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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 652-663, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histopathological and ultrastructural changes and expression of proteins related to apoptosis CASPASE 3 and XIAP after experimental induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia (90 minutes) due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery in alcoholism model. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into 5 experimental groups: control group (C); Sham group (S); Ischemic group (I); Alcoholic group (A); and Ischemic and Alcoholized group (I+A): animals submitted to the same treatment of group A and after four weeks were submitted to focal cerebral ischemia during 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion of 48 hours. Were processed for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (for the protein expression of CASPASE -3 and XIAP). Results: Greater histopathological changes were observed in the animals of groups I and I+A in the three areas analyzed. The neuronal loss was higher in the medial striatum region of the animals of groups I and I + A. The protein expression of CASPASE -3 was higher than that of XIAP in the groups I and I + A for both proteins. Conclusion: The expression of XIAP was slightly higher where the histopathological changes and expression of CASPASE -3 was less evident.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Middle Cerebral Artery , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alcoholism/metabolism , Edema , Electromyography/methods , Mitochondria/pathology
3.
Saúde Soc ; 27(2): 338-353, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962603

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo analiza a partir de algunas tesis médicas, artículos científicos y debates producidos durante las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX en Colombia cómo el discurso médico objetivó el alcoholismo como un "estado mórbido", estrechamente vinculado con la criminalidad y las enfermedades mentales. La apropiación de la teoría de la degeneración permitió que médicos, higienistas y criminólogos comprendieran el alcoholismo como una patología, una anormalidad, un instinto y un vicio innato que producía efectos fatales sobre la población y sus generaciones. Un discurso que permitió evaluar e intervenir la diferencia en un momento histórico, especialmente preocupado por el capital humano como parte del progreso del país.


Abstract This article analyzes how medical discourse objectified alcoholism as a "morbid state", closely linked to criminality and mental illness, based on some medical theses, scientific articles and debates produced during the first three decades of the 20th century in Colombia. The appropriation of the theory of degeneration allowed physicians, hygienists and criminologists to understand alcoholism as a pathology, an abnormality, an instinct, and an innate addiction that produced fatal effects on the population and its generations. A discourse that allowed us to evaluate and intervene the difference in a historical moment especially concerned with human capital as part of the country's progress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Criminology , Alcoholism/pathology , Mental Disorders , Morbidity
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 629-637, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated histopathological changes, morphometric and expression of proteins CASPASE-3, BCL-2 and XIAP related to apoptosis in the cerebellum after induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, with or without a model of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used and divided into: control group (C), sham group (S), ischemic group (I), alcoholic group (A), and ischemic and alcoholic group (IA). The cerebellum samples collected were stained for histopathological and morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry study. RESULTS: Histopathological changes were observed a greater degree in animals in groups A and IA. The morphometric study showed no difference in the amount of cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum between the groups. The expression of CASPASE-3 was higher than BCL-2 and XIAP in the groups A and IA. CONCLUSION: We observed correlation between histopathological changes and the occurrence of apoptosis in cerebellar cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcoholism/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62577

ABSTRACT

Up-to-date imaging modalities such as three-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (3D CT) and MRI may contribute to detection of hypervascular nodules in the liver. Nevertheless, distinguishing a malignancy such as hepatocellular carcinoma from benign hypervascular hyperplastic nodules (HHN) based on the radiological findings is sometimes difficult. Multiple incidental liver masses were detected via abdominal ultrasonography (US) in a 65-year-old male patient. He had no history of alcohol intake and no remarkable past medical history or relevant family history, and his physical examination results and laboratory findings were normal. 3D CT and MRI showed numerous enhanced nodules with hypervascularity during the arterial phase. After US guided liver biopsy, the pathological diagnosis was HHN. To date, several cases of HHN have been reported in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease or cirrhosis. Herein, we report on a case of HHN in a patient with no history of alcoholic liver disease or cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Alcoholism/pathology , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis, Differential , Focal Nodular Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 22(4): 494-499, jul.-ago. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-748730

ABSTRACT

O objeto deste estudo foram os agravos à saúde identificados pelo grupo focal como motivo para a prevenção da recaída no alcoolismo. Os objetivos foram analisar as sequelas ou agravos à saúde que levam à prevenção da recaídano alcoolismo. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com uso de grupo focal. Os sujeitos foram 31 clientes, entre 18 e 65 anos, atendidos pela Secretaria Municipal de Saúde e Defesa Civil-RJ e Centro de Estudos, Pesquisa e Referência em Alcoologia e Adictologia, entre julho a setembro de 2009. Um total de 38% respondeu que os motivos que levam o alcoolista à prevenção da recaída foram: tuberculose, hipertensão arterial, Diabetes Mellitus, problemas cardiovasculares e psiquiátricos. A partirdos resultados, conclui-se que são necessárias a aplicação da redução de danos e agravos à saúde e o incentivo à realização de tratamento especializado.


This study is concerned with health problems identified by the focus group as causes for the prevention of alcoholism relapse. It aimed at analyzing sequels or health problems leading to the prevention of alcoholism relapse. This is a descriptive study, using focus group. Subjects were 31 clients aged from 18 to 65, assisted by the City Department of Health and Civil Defense-RJ and Center for Studies, Research and Reference on Alcoholism and Addiction, from July to September,2009. Thirty-eight per cent (38%) of respondents identified the following reasons why alcoholics seek relapse prevention: tuberculosis, hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, cardiovascular, and psychiatric problems. Results indicate reduction of health harm and health problems levels as well as the fostering of specialized treatment are required.


El objeto de este estudio fueron los problemas de salud identificados por el grupo focal como razón para la prevención de recaídas en el alcoholismo. Los objetivos fueron analizar las consecuencias o problemas de salud que conducen a la prevención de recaídas en el alcoholismo. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, mediante grupo focal. Los sujetos fueron 31personas de 18 a 65 años, atendidas por la Secretaría Municipal de Salud y Defensa Civil-RJ – Brasil y el Centro de Estudios, Investigación y Referencia sobre Alcoholismo y Adictologia, entre julio y septiembre de 2009. Un total de 38% respondió que las razones que llevan los alcohólicos para la prevención de recaídas fueron: tuberculosis, hipertensión, Diabetes Mellitus, problemas cardiovasculares y psiquiátricos. De los resultados, se concluye que son necesarios la aplicación de la reducción de daños y problemas de salud y el fomento de un tratamiento especializado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/nursing , Alcoholism/history , Alcoholism/pathology , Alcoholism/prevention & control , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , Focus Groups , Recurrence , Public Health , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Qualitative Research
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the social competence of school-aged children according alcohol consumption by their parents. METHODS: The participants were 558 5th grade elementary school students. Data were collected using structured questionnaires from September 17 to October 2 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi2-test, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Stepwise multiple regression analysis with the SPSS PC+ 21.0 program. RESULTS: Participants were classified into three groups according to alcohol use; Non-use parent group (52.7%), social use parent group (31.0%), and problem use parent group (16.3%). Participants whose parents were problem users had significantly lower scores on emotional awareness and expression (F=14.45, p<.001), social support (F=5.82, p=.003), and social competence (F=16.33, p<.001) compared to students in the other two groups. In school-aged children with parents who were alcohol abusers, the variables that predicted social competence was friend support (66.0%). CONCLUSION: These results emphasize the importance of focusing on the crucial role of peer support in the development of social competence in school-aged children of parents who abuse alcohol. Further, for these children, interventions aimed at improving social support and children's emotional awareness and expression may be most beneficial.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Child , Emotions , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Parents/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Social Skills , Social Support , Students/psychology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1233-1242, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-702299

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones morfológicas encefálicas en individuos que padecen alcoholismo crónico explican los severos trastornos neurocognitivos, principalmente amnésicos anterógrados, y neuropsiquiátricos debido al carácter neurotóxico y déficits nutricionales que genera. El objetivo fue describir la morfología del cuerpo calloso y los cuerpos mamilares en dependientes al alcohol y su relación volumétrica otras áreas cerebrales. Se estudiaron morfológica y morfométricamente con resonancia magnética los cerebros de 26 masculinos, edades 29 a 51 años, con diagnóstico de trastorno por consumo de alcohol tipo dependencia (DSM IV). Fueron criterios de exclusión: patologías hepáticas, autoinmunes, neurológicas centrales y antecedentes neurológicos no relacionados con el consumo, traumatismo craneoencefálico o neurocirugías previas. Se cuantificó la volumetría (método ROI) de: corteza prefrontal, hipocampo, cuerpo amigdalino, tálamo y cuerpos mamilares; y la morfometría bidimensional de las regiones del cuerpo calloso (métodos de Witelson y de Clarke). El procedimiento fue sometido a pruebas estadísticas y cumplió con los reparos ético-legales vigentes. Todos los volúmenes de pacientes dependientes fueron menores. Se registró según severidad reducción volumétrica significativa en corteza prefrontal, cuerpo mamilar, hipocampo y tálamo izquierdos, seguidos por el cuerpo amigdalino derecho. La superficie con mayor afectación del cuerpo calloso fue el 1/3 anterior. Se determinaron correlaciones entre la afectación de los cuerpos mamilares y el cuerpo calloso con estructuras subcorticales. El compromiso del cuerpo calloso y los cuerpos mamilares presentó correlación con la afectación del hipocampo, cuerpo amigdalino y tálamo, y una estrecha relación con el tiempo y cantidad de consumo. Estas alteraciones morfométricas son indicadores de severidad cognitiva y alteración comportamental.


Brain morphological abnormalities in individuals with severe chronic alcoholism explains the severe neurocognitive disorders, namely neuropsychiatric and anterograde amnesia, due to the neurotoxic nature and nutritional deficits generated. The objective of the present study was to describe in alcohol dependent subjects, the morphology of the corpus callosum and mammillary bodies and volume ratio in other brain areas. We used morphological and morphometric magnetic resonance imaging to study the brains of 26 men, ages 29-51 years diagnosed with alcohol dependence type disorder (DSM IV). Exclusion criteria were: liver diseases, autoimmune and central neurological disorders, as well as a neurological history not related to consumption, prior traumatic brain injury or brain surgery. Volumes were quantified by (ROI method) for the following: prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdaloid body, thalamus and mammillary bodies, and the two-dimensional morphometry of corpus callosum regions (Witelson and Clarke methods). The procedure was subject to statistical tests and current legal ethical standards. Our results showed all patients dependent volumes were lower. In accordance with severity, significant volume reduction was recorded in prefrontal cortex, mammillary body, left hippocampus and thalamus, followed by the right amygdaloid body. The most affected area of the corpus callosum was the anterior third. Correlations were determined between the involvement of the mammillary bodies and the corpus callosum with subcortical structures. The relation of the corpus callosum and mammillary bodies correlated with the involvement of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus body, and are closely related to the amount of time and consumption of alcohol. These morphometric changes are indicative of severe cognitive and behavioral impairment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/pathology , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammillary Bodies/pathology
9.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2013. 249 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-941553
10.
Agora USB ; 12(1): 127-141, ene.-jun. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679717

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue identificar factores de riesgo del consumo de alcohol en estudiantes universitarios colombianos. Participaron 397 mujeres y 312 hombres, estudiantes de dos universidades privadas y católicas de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia). Los resultados identificaron como factores de riesgo las dificultades para decir “no” a la gente (p=0.012) y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas por miembros de la familia (p=0.022).


The objective of the current research was to identify the risk factors associated to alcohol consumption of Colombian University students. 397 women and 312 men, students from two private and Catholic universities in the city of Medellín (Colombia) took part in it. The results identified as risk factors the difficulties to say 'no' to the people (p=0.012) and the consumption of psychoactive substances by members of the family (p=0.022).


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism , Risk Factors , Alcoholism/metabolism , Alcoholism/pathology , Alcoholism/psychology
11.
Radiol. bras ; 45(2): 129-131, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624467

ABSTRACT

A doença de Madelung é caracterizada por massas simétricas de tecido adiposo no pescoço, ombros, braços e parte superior do tronco. A tomografia computadorizada demonstra achados de imagem característicos e é considerada o método de escolha para diagnóstico, estadiamento pré-operatório e acompanhamento pós-cirúrgico. Relatamos o caso de um homem com aspectos tomográficos típicos da doença de Madelung.


Madelung's disease is characterized by the presence of symmetric masses of adipose tissue on the neck, shoulders, arms and the upper trunk. Computed tomography demonstrates characteristic imaging findings, and it is considered to be the method of choice for diagnosis, pre-operative staging, and postoperative follow-up. The authors report the case of a man with typical tomographic findings of Madelung's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/pathology , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical/diagnosis , Neck , Skull , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Hypertension , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(1): 84-89, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrophy of the papillae, mucosa, and dorsum of the tongue are considered classical signs of nutritional deficiencies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status of hospitalized alcoholics with or without papillary atrophy of the tongue. METHODS: This study was performed with 21 hospitalized alcoholics divided into Atrophic Glossitis Group (n=13) and Normal Tongue Group (n=8). Healthy, non-alcoholic volunteers composed the Control Group (n=8). Anthropometry and bioelectric impedance were performed, and serum vitamins A, E, and B12 were determined. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in relation to age (46.7±8.7 vs. 46.8±15.8 years) or gender (92.3% vs. 87.5% male), respectively. Control Group volunteers were also paired in relation to age (47.5±3.1 years) and male predominance (62.5%). In relation to hospitalized alcoholics without atrophic lesions of the tongue and Control Group, patients with papillary atrophy showed lower BMI (18.6 ± 2,5 vs 23.8 ± 3.5 vs 26.7 ± 3,6 kg/m² ) and body fat content 7.6 ± 3.5 vs 13.3 ± 6.5 vs 19.5 ± 4,9 kg). When compared with the Control Group, alcoholic patients with or without papillary atrophy of the tongue showed lower values of red blood cells (10.8 ± 2.2 vs 11.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 1,6g/dL) and albumin (3.6 ± 0.9 vs 3.6 ± 0.8 vs 4.4 ± 0.2g/dL). The seric levels of vitamins A, E, and B12 were similar amongst the groups. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized alcoholics with papillary atrophy of the tongue had lower BMI and fat body stores than controls, without associated hypovitaminosis.


FUNDAMENTOS: A deficiência crônica de nutrientes pode levar à hipotrofia das papilas e da mucosa e do dorso da língua, considerada um sinal clássico de subnutrição protéico-energética. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo é comparar o estado nutricional, incluindo as dosagens dos níveis séricos de vitaminas A, E e B12 em pacientes alcoolistas com ou sem alterações tróficas das papilas linguais. MÉTODOS: O estudo caso-controle incluiu 21 pacientes adultos alcoolistas internados em um hospital universitário. Utilizando-se de um sistema de fotografia da cavidade oral, dois clínicos independentes classificaram os indivíduos alcoolistas de acordo com a presença ou não de alterações tróficas na língua. Foram registrados os dados antropométricos, a composição corporal pela impedância bioelétrica e os exames laboratoriais para avaliação clínica e nutricional, incluindo dosagens das vitaminas A, E e B12. O estudo incluiu ainda voluntários saudáveis, não alcoolistas como Grupo Controle (n=8). A comparação entre os grupos foi feita por ANOYA-F ou pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis, de acordo com a curva de normalidade dos resultados. Foram considerados significativos diferenças com p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a presença de alterações tróficas nas papilas linguais, os pacientes alcoolistas foram alocados no Grupo Língua Despapilada (n=13) e Grupo Língua Normal (n=8), sem diferença estatística quanto à idade (46,7 ± 8,7 vs 46,8 ± 15,8 anos) e gênero masculino (92,3 vs 87,5%). Os voluntários do Grupo Controle apresentaram 47,5 ±3,1 anos, sendo 62,5% do gênero masculino. Os pacientes alcoolistas com hipotrofia papilar apresentaram menor IMC (18,6 ± 2,5 vs 23,8 ± 3,5 vs 26,7 ± 3,6 kg/m2) e gordura corporal (7,6 ± 3,5 vs 13,3 ± 6,5 vs 19,5 ± 4,9 kg), quando comparados com os demais grupos. Em relação ao Grupo Controle, os alcoolistas apresentaram menores valores de hemoglobina (10,8 ± 2,2 vs 11,8 ± 2,2 vs 14,5 ± 1,6 g/dL) e albumina sérica (3,6 ± 0,9 vs 3,6 ± 0,8 vs 4,4 ± 0,2 g/dL). Os níveis plasmáticos de vitaminas A, E e B12 foram similares entres os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes alcoolistas com achados físicos de hipotrofia de papilas linguais apresentam menores valores em medidas antropométricas, de hemoglobina e albumina séricas que os grupos Controle ou de alcoolistas sem língua despapilada. Não houve evidências de hipovitaminoses associadas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/pathology , Glossitis/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Disorders/pathology , Analysis of Variance , Atrophy , Avitaminosis , Alcoholism/complications , Body Weight , Case-Control Studies , Glossitis/blood , Glossitis/etiology , Nutrition Disorders/blood , Vitamins/blood
13.
Psicofarmacologia (B. Aires) ; 11(66): 9-19, feb. 2011. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-620175

ABSTRACT

El problema del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas y los intentos de suicidio son dos afecciones de autodestrucción, la primera con una intencionalidad tal vez inconciente y la otra voluntariamente ejecutada.Objetivo: analizar el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en pacientes que ingresan en la guardia de un Hospital General polivalente con el diagnóstico de intento de suicidio y definir el perfil de la conducta suicidaMaterial y métodos: se realizaron dos fichas epidemiológicas administradas por profesionales de la guardia y por el Servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital Posadas, contenían datos generales sobre el intento de suicidio y frecuencia del consumo de sustancias inmediatamente antes del intento de suicidio y en el mes anterior, a 200 pacientes ingresados a la guardia entre junio y diciembre de 2009.Resultados: se encontró una asociación entre el consumo de alcohol, marihuana y cocaína en los varones, y de alcohol y sedantes en las mujeres.


The issue of smoking, alcohol and drugs consumption, as well as suicide attempts constitute two self-destructive affections. The first one is related with an intentionality which is probably unconscious, and the second one, with an intentionality deliberately executed. Purpose: to analyze the consumption of psychoactive substances in patients who are admitted to the ward of a General, polyvalent Hospital with a suicide attempt diagnosis, and to define the profile of the suicidal behavior. Material and methods: two epidemiologic forms administered by professionals from the ward and by the Psychiatry Service of Hospital Posadas, containing general information on the suicide attempt and the frequency of consumption of substances immediately before the suicide attempt and in the previous month, to 200 patients admitted to the ward between June and December 2009. Results: a relationship was found between alcohol, marihuana and cocaine consumption in men and between alcohol and sedatives in women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism/pathology , Crisis Intervention , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Illicit Drugs , Tobacco Use Disorder/pathology , Substance-Related Disorders/mortality
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-655317

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade de programa de prevenção e diagnóstico precoce do câncer de boca direcionado a grupos considerados de risco para esta enfermidade, como tabagistas e etilistas crônicos.Método: No período entre junho de 2000 e julho de 2002, o programa foi realizado em pacientes do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP) e grupos de apoio comunitários, estruturado em palestras periódicas, exame bucal dos interessados e encaminhamento quando necessário para exames complementares e tratamento.Resultados: Foram examinadas 509 pessoas, das quais 215 pertenciam ao sexo masculino (42,2%), 59,7% eram brancos e com média de idade de 49,8 anos. Destas, 131 apresentaram lesão fundamental na boca, que foram encaminhadas à Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo (FOUSP), para realização de exame complementar. Dos 48 (38,7%) pacientes que compareceram ao ambulatório, 11 foram submetidos à biópsia. Os achados das biópsias foram de hiperqueratose em 3, hiperplasia papilomatosa em 2, hiperplasia fibrosa em 3, um caso de displasia leve, um adenocarcinoma e um carcinoma epidermóide. À citologia esfoliativa, 5 pacientes tiveram o diagnóstico de classe I e 11 como classe II de Papanicolau.Conclusão: O elevado número de lesões fundamentais diagnosticadas demonstra ser de extrema importância o exame oral periódico de pacientes de risco, entretanto o método proposto, como deslocamento de equipes específicas para o rastreamento dos pacientes, mostrou-se bastante trabalhoso e oneroso para ser efetivamente incorporado em serviços de atenção à saúde. Por outro lado, serviços de atenção permanente em conjunto à atuação periódica de campanhas de esclarecimento a população, foram considerados os métodos de maior resultado para o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de boca


Objective: To evaluate a viability of a program for prevention and early diagnosis of oral cancer directed to groups considered at risk for this disease, such as chronic smokers and alcoholics.Method: The program was conducted between June 2000 and July 2002 with patients of the University Hospital of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo (HCFMUSP) and communitarian support groups, structured in the form of periodic lectures, oral exam for those who had interest, and, if necessary, referral for complementary exams and treatment.Results: 509 people were examined, of which 215 (42.2%) were males and 59.7% were Whites with mean age of 49.8 years. From these, 131 presented a fundamental lesion in the mouth and were referred to School of Dentistry of the University of São Paulo (FOUSP) for a complimentary exam. From the 48 (38.7%) patients that attended the University outpatient service, 11 were subjected to biopsy. Results of the biopsies were hyperkeratosis in 3 cases, papillomatous hyperplasia in 2, fibrous hyperplasia in 3, mild dysplasia in 1, adenocarcinoma in 1 and epidermoid carcinoma in 1. Based on the results of exfoliative cytology, 5 patients had diagnosis of Papanicolau class I and 11 of Papanicolau class II.Conclusion: The large number of fundamental lesions diagnosed demonstrates that periodic oral exam of high-risk patients is of paramount importance. However, the method proposed in this study, involving the transport of specific teams for screening of patients, appeared to be too demanding and costly to be effectively incorporated in public health attention services. On the other hand, permanent attention services together with periodic informative campaigns to the population were considered the methods with better results for the early diagnosis of oral cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Alcoholism/pathology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder , Alcohol-Related Disorders
16.
ACM arq. catarin. med ; 37(4): 35-39, set.-dez. 2008. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-512807

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um perfil epidemiológico de pacientes que sofreram traumatismo crânio-encefálico (TCE) por queda da própria altura (QPA). Métodos: Foram selecionados os pacientes com TCE atendidos na emergência de um hospital geral em Florianópolis (SC) durante um período de dois meses. Os pacientes que apresentaram TCE por QPA foram avaliados. As variáveis deste estudo incluíram: idade, sexo, presença de comorbidades e pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG) no momento da admissão à emergência. Resultados: Setenta e seis pacientes (44 homens e 32 mulheres) preencheram os nossos critérios de inclusão. As idades dos pacientes à admissão variaram de 15 a 98 anos (média: 45,8 anos). Aproximadamente 63% dos pacientes utilizaram o carro privado como meio de transporte préhospitalar; 15% tinham história de ingestão alcoólica recente; 37% perderam a consciência imediatamente antes ou logo após o trauma e 37% tinham uma ou mais comorbidades conhecidas no momento do trauma. De acordo com a ECG, cerca de 90% dos pacientes sofreram TCE leve(ECG>12). Conclusões: A maioria dos pacientes atendidos na emergência devido a TCE por QPA são homens eindivíduos com idade superior a 40 anos. O sexo masculino está mais freqüentemente associado com uma história de ingestão alcoólica. O consumo de álcool está associado com a perda de consciência e maior gravidade do TCE. As análises demonstraram não haver relação da gravidade do TCE com osexo, a idade, a perda da consciência ou a presença de comorbidades associadas.


Objective: The aim of this study was to elaborate an epidemiological profile of patients who suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI) from falling from standing height. Methods: We selected the patients with TBI presented to the emergency room (ER) of a generalhospital in Florianopolis (Brazil) during a time period of two months. Patients who suffered TBI caused by falling from standing height were evaluated. The variables analyzed included: age, sex,presence of comorbidities and the Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) at the time of admission to the ER.Results: Seventy six patients (44 men and 32 women) fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Ages at admission ranged from 15 to 98 years (mean: 45.8 years). Approximately 63% of patients arrived at the hospital by private car, 15% had a history of recent alcohol consumption, 37% lost consciousness immediately before or right after the trauma, and 37% had one or more known comorbidities. According to the CGS, about 90% of patients had a mild TBI (GCS>12). Conclusions: Most patients admitted into ER with TBI from falling from standing height are men andpeople older than 40 years old. Male sex is more often associated with a history of alcohol intake. Alcohol consumption is associated with loss of consciousness and severity of TBI. The analysisdemonstrated no correlation between sex, age, loss of conscioussness or comorbidities and the severity of TBI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcoholism , Epidemiology , Glasgow Coma Scale , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Unconsciousness , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/pathology , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Glasgow Coma Scale/statistics & numerical data , Unconsciousness/diagnosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 126(6): 323-328, Nov. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507488

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9 percent saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8) and passive (7.2 ± 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O câncer do colo uterino é uma das mais freqüentes neoplasias na mulher. O exame de Papanicolaou é o método mais comum e econômico para rastreamento. As células esfoliativas epiteliais podem ser úteis para o monitoramento de pacientes expostas a fatores de risco para o câncer. O objetivo foi analisar a prevalência de micronúcleos em células esfoliativas da mucosa cervical uterina e associar com fatores de risco para o câncer de colo uterino. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal analítico, no Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). MÉTODOS: Células esfoliativas do colo uterino foram obtidas de 101 pacientes ambulatoriais entre setembro/2004 e novembro/2005. As células foram coletadas usando espátula de Ayre e transferidas para um tubo de ensaio com soro fisiológico 0,9 por cento para o teste do micronúcleo. Informações obtidas das pacientes foram: idade, hábitos (fumo e número de parceiros sexuais), métodos contraceptivos, história de doença sexualmente transmissível e uso de terapia hormonal. Células foram analisadas com magnificação de 1000 X e os micronúcleos contados em 1.000 células epiteliais por paciente. RESULTADOS: A comparação do grupo de pacientes fumantes ativas (7,9 ± 7,8) e passivas (7,2 ± 10,6) versus não fumantes (3,7 ± 5,1); alcoolismo e não alcoolismo (7,8 ± 1,4 e 6,9 ± 10,1); citologia inflamatória e citologia normal (10,7 ± 10,5 e 1,3 ± 1,7); neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) I, II e III e a ausência de NIC, respectivamente, (4,3 ± 4,3; 10,6 ± 5,3; 22,7 ± 11,9 e 1.3 ± 1.4) mostrou maior prevalência de micronúcleos (P < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de micronúcleo nas células esfoliativas do colo uterino foi maior no grupo de pacientes com pelo menos um dos fatores de risco para câncer do colo uterino do que no grupo controle (sem fatores de risco).


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/ultrastructure , Cervix Uteri/ultrastructure , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/ultrastructure , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/pathology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/etiology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/pathology , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Mucous Membrane/cytology , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/etiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervicitis/complications , Uterine Cervicitis/pathology
18.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 17(2): 343-352, 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-467859

ABSTRACT

Analisamos os argumentos utilizados, em dois momentos diferentes do século XX, para justificar o recurso a explicações biológicas de condutas consideradas como socialmente indesejadas. Referimo-nos, inicialmente, aos estudos realizados pelos higienistas de início do século, cujas explicações estavam centradas no caráter orgânico e inato dos desvios, para continuar logo com os recentes estudos da neurociência que se propõem a localizar as condutas nas sinapses inadequadas e nas explicações referidas a deficiências químicas do cérebro.


The article analyzes the arguments used in two distinct moments of the 20th century, to justify the use of biological explanations for conducts considered as socially undesirable. Firstly we refer to studies of hygienists in the early century, whose explanation were centered on the organic and innate character of deviations, then we analyze the recent studies in the neurosciences which try to locate these conducts in inadequate synapses and in explanations related to chemical cerebral deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Genetic Determinism , Inheritance Patterns/ethics , Inheritance Patterns/physiology , Inheritance Patterns/genetics , Brain Chemistry/physiology , Brain Chemistry/genetics , Alcoholism/genetics , Alcoholism/pathology , Depression/genetics , Depression/pathology , Biological Factors/adverse effects , Psychiatry/ethics , Psychiatry/trends , Behavioral Symptoms/genetics , Behavioral Symptoms/pathology , Sociobiology/ethics , Sociobiology/trends , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology
19.
Braz. oral res ; 20(2): 97-102, Apr.-June 2006. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-432183

ABSTRACT

Os efeitos do etanol isoladamente sobre a mucosa bucal permanecem pouco esclarecidos, sobretudo devido ao baixo número de não-fumantes consumidores crônicos de bebidas alcoólicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as freqüências de micronúcleo, relação núcleo/citoplasma anormal, picnose, cariorrexe e cariólise em células esfoliadas da mucosa jugal e do bordo lateral da língua de 36 alcoólatras não-fumantes (grupo etanol) e 18 abstêmios de álcool e fumo (grupo controle). O método de Papanicolaou foi utilizado. Uma vez que indivíduos alcoólatras geralmente apresentam comprometimento hepatobiliar, a associação entre gama-glutamil transpeptidase (GGT) sérica e algumas das alterações citológicas analisadas também foi investigada. O grupo etanol mostrou um aumento significativo nas freqüências de todas as alterações investigadas nas células da língua quando comparado ao grupo controle (p < 0,01; Mann-Whitney). No entanto, a presença de tais mudanças na mucosa jugal não foi estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05; Mann-Whitney). No grupo etanol, a correlação entre GGT sérica e as freqüências de micronúcleo e a relação núcleo/citoplasma anormal em células da mucosa bucal não foi significativa (p > 0,05; Spearman). Conclui-se que o consumo crônico de etanol pode estar associado a alterações citológicas carcinogênicas na mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações não apresentaram correlação com o comprometimento hepatobiliar.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Micronucleus Tests , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Smoking/adverse effects
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 491-497, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156141

ABSTRACT

Many researchers have used cue reactivity paradigm to study alcohol craving. But the difference of craving response to drinks between alcoholic patients and social drinkers was little evaluated. To investigate characteristics of alcohol-related visual cues which induce alcohol craving in alcoholism, we examined the response of subjects to alcohol-related cues considering qualitative aspects. The authors developed 27 photographs related to alcohol as candidate visual cues. Thirty five patients with alcohol dependence, 35 heavy drinkers and 35 social drinkers were shown these pictures and asked to rate these 6 pictures in order of inducing alcohol craving the most. 'A glass of Soju' and 'A Party scene' were chosen as the alcohol-related visual cues which induced craving the most in the patients and heavy drinkers, respectively. The results suggest that the patients with alcohol dependence are more absorbed by alcohol without drinking context such as an atmosphere or situation involving drinking. Heavy drinkers may experience craving in anticipation of being in a drinking situation.


Subject(s)
Photic Stimulation , Motivation , Middle Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Drinking Behavior , Cues , Brain/physiopathology , Behavior , Alcoholism/pathology , Alcoholic Intoxication , Alcoholic Beverages , Alcohol Drinking , Adult
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