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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1639-1644, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134491

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Previous studies from our group described the consequences of using ethanol on penile erection. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms surrounding microRNAs, apoptosis process and their relationship with erectile dysfunction associated with alcohol consumption are still poorly understood. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the mechanism of apoptosis by the expression of AIF and PARP, as well as their regulatory microRNAs: miR-145, miR-210 and miR-486, in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to a semivoluntary alcoholism model. For this study 24 Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (C) and treated with 20 % ethanol (A) for seven weeks. The corpus cavernosum samples were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of AIF and PARP protein expression, and microRNAs miR-145, miR-210, miR-486 gene expression in cavernous tissue was performed by real time PCR. The immunohistochemical analysis showed little nuclear positive labeling for the protein PARP and AIF in the corpus cavernosum of control and ethanol treated animals. After analysis of miR-145, -210 and -486 microRNA expression in the 12 animals studied, no results were found with significant statistical difference between the control and alcoholized groups. The expression of AIF and PARP and their regulatory microRNAs involved in apoptotic process (miR-145, miR-210 and miR-486) were not altered in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to semivoluntary alcoholism.


RESUMEN: Estudios previos de nuestro grupo describieron las consecuencias del uso de etanol en la erección del pene. Sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares que rodean a los microARN, el proceso de apoptosis y su relación con la disfunción eréctil asociada con el consumo de alcohol aún no se conocen bien. El objetivo de este análisis fue evaluar el mecanismo de apoptosis mediante la expresión de AIF y PARP, así como sus microARN reguladores: miR-145, miR-210 y miR-486, en el cuerpo cavernoso de ratas sometidas a un modelo de alcoholismo semivoluntario. Se dividieron 24 ratas Wistar en dos grupos: control (C) grupo de ratas tratadas con etanol al 20 % (A) durante siete semanas. Las muestras del cuerpo cavernoso se prepararon para el análisis inmunohistoquímico de la expresión de la proteína AIF y PARP, y la expresión del gen microRNAs miR-145, miR-210, miR-486 en tejido cavernoso se realizó por PCR en tiempo real. El análisis inmunohistoquímico mostró escaso etiquetado nuclear positivo para la proteína PARP y AIF en el cuerpo cavernoso de los animales de control y tratados con etanol. Después del análisis de la expresión de microARN miR-145, -210 y -486 no se encontraron resultados con diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los grupos control y alcoholizados. La expresión de AIF y PARP y sus microARN reguladores involucrados en el proceso apoptótico (miR-145, miR-210 y miR-486) no se alteraron en el cuerpo cavernoso de las ratas sometidas a alcoholismo semivoluntario.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Alcoholism/metabolism , Erectile Dysfunction/metabolism , Penis/physiopathology , Penis/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/analysis , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/genetics , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6329, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889035

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases endothelin (ET)-1 induced sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa in corpus cavernosum of rats by a mechanism that involves increased expression of ETA and ETB receptors. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of alcohol and diabetes and their relationship to miRNA-155, miRNA-199 and endothelin receptors in the corpus cavernosum and blood of rats submitted to the experimental model of diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D), and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study the protein expression of endothelin receptors by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNAs-155 and -199 in serum and the cavernous tissue. Immunostaining for endothelin receptors was markedly higher in the A, D, and AD groups than in the C group. Moreover, a significant hypoexpression of the miRNA-199 in the corpus cavernosum tissue from the AD group was observed, compared to the C group. When analyzing the microRNA profile in blood, a significant hypoexpression of miRNA-155 in the AD group was observed compared to the C group. The miRNA-199 analysis demonstrated significant hypoexpression in D and AD groups compared to the C group. Our findings in corpus cavernosum showed downregulated miRNA-155 and miRNA-199 levels associated with upregulated protein expression and unaltered mRNA expression of ET receptors suggesting decreased ET receptor turnover, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats exposed to high alcohol levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alcoholism/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Endothelin-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/analysis , Penis/metabolism , Receptor, Endothelin A/analysis , Receptor, Endothelin B/analysis , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Penis/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 38-45, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837673

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS in addition to the miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood of healthy rats, diabetic rats, alcoholic rats and rats with both pathologies. Methods: Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D) and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expressions of eNOS and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood. Results: Immunohistochemistry for eNOS and iNOS showed an increase in cavernosal smooth muscle cells in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups when compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA levels for eNOS were increased in cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups and miRNA-27b were decreased in CSM in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups. Conclusion: The major new finding of our study was an impairment of relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in alcoholic, diabetic, and alcoholic-diabetic rats that involved a decrease in the nitric oxide pathway by endothelium-dependent mechanisms accompanied by a change in the corpus cavernosum contractile sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Penis/chemistry , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Penis/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(4): 381-387, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761716

ABSTRACT

SummaryIntroduction:alcohol is a psychotropic depressant of the central nervous system (CNS) that promotes simultaneous changes in several neuronal pathways, exerting a profound neurological impact that leads to various behavioral and biological alterations.Objectives:to describe the effects of alcohol on the CNS, identifying the signaling pathways that are modified and the biological effects resulting from its consumption.Methods:a literature review was conducted and articles published in different languages over the last 15 years were retrieved.Results:the studies reviewed describe the direct effect of alcohol on several neurotransmitter receptors (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glutamate, endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, among others), the indirect effect of alcohol on the limbic and opioid systems, and the effect on calcium and potassium channels and on proteins regulated by GABA in the hippocampus.Discussion and conclusion:the multiple actions of alcohol on the CNS result in a general effect of psychomotor depression, difficulties in information storage and logical reasoning and motor incoordination, in addition to stimulating the reward system, a fact that may explain the development of addiction. Knowledge on the neuronal signaling pathways that are altered by alcohol allows the identification of effectors which could reduce its central action, thus, offering new therapeutic perspectives for the rehabilitation of alcohol addicts.


ResumoIntrodução:o álcool é uma substância psicotrópica depressora do sistema nervoso central (SNC), que promove alteração simultânea de inúmeras vias neuronais, gerando profundo impacto neurológico e traduzindo-se em diversas alterações biológicas e comportamentais.Objetivos:descrever as ações do álcool sobre o SNC, identificando as vias de sinalização modificadas e os efeitos biológicos gerados pelo seu consumo.Métodos:revisão bibliográfica, priorizando trabalhos multilinguísticos publicados nos últimos 15 anos.Resultados:são descritas ação direta do álcool em inúmeros receptores de neurotransmissores (ácido gama-aminobutírico – GABA, glutamato, endocanabinoides AEA e 2-AG, entre outros), ação indireta do álcool no sistema límbico e opioide, ação sobre canais de cálcio, potássio e proteínas reguladas por GABA no hipocampo, além de ações centrais mediadas pela deficiência de vitamina B1.Conclusão:a ação multifocal do álcool sobre o SNC resulta em efeito geral de depressão psicomotora, dificuldades no armazenamento de informações e no raciocínio lógico, incoordenação motora, além da estimulação do sistema de recompensa, o que pode explicar o desenvolvimento da dependência química. O conhecimento das vias de sinalização neuronais alteradas pelo álcool permite reconhecer a descrição de efetores que possam reduzir sua ação central e, assim, vislumbrar novas perspectivas terapêuticas para a reabilitação de adictos a essa substância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Ethanol/pharmacology , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects , Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System/physiopathology , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Depressants/adverse effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/physiology
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(2): 183-189, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685395

ABSTRACT

Os efeitos cardiovasculares do álcool são bem conhecidos. No entanto,a maioria das pesquisas tem se concentrado nos efeitos benéficos (o "paradoxo francês") de um consumo moderado ou as consequências danosas, tais como a cardiomiopatia dilatada, associada ao consumo pesado durante um período prolongado. Uma associação entre a ingestão de álcool aguda e o aparecimento de arritmias cardíacas foi relatada pela primeira vez no início dos anos 70.Em 1978, Philip Ettinger descreveu a "síndrome do coração pós-feriado" (HHS) pela primeira vez, como a ocorrência, em pessoas saudáveis e sem doença cardíaca conhecida por causar arritmia, de uma perturbação aguda do ritmo cardíaco, mais frequentemente fibrilação atrial, após o consumo abusivo de bebidas. O nome é derivado do fato de que esses episódios foram inicialmente observados mais frequentemente após finais de semana ou feriados. Desde a descrição original da HHS, 34 anos se passaram e novas pesquisas neste campo aumentaram o volume de conhecimentos relacionados a esta síndrome. Ao longo deste artigo, os autores vão revisar de forma abrangente a maioria dos dados disponíveis sobre a HHS e destacar as questões que permanecem sem solução.


The cardiovascular effects of alcohol are well known. However, most research has focused on the beneficial effects (the "French paradox") of moderate consumption or the harmful consequences, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, associated with heavy consumption over an extended period. An association between the ingestion of acute alcohol and onset of cardiac arrhythmias was first reported in the early 70's. In 1978, Philip Ettinger described "Holiday heart syndrome" (HHS) for the first time, as the occurrence, in healthy people without heart disease known to cause arrhythmia, of an acute cardiac rhythm disturbance, most frequently atrial fibrillation, after binge drinking. The name is derived from the fact that episodes were initially observed more frequently after weekends or public holidays. Since the original description of HHS, 34 years have passed and new research in this field has increased the volume of knowledge related to this syndrome. Throughout this paper the authors will comprehensively review most of the available data concerning HHS and highlight the questions that remain unresolved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Binge Drinking/complications , Holidays , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Binge Drinking/physiopathology , Risk Factors
6.
Bauru; s.n; 2011. 69 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-668587

ABSTRACT

O etanol inibe a proliferação de células osteoblásticas, gerando baixa massa óssea e aumento na prevalência de fraturas na população alcoólatra. A quantidade de defeitos ósseos criados cirurgicamente, e pelos vários tipos de acidentes, tem aumentado atualmente e existe uma preocupação muito grande na descoberta de substâncias que acelerem a neoformação óssea que preencham essas cavidades. Baseado no exposto anteriormente resolveu-se realizar este trabalho com o objetivo de observar se a matriz óssea bovina desmineralizada (Genox ®) altera a neoformação óssea em ratos submetidos ao alcoolismo experimental, usando para isso análise histológica e histométrica. Para isso foram utilizados 40 ratos machos (Rattus norvegicus), separados em 2 grupos de 20 animais cada, assim distribuídos: Grupo E1, que recebeu álcool etílico a 25%, diluído em água de torneira, e cavidade cirúrgica preenchida somente por coágulo sanguíneo, e Grupo E2, que recebeu álcool etílico a 25%, diluído em água de torneira, e cavidade cirúrgica preenchida por Gen-ox®. Após um período de 3 semanas de adaptação gradativa ao álcool, os animais receberam dieta alcoólica de 25% por um período de 90 dias. Decorrido esse período, a tíbia esquerda de todos os animais foi submetida a uma cirurgia onde se produziu uma cavidade cirúrgica experimental, que no Grupo E1 ficou preenchida por coágulo sanguíneo, e no Grupo E2 preenchida por Gen-ox®. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados em períodos de 10, 20, 40 e 60 dias contados a partir do dia da cirurgia experimental, para retirada de parte da tíbia, onde a cavidade cirúrgica foi realizada. Os blocos retirados foram processados histologicamente e submetidos à coloração por Tricrômico de Masson, para estudo histomorfológico e histométrico da área total do defeito, quantidade de tecido conjuntivo presente e quantidade de tecido ósseo neoformado. Os resultados mostraram que a reorganização da medula óssea e reparação total da...


Ethanol inhibits the proliferation of osteoblastic cells, leading to low bone mass and increased prevalence of fractures in the alcoholic population. The amount of bone defects surgically created, and various types of accidents has increased and there is currently a great concern in the discovery of substances that accelerate new bone formation to fill those cavities. Based on the foregoing it was decided to undertake this work in order to see whether demineralized bovine bone (Gen-ox®) alters bone formation in rats subjected to experimental alcoholism, using it for histological and histometric analysis. For this we used 40 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) separated in two groups of 20 animals each one, distributed as follows: Group E1, which received 25% ethanol, diluted in tap water, and the surgical cavity filled only by a blood clot, and Group E2, which received 25% ethanol, diluted in tap water, and the surgical cavity filled with Gen-ox®. After a period of three weeks of gradual adaptation to alcohol, the animals received 25% alcohol diet for a period of 90 days. After this period, the left tibia of all animals underwent a surgery where it produced an experimental surgical cavity, which in Group E1 was filled by blood clot, and in Group E2 filled with Gen-ox®. Five animals from each group were sacrificed on days 10, 20, 40 and 60 days from the day of experimental surgery to remove part of the tibia, where the sinus surgery was done. The blocks were removed and processed histologically stained by Masson trichrome, for histomorphological and histometric study of the total area of the defect, amount of connective tissue and amount of new bone. The results showed that the reorganization of the bone marrow and full repair of the surgical cavity in Group E1 had occurred in a shorter time than in Group E2. It was also noted that in the final period, the animals in Group E2 showed areas of connective tissue and thick bone...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Bone Matrix/physiology , Bone Regeneration , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Durapatite/pharmacology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Connective Tissue/pathology , Tibia/pathology
7.
Bauru; s.n; 2011. 69 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-866180

ABSTRACT

O etanol inibe a proliferação de células osteoblásticas, gerando baixa massa óssea e aumento na prevalência de fraturas na população alcoólatra. A quantidade de defeitos ósseos criados cirurgicamente, e pelos vários tipos de acidentes, tem aumentado atualmente e existe uma preocupação muito grande na descoberta de substâncias que acelerem a neoformação óssea que preencham essas cavidades. Baseado no exposto anteriormente resolveu-se realizar este trabalho com o objetivo de observar se a matriz óssea bovina desmineralizada (Genox ®) altera a neoformação óssea em ratos submetidos ao alcoolismo experimental, usando para isso análise histológica e histométrica. Para isso foram utilizados 40 ratos machos (Rattus norvegicus), separados em 2 grupos de 20 animais cada, assim distribuídos: Grupo E1, que recebeu álcool etílico a 25%, diluído em água de torneira, e cavidade cirúrgica preenchida somente por coágulo sanguíneo, e Grupo E2, que recebeu álcool etílico a 25%, diluído em água de torneira, e cavidade cirúrgica preenchida por Gen-ox®. Após um período de 3 semanas de adaptação gradativa ao álcool, os animais receberam dieta alcoólica de 25% por um período de 90 dias. Decorrido esse período, a tíbia esquerda de todos os animais foi submetida a uma cirurgia onde se produziu uma cavidade cirúrgica experimental, que no Grupo E1 ficou preenchida por coágulo sanguíneo, e no Grupo E2 preenchida por Gen-ox®. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados em períodos de 10, 20, 40 e 60 dias contados a partir do dia da cirurgia experimental, para retirada de parte da tíbia, onde a cavidade cirúrgica foi realizada. Os blocos retirados foram processados histologicamente e submetidos à coloração por Tricrômico de Masson, para estudo histomorfológico e histométrico da área total do defeito, quantidade de tecido conjuntivo presente e quantidade de tecido ósseo neoformado. Os resultados mostraram que a reorganização da medula óssea e reparação total da...


Ethanol inhibits the proliferation of osteoblastic cells, leading to low bone mass and increased prevalence of fractures in the alcoholic population. The amount of bone defects surgically created, and various types of accidents has increased and there is currently a great concern in the discovery of substances that accelerate new bone formation to fill those cavities. Based on the foregoing it was decided to undertake this work in order to see whether demineralized bovine bone (Gen-ox®) alters bone formation in rats subjected to experimental alcoholism, using it for histological and histometric analysis. For this we used 40 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) separated in two groups of 20 animals each one, distributed as follows: Group E1, which received 25% ethanol, diluted in tap water, and the surgical cavity filled only by a blood clot, and Group E2, which received 25% ethanol, diluted in tap water, and the surgical cavity filled with Gen-ox®. After a period of three weeks of gradual adaptation to alcohol, the animals received 25% alcohol diet for a period of 90 days. After this period, the left tibia of all animals underwent a surgery where it produced an experimental surgical cavity, which in Group E1 was filled by blood clot, and in Group E2 filled with Gen-ox®. Five animals from each group were sacrificed on days 10, 20, 40 and 60 days from the day of experimental surgery to remove part of the tibia, where the sinus surgery was done. The blocks were removed and processed histologically stained by Masson trichrome, for histomorphological and histometric study of the total area of the defect, amount of connective tissue and amount of new bone. The results showed that the reorganization of the bone marrow and full repair of the surgical cavity in Group E1 had occurred in a shorter time than in Group E2. It was also noted that in the final period, the animals in Group E2 showed areas of connective tissue and thick bone...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Bone Matrix/physiology , Bone Regeneration , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Durapatite/pharmacology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Connective Tissue/pathology , Tibia/pathology
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 76(2): 148-155, mar.-abr. 2010. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-548314

ABSTRACT

O alcoolismo é uma doença crônica que consiste em um estado de intoxicação causado pelo consumo de álcool. Os sinais e sintomas frequentemente encontrados são entre outros: instabilidade ao andar, tontura e descoordenação psicomotora. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência do alcoolismo no equilíbrio postural. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo prospectivo; a amostra compreendeu 32 indivíduos para o grupo experimental, frequentadores do grupo de Alcoólicos Anônimos da cidade de Santa Maria-RS e 32 indivíduos não alcoólicos para o grupo controle. Os indivíduos foram submetidos à avaliação otorrinolaringológica, avaliação do equilíbrio estático e dinâmico e provas cerebelares, avaliação vectoeletronistagmográfica e posturografia dinâmica. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que a vectoeletronistagmografia mostrou-se normal na maioria dos indivíduos do grupo experimental, indicando que o labirinto e as vias vestíbulo-oculomotoras estariam normais e que o distúrbio do equilíbrio por eles apresentado seria decorrente de disfunção em outras áreas do sistema nervoso central ou periférico. Na posturografia dinâmica constatou-se que alcoólicos abstinentes apresentam alterações significantes do equilíbrio postural quando comparados com indivíduos não alcoólicos. CONCLUSÃO: O álcool tem influência deletéria no equilíbrio corporal.


Alcoholism is a chronic condition, consisting on a state of intoxication caused by the consumption of alcohol beverages. Frequently found signs and symptoms are: gait instability, dizziness and lack of psychomotor coordination, among others. AIM: to study the influence of alcoholism on postural balance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: this is a prospective study. The sample comprehended 32 individuals in the experimental group, members of the Alcoholic Anonymous Group of the city of Santa Maria-RS and 32 non-alcoholic individuals making up the control group. The individuals were submitted to an otorhinolaryngological evaluation, static and dynamic balance study and cerebellar tests, vecto-electro-nystagmographic evaluation and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: we noticed that the vectoelectronystagmography was normal for most of the individuals in the experimental group, indicating that the labyrinth and the oculomotor-vestibular pathways were normal and that the balance disorder they presented would stem from the dysfunction in other areas of the central or peripheral nervous system. In the dynamic posturography we noticed that alcoholics who were not drinking presented significant alterations in their postural balance when compared to non-alcoholic individuals. CONCLUSION: alcoholic beverages have a deleterious influence on body balance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/complications , Postural Balance/physiology , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Electronystagmography/methods , Prospective Studies , Sensation Disorders/physiopathology
9.
São Paulo; Manole; 2009. xvi,199 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536144

ABSTRACT

A publicação, que apresenta diversas informações e resultados das mais recentes pesquisas sobre o consumo de álcool ao redor do mundo, foi organizada em nove capítulos, abordando temas como: dados epidemiológicos mundiais sobre o consumo nocivo de álcool; as principais consequências em longo prazo relacionadas ao consumo moderado de álcool; dependência do álcool; consumo nocivo de álcool entre estudantes; padrões de consumo do álcool e problemas decorrentes do beber pesado episódico no Brasil; álcool e HIV/AIDS; álcool e violência; álcool e trânsito; e consumo nocivo de álcool durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholic Beverages/adverse effects , Alcohol-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Alcoholism/rehabilitation , Pregnancy/ethnology , HIV Infections/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Alcohol-Related Disorders/psychology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Violence
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 24(3): 391-398, sept. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474602

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del trabajo fue verificar, durante un período experimental de 210 días, los posibles efectos del etanol sobre la morfología y densidad de las neuronas mientéricas NADH-diaforasa, en el yeyuno de ratas alcohólicas. Utilizamos 10 animales (Rattus norvegicus) separadas en dos grupos: el control (n=5) que recibió una dieta proteica normal (22 por ciento) y agua ad libitum; el otro, alcohólico, que recibió dieta proteica normal NUVILAB (22 por ciento) y brandy de azúcar de caña diluido a 30 Gay Lussac (30 v/v). El segmento de yeyuno fue obtenido y sometido a técnicas histoquímicas para teñir las células nerviosas. La observación a través de microscopía de luz mostró que no hubo diferencias morfológicas de importancia entre las neuronas del grupo control y el sometido a alcoholismo. El recuento neuronal en el grupo control, llevado a cabo en 40 campos microscópicos (8,96 µm2), de las regiones mesentérica y antimesentérica, determinó 1.131 y 693 neuronas, respectivamente, mientras que en el grupo alcohólico se encontraron 1.229 y 860 neuronas, respectivamente. El incremento significativo en el número de neuronas en la región mesentérica, en el grupo de las ratas alcohólicas, es debido a un crecimiento físico menor de esos animales comparados con el grupo control. El etanol causó malnutrición y consecuentemente, las ratas alcohólicas mostraron una densidad neuronal más amplia debido a una dispersión menor.


The objective of our work was to verify, during an experimental period of 210 days, the possible effects of the ethanol on the morphology and density of the NADH-diaforase myenteric neurons in the jejunum of alcoholic rats. We used 10 animals (Rattus norvegicus) separated in 2 groups: the controls (n=5), that received a normal proteic diet (22%) and water ad libitum; the alcoholic, that received NUVILAB normal proteic chow (22%) and sugar cane brandy diluted at 30 Gay Lussac (30 v/v). The jejunum segment was collected and submitted to the histochemical technique to stain the nervous cells and, then, to the elaboration of membrane whole mounts. The observation through light microscopy showed that there are no expressive morphologic differences between the ganglia of neurons of the control and alcoholic rats. The counting of neurons, carried out in 40 microscopic fields (8.96µm2) in the control group, at the mesenteric and antimesenteric regions, found 1,131 and 693 neurons respectively, while, the alcoholic group found 1,229 and 860 neurons. The significant increase in the number of neurons in the mesenteric region, in the alcoholic rats, is due to the smaller physical growth of those animals when compared to the controls. The ethanol caused malnutrition and consequently the alcoholic rats showed a larger neuronal density due to its smaller dispersion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant , Rats , Neurons , Neurons/physiology , Myenteric Plexus/anatomy & histology , Myenteric Plexus , Myenteric Plexus/physiology , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Alcoholism/metabolism , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Jejunum , Jejunum/physiology
12.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2006. 68 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-450409

ABSTRACT

O fumo e o álcool são considerados os principais fatores de risco para o carcinoma de células escamosas de boca. Tem-se demonstrado uma relação entre os polimorfismos da região promotora do transportador de serotonina (5-HTTLPR) com o consumo de fumo e álcool, principalmente o alelo curto (S) que é associado com uma reduzida transcriçãodo 5-HTT. Com objetivo de verificar a freqüência desses polimorfismos em pacientes com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca, um estudo caso-controle incluiu 103 pacientes com o carcinoma e 103 indivíduos saudáveis, pareados por sexo, idade e consumo de fumo. Após a aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais as entrevistas foram realizadas e o material coletado por raspagem da mucosa bucal em todos os pacientes. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson (valor de p ≤ 0,05). A freqüência alélica entre os grupos caso e controle foi respectivamente: alelo longo (l) (55,8 por cento e 49,5 por cento); alelo curto (s) (44,2 por cento e 50,5 por cento), não sendo estatisticamente significativa (p=0,118). A distribuição dos genótipos foi: (l/s 51,5 por cento; l/l 30,1 por cento; s/s 18,4 por cento) e controle (l/s 42,7 por cento; l/l 33,0 por cento; s/s 24,3 por cento), não sendo diferente estatisticamente (p=0,408). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na distribuição dos genótipos, entre casos e controles, com as variáveis: fumantes e não fumantes; etilistas e não etilistas; consumo de fumo e etanol; tempo de duração dos hábitos. Concluiu-se que na população estudada o hábito de fumar e/ou beber não foi relacionado com os polimorfismos da região do gene 5-HTT. Este polimorfismo não foi um fator de risco para o carcinoma de células escamosas de boca


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/etiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Tobacco Use Disorder/physiopathology
13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 26(supl.1): SI40-SI42, maio 2004. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-391085

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste artigo é o de revisar e descrever as principais alteracões neurofarmacológicas causadas pela exposicão crônica ao álcool, assim como os fenômenos ocorridos durante o período de abstinência. São apresentados dados referentes às alteracões neuroadaptativas e de tolerância ocorridas nos principais sistemas de monoaminas, aminoácidos neurotransmissores e canais de cálcio, o que está relacionado a uma piora no prognóstico de portadores de comorbidades psiquiátricas com o consumo de álcool. São também descritos alguns estudos relevantes que demonstram o envolvimento de outros mecanismos de acão do álcool no sistema nervoso central, como o envolvimento de opióides, entre outras substâncias. O artigo reafirma a importância, para clínicos e pesquisadores, de um sempre maior entendimento do mecanismo de acão central do álcool, pois dele depende a busca por novas opcões farmacológicas, tanto para a reducão dos danos provocados pelo seu uso crônico, como para o tratamento da síndrome de abstinência a esta substância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium/physiopathology , Alcoholic Intoxication/metabolism , Alcoholic Intoxication/physiopathology , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Ethanol/metabolism
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 796-802, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197579

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the significance of cognitive evoked potentials and the correlation between the auditory event-related potential and the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE) in alcohol dependent patients. The P300 studies using an auditory paradigm were performed on 25 alcohol dependent patients, and then the results were compared with score of the CCSE. 1) The latencies of the P300 were significantly prolonged in the patient group compared with the control group, and the scores of CCSE were significantly reduced in the patient group compared with the control group (p 0.05). 4) There was significant reliability in P300 latency study (alpha=0.9771). These findings suggest that the latency of P300 may be useful as a clinical electrodiagnostic measurement that can objectively reflect cognitive dysfunction in alcohol dependent patients, and it can be used as a quantitative analysis of cognitive dysfunction even for early asymptomatic alcohol dependent patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Cognition , Event-Related Potentials, P300/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reaction Time
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 81(5): 506-517, nov. 2003. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-351137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the electrocardiographic changes and their associations with metabolic and electrolytic changes in female alcoholics. METHODS: The study comprised 44 female alcoholics with no apparent physical disorder. They underwent the following examinations: conventional electrocardiography; serologic tests for syphilis, Chagas' disease, and hepatitis B and C viruses; urinary pregnancy testing; hematimetric analysis; biochemical measurements of albumin, fibrinogen, fasting and postprandial glycemias, lipids, hepatic enzymes, and markers for tissue necrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Some type of electrocardiographic change was identified in 33 (75 percent) patients. In 17 (38.6 percent) patients, more than one of the following changes were present: prolonged QTc interval in 24 (54.5 percent), change in ventricular repolarization in 11(25 percent), left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 (13.6 percent), sinus bradycardia in 4 (9.1 percent), sinus tachycardia in 3 (6.8 percent), and conduction disorder in 3 (6.8 percent). The patients had elevated mean serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferases, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as hypocalcemia and low levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The patients with altered electrocardiograms had a more elevated age, a lower alcohol consumption, hypopotassemia, and significantly elevated levels of triglycerides, postprandial glucose, sodium and gamma glutamyl transferase than those with normal electrocardiograms. The opposite occurred with fasting glycemia, magnesium, and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSION: The electrocardiographic changes found were prolonged QTc interval, change in ventricular repolarization, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with normal and abnormal electrocardiograms had different metabolic and electrolytic changes


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/etiology , Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism/metabolism , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Creatine Kinase/blood , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Long QT Syndrome/etiology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Continued alcohol use leads to tolerance, however, some dependent individuals lose tolerance despite continued alcohol consumption. The exact mechanism for this is not known. This study evaluated tolerance in alcohol dependent patients in a treatment centre using multiple measures. METHODS: Male patients with alcohol dependence (DSM III R criteria) were chosen and detoxified in an inpatient setting. On day 14 of detoxification, each subject was given ethanol (0.75 g/kg body wt) mixed in an equal amount of placebo (cola) drink once and an equivalent amount of placebo (cola) during the other occasion in a single blind, randomised, cross over manner. Assessment of each subject was made using multiple measures (clinical, neuro-psychological tests, scales for subjective effect and blood alcohol levels), 30 min after intake of each drink. RESULTS: The subjects (n = 26) did not very under the two conditions (alcohol/placebo) as regards subjective effects, tests on logical memory and Bender Gestalt test (BGT). Cognitive screening scores though different under the two conditions, were within the normative range. Of these 26 subjects, 50 per cent showed clinical signs of intoxication after consumption of alcohol. These two groups (impaired vs unimpaired) were comparable on all base-line clinical parameters, assessment of euphoria and sedation, and various neuropsychological tests except BGT under the two conditions (placebo/alcohol). The non-tolerant (impaired) group scored significantly (P < 0.05) worse on BGT after alcohol consumption. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that clinical tests were more sensitive in detecting intoxication. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of loss of tolerance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Drug Tolerance , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Reference Values
17.
J. bras. med ; 81(2): 14-24, ago. 2001.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-296364

ABSTRACT

A prevalência de transtornos relacionados à ingesta de álcool está aumentando e constitui sério problema de Saúde Pública. No entanto, a maioria dos pacientes nega ou não fornece informações suficientes para a efetivação de uma anamnese completa, dificultando a realização do diagnóstico precoce. Propõe-se, então, a utilização de dosagens bioquímicas que permitam auxiliar a detecção da ocorrência do abuso de álcool. Os testes laboratoriais disponíveis são: aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), beta-hexosaminidade (B-HEX), gamaglutamiltranspeptidade (y-GT) e transferina deficiente de carboidrato (CDT). Contudo, a CDT destaca-se como marcador do alcoolismo, apresentando sensibilidade e especificidade superiores às outras dosagens e aplicabilidade clínica comprovadamente reconhecida


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases , Biomarkers , Transferrin
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 57(2A): 225-32, jun. 1999. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-234455

ABSTRACT

A prevalência do dedo em baioneta, sinal semiológico do distúrbio de déficit de atenção (DHDA), foi determinada em pacientes alcoolistas e indivíduos com distúrbios psicóticos, do sexo masculino, internados em hospital psiquátrico. Para comparações foram examinados indivíduos, do sexo masculino, recrutados dentre os funcionários do próprio hospital. A alteração morfológica foi observada em 70/200 (35 por cento) dos alcoolistas, 45/100 (45 por cento) dos psicóticos e 8/50 (16 por cento) dos indivíduos controles. A diferença na prevalência do dedo em baioneta entre alcoolista e psicóticos não foi significativa, mas o foi entre os alcoolistas ou psicóticos e o grupo controle. Estas observações sugerem, relativamente a população masculina, que: (1) o DHDA e síndromes correlatas estariam, por correlação com a prevalência dos dedos em baioneta, presentes em aproximadamente 1/3 dos alcoolista e 1/2 dos pacientes com distúrbios. (2) o DHDA e síndromes correlatas representariam um fator de vulnerabilidade para o alcoolismo. (3) adolescentes com dedos em baioneta deveriam merecer especial atenção no sentido de prevenção do alcoolismo.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Alcoholism , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Fingers/abnormalities , Psychotic Disorders , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/genetics , Psychotic Disorders/physiopathology
20.
Med. interna Méx ; 15(2): 81-3, mar.-abr. 1999. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-266674

ABSTRACT

Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino con más de cincuenta años de edad con pancreatitis crónica posalcohol y calcificaciones en el conducto de Wirsung. Se analizó su diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y se descubrieron los aspectos clínicos característicos del padecimiento: pancreatitis crónica, sensibilidad exagerada a la insulina, mayor hipoglucemia, esteatorea y desnutrición


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/physiopathology
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