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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777534

ABSTRACT

To research the correlation between accumulation of triterpenoids and expression of key enzymes genes in triterpenoid biosynthesis of Alisma orientale,the study utilized UPLC-MS/MS method to detect eight triterpenoids content in the tuber of A. orientale from different growth stages,including alisol A,alisol A 24 acetate,alisol B,alisol B 23 acetate,alisol C 23 acetate,alisol F,alisol F 24 acetate and alisol G,and then the Real time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of key enzymes genes HMGR and FPPS in triterpenoid biosynthesis. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive relation between the total growth of these eight triterpenoids and the average relative expression of HMGR and FPPS(HMGR: r = 0. 998,P<0. 01; FPPS: r = 0. 957,P<0. 05),respectively. Therefore,the study preliminarily determined that HMGR and FPPS genes could regulate the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in A. orientale,which laid a foundation for further research on the biosynthesis and regulation mechanism of triterpenoids in A. orientale.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Genetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Geranyltranstransferase , Genetics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent , Genetics , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773176

ABSTRACT

To establish a quality constant evaluation system of Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces,in order to provide reference for regulating the market circulation of this decoction pieces. A total of 18 batches of Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces were collected from different pharmaceutical factories,and the morphological parameters of each sample were tested. The content of alisol B 23-acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces was determined by HPLC in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the parameters such as quality constant and relative quality constant were calculated. The quality constant range of 18 batches of Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces was 0. 390-2. 076. If 18 batches of Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces were divided into 3 grades,taking 80% of the maximum quality constant as first grade,50% to 80% as second grade,and the rest as third grade,then the quality constant of firstgrade samples was ≥1. 66,the quality constant of second-grade samples was ≥1. 04 and <1. 66,and the quality constant of third-grade samples was <1. 04. The established quality constant evaluation method is objective and feasible,which can be used to classify the grade of Alismatis Rhizoma decoction pieces and provide a reference method to control the quality of this decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Rhizome , Chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330223

ABSTRACT

Alisma orientalis is a traditional herb medicine commonly used in clinical. With the increasing report of its toxicity in clinical, the renal toxicity of Alisma orientalis has got gradually attention. This paper systematically reviews the research on the chemical material basis of Alisma orientalis including its chemical composition and toxicity of ingredients; and also declares its toxic ingredients and targets according to Network toxicology. Based on the controversy on renal toxicity of Alisma orientalis, we analyzed the possible reasons that may be associated with renal toxicity. It might be associated with the differences of the material basis composition and regulatory toxicology network, differences in employed processing technology, the metabolic function leading to accumulation of compounds, dosage and duration of the experiment and compatibility. The review provides possible reference and ideas for the quality control and rational use of Alisma orientalis.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Humans , Molecular Structure
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257612

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the roles of alisma and gliclazide in the treatment of diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>GK rats were randomly divided into alisma group, gliclazide group, and blank group, and Wistar rats were used as the normal group. After two weeks of treatment, body weight, food intake,fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and other indicators were measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The body weight increased after the treatment in the normal group,blank group,and gliclazide group [(241.3 ± 7.0)g vs.(263.5 ± 11.1)g, (242.8 ± 7.1)g vs.(267.9 ± 16.8)g, (243.9 ± 12.2)g vs.(277.9 ± 9.8)g, P<0.05] but decreased in alisma group [(244.6 ± 9.2)g vs.(227.9 ± 13.7)g, P<0.05]. The food intake showed no significant change before and after administration among different groups(P>0.05). Fasting glucose was significantly lower in normal group than in control group,alisma group,and gliclazide group [(4.8 ± 0.2) mmol/L vs.(8.2 ± 1.4) mmol/L,(8.1 ± 0.6) mmol/L, (8.1 ± 0.9)mmol/L, P<0.05] one week after drug administration; it was not significantly different among blank group,alisma group,and gliclazide group before drug administration (P>0.05); however, it significantly decreased in alisma group and gliclazide group two weeks after administration [(6.9 ± 0.7) mmol/L vs.(8.1 ± 0.6) mmol/L; (5.8 ± 0.5) mmol/L vs.(8.1 ± 0.9) mmol/L, P<0.05]; compared with the blank group, the fasting glucose was significantly lower in the alisma group and gliclazide group,and it was also significantly different between these two groups [(6.9 ± 0.7) mmol/L vs.(8.8 ± 0.6) mmol/L,(5.8 ± 0.5)mmol/L vs.(8.8 ± 0.6)mmol/L, (6.9 ± 0.7) mmol/L vs.(5.8 ± 0.5)mmol/L, P<0.05]. Compared with the normal group,glucose tolerance was abnormal in blank group,alisma group,and gliclazide group;after two weeks of treatment,glucose tolerance was significantly improved in alisma group (P<0.05); compared with the pretreatment level and that in the blank group,the glucose tolerance in gliclazide group showed no significant difference (P> 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both alisma and gliclazide monotherapy is effective in lowering fasting blood glucose. As a single-target drug,gliclazide has stronger effecacy in lowering fasting glucose. However, alisma, as a mixture, can also control weight and improve glucose intolerance.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Animals , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gliclazide , Rats , Rats, Wistar
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346410

ABSTRACT

Climate in China has fluctuated greatly for last two thousand years. Also, the temperate-subtropical transition zone, as well as the distribution boundaries of subtropical biology and growth of suitable areas appear north-south lapse. In historical period, significant climate change will also be bound to the changes of the medicinal organism distribution suitable areas. The past dynasties herbal herbs have documented origin in detail, especially genuine medicinal materials producing areas. In this paper, Alisma orientale and Citrus aurtantium as examples, were used to elaborate the impact of climate change fluctuations on genuine producing area by evolution and change of genuine producing areas. The results showed that medicinal species were more sensitive to climate change such as A. orientale and C. aurtantium, its main producing areas or genuine producing area from north to south shifted in the Ming and Qing dynasties, consistent with the characteristics of climate change in China in last two thousand years. Factors prompted producing areas southward are not only low temperature and cold damage, and temperature and humidity have often synergistic effect. The human activities are more likely to exacerbate the impact.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Citrus , Climate Change , Time Factors
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 605-612, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348911

ABSTRACT

Triterpenes, which have large application potential in the treatment of cancer, are the main active components of genuine medicinal material Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is one of the important rate-limiting enzymes in the synthetic pathway of triterpenes. In this study the FPPS full length cDNA of the A. orientale, was cloned via homology-based cloning approach and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of the FPPS cDNA was 1 531 bp (accession no. HQ724508), which contained a full 1 032 bp ORF that encoded 343 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence exhibited five conserved motifs, two of which is riched of Asp (DDXXD). The result of real-time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) showed that FPPS gene was expressed in different organs of A. orientale. The expression increased from October to the first ten-day period of December, and then decreased. The FPPS gene expression was higher in leaves but lower in leafstalk, tuber and root. HPLC analysis of active components 23-acetyl-alismol B of A. orientale. during different periods indicated that its change trend should be consistent with FPPS gene expression. It can be primarily deduced that FPPS gene should be an important control point in the synthetic pathway of Alisma terpenes. This study may facilitate the quality of medicinal plants through gene engineering in the future.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Computational Biology , Conserved Sequence , DNA, Complementary , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Gene Amplification , Geranyltranstransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Plant Roots , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 793-797, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233054

ABSTRACT

In the present study, A fluorescent imaging-based high-throughput screening method was developed for identifying anti-migratory compounds with 96-well Transwell plates. The correlation, precision and stability of this method were examined and the incubation time of dye Hoechst 33342 in addition to migration time was optimized. In addition, The inhibitory activity of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel on tumor cell migration was assayed and an IC50 value of 0.717 micromol x L(-1) was obtained. Using this method, 24 components from Rhizoma Alismatis were screened and one component with anti-migration activity was found. These results show that the new proposed method with good precision, stability and linear range has the potential to assay the inhibitory activity of anticancer compounds.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fluorescence , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Methods , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Paclitaxel , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247391

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To sift and identify the nephrotoxic components in Zexie for controlling the quality of the herb.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The fractions of zexie were prepared by Pre-HPLC, then the nephrotoxicity of the fraction was sifted using LLC-PK1 labelled with fluorescein diacetate and MTT assay. Finally, the compounds in the most obvious nephrotoxic fraction were identified with LC-MS.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Using MTT and FDA assay, similar results were obtained. Fraction C13 was found to be the most toxic with FDA assay, in which three compounds, alisol C, 16, 23-oxido-alisol B and alisol O, were detected and characterized by multi -stage mass spectrometric analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Alisol C, 16, 23-oxido-alisol B and alisol O in Zexie may cause nephrotoxicity.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Kidney , LLC-PK1 Cells , Mass Spectrometry , Swine
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260665

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an HPLC method for the determination of alisol A, alisol F, alisol A 24-acetate and alisol B 23-acetate in the rhizome of Alisma orientalis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The separation was performed on a Shim-Pack CLC-ODS a C18 column (6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) eluted with the mobile phases of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) in gradient elution. The absorbance was monitored at 210 nm. Orthogonal test was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions of the four alisols.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The correlation coefficients of the four alisols were higher than 0.999 and the average recoveries were 99.23%, 96.67%, 97.30% and 99.61%, respectively. All the RSDs were less than 3%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The validation data demonstrated that the method was accurate and repeatable, and can be used to measure the four alisols in Rhizoma Alismatis.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Cholestenones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase , Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Rhizome , Chemistry , Time Factors , Triterpenes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263084

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents with immunosuppressive function from Alisma orientalis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by kinds of column chromatography and its structures were elucidated by NMR spectra and physicochemical properties. Its immunocompentence of lymphocytes taken from spleen of mouse were examined by MTT assay.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Twelve compounds were isolated and identified as clovandiol (1), orientalol E (2), alismoxide (3), alismol (4), 4alpha, l0alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-H-guaj-6-en (5), alismorientols A (6), alisol F (7), alisol A (8), 13beta,17beta-epoxy alisol A (9), alisol B 23-acetate (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (11) and cuccinic acid (12). Compounds 9, 10 and alisol A 24-acetate showed immunosuppressive function.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compounds 1, 5, 11 and 12 were isolated firstly from this genus,and the NMR spectra data of 1 were corrected firstly, some protostan-type triterpenoids may be developed as new drug with immunosuppressive function.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cholestenones , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Indoles , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298472

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the differences of the shapes of seeds and germination characters of Alisma plantago-aquatica.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The seeds were collected from four regions in Sichuan province, characters of the seeds' appearance were observed. The purification, weights per thousand seeds, content of moisture, seed vigor and different germination rates of A. plantago-aquatica were measured. The germination rates of the seeds were determined under different temperature treatments.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>It was markedly varied in shapes of the seeds, rates of germination and all quality characters of the four local species. The seeds from Pengshan showed the best quality, the weights per thousand, the seed vigor and germination rate were 0.4308 g, 6% and 82%, respectively, and the size of the seed, its width and length were 1.882, 1.455 mm, respectively. The length was positively correlated with the width, and so did the weights per thousand seeds with the seed vigor and germination rates. The rate of seed vigor was positively correlated with the rate of germination. Results indicated that temperature had affected the germination of the seed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The seed from Pengshan was the best. The result of this study provides scientific evidences for identification, growth and cultivation of A. plantago-aquatica.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Metabolism , Germination , Seedlings , Metabolism , Seeds , Metabolism , Temperature , Water , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315380

ABSTRACT

Based on the introduction and cultivation of Alisma germplasm which were from Fujian, Jiangxi and Sichuan provinces, the biological characteristics, morphological characteristics and quality were observed and studied. After three-year continuous experiment and monographic study, there were remarkable difference in the biological characteristics, morphological characteristics and product quality of Fujian Alisma, Sichuan Alisma and Jiangxi Alisma. Fujian Alisma and Jiangxi Alisma were the same plant species of A. orientalis, whereas Sichuan Alisma and Fujian Alisma were the different plant species of A. plantago-aquatica. The study results will provide the theoretical and practical basis for the genuine medicinal materials research and good agricultural practice (GAP) of Alisma.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Genetics , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315349

ABSTRACT

<p><b>UNLABELLED</b>To compare yield, alisol content of Alisma orientalis planted at different ecological climatic regions, and explore further the impact of environmental factors on the yield and quality.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Different local varieties were planted at varing ecological climatic conditions. Diameter, yield was measured after harvest, the contents of 23-acetyl alisol B and 24-acetyl alisol A were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The result revealed that ecological condition had significant impacts on yield and alisol content. Yield of MeiShan was the highest which was up to 1 200.72 kg x hm(-2). The contents of 23-acetyl alisol B and 24-acetyl alisol A of A. orientalis cultivated in Dujiangyan were significantly higher than those of other regions, the values were up to 4.222, 2.727 g x kg(-1), respectively. 23-acetyl alisol B content was positively correlated with 24-acetyl alisol A content (P < 0.01). The diameter was positively correlated with yield (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Considering yield and medicinal ingredients, Dujiangyan may be the most suitable region to plant A. orientalis.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Biomass , China , Cholestenones , Climate , Plant Extracts , Temperature
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324782

ABSTRACT

<p><b>UNLABELLED</b>To study the effect of S-3307 on the yield and main ingredients of Alisma plantago-aquatica.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The contents of 24-acetyl alisol A and the 23-acetyl alisol B in tuber were determined by HPLC.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The contents of 24-acetyl alisol A and the 23-acetyl alisol B as well as yield were significantly increased in all groups applied with different concentrations of S-3307 comparing with control group. The optimal concentration of S-3307 was 80 mg x kg(-1). The residues of S-3307 was detected under 0.316 8 mg x kg(-1) (detecting limit).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The optimal concentration of S-3307 is 80 mg x kg(-1), it reached the best result when applied 36 d after seedling.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Cholestenones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287857

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish chromatographic fingerprint of Sichuan native medicinal plant Alisma plantago-aquatica by RP-HPLC for the quality control.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The gradient elution mode was applied in chromatographic separation, and data were analyzed by "Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation" software to compare the quality of A. plantago-aquatica samples from different habitats.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The HPLC chromatographic fingerprinting of A. plantago-aquatica with 26 characteristic peaks was established from 17 lots of A. plantago-aquatica samples, peak 16 and 22 were identified as 24-acetyl alisol A and 23-acetyl alisol B, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The chromatographic fingerprinting of A. plantago-aquatica with high specificity can be used to control its quality and assure lot to lot consistency. The RP-HPLC fingerprint method is repeatable, feasible in analysis of A. plantago-aquatica.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , China , Cholestenones , Reference Standards , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239706

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the triterpenoids chemical constituents in rhizome of Alisma gramineum.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Silicon gel chromatography and HPLC techniques were employed for isolation and purification of the constituents, and the structures were elucidated by various spectral analyses such as NMR, MS and IR.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>5 protostane-type tetracyclic triterpenoids were isolated and identified as 16,23-oxidoalisol B(1), 11-deoxyalisol C(2), alisol F(3), 16beta-methoxyalisol B acetate (4), 16beta-hydroxyalisol B acetate (5).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All of these compounds were found from A. gramineum for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Cholestanones , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654415

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of butanol (BuOH) fraction of Alisma canaliculatum (Ac) and/or selenium (Se) treatment on glycogen level, lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of the five groups: normal, STZ-control, and three experimental groups (Ac group, Ac-Se group, and Se group). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intravenous administration of 45 mg/kg of STZ in citrate buffer. The BuOH fraction of Ac (400 mg/kg bw) was orally administered for 3 weeks. The Se group were fed a AIN-93 recommended diet mixed with Na(2)SeO(3) (2 mg/kg diet). The liver glycogen level of Ac and Ac-Se groups were significantly higher, when compared with the STZ-control groups. The muscle glycogen level was not significantly differ among all groups. The levels of liver triglyceride were higher in Ac-Se group than the STZ-control group. Pancreas protein levels were significantly increased in Ac-Se group than STZ-control group. The concentration of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly decreased in Ac and Se groups and decreased in Ac-Se group. Administration of BuOH fraction of Alisma canaliculatum and selenium supplementation increased the liver glycogen and triglyceride levels, and reduced peroxidative liver damage in STZ induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that treatment with a BuOH fraction of Alisma canaliculatum in combination with selenium has no synergistic antioxidative effect. Selenium supplementation may lead a decrease MDA of liver in diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Alisma , Animals , Citric Acid , Diet , Glycogen , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Liver Glycogen , Male , Malondialdehyde , Pancreas , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Selenium , Streptozocin , Triglycerides
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293723

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of different extracts of Alisma orientalis on urinary calcium oxalate stone formation in rats and to identify the effective constituents.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Different extracts were administered through a stomach tube to rats of different groups with renal calcium oxalate stones induced by ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In the rats administered with ethyl acetate elution of ethyl acetate extract, blood Cr, BUN, renal tissue calcium content, urinary calcium excretion and crystals deposition in renal tissue were significantly lower than those of the stone formation group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ethyl acetate elution of ethyl acetate fraction extract of Alisma orientalis can significantly inhibit urinary calcium oxalate stone formation in rats and be the most effective constituent of Alisma orientalis.</p>


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Ammonium Chloride , Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Oxalate , Urine , Creatinine , Blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ethylene Glycol , Kidney , Metabolism , Kidney Calculi , Metabolism , Magnesium , Metabolism , Urine , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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