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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928166


The present study analyzed the potential biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome by non-targeted metabolomics and explored the biological basis of this syndrome. Blood samples of 96 COPD patients with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome(COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome group) and 106 healthy people(healthy control group) were collected, and the metabolic profiles of both groups were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis and differential metabolite screening were carried out by using Progenesis QI and Simca-P. Metabolic pathways were constructed through the MetaboAnalyst. Seven potential biomarkers, such as L-cystathionine, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and citalopram aldehyde, were identified. Compared with the results in the healthy control group, the content of citalopram aldehyde, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-androsten-3-one was significantly up-regulated, while that of the other four compounds such as L-cystathionine, dihydrotestosterone, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and D-urobilinogen was down-regulated. These potential biomarkers involved six metabolic pathways, including cysteine and methionine metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, drug metabolism of cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide meta-bolism. This study is expected to provide a certain scientific basis for the research on traditional Chinese medicine syndrome of COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome from the molecular biology level.

Aldehydes , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citalopram , Cystathionine , Humans , Lung , Metabolomics/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 194-204, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921247


BACKGROUND@#Despite improvements in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, breast cancer is still a leading cause of cancer death for women. Compelling evidence suggests that targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact on overcoming the current shortcomings of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to study the effects of T cells and a critical anti-tumor cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), on breast cancer stem cells.@*METHODS@#BALB/c mice and BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously injected with 4T1 tumor cells. Tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis were assessed. ALDEFLOUR™ assays were performed to identify aldehyde dehydrogenasebright (ALDHbr) tumor cells. ALDHbr cells as well as T cells from tumor-bearing BALB/c mice were analyzed using flow cytometry. The effects of CD8+ T cells on ALDHbr tumor cells were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The expression profiles of ALDHbr and ALDHdim 4T1 tumor cells were determined. The levels of plasma IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their associations with the percentages of ALDHbr tumor cells were evaluated. The effects of IFN-γ on ALDH expression and the malignancy of 4T1 tumor cells were analyzed in vitro.@*RESULTS@#There were fewer metastatic nodules in tumor-bearing BALB/c mice than those in tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice (25.40 vs. 54.67, P < 0.050). CD8+ T cells decreased the percentages of ALDHbr 4T1 tumor cells in vitro (control vs. effector to target ratio of 1:1, 10.15% vs. 5.76%, P < 0.050) and in vivo (control vs. CD8+ T cell depletion, 10.15% vs. 21.75%, P < 0.001). The functions of upregulated genes in ALDHbr 4T1 tumor cells were enriched in the pathway of response to IFN-γ. The levels of plasma IFN-γ decreased gradually in tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, while the percentages of ALDHbr tumor cells in primary tumors increased. IFN-γ at a concentration of 26.68 ng/mL decreased the percentages of ALDHbr 4T1 tumor cells (22.88% vs. 9.88%, P < 0.050) and the protein levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 in 4T1 tumor cells (0.86 vs. 0.49, P < 0.050) and inhibited the abilities of sphere formation (sphere diameter <200 μm, 159.50 vs. 72.0; ≥200 μm, 127.0 vs. 59.0; both P < 0.050) and invasion (89.67 vs. 67.67, P < 0.001) of 4T1 tumor cells.@*CONCLUSION@#CD8+ T cells and IFN-γ decreased CSC numbers in a 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer. The application of IFN-γ may be a potential strategy for reducing CSCs in breast cancer.

Aldehydes , Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplastic Stem Cells
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 473-485, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878576


Lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable organic carbon resource on earth. However, due to its complex structure, it must undergo a series of pretreatment processes before it can be efficiently utilized by microorganisms. The pretreatment process inevitably generates typical inhibitors such as furan aldehydes that seriously hinder the growth of microorganisms and the subsequent fermentation process. It is an important research field for bio-refining to recognize and clarify the furan aldehydes metabolic pathway of microorganisms and further develop microbial strains with strong tolerance and transformation ability towards these inhibitors. This article reviews the sources of furan aldehyde inhibitors, the inhibition mechanism of furan aldehydes on microorganisms, the furan aldehydes degradation pathways in microorganisms, and particularly focuses on the research progress of using biotechnological strategies to degrade furan aldehyde inhibitors. The main technical methods include traditional adaptive evolution engineering and metabolic engineering, and the emerging microbial co-cultivation systems as well as functional materials assisted microorganisms to remove furan aldehydes.

Aldehydes , Fermentation , Furans , Lignin/metabolism
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 93 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese, French | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025676


Os aldeídos são espécies reativas que podem ser produzidos endogenamente por processos como a lipoperoxidação, podendo reagir com lipídios, proteínas e DNA. Diversas evidências apontam para o envolvimento de aldeídos reativos na progressão de patologias como doenças cardiovasculares, arteriosclerose e doenças neurodegenerativas. Uma meta central do CEPIDRedoxoma é estudar a reatividade química de intermediários redox em ambientes biológicos e consequentes mudanças na estrutura e função de biomoléculas, entender como cada intermediário redox reage com biomoléculas específicas e os efeitos resultantes, essenciais para a concepção de biomarcadores e antioxidantes. O nosso grupo estuda os mecanismos de formação, detoxificação e reação com biomoléculas de aldeídos reativos endógenos e exógenos e seu papel em patologias como a esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ALS). Um dos mecanismos de detoxificação desses aldeídos é através da conjugação com a carnosina. Recentemente, foi observado que a suplementação de animais transgênicos ALS SOD G93A com carnosina via oral resultou em retardo da perda de peso e tendência de aumento da sobrevida dos animais. O presente projeto buscou investigar o possível papel da carnosina em animais modelo para ALS. Para isso as modificações em DNA induzidas por aldeídos reativos e a formação de adutos de carnosina-aldeídos foram analisadas através de metodologia HPLC-MS/MS. Assim observamos que ratos suplementados com carnosina apresentaram níveis significativamente menores de proteína carbonilada em músculo e fígado. Em fígadoforam vistos níveis menores de dois adutos de DNA, 8-oxodGuo e1,N2-HO-propanodGuo, em animais suplementados. Em cérebro foram detectados níveis menores de 1, N2-εdGuo. Com relação aos adutos carnosina-aldeídos, foi observado níveis significativamente maiores do aduto CAR-HHE na medula. Com embasamento nos resultados aqui apresentados, sugere-se a utilização de sequestradores de aldeídos como uma estratégia terapêutica em condições fisiopatológicas nas quais ao acúmulo dessas espécies está comprovado

Aldehydes are reactive species that can be produced endogenously by processes such as lipid peroxidation, which can react with lipids, proteins and DNA. Several evidences point to the involvement of reactive aldehydes in the progression of pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. A central goal of CEPID-Redoxoma is to study the chemical reactivity of redox intermediates in biological environments and consequent changes in the structure and function of biomolecules, to understand how each redox intermediate reacts with specific biomolecules and the resulting effects, essential for the design of biomarkers and antioxidants. Our group studies the mechanisms of formation, detoxification and reaction with biomolecules of endogenous and exogenous reactive aldehydes and their role in pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One of the detoxification mechanisms of these aldehydes is through carnosine conjugation. Recently, we observed that oral carnosine supplementation in transgenic ALS SODG93A animals resulted in delayed weight loss and a tendency to increase the survival of the animals. The present project investigated the potential role of carnosine in animal models for ALS. Thus, reactive aldehydes induced DNA modifications and carnosine aldehyde adducts were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. We observed that rats supplemented with carnosine presented significantly lower levels of protein carbonylation in muscle and liver. Lower levels of two DNA adducts, 8-oxodGuo and 1, N2-HO-propanodGuo, were observed in liver of the supplemented animals. Lower levels of 1, N2-εdGuo were detected in the brain. Regarding the carnosine-aldehydeadducts, significantly higher levels of the CAR-HHE adduct were observed in spinal cord. The results presented here suggest the use of aldehyde scavengers as a therapeutic strategy under pathological conditions in which is proven the accumulation of these species

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Biological Phenomena , Carnosine/adverse effects , Aldehydes/analysis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , DNA Adducts
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 612-627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763785


Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major pathological factor in ischemia. Since the precise function of AR protein in ischemic injury is fully unclear, we examined the function of AR protein in hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and in an animal model of ischemia in this study. Cell permeable Tat-AR protein was produced by fusion of protein transduction domain in Tat for delivery into the cells. Tat-AR protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited cell death and regulated the mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs), Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 under oxidative stress condition. In an ischemic animal model, Tat-AR protein transduced into the brain tissues through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drastically decreased neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 region. These results indicate that transduced Tat-AR protein has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Tat-AR protein could be used as potential therapeutic agent in ischemic injury.

Aldehyde Reductase , Aldehydes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ischemia , Models, Animal , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Protein Kinases
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773155


Tanshinone Ⅱ_A( Tan Ⅱ_A),the liposoluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza,can not only ameliorate the lipidic metabolism and decrease the concentration of lipid peroxidation,but also resist oxidation damage,scavenge free radicals and control inflammation,with a protective effect on prognosis after liver function impairment. Therefore,the studies on the exact mechanism of Tan Ⅱ_A in protecting the liver can provide important theoretical and experimental basis for the prevention and treatment effect of Tan Ⅱ_A for liver injury. In the present study,the protective effects and mechanism of Tan Ⅱ_A on 4-hydroxynonenal( 4-HNE)-induced liver injury were investigated in vitro. Normal liver tissues NCTC 1469 cells were used to induce hepatocytes oxidative damages by 4-HNE treatment. The protective effect of Tan Ⅱ_A on hepatocytes oxidative damages was detected by release amount of lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) analysis and hoechst staining. The protein expression changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α( PPARα) and peroxisome proliferator response element( PPRE) were analyzed by Western blot analysis in NCTC 1469 cells before and after Tan Ⅱ_A treatment. The gene expression changes of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase( FALDH) were analyzed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction( PCR) analysis. The results showed that 4-HNE increased the release amount of LDH,lowered the cell viability of NCTC 1469 cells,and Tan Ⅱ_A reversed 4-HNE-induced hepatocyte damage. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis results showed that 4-HNE decreased the expression of PPARα and FALDH and increased the expression of 4-HNE. However,the expression of PPARα and FALDH were increased significantly and the expression of 4-HNE was decreased obviously after Tan Ⅱ_A treatment. This study confirmed that the curative effect of Tan Ⅱ_A was obvious on hepatocytes damage,and the mechanism may be associated with activating PPARα and FALDH expression as well as scavenging 4-HNE.

Aldehyde Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Aldehydes , Animals , Cell Line , Abietanes , Pharmacology , Hepatocytes , Lipid Peroxidation , Mice , Oxidative Stress , PPAR alpha , Metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 164-169, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950504


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Ostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a stoma that aims to construct a new path for the output of feces or urine. The relationship of oxidative stress (OxS) markers in patients with ostomy is still poorly described. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at investigating the changes in oxidative stress parameters in peripheral blood collected from ostomy patients when compared with a healthy control group. METHODS: It was evaluated 29 ostomy patients and 30 healthy control patients. The oxidative stress parameters evaluated were: lipid peroxidation [lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), 8-isoprostane (8-ISO) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)], protein oxidation and nitration [carbonyl and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)] and DNA oxidation [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG)] in serum from ostomy patients compared to health controls. RESULTS: The data showed an increase of LPO, 8-ISO, 4-HNE, 3-NT and 8-OHDG in serum collected from ostomy patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The findings support the hypothesis that ostomy triggers the oxidative stress observed in the blood collected from these patients.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Ostomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que cria um estoma com objetivo de construir um novo caminho para a saída das fezes ou urina. A relação dos marcadores de estresse oxidativo em pacientes ostomizados ainda é pouco descrita. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar as alterações dos parâmetros de estresse oxidativo em sangue de pacientes ostomizados comparados a controles saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 29 pacientes ostomizados e 30 controles saudáveis. Os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo avaliados foram: peroxidação lipídica [hidroperóxido de lipídio (LPO), 8-isoprostano (8-ISO) e 4-hidroxinonenal (4-HNE)], oxidação e nitração de proteínas [carbonila e 3-nitrotirosina (3-NT)] e oxidação do DNA [8-hidroxi-2'-desoxiguanosina (8-OHDG)] em soro de pacientes ostomizados comparados a controles saudáveis. RESULTADOS: Os dados mostraram um aumento de LPO, 8-ISO, 4-HNE, 3-NT e 8-OHDG em soro de pacientes ostomizados em comparação a controles saudáveis. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sustentam a hipótese de que a ostomia desencadeia o estresse oxidativo observado no sangue coletado destes pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Ostomy/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Tyrosine/adverse effects , Tyrosine/blood , DNA Damage , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Dinoprost/analogs & derivatives , Dinoprost/blood , Case-Control Studies , Aldehydes/blood , Lipid Peroxides/blood , Middle Aged
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 162 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911601


Aldeídos de colesterol (Secosterol A e Secosterol B) têm sido detectados em amostras de cérebro humano e investigados em modelos de doenças neurodegenerativas como possíveis marcadores e intermediários do processo patológico. Estes oxisteróis constituem uma classe de eletrófilos derivados de lipídeos que podem modificar e induzir agregação de proteínas. A esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) é um distúrbio neurodegenerativo associado ao acúmulo de agregados imunorreativos de superóxido dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, SOD1). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de aldeídos de colesterol em ratos modelo ELA e sua capacidade de induzir a formação de agregados de SOD1 in vitro. Aldeídos de colesterol foram analisados no plasma, medula espinhal e córtex motor de ratos ELA. Uma quantidade elevada de Secosterol B foi detectada no córtex motor desses ratos em comparação com animais controle. Adicionalmente, os experimentos in vitro mostraram que Secosterol B e Secosterol A induziram a agregação da SOD1 em uma forma amiloidogênica que se liga à tioflavina T. Esta agregação não foi observada com o colesterol e os seus hidroperóxidos. Usando aldeídos de colesterol marcados com grupo alquinil e um ensaio de click chemistry, foi observado que os agregados de SOD1 estão ligados covalentemente aos aldeídos. A modificação covalente da proteína foi confirmada por análise de MALDI-TOF, que mostrou a adição de até cinco moléculas de aldeídos de colesterol à proteína por base de Schiff. Curiosamente, a análise comparativa com outros eletrófilos derivados de lipídeos (e.g. HHE e HNE) demonstrou que a agregação de SOD1 aumentou proporcionalmente à hidrofobicidade dos aldeídos, observando-se a maioragregação com aldeídos de colesterol. Os sítios de modificação da SOD1 foram caracterizados por nanoLC-MS/MS após digestão da proteína com tripsina, onde foram identificadas lisinas como o principal aminoácido modificado. Em geral, nossos dados mostram que a oxidação do colesterol que leva à produção de aldeídos de colesterol é aumentada no cérebro de ratos ELA e que os aldeídos altamente hidrofóbicos derivados de colesterol podem promover eficientemente modificação e agregação de SOD1

Secosterol aldehydes (Secosterol B and Secosterol A) have been detected in human brain samples and investigated in models of neurodegenerative diseases as possible markers and intermediates of the pathological process. These oxysterols constitute a class of lipid-derived electrophiles that can modify and induce aggregation of proteins. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the accumulation of immunoreactive aggregates of superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, SOD1). The objective of this work is to evaluate the presence of secosterol aldehydes in ALS rats and their ability to induce formation of SOD1 aggregates in vitro. Secosterol aldehydes were analyzed in plasma, spinal cord and motor cortex of ALS rats. A higher amount of Secosterol B was detected in the motor cortex of these rats compared to control animals. In addition, in vitro experiments have shown that Secosterol B and Secosterol A induce aggregation of SOD1 into an amyloidogenic form that binds to thioflavin T. This aggregation was not apparent in incubations with cholesterol and its hydroperoxides. Using alkynyl-labeled secosterol aldehydes and a click chemistry assay, it was found that the SOD1 aggregates are covalently linked to the aldehydes. Covalent modification of the protein was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis, which showed the addition of up to five molecules of secosterol aldehydes to the protein by Schiff base formation. Interestingly, the comparative analysis with other lipid-derived electrophiles (e.g. HHE and HNE) demonstrated that the aggregation of SOD1 increased according to the hydrophobicity of the aldehydes. Compared to the other electrophiles, a higher SOD1 aggregation was observed with secosterol aldehydes. SOD1 modification sites were characterized by nanoLC-MS/MS afterprotein digestion with trypsin, revealing lysine as the major amino acid modified in these experiments. Collectively, our data show that cholesterol oxidation leads to the production of secosterol aldehydes, which are increased in the brain of ALS rats, and that these highly hydrophobic aldehydes can efficiently promote the modification and aggregation of SOD1

Cholesterol/analysis , Aldehydes/analysis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/classification , Superoxide Dismutase-1/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775402


A new naphthaldehyde derivative has been isolated from Comastoma pulmonarium by using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI-gel resin and RP-HPLC. This compounds was determined as 5-methoxy-2-methyl-7-(2-oxopropyl)naphthalene-1-carbaldehyde(1) by NMR, MS, IR and UV spectra. This compound was also evaluated for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity. The result showed that it showed high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 32.8%. The inhibition rate is close to that of positive control (ningnanmycin).

Aldehydes , Pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gentianaceae , Chemistry , Naphthalenes , Pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Tobacco , Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775377


Diketo aldehyde (DKA),one of the most important impurities in dihydroartemisinin,was synthesized through reaction between dihydroartemisinin and anhydrous ferrous bromide under a N₂ atmosphere, and an HPLC method was established for the determination of DKA in bulk drug and in DHA tablet. DKA was prepared from dihydroartemisinin in the presence of FeBr₂.The chromatographic separation was achieved through an Agilent Eclise XDB-C₁₈ column (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm), and the optimal mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 37:63 at flow rate of 1.0 mL·min⁻¹.The detection was carried out at 216 nm, and column temperature was 15 °C.The injection volume was 40 μL.The method featured a good linearity (=0.999 9),precision (1.0%),repeatability (1.3%),stability (DKA standards RSD=1.0% and in tablet form instability),recovery (92.88%),limits of detection (0.20 mg·L⁻¹) ,and limits of quantification (0.78 mg·L⁻¹). The result show that the content of DKA in bulk drug was 0.086 7%-2.622 9%, and the content of DKA in tablet was 0.068 3%-0.615 1%.

Aldehydes , Artemisinins , Reference Standards , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Contamination
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 524-529, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896986


Abstract INTRODUCTION Citronellal (Cit) possesses antifungal activity and has possible implications for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Candida albicans. In this study, the effects of Cit on ROS generation and the mechanisms by which Cit exerts anti-Candida effects were examined. METHODS A 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay was used to assess oxidative damage. Cell necrosis was determined by flow cytometry after FITC-Annexin V staining. Mitochondrial function was studied based on mitochondrial potential, metabolic activity (MTT assay), and phenotypic susceptibility on a non-fermentable carbon source. Membrane intactness and DNA damage were estimated by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. RESULTS ROS generation was enhanced in response to Cit, leading to necrosis (2%). Additional hallmarks of cell death in response to Cit, such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization and DNA damage, were also observed. Cit treatment resulted in dysfunctional mitochondria, as evidenced by poor labeling with the mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive probe rhodamine B, reduced metabolic activity (61.5%), and inhibited growth on a non-fermentable carbon source. Furthermore, Cit induced DNA damage based on DAPI staining. These phenotypes were reinforced by RT-PCR showing differences in gene expression (30-60%) between control and Cit-treated cells. Finally, PI uptake in the presence of sodium azide confirmed non-intact membranes and suggested that Cit activity is independent of the energy status of the cell. CONCLUSIONS Cit possesses dual anticandidal mechanisms, including membrane-disruptive and oxidative damage. Taken together, our data demonstrated that cit could be used as a prominent antifungal drug.

Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Aldehydes/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , DNA Damage , Acyclic Monoterpenes , Mitochondria/drug effects , Necrosis
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 121 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-884207


Danos em biomoléculas podem ocorrer a partir de uma interação direta entre as biomoléculas e espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio como também, pela reação de produtos secundários dessas espécies como eletrófilos gerados na peroxidação lipídica. Alguns desses produtos secundários possuem estabilidade química maior que as espécies reativas das quais foram derivadas e podem se ligar covalentemente as biomoléculas comprometendo o funcionamento normal das mesmas. Portanto, modificações em proteínas por aldeídos gerados na lipoperoxidação têm sido investigadas por suas implicações com desordens patológicas relacionadas à agregação proteica, e modificações em diversas vias de sinalização amplificando os efeitos deletérios em sistemas biológicos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foi contribuir na elucidação dos mecanismos moleculares associados ao desenvolvimento da esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) através da identificação, caracterização e quantificação de modificações póstraducionais em proteínas pelos aldeídos 4-hidroxi-2-hexenal (HHE) e trans-4-hidroxi-2-nonenal (HNE) in vitro (citocromo c) e in vivo (modelo ELA) a partir de técnicas de Western blot, imunoprecipitação e espectrometria de massa com abordagem proteômica de "shotgun" em ratosSOD1G93A modelo de esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA). Estudos com citocromo c mostraram a ligação dos aldeídos ao citocromo c e mecanismos de reação foram propostos. Foram encontrados seis peptídeos modificados por HHE e um para o HNE, e o peptídeo TGPNLHGLFGR se mostrou modificado pelos dois aldeídos paralelamente. Foi demonstrado que a histidina 33 é um "hot spot" frente as adições pelos aldeídos. Nas análises por western blot das proteínas ligadas a aldeídos foi possível observar uma tendência de aumento na concentração de proteínas ligadas ao HNE nos animais ELA, mais acentuada nas amostras de 70 dias comparadas ao controle. Com relação aos resultados obtidos com HHE tanto os animais pré-sintomáticos quanto os sintomáticos não apresentaram diferenças de HHE-proteína, tantonos controles quanto nos animais ELA. Nas amostras dos animais sintomáticos não detectamos diferença significativa na concentração de aldeído-proteína entre os grupos. Já as análises proteômicas revelaram 24 proteínas diferencialmente expressas, com destaque para proteínas com os maiores valores de significância (p-value), como a ubiquitina no grupo dos pré- sintomáticos e a neurogranina, no grupo dos animais sintomáticos e várias proteínas de metabolismo energético, de neurofilamentos, proteínas de processos redox e proteínas ligadas o metabolismo de cálcio (fundamentais na fisiopatologia em ELA). Algumas proteínas importantes foram encontradas com exclusividades nos grupos pré-sintomáticos e sintomáticos pelo diagrama de Venn. Com relação a proteínas modificadas pelos aldeídos, foram encontradas algumas relevantes como a proteína 2 de interação com a polimerase delta que foi modificada por HNE via adição de Michael encontrada nos animais ELA pré-sintomáticos e sintomáticos, a catalase que foi encontrada modificada por HNE via base de Schiff apenas nos ELA pré- sintomáticos, e a tiol redutase induzível por interferon gama no grupo dos animais ELA sintomáticos. Com relação a proteínas modificadas por HHE, foram encontradas a Janus quinase e proteína 3 de interação com microtúbulo, modificadas tanto por adição de Michael quanto via base de Schiff nos animais ELA sintomáticos. É interessante ressaltar que algumas modificações encontradas em proteínas não caracterizadas podem indicar proteínas novas ainda não descritas como modificadas por esses aldeídos. Os resultados mostram que algumas das proteínas modificadas por HNE e HHE encontradas neste trabalho, estão relacionadas ao estresse redox, vias metabólicas energéticas, proteínas envolvidas na resposta a danos oxidativos, e processos inflamatórios. Tais modificações ocorrem não só no modelo de neurodegeneração, mas foram previamente descritas em outros processos patológicos, como doença cardiovascular, lesão hepática por uso crônico de álcool

Damage to biomolecules can occur from a direct interaction between biomolecules and reactive of oxygen and nitrogen species as well as from the reaction of secondary products of these species as electrophiles generated in lipid peroxidation. Some of these by-products have greater chemical stability than the derived reactive species and can bind to biomolecules compromising their normal function. Therefore, protein modifications by aldehydes generated during lipoperoxidation have been investigated for their implications with pathological disorders related to protein aggregation and modifications in signaling pathways amplifying the deleterious effects in biological systems. The aim of this work was to contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through the identification, characterization and quantification of posttranslational modifications in proteins by 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and trans-4-hydroxy-2- nonenal (HNE) in vitro, cytochrome c, and in vivo, rat model (SOD1G93A) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), throught Western blot techniques, and mass spectrometry with shotgun proteomics approach. The results showed the binding of aldehydes to cytochrome c. Six peptides were modified by HHE and one by HNE. The peptide TGPNLHGLFGR was modified by the two aldehydes. Histidine 33 has been shown to be a hot spot against aldehydes additions. By western blot analysis of the aldehyde-bound proteins, it was possible to observe a tendency of increase in the concentration of HNE-bound proteins in the ALS animals, more pronounced in the samples of 70 days compared to control samples. Regarding the results obtained with HHE, both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic animals did not show HHE-protein differences, both in controls and in ALS animals. We did not detect a significant difference in the aldehyde-protein concentration between the groups in the samples of the symptomatic animals. Proteomic analysis revealed 24 differentially expressed proteins, with emphasis on proteins with thehighest values of significance (p-value), such as the ubiquitin in the pre-symptomatic group and neurogranin in the group of the symptomatic animals and several proteins of the energetic metabolism pathways, neurofilaments, proteins of redox processes and proteins linked to calcium metabolism (fundamental in the pathophysiology of ALS). Some important proteins were found exclusivity in the pre-symptomatic and symptomatic groups by the Venn diagram. With regard to aldehyde-modified proteins, some relevant ones such as Delta-2 polymerase interaction protein, that was modified by HNE via the addition of Michael found in presymptomatic and symptomatic ELA animals, catalase that was found to be modified by HNE via Schiff's base only in pre-symptomatic ALS, and gamma interferon-inducible thiol reductase in the group of symptomatic ALS animals. Janus kinase and microtubule interaction protein 3, were found to be modified by Michael addition and Schiff base pathway respectively in symptomatic ALS animals. It is interesting to note that some modifications found in uncharacterized proteins may indicate new proteins not yet described as modified by these aldehydes. The results show that some of the proteins modified by HNE and HHE found in this work are related to redox stress, energetic metabolic pathways, proteins involved in the response to oxidative damage, and inflammatory processes. Such modifications occur not only in the neurodegeneration model, but were previously described in other pathological processes, such as cardiovascular disease, liver injury due to chronic alcohol use

Animals , Female , Rats , Proteins/analysis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blotting, Western/methods , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins , Proteomics/instrumentation , Cytochromes c , Protein Modification, Translational , Aldehydes/analysis , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Genotyping Techniques/instrumentation
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 412-416, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812751


Objective@#To investigate the expressions of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) and tetra-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their clinical significance.@*METHODS@#We determined the expressions of GSTP1 and 4-HNE in 40 patients with PCa and another 42 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by immunohistochemistry and analyzed their relationship with Gleason grades.@*RESULTS@#The expression rate of GSTP1 was 92.9% in the BPH tissue, and those in the highly, moderately, and lowly differentiated PCa tissues were 58.3%, 20.0%, and 16.7%, respectively, significantly higher in the BPH than in the PCa group (P <0.01). However, the positive rate of 4-HNE was only 5.0% in the BPH tissue, markedly lower than 91.6%, 100.0%, and 100.0% in the highly, moderately, and lowly differentiated PCa tissues (P <0.01). There was a negative correlation between the expression of GSTP1 and that of 4-HNE in the PCa tissue (r = -2.73, P <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Expression deletion of GSTP1 and high expression of 4-HNE may play an important role in the progression of prostate cancer.

Aldehydes , Metabolism , Disease Progression , Glutathione S-Transferase pi , Metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Metabolism , Pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 465-472, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792796


Abstract: INTRODUCTION There is an increasing burden of multidrug resistance. As a result, deciphering the mechanisms of action of natural compounds with antifungal activity has gained considerable prominence. We aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of action of citronellal, a monoterpenoid found in the essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon plants, against Candida albicans. METHODS Drug susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution and spot assays. Ergosterol levels were estimated using the alcoholic potassium hydroxide method and H+ extrusion was assessed by monitoring the glucose-induced acidification of the external medium. Virulence traits were studied by hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation, along with fungal cell adherence to polystyrene surface and human oral epithelial cells. RESULTS Citronellal showed anticandidal activity against C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Citronellal interfered with membrane homeostasis, which is the major target of known antifungal drugs, by increasing the hypersensitivity of the fungi to membrane-perturbing agents, reducing ergosterol levels, and diminishing glucose-induced H+ extrusion. In addition, oxidative and genotoxic stresses were induced via an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, citronellal inhibited the virulent attributes of yeast-to-hypha transition and biofilm formation. It also reduced cell adherence to polystyrene surface and the human oral epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to propose the cell membrane, morphogenetic switching, biofilm formation, and cell adherence of Candida albicans as potential targets for the anticandidal activity of citronellal. However, clinical investigations on the therapeutic applications of citronellal are required.

Humans , Virulence/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Aldehydes/pharmacology , Homeostasis/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Acyclic Monoterpenes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815043


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanisms for inhibitory effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity in C2C12 myogenic cell line.
@*METHODS@#Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and the activity of capase-3/7. The relative content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were detected by chemical fluorometric enzyme immunoassay. The protein and mRNA expression of ALDH2, Bcl-2, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and the cytoplasmic subunit p-p47PHOX were evaluated by Western blot and quantitative PCR, respectively. 
@*RESULTS@#Overexpression of ALDH2 attenuated DOX-induced cell toxicity (increase in apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation), which were reversed by downregulation of ALDH2. Overexpression of ALDH2 reduced p47PHOX phosphorylation levels, and suppressed activation of NOX2 and ROS production, which were reversed by downregulation of ALDH2. Moreover, apocynin, an inhibitor of NOX, reduced the cytotoxicity of DOX concomitantly with a decrease in phosphorylation of p47PHOX, ROS production and caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in the activity and expression of ALDH2. 
@*CONCLUSION@#DOX-induced cytotoxicity is related to increase of intracellular oxidative stress, which is involved in unregulation of NOX2 and downregulation of ALDH2. Activation of ALDH2 could exert cytoprotection via inhibiting NOX2-dependent ROS production.

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial , Aldehydes , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Doxorubicin , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(1): 75-84, 01/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733155


This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

Neste estudo procurou-se verificar o registro e o número de casos de tentativa de suicídio entre crianças e adolescentes do município de Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brasil, que foram atendidos pelos profissionais de saúde do Pronto-Atendimento. Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental e descritiva, cuja coleta dos dados ocorreu por meio de investigação nas Fichas Ambulatoriais, no período de 2008 a 2010. Das 73.000 fichas levantadas, selecionaram-se aquelas que tratavam de casos de tentativa de suicídio entre crianças e adolescentes do município, com idades entre três e 18 anos. Percebeu-se que os profissionais de saúde, mais especificamente os médicos e enfermeiros, não registram os casos de forma adequada, inviabilizando a informação sobre o problema e as medidas de prevenção. Concluiu-se que a subnotificação, a discrepância dos diagnósticos e o não encaminhamento aos órgãos competentes exigem repensar e rever a prática médica e dirigir um olhar sistematizado e cuidadoso para perceber o sujeito como um todo complexo.

Aldehydes/chemistry , Cytochromes c/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Cardiolipins/chemistry , Cardiolipins/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex IV/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Histidine/chemistry , Histidine/metabolism , Lysine/chemistry , Lysine/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Time Factors
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2015; 54 (3): 90-93
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171768


Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the productive age, not only because of physical disability, but also due to impaired cognitive function following a stroke event. Brain damage-related stroke can be triggered by increasing the level of free radicals. 4HNE is the main and most toxic product that is released from free radical attack on polyunsaturated fatty acids. To determine plasma level of 4HNE in patients recovering from acute phase of stroke and these with normal subjects and calculate its relationship with cognitive function after 3 months of stroke event. Eighty four patients suffering from ischemic stroke and 42 normal subjects [controls] were studied. In patients plasma 4HNE was measured between 24-72 hours of stroke and cognitive function was examined using MoCA-Ina after 3 months of stroke. Plasma 4HNE was 2.5-fold increased in patients than controls [p < 0.05]. The elevation was found in patients having cognitive impairment as compared to those who did not have cognitive impairment, but this was not statistically significant and no relationship was found between plasma 4HNE level and cognitive impairment after stroke. Cognitive impairment at three months after stroke was found in 56% cases. Elevation of plasma 4HNE was seen in acute phase of stroke but it was not associated with impaired cognitive function after 3 months of stroke event

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aldehydes , Cognition
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 449-455, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731251


An investigation was made into the occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum and Neospora caninum in 151 domestic cats, based on the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Serum samples were collected from 151 domestic cats (65 free-roaming and 86 domiciled cats; 55 males and 96 females) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil between January and April 2013. IgG antibodies to T. gondii, L. infantum and N. caninum were found, respectively, in 49 (32.5%), 34 (22.5%) and 10 (6.6%) sampled cats. A positive correlation was found between T. gondii and N. caninum, T. gondii and L. infantum, and N. caninum and L. infantum (p <0.05) infections. Also, a significant interaction was identified between gender and area of activity on the probability of T. gondii (p = 0.0324) infection. However, no significant interaction was observed between gender and area of activity on infections by either N. caninum or L. infantum. This study showed that cats from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil are exposed to three different protozoans, two of which are causal agents of important zoonosis.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum e Neospora caninum, em 151 gatos, por meio da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Entre os meses de janeiro e abril de 2013, amostras de soro foram coletadas de 151 gatos domésticos (65 gatos errantes e 86 gatos domiciliados; 55 machos e 96 fêmeas), de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Anticorpos IgG anti-T. gondii, anti-L. infantum e anti-N. caninum foram encontrados em 49 (32,5%), 34 (22,5%) e 10 (6,6%) gatos amostrados, respectivamente. Verificou-se uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre as infecções por T. gondii e N. caninum, T. gondii e L. infantum e N. caninum e Leishmania infantum (p <0,05). Além disso, foi observada uma interação significativa entre sexo, área de atividade na probabilidade de infecção por T. gondii (p = 0,0324). No entanto, não foi observada interação significativa entre sexo e área de atividade nas infecções por N. caninum e L. infantum. Este estudo mostrou que os gatos de uma área endêmica brasileira para leishmaniose visceral são expostos a três diferentes protozoários, sendo dois deles importantes agentes zoonóticos.

Aldehydes/chemistry , Biological Factors/chemical synthesis , Oxazoles/chemistry , Stereoisomerism , Sparteine/chemistry , Thiones/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 272 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847100


As espécies reativas são associadas a processos toxicológicos e fisiopatológicos, agindo como importantes mediadores, por exemplo, na sinalização celular. Diversas classes de compostos têm sido utilizadas como possíveis biomarcadores de estresse redox, destacando-se os aldeídos α,ß-insaturados, capazes de alquilar biomoléculas como o DNA. Para evitar efeitos deletérios, estes aldeídos são detoxificados por glutationilação e posterior metabolização a derivados mercaptúricos. Contudo, avaliar o estado redox em sistemas biológicos ainda é tarefa bastante complexa, sendo a dificuldade em quantificar de forma prática e acurada os efeitos de sinalização e/ou dano molecular o maior problema dos estudos redox. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver métodos acurados e sensíveis de análise de potenciais biomarcadores de estresse redox, isto é: nucleosídeos modificados, aldeídos endógenos e exógenos, glutationa e produtos de glutationilação, e avaliá-los em sistemas modelos, celular e animal, e em humanos. A avaliação dos níveis urinários de três nucleosídeos modificados por metodologia de HPLC-MS/MS desenvolvida pelo grupo em moradores da cidade de São Paulo - região com poluição atmosférica - demonstrou aumento significativo de 1,N2-propanodGuo comparado aos moradores de região não poluída. Ademais, comprova-se pela primeira vez que células deficientes em reparo de ligações cruzadas apresentam níveis basais elevados de 1,N2-propanodGuo, em duas linhagens independentes, colocando este aduto como potencial mediador de carcinogênese em pacientes portadores de Anemia de Fanconi. Utilizando cérebro de ratos SOD1G93A (modelo de Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica - ELA), verificou-se aumento de 50% nos níveis de 1,N2-propanodGuo e de 100% nos de 1,N6-εdAdo em fase sintomática, sugerindo influência do conteúdo lipídico cerebral, levando a comprometimento do metabolismo neuronal e morte celular. O perfil de aldeídos determinado em cérebro de ratos SOD1G93A demonstrou aumento de trans-hexa-2-enal e trans,trans-hexa-2,4-dienal em fase assintomática e de trans,trans-deca-2,4-dienal em fase sintomática, não sendo observada nenhuma alteração na medula. Conhecer estas variações permite direcionar estudos de modificações em biomoléculas, além de a metodologia per se corroborar com as áreas de análises lipidômicas. Técnicas distintas e o preparo de amostras refletiram nos níveis de glutationa reduzida (GSH) e oxidada (GSSG) relatados. A técnica de espectrometria de massas mostrou-se mais precisa que a detecção eletroquímica; e a alquilação do grupo tiol minimizou interferências de matriz. Por análise de HPLC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS/MS, a quantificação de trans-4-hidroxi-2-nonenal (HNE) e crotonaldeido conjugados com GSH demonstrou não haver alterações em cérebro e medula de ratos SOD1G93A. Contudo, há formação esteroespecífica dos adutos de HNE in vivo. Ressalta-se que a metodologia desenvolvida é extremamente sensível e específica e permite análise simultânea de GSH, GSSG, cisteína, cistina e dos adutos supracitados, servindo para análise de outros adutos de glutationilação de aldeídos que possam ser importantes em doenças associadas a estresse redox

Free radicais and oxidant species are associated with toxicological and pathophysiological processes. It has been demonstrated that production of reactive oxygen species may be involved in cell signaling and regulation. Several biomarkers of redox processes have been used, including adducts formed through the reaction of α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes with biomolecules such as DNA. In order to avoid these deleterious effects, aldehydes are detoxified through glutathionylation and further metabolized to mercapturic derivatives. However, assessing the redox status in biological systems is still a very complex task, and the difficulty in practical and accurate quantification of signaling effects and/or molecular damage is a major problem in redox studies. The objective of this work was to develop accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of potential biomarkers of redox stress, i.e., modified nucleosides, endogenous and exogenous aldehydes, glutathione and glutathionylation products, and their evaluation in cell, animal model and humans. Evaluation of urinary levels of 1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N2-propanodGuo), 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in residents of São Paulo City - polluted region - showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 1,N2-propanodGuo levels compared to residents of an unpolluted region by a HPLC-MS/MS methodology developed by the group. Moreover, it was proven, for the first time, that repair deficient cells have basal levels of 1,N2-propanodGuo higher than proficient cells in two independent strains, placing 1,N2-propanodGuo as a potential mediator of carcinogenesis in Fanconi Anemia patients. In an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) animal model (SOD1G93A rat) , a 50% increase in the levels of 1,N2-propanodGuo and 100% in the 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine in brain tissue in the symptomatic phase was observed, suggesting that the high brain lipid content may play a role, leading to impairment of cell metabolism and neuronal cell death. There is an increase of trans-hex-2-enal and trans,trans-hexa-2,4-dienal in asymptomatic SOD1G93A rats brain and of trans,trans-deca-2,4-dienal in symptomatic ones. However, no alteration was observed in spinal cord. Our approach contributes to a better understanding of the aldehyde status in vivo and allows us to predict biomolecule modifications. The developed methodology can contribute to lipidomic studies. The use of different techniques and sample preparation reflected in the reported levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The mass spectrometry technique proved to be more accurate than the electrochemical one, and the use of thiol alkylating agent minimizes matrix interference. No changes were observed in the levels of the GSH conjugates of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and crotonaldehyde in brain and spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats quantified by HPLC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS/MS compared to controls. However, it was observed stereospecific HNE adducts formation in vivo. Note that this methodology is extremely sensitive and specific and allows simultaneous analysis of GSH, GSSG, Cys, cystine and the aforementioned adducts, serving for analysis of other aldehyde-glutathionylation adducts that may be important in pathologies associated with stress redox

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Aldehydes , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , DNA Adducts/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oxidative Stress/genetics
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 132 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847139


O colesterol é um importante componente das membranas celulares em eucariotos superiores, desempenhando papéis estruturais e funcionais. O colesterol possui uma insaturação em sua estrutura sendo, portanto, alvo de oxidação mediada por espécies reativas de oxigênio e/ou nitrogênio. A oxidação não enzimática do colesterol gera, como produtos primários, os hidroperóxidos de colesterol. Tais moléculas, por sua vez, são altamente reativas e podem reagir com metais livres e/ou metaloproteínas, trazendo consequências à celula. Neste sentido, o primeiro capítulo deste trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a reação dos hidroperóxidos de colesterol (ChOOH) com o citocromo c (citc), uma heme proteína envolvida no transporte de elétrons na mitocôndria. Análises de espectroscopia no UV-Vis mostraram que o ChOOH promove o bleaching da banda Soret do citc de uma maneira dose-dependente. Mais ainda, esta reação leva à formação de radicais centrados em carbono tanto na proteína como no lipídeo, sugerindo uma redução homolítica do ChOOH. Como consequências, pode-se observar a oligomerização do citc, um processo que pode influenciar no transporte de elétrons bem como na sinalização para a apoptose. A partir da reação do citc com ChOOH podem surgir, direta ou indiretamente, outras espécies reativas, como aldeídos, cetonas e epóxidos. Dentre estas, destacam-se os aldeídos de colesterol, em particular o colesterol secoaldeído (CSec) e o carboxialdeído (ChAld), uma vez que foram encontrados elevados em placas ateroscleróticas e em tecidos cerebrais de pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas. Tais espécies podem reagir com resíduos de aminoácidos provocando alterações estruturais e funcionais em proteínas. Neste sentido, o segundo capítulo deste trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a reação do ChAld com citc. Usando modelos mimétivos de membrana e espectrometria de massas, foi mostrado que o ChAld modifica covalentemente o citc por um mecanismo consistente com a formação de bases de Schiff. Tal modificação ocorre preferencialmente em resíduos de lisina que interagem com a membrana. Estas modificações influenciam na afinidade do citc pela membrana, aumentando sua aderência, o que pode ter influência no transporte de elétrons e sinalização para a apoptose. No terceiro e último capítulo deste trabalho nós buscamos uma ferramente analítica que permitisse analisar modificação de proteínas promovidas por produtos de oxidação de colesterol e outros esteróis. Em um estudo realizado em colaboração com o grupo do professor Porter na Universidade de Vanderbilt, utilizamos ensaios baseados em click chemistry para buscar proteínas modificadas. Para isso, foram sintetizados derivados de colesterol e 7-deidrocolesterol (7-DHC, precursor imediato do colesterol) contendo um grupo alquinil na sua cadeia lateral. Este grupo pode ser ligado a um grupo azida por meio de uma reação de cicloadição, em um processo conhecido como click chemistry. Após a síntese e caracterização dos derivados lipídicos contendo o grupo alquinil na cadeia lateral, células Neuro2a foram tratadas com o alquinil-7-DHC e o alquinil-colesterol para averiguar seu metabolismo. Análises por HPLC-MS/MS mostraram que ambos derivados contendo o grupo alquinil foram metabolisados e convertdos nos respectivos ésteres. Usando um modelo celular para a doença conhecida como Sindrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLOS), doença caracterizada pela deficiência na enzima 7-deidrocolesterol redutase, foi mostrado que o acúmulo característico de 7-DHC nos pacientes pode levar a uma maior modificação de proteínas promovidas por seus derivados, o que pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da doença

Cholesterol is an important component of eukaryotic cellular membranes, where it has an influence in the fluidity and stability. Due to the presence of a double bond in its structure, cholesterol can be oxidized by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This non-enzymatic oxidation generates, as primary products, cholesterol hydroperoxides. Such molecules, in turn, are highly reactive and can react with free metal ions and/or metalloproteins, affecting cell metabolism. Therefore, the first chapter of the present study aims to investigate the reaction of cholesterol hydroperoxides (ChOOH) with cytochrome c (cytc), a heme protein involved in the mitochondrial electron transport. Spectroscopic analyses in the UV-Vis region showed that ChOOH induces a dose-dependent bleaching of cytc's Soret band. In addition, this reaction leads to the formation of carbon-centered radicals on both protein and lipid, suggesting a homolytic reduction of ChOOH. As consequences, cytc undergoes oligomerization, a process that can influence electron transport and apoptosis signaling. The reaction of cytc and ChOOH can produce, directly or indirectly, reactive species such as epoxides, aldehydes and ketones. Among them, cholesterol aldehydes, such as cholesterol secoaldehyde (CSec) and cholesterol carboxyaldehyde (ChAld), are of particular interest, since they were previously found elevated in atherosclerotic plaques and brain tissue of patients bearing neurodegenerative diseases. These species can also react with amino acid residues leading to protein denaturation and malfunction. With that in mind, the second chapter of this study aims to investigate the reaction of ChAld and cytc. Using mimetic membrane models and mass spectrometry analyses, we showed that ChAld covalently modifies cytc through a mechanism consistent with the formation of Schiff base adducts. Such modification occurs mostly at lysine residues that are known to interact with the membrane. The modifications have an influence in the affinity of cytc to the membrane, where they increase its binding to the membrane, a process that could affect the electron transport and apoptosis signaling. In the last and third chapter of this study we wanted an analytical tool that allowed the investigation of protein adduction promoted by cholesterol and other sterols-derived oxidation products. In a study performed in collaboration with the Porter group from Vanderbilt University, we used analyses based on click chemistry to search for protein adduction. To address that, we first synthesized derivatives of cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, the immediate precursor of cholesterol) containing an alkynyl group in the side chain. The alkynyl group can be ligated to an azide group through a cycloaddition reaction, in a process known as click chemistry. After the synthesis and characterization of alkynyl derivatives, Neuro2a cells were treated with alkynyl-7-DHC and alkynyl-cholesterol to check their metabolism. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that both alkynyl derivatives are metabolized and converted into their respective esters. In addition, using a cell model for Smith-Lemli-Optiz Syndrome (SLOS), a disease characterized by the deficiency in the dehydrocholesterol reductase 7, we showed that the characteristic accumulation of 7-DHC in SLOS patients might be associated with protein adduction promoted by its oxidation products, which might contribute to the development of the disease

Chemical Oxidation/analysis , Cholesterol Oxidase/blood , Aldehydes/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Cytochromes c/analysis , Eukaryota , Free Radicals , Lipid Peroxidation , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metalloproteins , Peracetic Acid/analysis , Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome