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1.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1384, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1340538

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: realizar revisão da literatura e pela síntese de evidências elaborar um fluxograma de assistência de Enfermagem na síndrome de abstinência alcoólica (SAA). Método: foram executadas as primeiras etapas de elaboração de um protocolo clínico de Enfermagem. Na etapa "a" definiu-se o objetivo do protocolo; na etapa "b" realizou-se pesquisa da literatura científica para levantamento de evidências; e na etapa "c", a partir das evidências, elaborou-se um fluxograma de assistência de Enfermagem na SAA. A coleta de dados ocorreu em janeiro de 2019 nas bases de dados: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, PubMed, CINAHL, PSYINFO e MEDLINE. Os resultados foram apresentados em tabelas e figuras. Resultados: oito estudos foram incluídos na revisão. As evidências subsidiaram a elaboração do fluxograma de assistência de Enfermagem na SAA sistematizado nas seguintes fases: acolhimento e abordagem dos usuários de álcool com manifestação de sinais e sintomas de SAA; rastreio; intervenções; e encaminhamento. Conclusão: com a síntese das evidências foi possível a elaboração de um fluxograma de assistência de Enfermagem na SAA, o qual pode contribuir para o aprimoramento das respostas em saúde a esse problema, bem como é suficiente para dar seguimento às etapas de validação de um protocolo clínico.


RESUMEN Objetivo: revisar la literatura y, a través de la síntesis de evidencia, elaborar un diagrama de flujo de los cuidados de enfermería en el síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica (SAA). Método: se realizaron los primeros pasos para desarrollar un protocolo clínico de enfermería. En el paso "a" se definió el objetivo del protocolo; en el paso "b" se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura científica para recolectar evidencia; y en el paso "c", con base en la evidencia, se elaboró un diagrama de flujo de la atención de enfermería en la SAA. La recolección de datos se realizó en enero de 2019 en las siguientes bases de datos: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, PubMed, CINAHL, PSYINFO y MEDLINE. Los resultados se presentaron en tablas y figura. Resultados: se incluyeron ocho estudios en la revisión. La evidencia apoyó la elaboración del diagrama de flujo de cuidados de enfermería en el SAA sistematizado en las siguientes fases: recepción y abordaje de consumidores de alcohol con manifestación de signos y síntomas de SAA; Seguimiento; intervenciones; y reenvío. Conclusión: con la síntesis de evidencias, fue posible desarrollar un diagrama de flujo de cuidados de enfermería en el SAA, que puede contribuir a la mejora de las respuestas de salud a esta problemática, además de ser suficiente para dar seguimiento a los pasos de validación de un protocolo clínico.


ABSTRACT Objective: to review the literature and, through the synthesis of evidence, elaborate a flowchart of Nursing care in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Method: the first steps of elaboration of a clinical Nursing protocol were carried out. In step "a" the objective of the protocol was defined; in step "b" a search of the scientific literature was carried out to gather evidence; and in step "c", based on the evidence, a flowchart of Nursing care in the AWS was elaborated. Data collection took place in January 2019 in the following databases: Virtual Health Library, PubMed, CINAHL, PSYINFO and MEDLINE. The results were presented in tables and figures. Results: eight studies were included in the review. The evidence supported the elaboration of the Nursing care flowchart in the AWS systematized in the following phases: reception and approach to alcohol users with manifestation of AWS signs and symptoms; Tracking; interventions; and forwarding. Conclusion: with the synthesis of evidence, it was possible to develop a flowchart of Nursing care in the SAA, which can contribute to the improvement of health responses to this problem, as well as being sufficient to follow up on the steps of validation of a clinical protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Clinical Protocols , Alcohol-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Alcohol Abstinence , Nursing Care , Referral and Consultation , User Embracement , Nursing Assessment
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887723

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Evidence regarding alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment is controversial. Whether cessation of drinking alcohol by non-dependent drinkers alters the risk of cognitive impairment remains unknown. This study prospectively evaluated the potential association between the history of lifetime alcohol cessation and risk of cognitive impairment.@*Methods@#This study included 15,758 participants age 65 years or older, selected from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) that covered 23 provinces in China. Current alcohol use status, duration of alcohol cessation, and alcohol consumption before abstinence were self-reported by participants; cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Cause-specific hazard models and restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate the effect of alcohol use on cognitive impairment.@*Results@#Among the 15,758 participants, mean (± SD) age was 82.8 years (± 11.9 years), and 7,199 (45.7%) were males. During a mean of 3.9 years of follow-up, 3,404 cases were identified as cognitive impairment. Compared with current drinkers, alcohol cessation of five to nine years [adjusted @*Conclusion@#A longer duration of alcohol cessation was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Alcohol cessation is never late for older adults to prevent cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Abstinence , Alcohol Drinking , China , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Risk
3.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 15(42): 2263-2263, 20200210. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1097396

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A violência praticada por parceiro íntimo refere-se ao comportamento de parceiros ou ex-parceiros íntimos que resulta em dano físico, sexual ou psicológico, incluindo agressão física, coerção sexual, abuso psicológico e comportamento controlador. Sabe-se que o etilismo está associado ao aumento de tal violência. Objetivo: Analisar se a acompanhante do paciente em abstinência alcoólica referia menor índice de violência nesse período em relação ao tempo em que o mesmo fazia abuso de álcool. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal no qual foram selecionados homens ex-etilistas atendidos no CAPSad de Maringá e suas parceiras. Foi utilizado um questionário para violência contra parceiro (HITS) composto de 4 perguntas objetivas, cuja pontuação varia de 4 até 20. Valores iguais ou superiores a 10 indicam violência. Resultados: Foram entrevistadas 53 mulheres de diversas faixas etárias e escolaridades. Desse total, 84,9% das participantes apresentaram pontuações menores no teste com o parceiro em abstinência em relação ao período em que o mesmo estava em uso/abuso de álcool. Das mulheres 15,1% não notaram diferença no nível de violência do acompanhante, estivesse ele em uso ou em abstinência alcoólica. Conclusões: Demonstrou-se claramente que o fato de cessar o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas reduziu o índice de violência infligida pelo parceiro.


Introduction: Intimate partner violence refers to the behavior of intimate partners or ex-partners resulting in physical, sexual, or psychological harm, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and controlling behavior. It is known that alcoholism is associated with increase of this type of violence. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze whether the partner of the patient in alcohol withdrawal reported a lower rate of violence in this period compared with the period of alcohol abuse. Methods: cross-sectional study in which we selected male former drinkers attended at the CAPSad of Maringá, and their partners. A questionnaire regarding partner violence (HITS), consisting of 4 objective questions with scores ranging from 4 to 20, was used. Values equal to or greater than 10 indicate violence. Results: We interviewed 53 women of different ages and schooling. Of this total, 84.9% of the participants had scores in the test with the partner in withdrawal lower than in the period in which he was in use/abuse of alcohol. 15.1% of the women did not notice a difference in the level of violence of their partners, whether he was in use or withdrawal. Conclusions: It was clearly demonstrated that the cessation of alcohol consumption reduced the rate of violence inflicted by the partner.


Introducción: La violencia practicada por un compañero íntimo se refiere al comportamiento de parejas o ex compañeros íntimos que resultan en daño físico, sexual o psicológico, incluyendo agresión física, coerción sexual, abuso psicológico y comportamiento controlador. Se sabe que el etilismo está asociado al aumento de tal violencia. Objetivo: analizar si la compañera del paciente en abstinencia alcohólica refería menor índice de violencia en ese período en relación al tiempo en que el mismo hacía abuso de alcohol. Método: estudio tranversal en el que se seleccionaron hombres ex etilistas del CAPSad de Maringá y sus parejas. Se utilizó un cuestionario para violencia contra parejas (HITS) compuesto de 4 preguntas objetivas cuya puntuación varía de 4 a 20. Valores igual ou superiores a 10 indican violencia. Resultados: Se entrevistaron a 53 mujeres de diversas edades y escolaridades. De ese total, el 84,9% de las participantes presentó puntuaciones menores en la prueba con el compañero en abstinencia en relación al período en que el mismo estaba en uso / abuso de alcohol. El 15,1% de las mujeres no notaron diferencia en el nivel de violencia del acompañante, esté en uso o abstinencia alcohólica. Conclusión: Se demostró claramente que el hecho de cesar el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas redujo el índice de violencia infligido por el compañero.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Alcoholism , Alcohol Abstinence , Intimate Partner Violence
4.
San Salvador; s.n; 2020. 43 p. graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1150889

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio cuyo propósito fue conocer el registro de pacientes que ingresaron por Síndrome de Abstinencia Alcohólica a los servicios de Medicina Interna del Hospital Nacional Saldaña en el período de enero a junio del año 2019. La población sometida a la investigación fueron los pacientes ingresados por dicha entidad clínica en el período del estudio, el diseño del mismo es tipo descriptivo de corte transversal retrospectivo, la fuente de datos utilizados son los libros de registro de ingreso ­ egreso de los servicios de Medicina Interna, estadísticas del SIMMOW y los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes en estudio. Además a través de un instrumento pre elaborado por los investigadores, se registran características principales de dicha población. Los resultados obtenidos reportan que el mayor porcentaje de pacientes que ingresaron por esta causa pertenecen al sexo masculino, el porcentaje de ingreso mensual oscila entre el 10 ­ 14% durante el periodo de la investigación, y los medicamentos más utilizados en la población en estudio fueron Benzodiacepinas y Haloperidol. En conclusión, la población masculina sigue representando el indicador más importante en cuanto al sexo. El porcentaje de pacientes ingresados por síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica oscila entre el 10-14%, las benzodiacepinas y el haloperidol son medicamentos usados en el 100% de pacientes


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Family Practice
7.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1442-1449, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042198

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to know the expectations of family members of alcoholics living in rural areas under treatment in a Psychiatric Hospitalization Unit. Method: qualitative research, through interviews with 15 relatives of alcoholics living in rural areas and hospitalized in a Psychiatric Unit. Information was interpreted in the light of Phenomenological Sociology. Results: two concrete categories emerged: Expectations that the family member quits using alcohol and Projects of family members for the alcoholic after discharge. Relatives expected the alcoholic to maintain abstinence and planned post-discharge care, which involved everything from welcoming them to projects with a prospect of control or even fear of not being able to care for the alcoholic. Final considerations: most participants have positive expectations regarding psychiatric hospitalization, but some relatives are not confident about caring for the alcoholic and mentioned alternatives such as hiring a caregiver or nursing homes.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Conocer las expectativas de familiares de alcohólicos residentes en el medio rural con tratamiento en una Unidad de Hospitalización Psiquiátrica. Método: investigación cualitativa, mediante entrevista con 15 familiares de alcohólicos residentes en el medio rural hospitalizados en una Unidad Psiquiátrica. Las informaciones fueron interpretadas bajo la luz de la Sociología Fenomenológica. Resultados: dos categorías concretas han surgido: Expectativas de que el familiar deje de hacer uso de alcohol y Proyectos del familiar del alcohólico después del alta hospitalaria. Los familiares esperaban que el alcohólico mantuviera la abstinencia y planificara los cuidados después del alta, que envolvían desde la acogida en sus hogares hasta proyectos con perspectiva de control o de temor de no tener condiciones de cuidar del alcohólico. Consideraciones finales: la mayoría de los participantes tienen expectativas positivas con relación a la hospitalización psiquiátrica, pero hay familiares que no se sienten seguros en cuidar del alcohólico y mencionaron alternativas como buscar otro cuidador e, incluso, asilos.


RESUMO Objetivo: Conhecer as expectativas de familiares de alcoolistas residentes no meio rural com tratamento em Unidade de Internação Psiquiátrica. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, mediante entrevista com 15 familiares de alcoolistas residentes no meio rural internados em uma Unidade Psiquiátrica. As informações foram interpretadas à luz da Sociologia Fenomenológica. Resultados: emergiram duas categorias concretas: Expectativas de que o familiar pare de fazer uso de álcool e Projetos do familiar do alcoolista após a alta hospitalar. Os familiares esperavam que o alcoolista mantivesse a abstinência e planejavam os cuidados após a alta, envolvendo desde o acolhimento em seus lares a projetos com perspectiva de controle ou de receio de não terem condições de cuidar do alcoolista. Considerações finais: a maioria dos participantes tem expectativas positivas em relação à internação psiquiátrica, mas há familiares que não se sentem seguros em cuidar do alcoolista e mencionaram alternativas como buscar outro cuidador e, até mesmo, asilos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Rural Population , Family/psychology , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , Alcoholics , Hospitalization , Motivation , Socioeconomic Factors , Qualitative Research , Alcohol Abstinence , Hospitals, General , Middle Aged
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1058934

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: investigar o conhecimento da equipe de Enfermagem sobre a síndrome de abstinência alcoólica e descrever os cuidados prestados por essa equipe às pessoas com síndrome de abstinência alcoólica internadas na clínica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo e qualitativo com 22 profissionais de Enfermagem que atuavam na clínica cirúrgica de um hospital geral e responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada gravada e posteriormente transcrita. A Análise de Conteúdo e a Análise Temática foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas as categorias "O conhecimento da equipe de Enfermagem sobre a síndrome de abstinência alcoólica" e "Os cuidados prestados pela equipe de Enfermagem diante de pessoas em síndrome de abstinência alcoólica". A equipe de Enfermagem reconhece os sinais e sintomas da síndrome de abstinência alcoólica, mas não os diferencia em orgânicos e psíquicos. Prioriza-se a contenção mecânica associada à farmacoterapia na prestação dos cuidados. CONCLUSÃO: recomenda-se sensibilizar e qualificar as equipes de Enfermagem para uma assistência pautada nas reais necessidades das pessoas com síndrome de abstinência alcoólica, pois esse é um desafio a ser superado para oferecer maior segurança no processo cirúrgico.


OBJECTIVE: to investigate the nursing team's knowledge about alcohol withdrawal syndrome and to describe the care provided by this team to people with alcohol withdrawal symptoms admitted to the surgical clinic. METHOD: descriptive and qualitative study. Twenty-two nursing professionals who worked in the surgical clinic of a general hospital answered a semi-structured interview that was recorded and later transcribed. Content analysis and thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: the following categories were identified: "Knowldge of the Nursing Team on the alcoholic withdrawal syndrome" and "Care provided by the nursing team to persons with alcoholic withdrawal syndrome". The nursing team recognizes the signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but does not differentiate them into organic and psychic. Priority is given to mechanical containment associated with pharmacotherapy in the provision of care. CONCLUSION: it is recommended to sensitize and qualify the nursing teams for an assistance based on the real needs of people with alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a challenge to be overcome to offer greater safety in the surgical process.


OBJETIVO: investigar el conocimiento del equipo de enfermería sobre el síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica y describir los cuidados prestados por ese equipo a las personas con síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica internadas en la clínica quirúrgica. MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo y cualitativo. Veintidós profesionales de enfermería que actuaban en la clínica quirúrgica de un hospital general respondieron una entrevista semiestructurada que fue grabada y posteriormente transcrita. El análisis de contenido y el análisis temático se utilizaron para analizar los datos. RESULTADOS: fueron identificadas las categorias: "El conocimiento del equipo de enfermeira sobre la síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica" y "Los cuidados oferecidos por el equipo de enfermeira para las personas com síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica". El equipo de enfermería reconoce los signos y síntomas del síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica, pero no los diferencia en orgánicos y psíquicos. Se prioriza la contención mecánica asociada a la farmacoterapia en la prestación del cuidado. CONCLUSIÓN: se recomienda sensibilizar y calificar a los equipos de enfermería para una asistencia pautada en las reales necesidades de las personas con síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica es un desafío a ser superado para ofrecer mayor seguridad en el proceso quirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/drug therapy , Alcoholics , Alcohol Abstinence , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hospitalization , Nurse Practitioners , Nursing Care , Nursing, Team
9.
Medisan ; 23(3)mayo.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091095

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 200 adolescentes de 10-19 años de edad, pertenecientes al área de salud América I del municipio de Contramaestre, provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2016, a fin de caracterizar a quienes consumían bebidas alcohólicas. Resultaron bebedores 177 y el inicio de la ingestión fue más frecuente entre los 10-16 años de edad. Se evidenció un riesgo de consumo patológico en el sexo masculino. Los consumidores de riesgo, perjudiciales y dependientes alcohólicos manifestaron la necesidad de ingerir alcohol en las actividades, puesto que les producía efectos favorables; por tanto, se propuso fomentar la educación antialcohólica entre los integrantes de este grupo poblacional.


A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 200 adolescents with 10-19 years belonging to America I health area in Contramaestre municipality, Santiago de Cuba province was carried out from January to December, 2016, in order to characterize those who consumed alcoholic drinks. There were 177 drinkers and the beginning of consumption was more frequent between 10-16 years. A risk of pathological consumption was evidenced in the male sex. The harmful and alcoholic risk consumers, manifested the necessity to drink alcohol in the activities, since it produced them favorable effects; therefore, it was proposed to foment the antialcoholic education among the members of this populational group.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alcoholism , Alcohol Abstinence
10.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 24(2): 541-558, maio-ago. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040879

ABSTRACT

A recaída é considerada, em alguns estudos, como um processo que compreende tanto o retorno ao consumo da substância química como os momentos anteriores que advertem sobre o risco de o abstêmio recidivar. O programa dos Alcoólicos Anônimos (AA) visa à sobriedade pela abstinência total do álcool. O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a expressão da experiência elementar no processo de recaída vivenciado por membro de AA, com base na elaboração da experiência dos sujeitos. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, cuja coleta de dados deu-se mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas, das quais participaram cinco membros de AA de três grupos de Montes Claros-MG. Empregou-se a análise fenomenológica para o tratamento dos dados, via que possibilitou a apreensão de quatro categorias temáticas: pertencimento; posicionamento pessoal; exigência de ser; e experiência religiosa. A dinâmica da experiência elementar do alcoolista, expressa no processo de recaída, orienta o posicionamento deste diante de si e do mundo.


Relapse is considered in some studies as a process which comprises both the return to the use of a chemical substance as well as the previous moments warning about the danger of an abstemious person to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous Program (AA) aims to reach sobriety based on total alcohol abstinence. The objective of the research was to analyze the expression of elemental experience in the process of relapse experienced by AA members, through the elaboration of the subjects’ experiences. It turns out to be a qualitative research, where the data collection procedure occurred through semi-structured interviews. The interviewees were five members from three AA groups in the city of Montes Claros-MG. We applied the phenomenological analysis to process the data, which allowed us to establish four thematic categories: belonging; personal positioning; requirement for being; and religious experience. The dynamics of the alcoholics’ elementary experience, expressed in the relapse process is the guide to their attitudes towards themselves and the world.


La recaída es considerada en algunos estudios como un proceso que incluye tanto el hecho de volver a consumir sustancias químicas, como los momentos anteriores que advierten del riesgo de que el abstemio reincida. El programa de Alcohólicos Anónimos (AA) tiene como objetivo la sobriedad a través de abstinencia total de alcohol. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar la expresión de la experiencia elemental en el proceso de recaída experimentada por miembros de AA con base en la elaboración de la experiencia de los sujetos. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, cuya recolección de datos se dio a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, en las cuales participaron cinco miembros de AA de tres grupos de Montes Claros-MG. Se aplicó el análisis fenomenológico para tratamiento de datos, lo que permitió captar cuatro categorías temáticas: pertenecimiento; posicionamiento personal; exigencia de ser; y experiencia religiosa. La dinámica de la experiencia elemental del alcohólico, expresada en el proceso de recaída, indica su posicionamiento ante sí mismo y el mundo.


Subject(s)
Recurrence , Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism , Alcohol Abstinence
11.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 23: e2306, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1098500

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar os saberes e práticas dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS), direcionados a usuários de álcool e outras drogas à luz da estratégia de redução de danos. Como característica específica do público deste estudo, foram escolhidos ACS que participaram do curso Caminhos do Cuidado. Utilizando-se o método qualitativo, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas como fonte de coleta de dados e análise de conteúdo para a sistematização dos achados. Os dados demonstraram que mesmo aqueles profissionais que relatavam conhecer o conceito de redução de danos e a possibilidade de utilizar esta abordagem para o cuidado de usuários de álcool e outras drogas no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), não conseguem ofertar cuidados que se aproximem desta estratégia. Isto ocorre uma vez que os entrevistados não respeitam a liberdade de escolha, pautam-se no proibicionismo e no ideal de abstinência. Esta dificuldade prática em desenvolver o cuidado, baseado nesta abordagem, se relaciona com a percepção moralizante sobre o uso de drogas, sua associação ao crime e o foco na possibilidade de se extinguir o uso de drogas nas sociedades.


RESUMEN. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los saberes y prácticas de Agentes Comunitarios de Salud (ACS) frente a usuarios de sustancias psicoactivas y la estrategia de reducción de daños. Fueron elegidos ACS que participaron del curso "Caminhos do Cuidado". A partir de una perspectiva cualitativa se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, la información obtenida fue análisis de contenido con el fin de sistematizar los resultados. Los datos demostraron que a pesar de que los profesionales relaten conocer el concepto de reducción de daños y la posibilidad de utilizar esta estrategia para el cuidado de usuarios de sustancias psicoactivas en el contexto de Atención Primaria en Salud (APS) no logran ofrecer cuidados que se acerquen de esta estrategia. Esto sucede principalmente cuando los ACS no respetan la libertad de elección de los usuarios, se centran en el prohibicionismo y en el ideal de abstinencia. Esta dificultad para efectuar el cuidado con base en la reducción de daños se relaciona con una percepción moralista acerca del uso de drogas, asociando el consumo con el delito, además de destacar la posibilidad de erradicar el uso de drogas en las sociedades.


ABSTRACT. This study aimed to analyze the knowledge and practices of Community Health Agents trained by the Care Pathway Project, aimed at users of alcohol and other drugs from the perspective of the Harm Reduction strategy. Data showed that even those professionals who reported knowing the concept of harm reduction and the possibility of using this approach to provide care for alcohol and other drug users in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), they are unable to offer care as described in this strategy. This occurs because the interviewees do not respect freedom of choice, they advocate prohibitionism and the ideal of abstinence. This practical difficulty in developing care based on this approach is related to the moralizing perception about drug use, its association with crime and the focus on the possibility of extinguishing the use of drugs by societies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Community Health Workers/psychology , Harm Reduction/ethics , Illicit Drugs , Public Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Crime , National Health Strategies , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , Professional Training , Drug Users , Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Mental Health Services
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718638

ABSTRACT

Severe acute alcoholic liver disease (SAAH) unresponsive to medical therapy shows one-year-mortality rates of up to 90%. Most transplant centers request six months of alcohol abstinence prior to transplantation, the so-called “6-month rule.” This regulation is not based on strong evidence, repeatedly making it a topic of controversial debates. The majority of patients with SAAH will die before fulfilling the 6-month rule. Therefore, liver transplantation (LT) protocols are becoming more flexible towards the rigid abstinence regulation, especially concerning SAAH patients. We conducted a literature review regarding LT in SAAH and its outcomes, including post-transplant mortality and recidivism. We studied available data on PubMed from 2011 and onwards whilst including articles dealing with genetic components, medical therapy and historic snapshots of alcoholism. Emerging studies recommend LT in SAAH not responding to medical therapies even without realizing the required abstinence period, since the majority of these patients would die within 6 months. SAAH without response to medical therapy has one-year-mortality rates of up to 90%. The 6-month rule is not based on strong evidence and is repeatedly a topic of controversial debates. There is genetic linkage to alcoholism and medical therapy is not as effective as estimated, yet. The 6-months-regulation has not shown to evidently decrease the risk of recidivism post-LT, which is a lifesaving treatment in SAAH patients. Insisting on rigid sobriety rules results in excluding patients with a low risk of recidivism from being transplanted. Moreover, the genetic linkage of alcoholism must be recognized.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholics , Alcoholism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Genetic Linkage , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Humans , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 852-860, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Impaired Control Scale (K-ICS), a scale to screen patients with alcohol use disorder. METHODS: Participants were 173 inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 174 normal controls (NC). Both AUD and NC groups completed the K-ICS as well as the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASES), the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). RESULTS: The internal consistencies of K-ICS were good in both AUD and NC. A good convergent validity was clearly shown by significant correlations with the ADS and the AASES, respectively. But the K-ICS had no or weak correlations with the BSCS and the HAD. The ROC curve analyses indicated that the optimal cut-off points of failed control (FC) and predicted control (PC) were estimated as >15 and >13, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis suggested that FC is a robust predictor of the severity of AUD. CONCLUSION: The K-ICS, especially FC subscale of it appears to be a valid and reliable measure of impaired control among both clinical and non-clinical sample.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism , Anxiety , Depression , Humans , Inpatients , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Self-Control
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the bone mineral density of male patients with alcohol dependence with that in healthy controls and to assess changes in bone density after abstinence. METHODS: Forty-four inpatients with confirmed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 42 controls were recruited. Bone density was determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine as well as in the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle regions of the proximal right femur. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age and body mass index between patients with alcohol dependence and healthy controls. In the alcohol dependence group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 54.5% and 34.1% of the patients, respectively, whereas in the control group, the corresponding values were 45.2% and 11.9% (p=0.001). Although the actual bone density in the femur and the corresponding T-scores were significantly lower in the alcohol dependence group, no significant differences were found in the lumbar spine. In both groups, body mass index showed a significant correlation with bone mineral density in all areas. After 3 to 4 years of abstinence, bone density significantly increased in the lumbar and femur. CONCLUSION: We conclude that bone mineral density in patients with alcohol dependence was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, and the rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis are higher. Importantly, abstinence from alcohol increases bone density.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Femur , Femur Neck , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Osteoporosis , Spine
15.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 136-144, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715268

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study investigated whether neurofeedback training (NFT) can normalize the excessive high beta and low alpha waves indicative of hyperarousal and subsequently improve autonomous regulation based on the self-determination theory in alcohol use disorders. METHODS: A nonequivalent control group preteste-posttest design was used. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 36 Korean inpatients who met the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test in Korea criteria. Data were collected from quantitative electroencephalography to assess alpha (8–12 Hz) and high beta (21–30 Hz) waves for hyperarousal. The questionnaires included Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction scales that assessed autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale and Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of NFT over 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared, Manne-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. RESULTS: In the experimental group, the alpha wave was increased in 15 of 19 sites and high beta waves were decreased in 15 of 19 sites, but this difference was not significant. However, high beta waves were increased in 15 of 19 sites in the control group, with seven sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, Fp2, F4, C4, and P4) showing significant increases. The experimental group showed a significant increase in basic psychological need satisfaction, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, and self-regulation compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: NFT is recommended for improving autonomous regulation in alcohol use disorder as a nursing intervention. However, for significantly attenuating hyperarousal through brain wave correction, it may be necessary to increase the number of neurofeedback sessions.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism , Brain Waves , Electroencephalography , Humans , Inpatients , Korea , Mental Competency , Neurofeedback , Nursing , Self-Control , Social Control, Formal , Weights and Measures
16.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 55-62, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765679

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with alcohol abstinence, herbal medication, radiation, ischemia and immune reaction against systemic or local infections. Herein, we report a case of 67-year-old man with spontaneous disappearance of HCC after local infection as a rare cause. The patient had no clinical symptoms except for markedly increased tumor marker of HCC (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II: 731 mAU/mL). On computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, massive infiltrating HCC with portal vein invasion was confirmed. During conservative treatment, he was admitted due to suppurative diabetic foot. After medical treatment, HCC disappeared on follow-up CT scans, along with change in hepatic contour. The disappearance of HCC might be a result of immune response by treatment of the diabetic foot and that of ischemia by portal vein tumor thrombosis secondarily. We summarized case reports regarding spontaneous regression of HCC by infection and ischemia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alcohol Abstinence , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diabetic Foot , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ischemia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous , Portal Vein , Thrombosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vitamin K
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740814

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experiences of those who are abstinent from alcohol to recover from alcoholism. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study design was used. RESULTS: In this study, 3 clusters of themes and 7 themes were derived: 1. Decision for abstinence - 1) an unavoidable choice and 2) choice due to insight to alcoholism; 2. Difficulties to endure - 1) difficulty with giving up and 2) difficulty with handling; 3. Adaptation to a new lifestyle - 1) satisfaction with trivial rounds of daily life, 2) finding new values, and 3) restoration of broken relationships. CONCLUSION: Abstinence experience among people with alcohol use disorder is decided with a variety of personal motives. Abstinence experience includes giving up relationships with people and pleasure with alcohol as well as difficulties with enduring stress without alcohol. However, participants who were abstinent from alcohol were satisfied with their new lifestyles, had new life values, and were respected by their family and others. Therefore, healthcare providers needed to understand abstinence experience to support people with alcohol use disorder who have passed through a difficult process of alcohol abstinence.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholics , Alcoholism , Health Personnel , Humans , Life Style , Male , Pleasure , Qualitative Research
18.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 27(67): 93-99, May-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-895158

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Self-efficacy for abstinence and temptation to use illicit drugs are demonstrably key elements of changing addictive behaviors. This study's aim was to analyze the psychometric evidence for the Brazilian adaptation of the scales Drug Abstinence Self-efficacy Scale (DASE) and Temptation to Use Drugs Scale (TUD). The sample was composed of 300 men treated for cocaine and crack addiction. Análise Factorial Exploratory and internal consistency demonstrated the existence of four factors in the DASE that explained 54% of the total variation in the 24 items, and four factors in the TUD that explained 56% of the total change in the variation. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was at DSE .920 and TUD .927. The Brazilian adaptation of the scales showed appropriate evidence of validity in the sample of hospitalized individuals addicted to cocaine and crack.


Resumo: Autoeficácia para abstinência e a tentação para uso de drogas são importantes elementos na mudança dos comportamentos aditivos. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as evidências psicométricas da validação e adaptação brasileira das escalas Drug Abstinence Self-efficacy Scale (DASE) e Temptation to Use Drugs Scale (TUD). A amostra foi de 300 homens em tratamento pela dependência de cocaína e crack. A análise fatorial exploratória e de consistência interna demonstraram a existência de quatro fatores na DASE, explicando 54% da variação total dos 24 itens e quatro fatores na TUD explicando 56% da variação total. O coeficiente alpha de Cronbach na DASE foi 0,920 e na TUD 0,927. A adaptação brasileira das escalas mostrou evidências de validade adequadas na amostra de dependentes de cocaína e crack internados.


Resumen: Autoeficacia para abstinencia y la tentación para el consumo de drogas han sido elementos importantes en el cambio de las conductas adictivas. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las evidencias psicométricas de la validación y adaptación brasileña de las escalas: Escala de Autoeficacia para Abstinencia de las Drogas (DASE) y Escala de Tentación de Utilizar Medicamentos (TUD). La muestra consistió en 300 hombres que reciben tratamiento para la adicción a la cocaína y el crack. El análisis factorial exploratorio y de consistencia interna mostraron la existencia de cuatro factores en la DASE, que explican el 54% de la variación total de los 24 artículos; y cuatro factores que explican el 56% de la variación total en la TUD. El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue 0,920 en la DASE y 0,927 en la TUD. La adaptación brasileña de las escalas muestra evidencias de validez adecuadas en la muestra de dependientes de la cocaína y el crack admitidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Alcohol Abstinence , Cocaine Smoking , Cocaine-Related Disorders/therapy , Self Efficacy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(7): 2375-2382, Jul. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890388

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar o perfil de mortalidade por causas externas entre Adventistas do Sétimo Dia e população geral do Espírito Santo no período de 2003 a 2009. Realizou-se busca dos Adventistas no banco nominal do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade de posse das informações dos Adventistas fornecidas pelas sedes administrativas da instituição. Os óbitos por causas externas ocorridos no período estudado foram então separados em dois grupos: Adventistas e população geral. Os Adventistas apresentaram menor mortalidade proporcional por causas externas (10%) que a população geral (19%), sendo o sexo masculino o principal responsável por essa diferença. Em ambos os grupos os óbitos predominaram na faixa de 20 a 29 anos. As mortes por causas acidentais foram mais expressivas entre os Adventistas (68,08%) enquanto as mortes por causas intencionais relacionadas às agressões e lesões autoprovocadas foram mais significativas na população geral (53,67% de todas as mortes). A razão de mortalidade padronizada para as causas externas foi 41,3, sendo assim ser Adventista reduziu a mortalidade em 58,7%. Acredita-se que o benefício dos Adventistas verificado em relação à mortalidade por causas externas possa estar relacionado à recomendação de abstinência do consumo de álcool por esse grupo.


Abstract This paper aimed to compare the profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general population of Espírito Santo from 2003 to 2009. A search of Adventists was performed in the nominal database of the Mortality Information System containing data on Adventists provided by the administrative offices of the institution. Deaths from external causes occurred during the study period were then divided into two groups: Adventists and the general population. Adventists had lower proportional mortality from external causes (10%) than the general population (19%), and males were the main reason for this difference. In both groups, deaths prevailed in the 20-29 years age group. Deaths from accidental causes were most significant among Adventists (68.08%), while deaths from intentional causes related to assault and self-inflicted injuries were more significant in the general population (53.67% of all deaths). The standardized mortality ratio for external causes was 41.3, thus, being Adventist reduced mortality by 58.7%. It is believed that the benefit of Adventists observed for mortality from external causes is related to this group's abstinence from alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Accidents/statistics & numerical data , Protestantism , Alcohol Abstinence/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , Accidents/mortality , Mortality/trends , Self-Injurious Behavior/mortality , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
20.
Aval. psicol ; 16(2): 176-186, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-878255

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the initial psychometric properties of the Inventory of Anticipatory Coping Skills for Abstinence from Alcohol and Other Drugs (Inventário de Habilidades de Enfrentamento Antecipatório para a Abstinência de Álcool e Outras Drogas ­ IDHEA­AD). The total sample included 457 individuals in treatment for problems related to alcohol or crack use. An Exploratory Factor Analysis, Maximum Likelihood Extraction and Promax rotation were used, which produced a structure of 30 items distributed across three factors: "assertiveness and planning for high­risk substance use situations", "expression of positive feelings towards abstinence" and "emotional self­control in adverse situations". After analyzing validity evidence based on the internal structure and reliability based on internal consistency, it was possible to conclude that this structure included important behaviors for the relapse prevention.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades psicométricas iniciais do Inventário de Habilidades de Enfrentamento Antecipatório para a Abstinência de Álcool e Outras Drogas (IDHEA­AD). A amostra foi de 457 pessoas em tratamento por problemas relacionados ao uso de álcool ou crack. Foi realizada uma Análise Fatorial Exploratória, método de extração Máxima Verossimilhança e rotação Promax, que produziu uma estrutura de 30 itens, distribuídos em três fatores, nomeados como "assertividade e planejamento para situações de alto risco de consumo de substâncias", "expressão de sentimentos positivos para a abstinência" e "autocontrole emocional em situações adversas". Analisadas evidências de validade de estrutura interna e fidedignidade por consistência interna, concluiu­se que a estrutura é adequada para a avaliação de comportamentos direcionados à prevenção de recaídas.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las propiedades psicométricas iniciales del Inventario de Habilidades de Afrontamiento Anticipatorio para la Abstinencia de Alcohol y otras Drogas (IDHEA-AD). La muestra fue de 457 personas en tratamiento por problemas relacionados al uso de alcohol o crack. Se realizó un Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, con método de extracción de Máxima Verosimilitud y rotación Promax, que dio como resultado una estructura de 30 ítems, distribuidos en tres factores, nombrados como "asertividad e planeamiento para situaciones de alto riesgo de consumo de sustancias", "expresión de sentimientos positivos para la abstinencia" y "autocontrol emocional en situaciones adversas". Se concluye que el IDHEA-AD es un instrumento considerable para la prevención de recaídas, en base a la evidencia de validez de estructura interna obtenida y a estudios de confiabilidad por consistencia interna realizados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcohol Abstinence/psychology , Crack Cocaine , Social Skills , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Factor Analysis, Statistical
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