crucial to avoid life-threatening complications such as hypoxic brain damage. We describe a case of difficult airway management in a patient with massive cervical hydatid cyst. We used a low-dose ketamine-propofol sedation and lidocaine spray for local oropharyngeal anesthesia. Muscular relaxants were not used, and spontaneous breathing was maintained during intubation. Recognition, assessment, and perioperative planning are essential for difficult airway management in patients with cervical hydatid cyst.


Resumo O cisto hidático na região cervical é uma condição extremamente rara que pode criar desafios para os anestesiologistas. O reconhecimento oportuno das vias aéreas difíceis e a preparação do plano de manejo são cruciais para evitar complicações com risco de vida, como danos cerebrais hipóxicos. Descrevemos um caso de difícil controle das vias aéreas em um paciente com cisto hidático cervical maciço. Utilizamos sedação com cetamina-propofol em baixa dose e spray de lidocaína para anestesia local orofaríngea. Relaxantes musculares não foram utilizados e a respiração espontânea foi mantida durante a intubação. O reconhecimento, a avaliação e o planejamento perioperatório são essenciais para o manejo difícil das vias aéreas em pacientes com cisto hidático cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Airway Obstruction/parasitology , Echinococcosis/complications , Cervical Cord/parasitology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Echinococcosis/surgery , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): e491-e494, oct 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122539

ABSTRACT

Los pólipos pilosos nasofaríngeos son tumores benignos poco frecuentes. Se presenta el caso de esta patología en una paciente recién nacida, quien presentó cianosis y dificultad respiratoria por obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, durante las primeras 24 horas de vida. La paciente requirió maniobras de reanimación e intubación endotraqueal. Estudios diagnósticos confirmaron la presencia de una masa en la pared lateral de la faringe. Se realizó la extirpación quirúrgica exitosa con evolución satisfactoria de la paciente


Nasopharyngeal hairy polyps are rare benign tumors. We present a newborn case with a hairy polyp mass causing cyanosis and respiratory distress due to obstruction of the upper airway during the first 24 hours of life. The patient required resuscitation and endotracheal intubation. Diagnostic studies confirmed the presence of a mass in the lateral pharyngeal wall. Surgical treatment and removal of the mass was performed with satisfactory evolution of the patient


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Nasal Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Resuscitation , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Nasopharyngeal Diseases , Cyanosis , Airway Obstruction , Intubation, Intratracheal , Neoplasms
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e342-e347, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117379

ABSTRACT

La escoliosis idiopática es la flexión y rotación anómala de los cuerpos vertebrales, que puede causar sintomatología respiratoria y alteración de función pulmonar. El síndrome de la espalda recta es una alteración caracterizada por una disminución del diámetro anteroposterior del tórax. Se presenta a una paciente de 13 años afectada de escoliosis idiopática que desarrolló disnea de esfuerzo progresiva, estridor inspiratorio y disminución importante de función pulmonar, secundaria a compresión extrínseca del bronquio principal derecho y tercio medio traqueal por cuerpos vertebrales torácicos. A su vez, tenía una disminución del diámetro anteroposterior del tórax, factor determinante en la aparición de los síntomas. Se intervino mediante fijación de vértebra torácica T3-T11, con posterior mejoría clínica y funcional respiratoria.La escoliosis asociada a alteración de función pulmonar y estridor debe hacer sospechar la existencia de compresión de la vía aérea, especialmente, en pacientes con reducción del diámetro anteroposterior del tóra


Idiopathic scoliosis is the abnormal flexion and rotation of the vertebral bodies, causing respiratory symptoms and altered pulmonary function. Straight back syndrome is a decreased in the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax. We present a 13-year-old patient with idiopathic scoliosis who developed progressive dyspnea, inspiratory stridor and a significant decrease in pulmonary function, because of extrinsic compression of the right main bronchus and the middle third of trachea by the thoracic vertebral bodies. She had also a decreased anteroposterior diameter of the thorax, being a determining factor in the appearance of symptoms. Surgery was performed by thoracic vertebra fixation T3 to T11, with subsequent clinical and functional respiratory improvement.Scoliosis associated with altered pulmonary function and stridor should make us suspect the existence of airway compression, especially in patients with reduction of the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Scoliosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction , Congenital Abnormalities , Dyspnea
13.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 66-71, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138453

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar temporalmente o estímulo doloroso em prematuros com o uso de três escalas de mensuração de dor neonatal. Métodos: Foram observados 83 prematuros durante a aspiração de vias aéreas por três avaliadores (E1, E2 e E3) utilizando três escalas de avaliação da dor (Neonatal Facial Coding System - NFCS; Neonatal Infant Pain Scale - NIPS; e Premature Infant Pain Profile - PIPP) em cinco momentos: T1 (antes da aspiração de vias aéreas), T2 (durante a aspiração de vias aéreas), T3 (1 minuto após a aspiração de vias aéreas), T4 (3 minutos após a aspiração de vias aéreas) e T5 (5 minutos após a aspiração de vias aéreas). Utilizaram-se o Light's Kappa (concordância entre examinadores e entre as escalas em cada tempo) e teste de McNemar (comparação entre os tempos), considerando-se p < 0,05. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa entre T1 e T2 para os três examinadores nas três escalas. Em T3, observou-se dor em 22,9%/E1, 28,9%/E2 e 24,1%/E3 de acordo com a NFCS; 22,9%/E1, 21,7%/E2 e 16,9%/E3, conforme a NIPS e 49,4%/E1, 53,9%/E2 e 47%/E3 considerando a PIPP dos prematuros. Houve diferença entre T1 e T3 nas três escalas, exceto para dois examinadores na PIPP (E2: p = 0,15/ E3: p = 0,17). Ao comparar T4 e T5 ao T1, não houve diferença em nenhuma das três escalas. Conclusão: Os prematuros necessitaram de pelo menos 3 minutos para retornarem ao seu estado inicial de repouso (sem dor).


ABSTRACT Objective: To temporally assess a painful stimulus in premature infants using 3 neonatal pain scales. Methods: A total of 83 premature infants were observed during airway aspiration by 3 evaluators (E1, E2 and E3) using 3 pain assessment scales (Neonatal Facial Coding System - NFCS; Neonatal Infant Pain Scale - NIPS; and Premature Infant Pain Profile - PIPP) at 5 time points: T1 (before airway aspiration), T2 (during airway aspiration), T3 (1 minute after airway aspiration), T4 (3 minutes after airway aspiration), and T5 (5 minutes after airway aspiration). Light's Kappa (agreement among examiners and among scales at each time point) and the McNemar test (comparison among time points) were used considering p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the 3 examiners for T1 and T2 using the 3 scales. In T3, pain was observed in 22.9%/E1, 28.9%/E2, and 24.1%/E3 according to the NFCS; 22.9%/E1, 21.7%/E2, and 16.9%/E3 according to the NIPS; and 49.4%/E1, 53.9%/E2, and 47%/E3 according to the PIPP. There was a difference between T1 and T3 using the 3 scales, except for 2 examiners for the PIPP (E2: p = 0.15/E3: p = 0.17). Comparing T4 and T5 to T1, there was no difference in the 3 scales. Conclusion: Premature infants required at least 3 minutes to return to their initial state of rest (no pain).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pain/etiology , Suction/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/methods , Time Factors , Infant, Premature , Airway Obstruction/therapy
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 59-62, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137147

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) is a surgical procedure performed in cases of expected postpartum fetal airway obstruction, allowing the establishment of patent airway while maintaining placental circulation. Anesthesia for EXIT procedure has several specific features such as adequate uterine relaxation, maintenance of maternal blood pressure fetal anesthesia and fetal airway establishment. The anesthesiologist should be aware of these particularities in order to contribute to a favorable outcome. This is a case report of an EXIT procedure performed on a fetus with a cervical lymphangioma with prenatal evidence of partial obstruction of the trachea and risk of post-delivery airway compromise.


Resumo O procedimento Intraparto Extra-Uterino (EXIT) é procedimento cirúrgico realizado em casos de previsão de obstrução de via aérea fetal no pós-parto, que permite estabelecer via aérea patente enquanto a circulação placentária é mantida. A anestesia para o procedimento EXIT apresenta várias características específicas, tais como relaxamento uterino adequado, manutenção da pressão arterial materna, anestesia fetal e estabelecimento da via aérea fetal. O anestesiologista deve estar ciente dessas especificidades para contribuir para desfecho favorável. Trata-se de relato de caso de procedimento EXIT realizado em feto com linfangioma cervical e evidência pré-natal de obstrução parcial de traqueia e risco de comprometimento de via aérea pós-parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Patient Care Team , Delivery, Obstetric , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Fetal Diseases/surgery , Anesthesia, Obstetrical
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785354

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These mutations alter the synthesis, processing, function, or half-life of CFTR, the main chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the airway, intestine, pancreas, and reproductive tract. Lung disease is the most critical manifestation of CF. It is characterized by airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation that lead to fatal tissue destruction, which causes most CF morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the pathophysiology of CF, recent animal models, and current treatment of CF.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Chloride Channels , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Cystic Fibrosis , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial Sodium Channels , Half-Life , Inflammation , Intestines , Lung Diseases , Lung , Membranes , Models, Animal , Mortality , Pancreas
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary function in patients with mandibular fractures and to determine the pattern of pulmonary functions in these patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of pulmonary functions in Nigerian non-smoking patients with isolated mandibular fractures managed at our health institution from December 2015 to June 2017. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and ratio of FEV₁ to FVC (FEV₁/FVC) were measured for all participants using a portable spirometer just before treatment. The pulmonary indices were compared with the predicted reference values for Nigerians to determine the respiratory pattern.RESULTS: Forty participants consisting of six females (15.0%) and thirty-four males (85.0%) with a female to male ratio of 1:5.7 were included in this study. The mean patient age was 34.5±13.1 years (range, 17–63 years). The mean FVC, FEV₁, FEV₁/FVC, and PEFR were 3.8±1.2 L, 3.0±1.0 L, 74.3%±13.8%, and 5.2±2.2 L/s, respectively. Comparison of data with predicted values revealed that 17 subjects (42.5%) had normal pulmonary function pattern while 23 subjects (57.5%) had features suggestive of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary function patterns.CONCLUSION: Isolated mandibular fractures presented with abnormal pulmonary function pattern.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Mandibular Fractures , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Reference Values , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma in the elderly (EA; ≥ 65 years of age) is increasing, adding a heavy socioeconomic burden to the healthcare system. However, little is known about risk factors associated with acute exacerbations in EA patients. The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for acute exacerbation in EA compared to non-elderly asthma (NEA).METHODS: We combined data from 3 adult asthma cohorts under a unified protocol and database. Asthmatic patients with regular follow-up during a 1-year period were selected from the cohorts to identify the risk factors predicting acute exacerbations in EA compared to NEA.RESULTS: We selected a total of 1,086 patients from the merged cohort. During the observation period, 503 and 583 patients were assigned to the EA and NEA groups, respectively. The exacerbation rate was 31.0% in the EA and 33.2% in the NEA group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed fixed airway obstruction, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and male sex as independent risk factors for exacerbation in the EA group. In the NEA group, exacerbation increased along with an increase in eosinophil count. Bayesian analysis of the interactions among clinical factors revealed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity was directly related to exacerbation in the EA group, and eosinophil count was related to exacerbation in the NEA group.CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that fixed airway obstruction and CRS as the important clinical factors predicting acute exacerbations in EA, whereas in NEA, eosinophil count was the strong predictor of exacerbation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Airway Obstruction , Asthma , Bayes Theorem , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Risk Factors , Vital Capacity
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