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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1496-1507, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134467

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: En la enfermedad hepática crónica el trasplante ortotópico es la única alternativa terapéutica actual pero es limitada por falta de donantes. Ensayos con células madre adultas en daño hepático agudo evidencian promisorios resultados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar en ratas con daño hepático crónico la efectividad de la infusión de células madre adiposas humanas (CMAd-h). Ratas con fibrosis hepática inducida por tioacetamida fueron agrupadas en: grupo I control que no recibió tioacetamida ni células madre, grupo II recibió tioacetamida y suero fisiológico i.v., grupo III recibió tioacetamida y células madre adiposas 1 x 106/kg i.v. vía vena de la cola. La regeneración hepática histológica se evaluó por el index METAVIR, mientras las Macrophagocytus stellatus, células estrelladas a- SMA+ y células colágeno I+ por inmunohistoquímica; el daño funcional se evaluó por los niveles sanguíneos de los analitos Aspartato Aminotransferasa (AST), Alanina Aminotransferasa (ALT), Fosfatasa Alcalina (ALP), úrea y nitrógeno ureico (BUN) y hemograma. Los resultados muestran atenuación del daño estructural hepático evidenciado por disminución de los nódulos, del grado de lesión histológica en el score Metavir, y disminución de Macrophagocytus stellatus, células a-SMA+ y células colágeno tipo I+; funcionalmente hay reducción moderada de AST, ALT, urea, BUN y disminución moderada de células blancas pero efecto favorable sobre el volumen corpuscular media y la hemoglobina corpuscular media. Ocho semanas después de la infusión hay escasa población de CMAd-h en el hígado. En conclusión la infusión intravenosa de CMAd-h en ratas disminuye el daño funcional y estructural de la fibrosis hepática con escasa persistencia de CMAd-h en el parénquima hepático. A nuestro conocimiento este es el primer trabajo que evalúa el efecto de las CMAd-h en el modelo daño hepático crónico murino y la persistencia de las células trasplantadas.


SUMMARY: In chronic liver disease, orthotopic transplantation is the only current therapeutic alternative but it is limited due to lack of donors. Trials with adult stem cells in acute liver damage show promising results. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of human adipose stem cell (h-ASC) infusion in rats with chronic liver damage. Rats with thioacetamide- induced liver fibrosis were grouped into: group I control that did not receive thioacetamide and h-ASC, group II received thioacetamide and saline i.v., group III received thioacetamide and h-ASC 1 x 106/ kg i.v. via tail vein. Histological liver regeneration was evaluated by METAVIR index, while Macrophagocytus stellatus (Kupffer cells), stellate cells a-SMA+ and collagen I+ cells by immunohistochemistry; functional damage was evaluated by blood levels of the analytes Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Urea and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and hemogram. The results show attenuation of structural liver damage evidenced by decreased nodules, degree of histologic injury on Metavir score, and decreased Macrophagocytus stellatus, a-SMA+ cells and type I+ collagen cells; functionally there is moderate reduction of AST, ALT, urea, BUN and moderate decrease of white cells but favorable effect on mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Eight weeks after infusion there is a small population of h-ASC in the liver. In conclusion, intravenous infusion of h-ASC in rats reduces functional and structural damage of hepatic fibrosis with low persistence of h- ASC in the liver parenchyma. To our knowledge this is the first work that evaluates the effect of h-SC in the model of chronic murine liver damage and the persistence of transplanted cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/therapy , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Treatment Outcome , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/pathology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 558-564, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098287

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatotoxicity is a debilitating and frequently life-threatening disease resulting in progressive liver failure. The toxic chemical, thioacetamide (TAA) is used to evaluate hepatoprotective agents, and the polyphenolic compound, resveratrol was proposed as a novel treatment for diseases with hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling pathway. This analysis sought to investigate the potential protective effect of resveratrol against liver injury induced by TAA via the inhibition of hepatic mTOR. Model group rats received several injections of TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being sacrificed at week 10 and the protective group was pretreated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment. Harvested liver tissues were examined using light microscopy and liver homogenates were assayed for biomarkers of inflammation and assessed the levels of mTOR protein in all animal groups. In addition, blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury enzyme. TAA substantially damaged the hepatic tissue of the model group such as infiltration of inflammatory cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, dark pyknotic nuclei, and dilated congested blood vessel that were effectively protected by resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited TAA-induced mTOR, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in harvested liver homogenates and blood samples. Thus, we conclude that resveratrol effectively protects against TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, possibly due to the inhibition of mTOR and inflammation.


La hepatotoxicidad crónica es una enfermedad debilitante y potencialmente mortal que produce insuficiencia hepática progresiva. La toxicidad del químico de la tioacetamida (TAA) se utiliza para evaluar los agentes hepatoprotectores y el compuesto polifenólico, resveratrol, se propuso como un nuevo tratamiento para enfermedades con hiperactivación de la vía de señalización celular mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin). Aquí buscamos investigar el posible efecto protector del resveratrol contra la lesión hepática inducida por TAA a través de la inhibición de la vía de señalización mTOR en hepatocitos. Las ratas del grupo modelo recibieron varias inyecciones de TAA (200 mg / kg; dos veces por semana durante 8 semanas) antes de ser sacrificadas en la semana 10 y el grupo protector se trató previamente con resveratrol (20 mg / kg) diariamente durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo ambos agentes hasta el final del experimento. Se examinaron los tejidos hepáticos recolectados usando microscopía óptica y se analizaron los homogeneizados hepáticos para detectar biomarcadores de inflamación y se evaluaron los niveles de proteína mTOR en todos los grupos de animales. Además, se analizaron muestras de sangre para detectar biomarcadores de la enzima de lesión hepática. TAA dañó sustancialmente el tejido hepático del grupo modelo, con infiltración de células inflamatorias, citoplasma vacuolado, núcleos picnóticos oscuros y vasos sanguíneos congestionados dilatados que estaban efectivamente protegidos por el resveratrol. El resveratrol también inhibió significativamente (p <0.05) mTOR, proteína C-reactiva (hs-CRP), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-6 (IL-6), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT ) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en las muestras de sangre y de hígados recolectados. En conclusión, el resveratrol protege eficazmente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en ratas, posiblemente debido a la inhibición de mTOR y de la inflamación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 278-288, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056435

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the effects of oral administration of artemether which is the most rapid-acting class of antimalarial drugs and the possible protective effect of vitamin E taken with it on the liver of albino rats. A total of twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups. Group one served as a control and rats in group two exposed to oral intake of artemether daily for fifteen days. The third and fourth groups treated with artemether plus low and high doses of vitamin E respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, and the livers were obtained and processed for histological, biochemical and statistical studies. Histological study of the hepatocytes of rats exposed to artemether showed nearly complete disintegration of most cellular contents except few numbers of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Also, the cytoplasm of these cells had few lysosomes, many vacuoles and irregular nuclei with abnormal distribution of chromatin and were shown. The hepatic sinusoids were dilated and filled with blood and vacuoles and bile ductules were abnormal in its structure. Treatment with low and high doses of vitamin E in concomitant with artemether ameliorated the hepatic histopathological lesions and its parenchyma attained nearly normal structure. As far as biochemical changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rats treated with artemether were significantly elevated as compared to the control. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the liver in rats treated with artemether. However, vitamin E ameliorated the rise in ALT and AST with decreased MDA concentration and levels of SOD as compared to the corresponding artemether group values. Results of the present suggest that artemether has a harmful and stressful effect on hepatic tissue and the treatment with vitamin E may alleviate this toxicity.


Este experimento fue diseñado para estudiar los efectos de la administración oral de arteméter, la clase de medicamentos antipalúdicos de acción rápida, y el posible efecto protector de la vitamina E en el hígado de ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 24 ratas albinas machos adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El grupo uno sirvió como control y las ratas en el grupo dos recibieron la dosis oral de arteméter diariamente durante 15 días. Los grupos tres y cuatro fueron tratados con arteméter, más dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E, respectivamente. Al final del experimento, se sacrificaron las ratas y se obtuvieron y procesaron los hígados para estudios histológicos, bioquímicos y estadísticos. El estudio histológico de los hepatocitos de ratas expuestas a arteméter mostró una desintegración casi completa de la mayoría de los contenidos celulares, excepto algunos mitocondrias y retículo endoplásmico rugoso. Además, el citoplasma de estas células tenía pocos lisosomas, muchas vacuolas y núcleos irregulares con distribución anormal de cromatina. Los sinusoides hepáticos estaban dilatados y llenos de sangre y vacuolas, y los conductos biliares tenían una estructura anormal. El tratamiento con dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E en forma concomitante con arteméter mejoró las lesiones histopatológicas hepáticas y su parénquima alcanzó una estructura casi normal. En cuanto a los cambios bioquímicos, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en ratas tratadas con arteméter se elevaron significativamente en comparación con el control. Los niveles de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y malondialdehído (MDA) aumentaron significativamente en el hígado en ratas tratadas con arteméter. Sin embargo, la vitamina E mejoró el aumento de ALT y AST con una disminución de la concentración de MDA y los niveles de SOD en comparación con los valores correspondientes del grupo de arteméter. Los resultados del presente estudio sugieren que el arteméter tiene un efecto dañino y estresante sobre el tejido hepático y el tratamiento con vitamina E puede aliviar esta toxicidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Artemisinins/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/enzymology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Antimalarials/toxicity
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(2): 91-94, abril/jun 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361372

ABSTRACT

Com grande distribuição mundial e incidência significativa, a toxoplamose é uma doença comum em mamíferos e pássaros, causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii. No homem, o parasitismo na fase proliferativa intracelular pode se apresentar sem sintomas, ou causar clínica transitória caracterizada por febre, fadiga e linfadenopatia. Por se tratar de patologia com sintomas inespecíficos e comuns a muitas outras, é fundamental a correta pesquisa de diagnósticos diferenciais, como citomegalovírus e Epstein-Barr. Relatamos o caso de um jovem e hígido, que desenvolveu pneumonia e, após confirmação sorológica para toxoplasmose e o tratamento adequado, apresentou melhora clínica.


With great worldwide distribution and significant incidence, toxoplamosis is a common disease in mammals and birds, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. In humans, the parasitism in its intracellular proliferative phase may present no symptoms, or cause a transient condition characterized by fever, fatigue, and lymphadenopathy. Because it is a pathology with nonspecific symptoms that are common to many other conditions, it is fundamental to find the correct research of differential diagnoses, such as for Cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr. We report a case of a young and healthy man who developed pneumonia and, after serological confirmation for toxoplasmosis and the appropriate treatment, presented clinical improvement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumonia/etiology , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Immunocompetence , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Asthenia , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Radiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Fever/diagnosis , Anemia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 371-378, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128217

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic, inflammatory, and hepatic aspects, as well as the milk yield in heifers submitted to protocol for induction of lactation compared to primiparous cows. Sixty Holstein heifers were selected and enrolled into two groups: Control (n= 30), pregnant heifers and Induction heifers (n= 30), non-pregnant femeales, submitted to a lactation induction protocol. Blood samples were collected at: pre-lactation period (weeks -3, -2 and -1) and post-lactation period (weeks 1, 2 and 3), aiming to evaluate glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, paraoxonase-1, albumin, ALT, GGT and cortisol. The protocol efficiently induced lactation in all the heifers, which produced 74.54% of the total production of milk from primiparous cows. In the pre-lactation period, induced animals presented higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids than the Control heifers, and the opposite was observed in the post lactation period. In both moments albumin and ALT were lower in the Induction group, and paraoxonase-1 activity and GGT concentrations were higher, compared to the Control. Thus, lactation induction protocol is efficient to initiate milk production in dairy heifers with no considerable changes in energetic, metabolic and hepatic profile when compared to heifers in physiological lactation.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os perfis metabólico, inflamatório, hepático e a produção de leite de novilhas induzidas à lactação comparadas a primíparas. Sessenta novilhas da raça Holandês foram selecionadas e alocadas em grupos: controle (n=30), novilhas prenhas, e indução (n=30), novilhas vazias submetidas a um protocolo de indução de lactação. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas nas semanas -3, -2 e -1 (pré-lactação) e nas semanas 1, 2 e 3 (pós-início de lactação) para avaliação de glicose, ácidos graxos não esterificados, paraoxonase-1, albumina, ALT, GGT e cortisol. O protocolo induziu eficientemente a lactação em todas as novilhas, que produziram 74,54% da produção total de leite do controle. No período pré-lactação, o grupo indução apresentou maiores concentrações de ácidos graxos não esterificados que o controle, e o oposto foi observado pós-lactação. Em ambos os momentos, albumina e ALT foram menores no grupo indução, e a atividade da paraoxonase-1 e as concentrações de GGT foram maiores, em comparação ao controle. Assim, o protocolo de indução de lactação foi eficiente para iniciar a produção de leite em novilhas induzidas, além de terem sido observadas alterações nos perfis energético, metabólico e hepático em comparação a novilhas em lactação fisiológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Albumins/analysis , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/analysis , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Milk
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 83-90, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056402

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine whether the combined polyphenolic compounds, resveratrol and quercetin can substantially protect against modulation of hepatic biomarkers of apoptosis and survival, p53-Bax axis and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via the association of oxidative stress and interleukin-11 (IL-11). The model group of rats received a single dose of acetaminophen (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) and quercetin (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of acetaminophen. All rats were then sacrificed 24 hours post acetaminophen ingestion. Acetaminophen overdose induced acute liver injury as demonstrated by profound liver parenchymal damage and increased levels of the liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Acetaminophen significantly (p<0.05) modulated malondialdehyde (MDA), p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, Bcl-2, IL-11, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were significantly protected by resveratrol plus quercetin. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.01) correlation between IL-11 scoring and the levels of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and MDA. Thus, resveratrol plus quercetin effectively protect against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis, which is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and IL-11.


En el estudio se intentó determinar si los compuestos polifenólicos combinados, el resveratrol y la quercetina pueden proteger sustancialmente contra la modulación de los biomarcadores hepáticos de apoptosis y supervivencia, el eje p53-Bax y el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2) en un modelo animal de lesión hepática aguda inducida por acetaminofén, a través de la asociación del estrés oxidativo y la interleucina-11 (IL-11). El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de acetaminofén (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas fue tratado durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de resveratrol (30 mg / kg) y quercetina (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de acetaminofén. Todas los animales fueron sacrificados 24 horas después de la ingestión de acetaminofén. La sobredosis de acetaminofén indujo una lesión hepática aguda, como se observó en el daño profundo del parénquima hepático y el aumento de los niveles de las enzimas en la lesión hepática, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Acetaminofén moduló significativamente (p <0.05) malondialdehído (MDA), p53, regulador de apoptosis Bax, Bcl2, IL-11, interleucina-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y glutatión peroxidasa ( GPx), los que se encontraron significativamente protegidos por el resveratrol y quercetina. Además se determinó una correlación significativa (p <0.01) entre la puntuación de IL-11 y los niveles de p53, Bax, Bcl-2 y MDA. En conclusión, el resveratrol más la quercetina protegen de manera efectiva contra la apoptosis inducida por acetaminofén, asociada con la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y la IL-11.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Biomarkers , Interleukin-1 , Oxidative Stress , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901003, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate that Connexin (Cx43) plays a role in lesions after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: We use Cx43 deficient model (heterozygotes mice) and compared to a wild group. The groups underwent 1 hour ischemia and 24 hours reperfusion. The heterozygote genotype was confirmed by PCR. We analyzed the hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT) and histology. Results: The mice with Cx43 deficiency showed an ALT mean value of 4166 vs. 307 in the control group (p<0.001); AST mean value of 7231 vs. 471 in the control group (p<0.001); GGT mean value of 9.4 vs. 1.7 in the control group (p=0.001); histology showed necrosis and inflammation in the knockout group. Conclusions: This research demonstrated that the deficiency of Cx43 worses the prognosis for liver injury. The topic is a promising target for therapeutics advancements in liver diseases and procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Connexin 43/deficiency , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Knockout , Connexin 43/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Genotyping Techniques , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Liver/pathology , Necrosis
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 237-240, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990033

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) seeds are consumed in treatment of high blood pressure, headache and prevention of heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of Brassica juncea seeds [BJME] on the heart and liver of adult Albino Wistar rats. A total of 24 albino rats of both sexes were divided into 6 groups [I - VI] of 4 rats per group. Groups I to IV received graded doses of the methanol extract by oral gavage while groups V and VI (controls) received 2 ml/kg body weight of 3 % Tween 80 and water respectively via oral gavage once daily. Treatment lasted for four weeks and the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. The animals were sacrificed and the heart and liver tissues were excised for further histological processing for light microscopy. There was significant increase in AST and ALT levels following BJME treatment when compared to the controls. ALP activity did not differ significantly among the treatment and control groups. Histopathological changes consistent with toxic injury were observed in the heart and liver tissues of BJME- treated rats. In conclusion, the results of this study show that sub-acute administration of methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea can exert cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic effects in rats.


RESUMEN: Las semillas de Brassica juncea (mostaza india) se consumen en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial, el dolor de cabeza y la prevención de enfermedades del corazón. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del extracto de metanol de semillas de Brassica juncea [BJME] en el corazón y el hígado de ratas Albino Wistar adultas. Un total de 24 ratas albinas de ambos sexos se dividieron en 6 grupos [I - VI] de 4 ratas por grupo. Los grupos I a IV recibieron dosis del extracto de metanol por sonda oral progresivamente, mientras que los grupos V y VI (control) recibieron 2 ml / kg de peso corporal de 3 % de 80 y agua, respectivamente, por sonda oral una vez al día. El tratamiento duró cuatro semanas y se estimaronlos niveles séricos de aspartato transaminasa (AST), alanina transaminasa (ALT) y fosfatasa alcalina (ALP). Los animales se sacrificaron y fueron analizados los tejidos del corazón y el hígado, para un procesamiento histológico adicional con microscopía óptica. Hubo un aumento significativo en los niveles de AST y ALT después del tratamiento con BJME en comparación con los controles. La actividad de ALP no difirió significativamente entre los grupos de tratamiento y control. Se observaron cambios histopatológicos compatibles con lesiones tóxicas en los tejidos del corazón y el hígado de ratas tratadas con BJME. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio muestran que la administración subaguda de extracto de semilla de metanol de Brassica juncea puede ejercer efectos cardiotóxicos y hepatotóxicos en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Mustard Plant/chemistry , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Seeds , Time Factors , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Methanol/administration & dosage , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 146-152, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186110

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. RESULTS: Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, gamma-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and gamma-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Liver/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Waist Circumference , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56139

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated chronic liver disease characterized by hepatocellular inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and fulminant hepatic failure. The standard treatment for AIH includes corticosteroids alone or in combination with azathioprine. Although most patients achieve remission using the standard regimen, some patients do not respond due to either drug intolerance or refractory disease; in such cases alternative immunosuppressive agents should be explored. The second-line therapies are cyclophilin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A or tacrolimus, and nowadays mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is widely used if azathioprine-based therapies are not tolerated. Although these are recommended as an alternative to the first-line regimen, there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of second-line therapies, with the evidence based mainly on expert opinion. Therefore, we report an AIH patient receiving the standard regimen in whom remission did not occur due to side effects to azathioprine, but was successfully treated with MMF in combination with corticosteroids as an alternative to the standard regimen.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alopecia/etiology , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Humans , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pancytopenia/etiology , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208445

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old woman presented with jaundice, palpitation, and weight loss of 5 kg during a period of 2 weeks. Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST 1,282 IU/L, ALT 1,119 IU/L) and total bilirubin (6.4 mg/dL); negative for hepatitis virus infection; elevated serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3, 3.60 ng/dL), free thyroxine (fT4, 3.82 ng/dL), and lowered serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, <0.025 microIU/mL); and positive for thyroid stimulating antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA). The liver biopsy findings were consistent with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Accordingly, oral steroid therapy was started with 60 mg of prednisolone under the impression of AIH associated with Graves' disease. After a week of steroid therapy, the clinical manifestation showed significant improvement, with normalization of both liver and thyroid functions. Diagnosis of the liver condition of patients who present with hyperthyroidism and liver dysfunction is important, so that appropriate therapy can be promptly initiated.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Bilirubin/blood , Female , Graves Disease/complications , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/blood , Liver/enzymology , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Steroids/therapeutic use , Thyrotropin/blood
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208444

ABSTRACT

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is an uncommon liver condition characterized by diffuse transformation of the hepatic parenchyma into regenerative nodules without fibrosis. Portal vasculopathy caused by abnormal hepatic venous flow may induce hepatocyte hyperplasia, which forms regenerative nodules. Underlying diseases or certain drugs may also be the cause of NRH. This condition is often underdiagnosed as the patients remain asymptomatic until development of portal hypertension, and histopathologic confirmation by liver biopsy is the only way of making a definite diagnosis. The management mainly involves prevention and treatment of the complications of portal hypertension. The frequency of diagnosis of NRH has increased rapidly in recent years, however, only a few cases have been reported in Korea. Here, we report on a case of NRH of the liver combined with toxic hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Bilirubin/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Duodenal Ulcer/pathology , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Female , Focal Nodular Hyperplasia/complications , Humans , Liver/enzymology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The well-organized study to support that increased cholelithiasis and bile duct dilatation can occur after gastrectomy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of cholelithiasis and the degree of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy, compared to those undergoing endoscopic treatment for gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients who diagnosed with gastric cancer and received treatment at six academic referral centers were investigated for the incidence and time of cholelithiasis and the degree of CBD dilatation after treatment by analysis of 5-year follow-up CTs. The operation group underwent subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, while in the control group endoscopic treatment was administered for gastric cancer. RESULTS: A total of 802 patients were enrolled in 5-year analysis (735 patients in the operation group and 67 patients in the control group). Cholelithiasis occurred in 47 patients (6.39%) in the operation group and 3 patients (4.48%) in the control group (p=0.7909). The incidences of cholelithiasis were 4.28% in Billoth-I and 7.89% in Billoth-II (p=0.0487). The diameter of proximal CBD and distal CBD increased by 1.11 mm and 1.41 mm, respectively, in the operation group, compared to 0.4 mm and 0.38 mm, respectively, in the control group (p<0.05). Patients with increased CBD dilatation more than 5 mm showed statistically significant increases in alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of cholelithiasis was not increased due to subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, but the incidence was higher after Billoth-II compared to Billoth-I. In addition, significant change in the CBD diameter was observed after subtotal gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Bilirubin/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Cholelithiasis/diagnosis , Common Bile Duct/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223599

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old male patient was admitted because of unexplained abdominal pain and anemia. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having taken herbal medicine to treat facial palsy two months ago. The result of health examination performed about a month ago showed increased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase level, and he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis by herbal medicine. When the patient presented to the outpatient department three weeks ago, follow-up liver function test results showed improvement but he complained of abdominal pain. Despite extensive blood chemistry tests and computed tomography, the cause of pain could not be found. After much deliberation, serum lead level and herbal medicines analysis was performed based on the fact that he took herbal medicine two months ago, and he could finally be diagnosed with lead poisoning. Since the serum lead level was high enough to be indicated for lead chelating therapy, conservative management was given. When a patient with toxic hepatitis due to herbal medication presents with abdominal pain, the possibility of lead poisoning should always be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Lead/analysis , Lead Poisoning , Liver/enzymology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 469-474, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714295

ABSTRACT

We tested the hypothesis that Moringa oleifera impairs the morphology and functions of the kidney in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were employed in the study. Rats of Control Group I received physiological saline while rats of Groups II ­ IV received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera respectively for twenty one days. No behavioral anomalies were observed in rats of Groups I ­ IV. Rats of Control Group I gained statistically significant increased bodyweight while rats of Groups II ­ IV experienced non-significant decreased bodyweight during experimental procedure. (P0.05). No statistical significant differences (P0.05) were observed in the analyses of the relative weights of kidneys of rats of Groups I ­ IV. Histological examinations showed normal cyto-architecture of the kidneys of rats of Group I while the Capsular spaces of the kidneys of rats of Groups II ­ IV appeared wider than those of Group I. Statistical analyses showed significant higher levels (P0.05) of Alanine and Aspartate Transaminases, and serum urea in rats of Groups II ­ IV in a non- dose-dependent manner when compared to rats of Group I. Our findings are consistent with the stated hypothesis.


Se puso a prueba la hipótesis que Moringa oleifera altera la morfología y función del riñón en ratas. Fueron utilizadas 24 ratas Wistar macho adultas. El grupo control recibió suero fisiológico mientras que los Grupos II a IV recibieron 250, 500 y 750 mg/kg peso corporal del extracto metanólico de Moringa oleifera respectivamente, durante 21 días. No se observaron anomalías en el comportamiento en ratas de los Grupos I - IV. En las ratas del grupo de control se registró un aumento de peso corporal estadísticamente significativo, mientras que las ratas de los grupos II - IV experimentaron una disminución no significativa de peso corporal durante el procedimiento experimental (P0,05). No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P0,05) en el análisis de los pesos relativos en riñones de las ratas de los grupos I - IV. Los exámenes histológicos mostraron citoarquitectura normal de los riñones de las ratas del grupo I, mientras que en ratas de los grupos II ­ IV los espacios capsulares de los riñones aparecían más amplios que los del Grupo I. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron niveles superiores significativos ( P 0,05 ) de la alanina y aspartato aminotransferasa, y de urea en suero en ratas de los Grupos II - IV no dependiente de la dosis, en comparación con las ratas del Grupo I. Estos resultados coinciden con la hipótesis planteada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Moringa oleifera , Kidney/drug effects , Organ Size/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Urea/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(2): 178-188, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767361

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that Spirulina maxima and other natural products are effective in attenuating hepatic damage. In this study were analyzed the effects of five days dietary Spirulina platensis (5 percent) in rats with fatty liver induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg b.w.). Animals were sacrificed at 24 and 48 h post-treatment. In the liver were evaluated total lipids by gravimetry and lipid profile by enzymatic-colorimetric methods, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide by chemical methods. In serum, alanine aminotransferase (kinetic method) and lipid profile were evaluated. The most important effects on the liver were: attenuation in lipid peroxidation, minimal variations on the total fatty acid methyl esters profile, and nitric oxide. These results suggest that Spirulina platensis could be used for fatty liver treatment as an alimentary supplement.


Se ha reportado que la Spirulina maxima y otros productos naturales son efectivos para atenuar el daño hepático. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la Spirulina platensis dietaria (5 por ciento) durante cinco días en ratas con hígado graso inducido por CCl4 (2 mL/kg p.c.). Los animales fueron sacrificados a las 24 y 48 h postratamiento. En el hígado se evaluaron los lípidos totales por gravimetría y el perfil de lípidos por métodos enzimático-colorimétricos, la concentración de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico y óxido nítrico por métodos químicos. En suero fueron evaluados alanina aminotransferasa (método cinético) y perfil de lípidos. Los principales efectos sobre el hígado fueron: la atenuación de la lipoperoxidación, variaciones mínimas en el perfil de metil ésteres de ácidos grasos totales y del óxido nítrico. Estos resultados sugieren que la Spirulina platensis podría ser utilizada como suplemento alimenticio en el tratamiento de hígado graso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Fatty Liver/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Spirulina/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipids/analysis , Nitric Oxide , Rats, Wistar , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
17.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Berberine chloride (BER), an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been used in vivo for its antiparasitic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this study, the protective effect of BER and praziquantel has been compared for the extent of schistosomiasis-induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of mice. RESULTS: S. mansoni was able to induce inflammation and injury to the liver, evidenced (i) by an increase in inflammatory cellular infiltrations, dilated sinusoids and vacuolated hepatocytes, (ii) by decreased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase in the liver homogenate, (iii) by increased production of nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and (iv) by lowered glutathione levels and decreased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during BER treatment. In particular, berberine counteracted the S. mansoni-induced loss of glutathione and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is concluded that berberine could ameliorate pre-existing liver damage and oxidative stress conditions due to schistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Berberine/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Liver/injuries , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione/analysis , Neutrophil Infiltration , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Schistosoma mansoni , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Thiobarbiturates/analysis , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clevudine is a potent antiviral agent against HBV. However, long-term clevudine therapy may cause myopathy. This study was carried out to identify the efficacy of entecavir switching therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients experiencing clevudine-induced myopathy. METHODS: One hundred forty six patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with 30 mg of clevudine per day for 73 weeks (range, 36-132 weeks) were enrolled. Among them, clevudine-induced myopathy occurred in 21 patients (14.4%) which was diagnosed if the patients had symptoms related to myopathy with concurrent CK and AST elevation. All the patients who were diagnosed as clevudine-induced myopathy stopped the therapy, and 17 patients (81%) were switched to entecavir 0.5 mg. RESULTS: The patients with clevudine-induced myopathy were switched to entecavir 0.5 mg for median 68 weeks, and all of them showed disappearance of clinical myopathic symptoms and normalization of CK and AST level within median 2.2 months. Eight patients (47%) were HBeAg positive before entecavir treatment, and HBeAg seroconversion was achieved in 2 patients (25%). HBV DNA level was elevated in 3 patients (17.6%) at the time when the patients were diagnosed as myopathy, all of them achieved virological response with entecavir switching therapy. ALT level was elevated in 3 patients (17.6%) before entecavir treatment, all of them showed normalization of ALT level. During entecavir therapy, genotypic resistance to entecavir or virological breakthrough was not noted. CONCLUSIONS: In chronic hepatitis B patients experiencing clevudine-induced myopathy, switching to entecavir 0.5 mg per day showed a resolution of myopathy and adequate viral suppression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arabinofuranosyluracil/adverse effects , Creatine Kinase/analysis , DNA, Viral/blood , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/chemically induced
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(6): 758-789, set. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649495

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and liver histology are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare HBV non-B and non-C genotypes according to demographic features, clinical status, HBV-DNA levels and liver histology in Rio de Janeiro. One hundred twenty one consecutive chronic HBV-infected patients were enrolled during two-year period and data were prospectively collected. Sera were tested for HBV genotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Liver biopsy was obtained from patients with either increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or HBV-DNA levels. Genotype A was the most common, found in 82 (68%) patients, followed by F in 19 (15%), D in 17 (14%), B in one (1%) and C in two (2%). There was no association between HBV genotypes A, D and F and gender (p = 0.37), age (p = 0.78), race (p = 0.22), mode of infection (p = 0.94), HB "e" antigen status (p = 0.37) and HBV-DNA levels (p = 0.47). The ALT levels were lower in genotype D (75%) compared with A (47%) and F (55%) (p = 0.05). Liver biopsy showed lower inflammation [histological activity index (HAI) = 4] and fibrosis (F) (= 0) scores in genotype D than in genotypes A (HAI = 5, p < 0.001; F = 2, p = 0.008) or F (HAI = 5, p = 0.009; F = 2, p = 0.01). Genotype A was the most prevalent in chronic HBV-infected patients and genotype D patients presented with less intense liver disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrosis , Genotype , Hepatitis B, Chronic/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135539

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The aim of this study is to know if the liver function tests (LFT), especially gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), have a predictive value in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A cross-sectional, single-center study was carried out with 908 subjects. Four hundred and forty two of these subjects were diagnosed with MS with IDF criteria; while other 466 were sex and age matched healthy control subjects. Blood pressure, liver function tests, fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profile of the subjects were recorded. Results: The mean values of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GGT levels were statistically significantly higher in MS group. The mean values of liver enzymes, for female/ male subjects in MS group, AST; ALT and GGT respectively, were; 20.5/19.7 U/l; 25.9/28.5 U/l; 35.9/42.1 U/l. When the sample is divided into quartiles of the GGT levels, increase in GGT is positively correlated with increased MS prevalence. In ROC analysis GGT is as strongly associated with the IDF diagnostic components as is each individual IDF component, except elevated systolic blood pressure. In covariance analysis, there was significant relationship between elevated GGT levels and MS presence after adjustment for age, sex and MS diagnostic criteria; but not AST and ALT levels. In multivariance analysis, in MS group, a high GGT was positively associated with CVD prevalance (odds ratio: 2.011, 95% CI 1.10-4.57) compared to low GGT group independent of age, sex and smoking habits. Interpretation & conclusion: Elevated liver enzymes, although in normal ranges, especially at upper quartiles, play a central role in early diagnosis of fat overflow to the liver. Regarding the availability and simplicity of these tests in routine clinical practice, they, especially GGT, have potential to be considered in algorithms for metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/enzymology , Odds Ratio , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/diagnosis
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