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Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1639-1644, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134491


SUMMARY: Previous studies from our group described the consequences of using ethanol on penile erection. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms surrounding microRNAs, apoptosis process and their relationship with erectile dysfunction associated with alcohol consumption are still poorly understood. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the mechanism of apoptosis by the expression of AIF and PARP, as well as their regulatory microRNAs: miR-145, miR-210 and miR-486, in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to a semivoluntary alcoholism model. For this study 24 Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (C) and treated with 20 % ethanol (A) for seven weeks. The corpus cavernosum samples were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of AIF and PARP protein expression, and microRNAs miR-145, miR-210, miR-486 gene expression in cavernous tissue was performed by real time PCR. The immunohistochemical analysis showed little nuclear positive labeling for the protein PARP and AIF in the corpus cavernosum of control and ethanol treated animals. After analysis of miR-145, -210 and -486 microRNA expression in the 12 animals studied, no results were found with significant statistical difference between the control and alcoholized groups. The expression of AIF and PARP and their regulatory microRNAs involved in apoptotic process (miR-145, miR-210 and miR-486) were not altered in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to semivoluntary alcoholism.

RESUMEN: Estudios previos de nuestro grupo describieron las consecuencias del uso de etanol en la erección del pene. Sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares que rodean a los microARN, el proceso de apoptosis y su relación con la disfunción eréctil asociada con el consumo de alcohol aún no se conocen bien. El objetivo de este análisis fue evaluar el mecanismo de apoptosis mediante la expresión de AIF y PARP, así como sus microARN reguladores: miR-145, miR-210 y miR-486, en el cuerpo cavernoso de ratas sometidas a un modelo de alcoholismo semivoluntario. Se dividieron 24 ratas Wistar en dos grupos: control (C) grupo de ratas tratadas con etanol al 20 % (A) durante siete semanas. Las muestras del cuerpo cavernoso se prepararon para el análisis inmunohistoquímico de la expresión de la proteína AIF y PARP, y la expresión del gen microRNAs miR-145, miR-210, miR-486 en tejido cavernoso se realizó por PCR en tiempo real. El análisis inmunohistoquímico mostró escaso etiquetado nuclear positivo para la proteína PARP y AIF en el cuerpo cavernoso de los animales de control y tratados con etanol. Después del análisis de la expresión de microARN miR-145, -210 y -486 no se encontraron resultados con diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los grupos control y alcoholizados. La expresión de AIF y PARP y sus microARN reguladores involucrados en el proceso apoptótico (miR-145, miR-210 y miR-486) no se alteraron en el cuerpo cavernoso de las ratas sometidas a alcoholismo semivoluntario.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Alcoholism/metabolism , Erectile Dysfunction/metabolism , Penis/physiopathology , Penis/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/analysis , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/genetics , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 616-621, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098296


The chronic consumption of alcohol causes a worsening of the events that follow the cerebral ischemia. These events are regulated through the expression of several genes and microRNAs. The aimof this work was To analyze and describe the expression profile of PARP and AIF and miRNA-9 proteins in rats submitted to focal cerebral ischemia, associated or not with chronic alcoholism model. Methods: Twenty adult Wistar rats, subdivided into: control; ischemic; alcoholic and ischemic / alcoholized for immunohistochemical analysis and miRNA-9 gene expression. Results: There was a reduction in the protein expression of PARP-1 and a positive marking for AIF in the ischemic / alcoholized group. The miRNA-9 did not obtain significant expression. The association of ischemia with chronic alcohol use promoted a tendency to low expression of miRNA-9, low expression of PARP-1 and high expression of AIF, indicating an interference in the protective effect of miRNA-9 be observed in the other groups.

El consumo crónico de alcohol provoca un empeoramiento de los eventos que siguen a la isquemia cerebral. Estos eventos están regulados a través de la expresión de varios genes y microRNA. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar y describir el perfil de expresión de las proteínas PARP y AIF y microRNA-9 en ratas sometidas a isquemia cerebral focal, asociadas o no, con el modelo de alcoholismo crónico. Veinte ratas Wistar adultas se dividieron en: grupo control, isquémico alcohólico, e isquémico / alcoholizado para análisis inmunohistoquímico y expresión de genes microRNA-9. Resultados: Hubo una reducción en la expresión de proteínas de PARP-1 y un marcado positivo para AIF en el grupo isquémico / alcoholizado. No se observó una expresión significativa en el microRNA-9. La asociación de la isquemia con el consumo crónico de alcohol promovió una tendencia a la baja expresión de microRNA-9, baja expresión de PARP1 y alta expresión de AIF, lo que indica una interferencia en el efecto protector de microRNA-9 en los otros grupos.

Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Rats, Wistar , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/genetics , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 652-663, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949377


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histopathological and ultrastructural changes and expression of proteins related to apoptosis CASPASE 3 and XIAP after experimental induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia (90 minutes) due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery in alcoholism model. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into 5 experimental groups: control group (C); Sham group (S); Ischemic group (I); Alcoholic group (A); and Ischemic and Alcoholized group (I+A): animals submitted to the same treatment of group A and after four weeks were submitted to focal cerebral ischemia during 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion of 48 hours. Were processed for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (for the protein expression of CASPASE -3 and XIAP). Results: Greater histopathological changes were observed in the animals of groups I and I+A in the three areas analyzed. The neuronal loss was higher in the medial striatum region of the animals of groups I and I + A. The protein expression of CASPASE -3 was higher than that of XIAP in the groups I and I + A for both proteins. Conclusion: The expression of XIAP was slightly higher where the histopathological changes and expression of CASPASE -3 was less evident.

Animals , Male , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Middle Cerebral Artery , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alcoholism/metabolism , Edema , Electromyography/methods , Mitochondria/pathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6329, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889035


Recent evidence shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases endothelin (ET)-1 induced sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa in corpus cavernosum of rats by a mechanism that involves increased expression of ETA and ETB receptors. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of alcohol and diabetes and their relationship to miRNA-155, miRNA-199 and endothelin receptors in the corpus cavernosum and blood of rats submitted to the experimental model of diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D), and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study the protein expression of endothelin receptors by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNAs-155 and -199 in serum and the cavernous tissue. Immunostaining for endothelin receptors was markedly higher in the A, D, and AD groups than in the C group. Moreover, a significant hypoexpression of the miRNA-199 in the corpus cavernosum tissue from the AD group was observed, compared to the C group. When analyzing the microRNA profile in blood, a significant hypoexpression of miRNA-155 in the AD group was observed compared to the C group. The miRNA-199 analysis demonstrated significant hypoexpression in D and AD groups compared to the C group. Our findings in corpus cavernosum showed downregulated miRNA-155 and miRNA-199 levels associated with upregulated protein expression and unaltered mRNA expression of ET receptors suggesting decreased ET receptor turnover, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats exposed to high alcohol levels.

Animals , Male , Rats , Alcoholism/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Endothelin-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/analysis , Penis/metabolism , Receptor, Endothelin A/analysis , Receptor, Endothelin B/analysis , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Penis/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 38-45, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837673


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS in addition to the miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood of healthy rats, diabetic rats, alcoholic rats and rats with both pathologies. Methods: Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D) and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expressions of eNOS and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood. Results: Immunohistochemistry for eNOS and iNOS showed an increase in cavernosal smooth muscle cells in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups when compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA levels for eNOS were increased in cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups and miRNA-27b were decreased in CSM in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups. Conclusion: The major new finding of our study was an impairment of relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in alcoholic, diabetic, and alcoholic-diabetic rats that involved a decrease in the nitric oxide pathway by endothelium-dependent mechanisms accompanied by a change in the corpus cavernosum contractile sensitivity.

Animals , Male , Rats , Penis/chemistry , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Penis/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 629-637, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795996


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated histopathological changes, morphometric and expression of proteins CASPASE-3, BCL-2 and XIAP related to apoptosis in the cerebellum after induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, with or without a model of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used and divided into: control group (C), sham group (S), ischemic group (I), alcoholic group (A), and ischemic and alcoholic group (IA). The cerebellum samples collected were stained for histopathological and morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry study. RESULTS: Histopathological changes were observed a greater degree in animals in groups A and IA. The morphometric study showed no difference in the amount of cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum between the groups. The expression of CASPASE-3 was higher than BCL-2 and XIAP in the groups A and IA. CONCLUSION: We observed correlation between histopathological changes and the occurrence of apoptosis in cerebellar cortex.

Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcoholism/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 703-710, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753052


Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/genetics , Receptor, trkB/genetics
Agora USB ; 12(1): 127-141, ene.-jun. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679717


El objetivo fue identificar factores de riesgo del consumo de alcohol en estudiantes universitarios colombianos. Participaron 397 mujeres y 312 hombres, estudiantes de dos universidades privadas y católicas de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia). Los resultados identificaron como factores de riesgo las dificultades para decir “no” a la gente (p=0.012) y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas por miembros de la familia (p=0.022).

The objective of the current research was to identify the risk factors associated to alcohol consumption of Colombian University students. 397 women and 312 men, students from two private and Catholic universities in the city of Medellín (Colombia) took part in it. The results identified as risk factors the difficulties to say 'no' to the people (p=0.012) and the consumption of psychoactive substances by members of the family (p=0.022).

Humans , Alcoholism , Risk Factors , Alcoholism/metabolism , Alcoholism/pathology , Alcoholism/psychology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(2): 193-196, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-554686


CONTEXTO: Os indivíduos alcoolistas apresentam aumento da concentração hepática de ferro e os mecanismos responsáveis por essa deposição são ainda desconhecidos. Apesar da extensa literatura existente sobre a absorção de ferro nos diferentes estados patológicos, os efeitos do consumo prolongado do etanol não estão totalmente esclarecidos. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a absorção de ferro no duodeno de camundongos após consumo prolongado de etanol, com relação ao controle de camundongos normais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 camundongos machos da raça Swiss, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 5) - controle e grupo 2 (n = 5) - consumo de água com etanol, como única fonte de água ofertada. Os animais foram acompanhados durante 120 dias. Decorrido esse período, isolou-se o duodeno e pela parte oral de cada alça, infundiu-se solução salina contendo ascorbato de ferro II na concentração de 0,016 mg de ferro elemento. O efluente foi coletado nos tempos 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 e 120 minutos. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, com significância para P<0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre a absorção duodenal de ferro dos grupos 1 e 2, assim como na curva de absorção. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que, nas condições deste experimento, o consumo prolongado de etanol não alterou a absorção de ferro.

CONTEXT: Alcoholists present an increase of iron hepatic concentration, although the responsible mechanisms for this deposition are still unknown. Despite the extensive literature related on the iron absorption in different pathological conditions, the effect of chronic ethanol consumption are still not conclusive and not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on duodenal absorption of iron. METHODS: Ten male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 5) - control, and group 2 (n = 5) - water consumption with ethanol, as only water source. The animals were followed during 120 days. After this period, the duodenum was isolated and saline solution containing ascorbate of iron II in the 0,016 concentration of mg of iron element was infused. The effluent was collected in times 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 minutes. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was set for P<0.05. RESULTS: No difference was found between iron absorption as well as iron absorption curves in groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: The chronic consumption of ethanol did not alter iron absorption.

Animals , Male , Mice , Alcoholism/metabolism , Duodenum/metabolism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Iron/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 619-626, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598914


Morphometric and quantitative analyses were accomplished to study the effects of the consumption of alcohol above the size and density of the myenteric neurons of cecum of rats. Ten rats with 90 days were divided in the groups: control (C), and alcoholic (A). After 120 days of treatment with ethanol the cecum of both groups were collected, submitted it prepared of membranes that after carried out to Giemsa´s technique, permitted to evaluate the neuronal density, in an area of 13.44mm², and measure the cell body area of 300 neurons by group. The alcoholic rats presented an increase in the number of small neurons and a reduction of the big and medium neurons. The neuronal density verified in alcoholic rats was significantly reduced regarding the controls rats, however, that reduction left of be statistically significant when was projected the neuronal density for the total area of cecum, since the macroscopic observation showed that the alcoholic rats presented a cecum dilated. The alcoholism induced a significant reduction in the final body weight of the rats of the GA, provoked enlargement of cecum of the rats causing to a big dispersion neuronal. The enlargement of cecum of the alcoholic rats is probably associated with the functional alterations of the myenteric neurons that have repercussions in the tone of the intestinal smooth muscle.

Los análisis morfométrico y cuantitativo fueron hechos para estudiar los efectos del consumo de alcohol sobre el tamaño y densidad de las neuronas mientéricas del ciego de ratones. Diez ratones de 90 días, fueron divididos en los grupos: control (C), y alcohólico (A). Después de 120 días de tratamiento con etanol, los ciegos de ambos grupos fueron colectados, sometidos a preparación de membranas que después de coloreados por el método de Giemsa. Fue posible evaluar la densidad neuronal en un área de 13,44 mm2, y medir el área del cuerpo celular de 300 neuronas por grupo. Los ratones alcohólicos presentaron un incremento en el número de neuronas pequeñas y una disminución de las neuronas medianas y grandes. La densidad neuronal verificada en los ratones alcohólicos fue significativamente reducida, en relación a los ratones controles. Esa reducción dejó de ser estadísticamente significativa cuando fue proyectada la densidad de las neuronas para el área del ciego, ya que la observación macroscópica mostraba que los ratones alcohólicos presentaban un ciego dilatado. El alcoholismo indujo una reducción significativa en el peso corporal final de los ratones del grupo A, provocó dilatación del ciego de los ratones, llevando a una gran dispersión neuronal. La dilatación del ciego de los ratones alcohólicos está probablemente asociada a alteraciones funcionales de las neuronas mientéricas que repercuten en el tono de la musculatura lisa intestinal.

Animals , Male , Infant , Mice , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/metabolism , Alcoholism/veterinary , Colon , Colon/metabolism , Myenteric Plexus , Myenteric Plexus/metabolism , Mice/anatomy & histology , Mice/metabolism
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2009. 101 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-563329


O etanol e a nicotina são as drogas mais comumente usadas no mundo. Como claramente indicado por estudos epidemiológicos, existe uma forte associação entre o tabagismo e o consumo de etanol principalmente durante o período da adolescência. Entretanto, existem poucos estudos em neurobiologia básica que avaliem o efeito da exposição combinada de nicotina e etanol durante o período da adolescência. Considerando que a nicotina é um agonista do receptor colinérgico nicotínico (nAChR) e que tem sido demonstrado que o etanol interage com os nAChRs, o presente trabalho tem como foco o estudo dos efeitos da exposição à nicotina e/ou ao etanol no sistema colinérgico durante a adolescência. Do 30º ao 45º dia pós-natal (PN) camundongos da cepa C57BL/6 foram expostos à nicotina (NIC) e/ou etanol (ETOH). Quatro grupos foram analisados: 1) exposição concomitante (NIC+ETOH) à solução de nicotina (50ug/ml) e etanol (25%, 2g/kg i.p. em dias alternados), 2) exposição a NIC, 3) exposição ao ETOH, 4) exposição ao veículo. Foram quantificadas a expressão/afinidade do [3H] hemicolinium-3 (HC-3) ao transportador de alta afinidade présinaptico de colina, ao final da exposição (PN45), após curto (PN50) e longo período de retirada (PN75). Ao final da exposição, o grupo NIC+ETOH apresentou upregulation de nAChRs, refletindo simples somação dos efeitos da NIC e ETOH no córtex cerebral e sinergismo no mesencéfalo. A upregulation devido à exposição combinada foi mantida mesmo após alguns dias de retirada das drogas. Um mês após o término da exposição, os valores foram semelhantes aos obtidos para os animais veículo. Em PN45, machos NIC apresentaram aumento da ChAT no córtex cerebral, mas o ETOH foi capaz de reverter este efeito. Ao contrário, fêmeas NIC apresentaram diminuição da ChAT. No mesencéfalo, somente ETOH promoveu aumento da ChAT. Já em PN50, o grupo NIC apresentou aumento na ChAT que foi revertido na retirada combinada de NIC+ETOH. Em PN75, o grupo NIC+ETOH...

Nicotine and ethanol are the most commonly consumed drugs. As clearly indicated by epidemiological studies, there is a close interrelationship between smoking and alcohol consumption manly during adolescence period. However, there are few studies on the basic neurobiology of the effects of the combined nicotine and ethanol exposure in the adolescent brain. Since nicotine is a cholinergic agonist and it has been shown that ethanol interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), the current proposal will focus on the cholinergic effects of nicotine and/or ethanol treatment during adolescence. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day (PN), C57BL/6 mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant (NIC+ETOH) exposure of nicotine (50 ug/ml) and ethanol (25%, 2 g/kg i.p. every other day); 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. We assessed nAChR (alfa4beta2) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and [3H] hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) binding to the high affinity presynaptic choline transporter at the end of exposure period (PN45), at short (PN50) and long term (PN75) withdrawal. At the end of exposure period, NIC+ETOH elicited a pronounced upregulation which reflect simple additivity of the effects of nicotine and ethanol in the cerebral cortex and synergism in the midbrain. On PN45, male NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT in the cerebral cortex. However, ETOH reversed this effect. In contrast, female NIC mice presented decreased ChAT activity. In the midbrain, ETOH increased ChAT. On PN50, NIC mice presented an increase in ChAT activity that was reversed by ETOH withdrawal. In addition, NIC+ETOH long term withdrawal elicited a decrease in ChAT activity. Regarding HC-3, binding was not affected on PN45. ETOH and NIC+ETOH withdrawal promoted a decrease at short and long-term withdrawal. These results provide experimental evidences that nicotine and ethanol during adolescence...

Humans , Male , Female , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Ethanol/pharmacology , Nicotine/adverse effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/metabolism , Adolescent , Alcoholism/metabolism , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/metabolism
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 63-67, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983445


Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology.

Humans , Alcoholism/metabolism , Forensic Toxicology/methods , Glucuronates/urine , Hair/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(12): 1098-1104, Dec. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-502150


Cardiac interstitial fibrosis may contribute to ventricular dysfunction and the prognosis of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The objective of the present study was to determine if total myocardial collagen content and collagen type III/I (III/I ratio) mRNAs differ in hypertensive, alcoholic, and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy subjects. Echocardiography and exercise cardiopulmonary testing were performed in patients with idiopathic (N = 22), hypertensive (N = 12), and alcoholic (N = 11) dilated cardiomyopathy. Morphometric analysis of collagen was performed in fragments obtained by endomyocardial biopsy with picrosirius red staining. The collagen III/I ratio was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Samples of controls (N = 10) were obtained from autopsy. Echocardiographic variables and maximal oxygen uptake were not different among dilated cardiomyopathy groups. Collagen was higher in all dilated cardiomyopathy groups (idiopathic, hypertensive and alcoholic, 7.36 ± 1.09 percent) versus controls (1.12 ± 0.18 percent), P < 0.05. Collagen was lower in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (4.97 ± 0.83 percent) than hypertensive (8.50 ± 1.11 percent) and alcoholic (10.77 ± 2.09 percent) samples (P < 0.005 for both). The collagen III/I ratio in all samples from dilated cardiomyopathy patients was higher compared to that in controls (0.29 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) but was the same in the samples from idiopathic (0.77 ± 0.07), hypertensive (0.75 ± 0.07), and alcoholic (0.81 ± 0.16) dilated cardiomyopathy groups. Because of the different physical properties of the types of collagen, the higher III/I ratio may contribute to progressive ventricular dilation and dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy patients.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/metabolism , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/metabolism , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis , Hypertension/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Alcoholism/complications , Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type III/genetics , Echocardiography , Exercise Test , Hypertension/complications , Myocardium/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 35(supl.1): 21-24, 2008.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-488973


CONTEXTO: Considerando-se que o álcool possui um valor energético, ele tem a habilidade de suprimir as necessidades calóricas diárias de um indivíduo, e/ou levá-lo ao sobrepeso, dependendo da quantidade, freqüência e modo de consumo. OBJETIVOS: Revisar o efeito do álcool no metabolismo energético e suas conseqüências no peso corporal. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliográfica realizada no sistema MEDLINE (Index Medicus) cruzando os descritores "alcohol" e "weight gain". RESULTADOS: O álcool tem prioridade no metabolismo alterando outras vias metabólicas, incluindo a oxidação lipídica, o que favorece o estoque de gorduras no organismo. Dependendo da forma que ele é metabolizado, sua participação como fonte calórica é diferente. CONCLUSÕES: O valor energético dos alimentos adicionados ao consumo alcoólico e o patamar de consumo devem ser observados na relação de ganho de peso. Respostas ao consumo de álcool são diferentes de um indivíduo para o outro e são determinadas por fatores individuais e por possíveis fatores genéticos desconhecidos.

BACKGROUND: Due to alcoholÆs energy content, its intake can meet an individualÆs daily energy requirements, and/or lead to an individual becoming overweight based on amount, frequency, and pattern of consumption. OBJECTIVES:To review alcoholÆs effect on energy metabolism and its consequences for body weight. METHODS: A review of literature was conducted in MEDLINE (Index Medicus), searching with the keywords "alcohol" and "weight gain". RESULTS: Alcohol takes priority in metabolism and affects other metabolic pathways, including lipid oxidation, which facilitates fat accumulation in the body. Depending on the metabolic pathway activated, alcohol can play a different role as an energy source. CONCLUSIONS: The energy content of foods consumed together with alcohol and the level of consumption should be monitored to prevent weight gain. Individuals have varying responses to alcohol consumption which are determined by their specific characteristics and possibly by other unknown genetic factors as well.

Alcoholism/metabolism , Energy Intake , Caloric Restriction
Int. j. morphol ; 24(3): 391-398, sept. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474602


El objetivo del trabajo fue verificar, durante un período experimental de 210 días, los posibles efectos del etanol sobre la morfología y densidad de las neuronas mientéricas NADH-diaforasa, en el yeyuno de ratas alcohólicas. Utilizamos 10 animales (Rattus norvegicus) separadas en dos grupos: el control (n=5) que recibió una dieta proteica normal (22 por ciento) y agua ad libitum; el otro, alcohólico, que recibió dieta proteica normal NUVILAB (22 por ciento) y brandy de azúcar de caña diluido a 30 Gay Lussac (30 v/v). El segmento de yeyuno fue obtenido y sometido a técnicas histoquímicas para teñir las células nerviosas. La observación a través de microscopía de luz mostró que no hubo diferencias morfológicas de importancia entre las neuronas del grupo control y el sometido a alcoholismo. El recuento neuronal en el grupo control, llevado a cabo en 40 campos microscópicos (8,96 µm2), de las regiones mesentérica y antimesentérica, determinó 1.131 y 693 neuronas, respectivamente, mientras que en el grupo alcohólico se encontraron 1.229 y 860 neuronas, respectivamente. El incremento significativo en el número de neuronas en la región mesentérica, en el grupo de las ratas alcohólicas, es debido a un crecimiento físico menor de esos animales comparados con el grupo control. El etanol causó malnutrición y consecuentemente, las ratas alcohólicas mostraron una densidad neuronal más amplia debido a una dispersión menor.

The objective of our work was to verify, during an experimental period of 210 days, the possible effects of the ethanol on the morphology and density of the NADH-diaforase myenteric neurons in the jejunum of alcoholic rats. We used 10 animals (Rattus norvegicus) separated in 2 groups: the controls (n=5), that received a normal proteic diet (22%) and water ad libitum; the alcoholic, that received NUVILAB normal proteic chow (22%) and sugar cane brandy diluted at 30 Gay Lussac (30 v/v). The jejunum segment was collected and submitted to the histochemical technique to stain the nervous cells and, then, to the elaboration of membrane whole mounts. The observation through light microscopy showed that there are no expressive morphologic differences between the ganglia of neurons of the control and alcoholic rats. The counting of neurons, carried out in 40 microscopic fields (8.96µm2) in the control group, at the mesenteric and antimesenteric regions, found 1,131 and 693 neurons respectively, while, the alcoholic group found 1,229 and 860 neurons. The significant increase in the number of neurons in the mesenteric region, in the alcoholic rats, is due to the smaller physical growth of those animals when compared to the controls. The ethanol caused malnutrition and consequently the alcoholic rats showed a larger neuronal density due to its smaller dispersion.

Animals , Infant , Rats , Neurons , Neurons/physiology , Myenteric Plexus/anatomy & histology , Myenteric Plexus , Myenteric Plexus/physiology , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Alcoholism/metabolism , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Jejunum , Jejunum/physiology
Botucatu; s.n; 2006. 72 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-481697


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade de vida de dependentes de álcool segundo gênero, gravidade da dependência no momento da entrevista e tempo de abstinência. Entrevistou-se 86 pacientes em acompanhamento no Programa de Tratamento do Alcoolismo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Foram coletadas informações referentes aos dados sócio-demográficos e econômicos, à data de caso novo na Psiquiatria, à idade em que o indivíduo começou a beber e ao seu estado atual de abstinência, e aplicados dois instrumentos: o SADD, para determinação da gravidade da dependência e o SF-36 para avaliação da qualidade de vida. A amostra final compôs-se de 70 homens e 16 mulheres, com média de idade de 45 anos, 55,8% casados/amasiados, 70,9% cursaram até o ensino fundamental, 72,1% estavam inativos. As mulheres iniciaram no alcoolismo mais tardiamente que os homens. O tempo médio de seguimento no programa foi 24 meses e no momento da entrevista, 77,9% estavam abstinentes, com 83,7% apresentando dependência leve pelo SADD. Os resultados mostraram que: 1) A qualidade vida dos dependentes de álcool, homens e mulheres, está prejudicada principalmente no que se refere ao aspecto físico e à saúde mental 2) As mulheres têm qualidade de vida inferior aos homens em todas as dimensões do SF-36, com diferenças estatisticamente significativas em dor, vitalidade e saúde mental. 3) Os dependentes moderados e/ou graves apresentaram qualidade vida inferior aos dependentes leves em aspecto físico, estado geral de saúde, vitalidade, aspecto social e saúde mental. 4) Os não abstinentes apresentaram qualidade de vida inferior aos abstinentes em aspecto físico, aspecto social e saúde mental

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/etiology , Alcoholism/metabolism , Quality of Life
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 26(supl.1): SI40-SI42, maio 2004. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-391085


O objetivo deste artigo é o de revisar e descrever as principais alteracões neurofarmacológicas causadas pela exposicão crônica ao álcool, assim como os fenômenos ocorridos durante o período de abstinência. São apresentados dados referentes às alteracões neuroadaptativas e de tolerância ocorridas nos principais sistemas de monoaminas, aminoácidos neurotransmissores e canais de cálcio, o que está relacionado a uma piora no prognóstico de portadores de comorbidades psiquiátricas com o consumo de álcool. São também descritos alguns estudos relevantes que demonstram o envolvimento de outros mecanismos de acão do álcool no sistema nervoso central, como o envolvimento de opióides, entre outras substâncias. O artigo reafirma a importância, para clínicos e pesquisadores, de um sempre maior entendimento do mecanismo de acão central do álcool, pois dele depende a busca por novas opcões farmacológicas, tanto para a reducão dos danos provocados pelo seu uso crônico, como para o tratamento da síndrome de abstinência a esta substância.

Humans , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium/physiopathology , Alcoholic Intoxication/metabolism , Alcoholic Intoxication/physiopathology , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Ethanol/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 81(5): 506-517, nov. 2003. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-351137


OBJECTIVE: To identify the electrocardiographic changes and their associations with metabolic and electrolytic changes in female alcoholics. METHODS: The study comprised 44 female alcoholics with no apparent physical disorder. They underwent the following examinations: conventional electrocardiography; serologic tests for syphilis, Chagas' disease, and hepatitis B and C viruses; urinary pregnancy testing; hematimetric analysis; biochemical measurements of albumin, fibrinogen, fasting and postprandial glycemias, lipids, hepatic enzymes, and markers for tissue necrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Some type of electrocardiographic change was identified in 33 (75 percent) patients. In 17 (38.6 percent) patients, more than one of the following changes were present: prolonged QTc interval in 24 (54.5 percent), change in ventricular repolarization in 11(25 percent), left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (13.6 percent), sinus bradycardia in 4 (9.1 percent), sinus tachycardia in 3 (6.8 percent), and conduction disorder in 3 (6.8 percent). The patients had elevated mean serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferases, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as hypocalcemia and low levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The patients with altered electrocardiograms had a more elevated age, a lower alcohol consumption, hypopotassemia, and significantly elevated levels of triglycerides, postprandial glucose, sodium and gamma glutamyl transferase than those with normal electrocardiograms. The opposite occurred with fasting glycemia, magnesium, and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSION: The electrocardiographic changes found were prolonged QTc interval, change in ventricular repolarization, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with normal and abnormal electrocardiograms had different metabolic and electrolytic changes

Humans , Female , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/etiology , Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism/metabolism , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Creatine Kinase/blood , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Long QT Syndrome/etiology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 May; 39(5): 416-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56390


Male Wistar rats, (2 months old) were randomly divided into two groups according to the diet offered (C-control and E-ethanol treated rats). Final body weight was significantly increased but pancreatic weight as a percentage of body weight was decreased in ethanol treated rats. Volume density, number of pancreatic poly peptide (PP)-cells per islet and per micron 2 of islet were significantly increased. PP-cells were abundant and occupied the whole periphery of islets in the splenic part of the pancreas. Those cells showed strong immunopositivity. At the ultrastructural level PP granules had predominantly less electron density. The mean diameter of PP granules was significantly increased and the number of granules of larger diameter was greater in the E group of rats, than in the controls.

Alcoholism/metabolism , Animals , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Male , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreatic Polypeptide/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Secretory Vesicles/metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 120-4, abr.-jun. 2000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-279426


Liver disease, alcohol and malnutrition are combinations usually associated with micronutrient impairment. Chronic liver disease courses with lower storage and activation of vitamin-coenzymes related to their malabsorption. Alcohol worsens the picture by reducing food intake, ncreasing micronutrients utilization and decreasing their absorption secondary to either intestinal or pancreatic injuries. Other concurrent causes would be drug treatments, urinary losses, protein deficiency and oxidative stress. As consequences the clinical signs are anemia, liver steatosis, oxidative stress and immunosuppression

Humans , Alcoholism/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Avitaminosis/etiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Alcoholism/complications , Chronic Disease , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/complications