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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929022


OBJECTIVES@#Hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure in China, with a high mortality. Early rapid reduction of HBV-DNA load can improve the survival rate of HBV-ACLF patients. At present, the commonly used drugs are nucleoside (acid) analogues, such as entecavir (ETV), tenofovir, and so on. The newly listed tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) has attracted great attention of clinicians because of its stronger antiviral effect, higher transaminase normalization rate, better bone and kidney safety, and zero drug resistance. However, there are few clinical research data on the efficacy and safety of TAF in the treatment of Chinese HBV-ACLF patients, and there is a lack of pharmacoeconomic evaluation. This study aims to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness between TAF and ETV in patients with HBV-ACLF.@*METHODS@#The data were collected from 196 HBV-ACLF patients (80 patients in the TAF group and 116 patients in the ETV group) who were hospitalized in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from May 2020 to March 2021. Biochemistry and virology were detected before and after treatment (at baseline, Week 2, 4, and 12). Clinical features, disease prognosis, and cost-effectiveness were compared between the 2 groups. According to the baseline, HBV-ACLF patients were divided into 4 stages including pre-liver failure stage, early stage, medium stage, and end stage. And the liver transplantation rate and mortality was also compared. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation was taken using cost-effectiveness analysis and cost minimization analysis..@*RESULTS@#After 4 weeks of treatment, there were no significant differences in the efficacy (liver function, viral load) between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). The TAF group showed lower creatinine [(80.35±18.77) μmol/L vs (105.59±82.32) μmol/L, P<0.05] and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels [(95.65±23.21) mL/(min·1.73 m2) vs (82.68±26.32) mL/(min·1.73 m2), P<0.05] than the ETV group. After 12 weeks of treatment, the analysis of overall the liver transplantation rate and mortality between the 2 groups showed similar conclusion. However, the TAF group had a lower the liver transplantation rate and mortality than the ETV group in patients with pre-liver failure (0vs13.89%, P<0.05). No evident distinction was found in the liver transplantation rate and mortality during the early, medium, or end stages of liver failure (13.04% vs 17.65%, 37.50% vs 37.04%, and 54.55% vs 68.42%, respectively). Ratio of cost to effectiveness in the ETV group was higher than that in the TAF group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TAF is not more efficient than ETV group in improving liver function and reducing viral load for HBV-ACLF patients and they also show similar safety. However, TAF has a greater advantage over ETV not only in preserving renal function, but also in reducing the liver transplantation rate and mortality in patients with pre-liver failure. TAF can provide economic benefit to patients with HBV-ACLF.

Humans , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/drug therapy , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936146


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on helper T lymphocytes 17 (Th17), regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) and Th17/Treg ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients in different alanine aminetransferase (ALT) stages.@*METHODS@#In the study, 336 chronic hepatitis B patients in the first hospital of Lanzhou University were analyzed. The hepatitis B antigen antibody parameters were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, the liver function parameters were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer, the HBV loads were measured by quantitative PCR, Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry. Among them, 111 cases (ALT < 40 U/L) of ALT were normal hepatitis B, 108 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above normal upper limit and < 2 times higher (40 U/L≤ALT < 80 U/L), and 117 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above 2 times normal upper limit (80 U/L≤ALT). According to the viral load, they were divided into low replication group with HBV DNA < 4.0 lg copies/mL, medium replication group with 4.0 lg copies/mL≤HBV DNA < 6.0 lg copies/mL and high replication group with HBV DNA ≥ 6.0 lg copies / mL. Dunnett T3 variance analysis were used to analyze the effects of HBV on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio in the chronic hepatitis B patients in different ALT stages. The changes of virological and immunological indexes before and after treatment were observed for 24 weeks of antiviral therapy in the hepatitis B patients with ALT≥double upper limit of normal group.@*RESULTS@#In the ALT normal group, different virus load HBV had minor effects on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio. In the ALT≥2 times upper limit of normal group, with the virus load increased, Th17 (3.18%±0.79% in low replication group, 3.78%±0.92% in medium replication group and 4.57%±1.15% in high replication group), Treg cells (5.52%±1.58% in low replication group, 5.89%±1.84% in medium replication group and 6.37%±2.35% in high replication group) and their ratio Th17/Treg (0.57±0.25 in low replication group, 0.65±0.29 in medium replication group and 0.73±0.36 in high replication group) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After entecavir treatment 24 weeks, the patient' s HBV-DNA decreased significantly, Th17 (3.89%±1.02% vs. 2.06%±0.46%), Treg (6.02%±2.03% vs. 5.06%±1.25%), Th17/Treg ratio (0.65±0.28 vs. 0.41±0.14) decreased significantly (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Investigation on the effects of HBV on Th17 and Treg cells and their ratios in different ALT states can clarify the effects of HBV on the body from the immunological perspective and can further understand the ALT grouping for antiviral treatment theoretical significance, which is helpful for clinical treatment.

Humans , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
Protein & Cell ; (12): 717-733, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888715


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is spread primary via respiratory droplets and infects the lungs. Currently widely used cell lines and animals are unable to accurately mimic human physiological conditions because of the abnormal status of cell lines (transformed or cancer cells) and species differences between animals and humans. Organoids are stem cell-derived self-organized three-dimensional culture in vitro and model the physiological conditions of natural organs. Here we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infected and extensively replicated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived lung organoids, including airway and alveolar organoids which covered the complete infection and spread route for SARS-CoV-2 within lungs. The infected cells were ciliated, club, and alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, which were sequentially located from the proximal to the distal airway and terminal alveoli, respectively. Additionally, RNA-seq revealed early cell response to virus infection including an unexpected downregulation of the metabolic processes, especially lipid metabolism, in addition to the well-known upregulation of immune response. Further, Remdesivir and a human neutralizing antibody potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids. Therefore, human lung organoids can serve as a pathophysiological model to investigate the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to discover and test therapeutic drugs for COVID-19.

Humans , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Drug Discovery , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Immunity , Lipid Metabolism , Lung/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
Medwave ; 20(11)dic. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146025


OBJETIVO: Esta revisión sistemática viva tiene como objetivo entregar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre los efectos de remdesivir en pacientes con COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se buscaron ensayos aleatorios que evaluaran el uso de remdesivir versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una búsqueda en la plataforma L·OVE COVID-19 (Living OVerview of Evidence), un sistema que mantiene búsquedas regulares en bases de datos, registros de ensayos, servidores preprint y sitios web relevantes en COVID-19. Todas las búsquedas fueron realizadas hasta el 25 de agosto de 2020. No se aplicaron restricciones de fecha ni de idioma. Dos revisores evaluaron de forma independiente los artículos potencialmente elegibles, de acuerdo con criterios de selección predefinidos, y extrajeron los datos mediante un formulario estandarizado. Los resultados fueron combinados mediante un metanálisis utilizando modelos de efectos aleatorios y evaluamos la certeza de la evidencia utilizando el método GRADE. Una versión viva de esta revisión estará abiertamente disponible durante la pandemia de COVID-19. RESULTADOS: La búsqueda inicial arrojó 574 referencias. Finalmente, identificamos 3 ensayos aleatorios, que evaluaban el uso de remdesivir adicionado al tratamiento estándar versus tratamiento estándar. La evidencia es muy incierta acerca del efecto del remdesivir sobre la mortalidad (RR 0,7; IC del 95%: 0,46 a 1,05; certeza de la evidencia muy baja) y la necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva (RR 0,69; IC del 95%: 0,39 a 1,24; certeza de evidencia muy baja). Por otro lado, es probable que el uso de remdesivir produzca un aumento en la incidencia de efectos adversos en pacientes con COVID-19 (RR 1,29; IC del 95%: 0,58 a 2,84; evidencia de certeza moderada). CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia disponible sobre el papel del remdesivir en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 es insuficiente en relación a los desenlaces críticos para tomar decisiones, por lo que no es posible realizar un correcto balance entre los beneficios potenciales, los efectos adversos y los costos.

OBJECTIVE: Provide a timely, rigorous and continuously updated summary of the evidence on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Eligible studies were randomized trials evaluating the effect of remdesivir versus placebo or no treatment. We conducted searches in the special L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) platform for COVID-19, a system that performs regular searches in databases, trial registries, preprint servers and websites relevant to COVID-19. All the searches covered the period until 25 August 2020. No date or language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently evaluated potentially eligible studies according to predefined selection criteria, and extracted data on study characteristics, methods, outcomes, and risk of bias, using a predesigned, standardized form. We performed meta-analyses using random-effect models and assessed overall certainty in evidence using the GRADE approach. A living, web-based version of this review will be openly available during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Our search strategy yielded 574 references. Finally, we included three randomized trials evaluating remdesivir in addition to standard care versus standard care alone. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of remdesivir on mortality (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.05; very low certainty evidence) and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.24; very low certainty evidence). On the other hand, remdesivir likely results in a large increase in the incidence of adverse effects in patients with COVID-19 (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.84; moderate certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is insufficient for the outcomes critical for making decisions on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, so it is impossible to balance potential benefits, if there are any, with the adverse effects and costs.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 838-841, June 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136277


SUMMARY The etiological agent of COVID-19, which causes severe respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and pulmonary insufficiency, has been confirmed as a new coronavirus, now known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is currently no authorized medication for the treatment of COVID-19. No vaccines have been authorized. Thus, this study aimed at conducting a review of the use of Remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. The following electronic databases were used MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS, and PUBMED. On May 1, Remdesivir received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. Remdesivir is currently the most promising molecule in the treatment of COVID-19, taking into account its broad antiviral spectrum (considering the genetic sequences of the virus, it is expected to maintain activity against SARS-CoV-2). There is in vitro and in vivo information available for coronaviruses, as well as an extensive clinical safety database (from a clinical trial of the Ebola virus and in the context of the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered and Investigational Interventions - MEURI). Further studies are relevant as available data on the efficacy and safety of Remdesivir against SARS-nCoV-2 are limited.

RESUMO O agente etiológico da COVID-19, que causa doenças respiratórias graves, como pneumonia e insuficiência pulmonar, foi confirmado como um novo coronavírus, agora conhecido como coronavirus de síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Não existem atualmente medicamentos autorizados para o tratamento de COVID-19, nem estão também autorizadas quaisquer vacinas. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão sobre a utilização de Remdesivir em pacientes com COVID-19. As seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas foram utilizadas MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS e PUBMED. Em primeiro de maio, o Redemsivir recebeu autorização de uso de emergência da Food and Drug Administration. Remdesivir é presentemente a molécula promissora no tratamento da COVID-19 tendo em conta o seu largo espetro antiviral (considerando as sequências genéticas do vírus, é expectável que mantenha atividade contra o SARS-CoV-2). A informação in vitro e in vivo está disponível para os coronavírus, assim como a extensiva base de dados de segurança clínica (proveniente de ensaio clínico do vírus Ebola e no contexto do Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered and Investigational Interventions - MEURI). A realização de novos estudos torna-se relevantes uma vez que os dados disponíveis são limitados sobre eficácia e segurança do Remdesivir contra SARS-nCoV-2.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Pandemics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Alanine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus
Medwave ; 20(7): e7998, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122648


El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) se ha diseminado rápidamente a lo largo del mundo causando una mortalidad significativa en pacientes de alto riesgo con manifestaciones severas. A la fecha, Remdesivir ha sido el único antiviral autorizado por la FDA para uso de emergencia. Una de las posibles complicaciones de esta infección es el desarrollo de tormenta de citoquinas, para la cual no existe un tratamiento óptimo. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 48 años sin antecedentes médicos que acudió al hospital con disnea, tos, fiebre subjetiva y diarrea durante 10 días. La reacción de cadena polimerasa nasofaríngea fue positiva para SARS-CoV-2. Su estado respiratorio empeoró rápidamente hasta el punto de requerir oxígeno suplementario a través cánula nasal de alto flujo con 80% de FiO2. La tomografía computarizada de tórax mostró opacidades confluyentes en vidrio esmerilado en los lóbulos superiores, acompañadas de opacidades irregulares alveolares en los lóbulos inferiores bilateralmente. Se inició terapia con hidroxicloroquina, la cual se cambió a Remdesivir cuando estuvo disponible. Luego se inició metilprednisolona como tratamiento de una posible tormenta de citoquinas. La oxigenación del paciente mejoró significativamente en los días posteriores y fue dado de alta sin requerir oxigeno adicional y saturando 96% en medio ambiente. Nuestro caso ilustra el papel de Remdesivir en el tratamiento de la neumonía grave por COVID-19. También observamos un posible beneficio clínico de los corticoides en tormenta de citoquinas. Se necesitan más estudios para evaluar la eficacia de esta estrategia terapéutica.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world causing significant mortality in high risk patients with severe manifestations. To date, Remdesivir has been the only antiviral authorized by FDA as therapy for emergency use. One of the potential complications of this infection is cytokine storm, which optimal treatment remains unknown. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with no past medical history who presented to the hospital with dyspnea, cough, subjective fever, and diarrhea for 10 days. Nasopharyngeal PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2. His respiratory status rapidly worsened to the point of requiring supplemental oxygen by high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 of 80%. Chest computed tomography showed confluent ground glass opacities in upper lobes accompanied by patchy airspace opacities in lower lobes bilaterally. He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available. Then, methylprednisolone was initiated for suspected cytokine storm. The patient's oxygenation improved significantly over the following days and he was discharged home with no oxygen supplementation and saturating 96% on room air. Our case illustrates the role of Remdesivir for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We also observed a possible clinical benefit of corticosteroids in the context of suspected cytokine storm. Further studies are needed to evaluate this therapeutic strategy.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use