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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251970, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345559

ABSTRACT

Abstract In order to better understand the ossification processes in anurans our study was carried out on tadpoles and adults of Lithobates catesbeianus. In this sense, we characterized the kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase with p-nitrophenylphosphatase (pNPP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) and evaluated the activities of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The enzyme extracts were obtained from tadpoles and adult femurs, which were divided into epiphysis and diaphysis. After homogenization, the samples were submitted to differential centrifugation to obtain cell membranes and, further, to phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment, to remove membrane-bound proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol. The average of specific activity for pNPP hydrolysis (at pH 10.5) by alkaline phosphatase released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) from Bacillus cereus among different bone regions at different animal ages was 1,142.57 U.mg-1, while for PPi hydrolysis (at pH 8.0), it was 1,433.82 U.mg-1. Among the compounds tested for enzymatic activity, the one that influenced the most was EDTA, with approximately 67% of inhibition for pNPPase activity and 77% for PPase activity. In the case of kinetic parameters, the enzyme showed a "Michaelian" behavior for pNPP and PPi hydrolysis. The Km value was around 0.6mM for pNPPase activity and ranged from 0.01 to 0.11mM for PPase activity, indicating that the enzyme has a higher affinity for this substrate. The study of pNPP and PPi hydrolysis by the enzyme revealed that the optimum pH of actuation for pNPP was 10.5, while for PPi, which is considered the true substrate of alkaline phosphatase, was 8.0, close to the physiological value. The results show that regardless of the ossification type that occurs, the same enzyme or isoenzymes act on the different bone regions and different life stages of anurans. The similarity of the results of studies with other vertebrates shows that anurans can be considered excellent animal models for the study of biological calcification.


Resumo Para melhor compreender o processo de ossificação em anuros, nosso estudo foi conduzido em girinos e adultos de Lithobates catesbeianus. Nesse sentido, as propriedades cinéticas da fosfatase alcalina com p-nitrofenilfosfato (pNPP) e pirofosfato (PPi) foram caracterizadas, e as atividades enzimáticas das fosfatases ácida e ácida tartarato resistente foram avaliadas. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos de fêmur de girinos e adultos, divididos em epífise e diáfise. Após a homogeneização as amostras foram submetidas à centrifugação diferencial para obter membrana celular e, em seguida, ao tratamento com fosfolipase C (PIPLC), para remover as proteínas de membrana ancoradas por fosfatidilinositol. A média da atividade específica da fosfatase alcalina, liberada pela PIPLC de Bacillus cereus, para a hidrólise de pNPP (pH 10,5) nas diferentes regiões do fêmur e idades dos animais foi de 1.142,57 U.mg-1, enquanto para a hidrólise do PPi (pH 8,0) foi de 1.433,82 U.mg-1. Entre os compostos testados para a atividade enzimática, o de maior influência foi o EDTA, inibindo aproximadamente 67% e 77% das atividades de pNPPase e PPase, respectivamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou comportamento Michaeliano para a hidrólise dos dois substratos. O valor de Km foi de 0,6 mM para a atividade de pNPPase e variou de 0,01 a 0,11 para a atividade de PPase, indicando uma maior afinidade por esse substrato. O estudo da hidrólise de pNPP e PPi revelou que o pH ótimo aparente de atuação foi de 10,5 para o pNPP e 8,0 para o PPi, próximo ao fisiológico, sendo que esse é considerado o substrato natural da fosfatase alcalina. Os resultados demonstram que, apesar do tipo de ossificação que ocorre, a mesma enzima ou isoenzimas, atuam nos diferentes locais do osso e estágios de vida dos anuros. A similaridade dos estudos com os realizados com outros vertebrados apontam que os anuros podem ser considerados excelentes modelos animais para o estudo da calcificação biológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteogenesis , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Rana catesbeiana , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Kinetics
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 446-451, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950080

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Osteocalcin has been associated with several effects on energy and glucose metabolism. However, the physiological role of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (U-osc; the hormonally active isoform of osteocalcin) is still controversial. To correlate the serum levels of U-osc with bone mineral density (BMD) values and metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study including 105 postmenopausal women (age 56.5 ± 6.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.2 ± 4.9 kg/m2) grouped based on the presence of three or less, four, or five criteria of metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The subjects underwent dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of body composition and BMD and blood tests for the measurement of U-osc and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) levels. Results: The mean U-osc level was 3.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL (median 2.3 ng/mL, range 0.0-18.4 ng/mL) and the mean BSAP level was 12.9 ± 4.0 ng/mL (median 12.1 ng/mL, range 73-24.4 ng/mL). There were no associations between U-osc and BSAP levels with serum metabolic parameters. Lower fasting glucose levels were observed in participants with increased values of U-osc/femoral BMD ratio (3.61 ± 4 ng/mL versus 10.2 ± 1.6 ng/mL, p = 0.036). When the participants were stratified into tertiles according to the U-osc/ femoral BMD and U-osc/lumbar BMD ratios, lower fasting glucose levels correlated with increased ratios (p = 0.029 and p = 0.042, respectively). Conclusion: Based on the ratio of U-osc to BMD, our study demonstrated an association between U-osc and glucose metabolism. However, no association was observed between U-osc and metabolic parameters.The U-osc/BMD ratio is an innovative way to correct the U-osc value for bone mass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Density , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Postmenopause/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Femur/metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae/metabolism
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 439-445, May 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of capsiate treatment on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: The animals were divided into a Capsiate group (CPH), a Capsiate Post-Partial Hepatectomy group (CPPH) and a Partial Hepatectomy Control group (PH). CPH and CPPH animals received 60 mg/kg/day Capsiate for 30 days. Next, the rats underwent partial hepatectomy. CPPH animals continued to receive treatment for 48 h after partial hepatectomy. Liver tissue and intracardiac blood samples were obtained 24 or 48 h after PH. Results: Capsiate treatment interfered with hepatic parameters, reducing the number of mitoses and apoptosis and increasing blood ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. Conclusion: Capsiate treatment preceding hepatic surgery may compromise the initial period of postoperative recovery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Capsaicin/analogs & derivatives , Hepatectomy , Liver/enzymology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Mitosis/drug effects
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2833-2841, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886830

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba in the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, in the mechanical properties of the tibia in rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. After osteoporosis induction, the rats were divided into five groups: Osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/Kg); EGb2 (56 mg/Kg); alendronate (0.2 mg/animal) and control. The animals were treated during 20 and 30 days. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis's (Student's t-test), while the other were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey/Dunnett'T3 (p<0.05). In the osteoporosis group the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, the bone stiffness, the maximum load and the resilience were reduced. The bone alkaline phosphatase values increased in the EGb1 and EGb2 groups (30 days). In addition, in the EGb2 and alendronate groups (20 and 30 days) the bone mineral density increased. The extract of Ginkgo biloba restored bone alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoblasts , Osteoporosis/chemically induced , Tibia , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Glucocorticoids
5.
Actual. osteol ; 13(3): 207-213, Sept - DIc. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117111

ABSTRACT

Osteocytes are the most abundant bone cell and are formed when osteoblasts become embedded in the bone matrix. Through changes in gene expression and paracrine effects, osteocytes regulate the number of osteoblasts, bone forming cells, and osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells, which are needed to maintain bone mass. MLO-Y4 is the better characterized osteocytic cell line; however, lacks expression of sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, which is fundamental for osteocyte function and blocks bone formation. With the objective to isolate MLO-Y4 clones with different gene expression profiles, we performed cultures at very low density of MLO-Y4 cells stably transfected with nuclear green fluorescent protein (MLOnGFP). Cell morphology was visualized under a fluorescence microscope. Once the cells reached 80% confluency, RNA was extracted and quantitative real time PCR was performed. Clones exhibit different sizes and morphology, with some cells showing a spindle-like shape and others with abundant projections and a star-like shape. Gene expression also differed among clones. However, none of the clones examined expressed SOST. We conclude that the MLO-nGFP clones constitute a useful tool to study osteocyte differentiation and the role of osteocytes in the control of bone formation and resorption in vitro. (AU)


Los osteocitos son las células más abundantes del hueso y se forman cuando los osteoblastos se encuentran rodeados de matriz ósea. A través de cambios en la expresión génica y efectos paracrinos, los osteocitos controlan el número de osteoblastos que forman el hueso, y osteoclastos que resorben el hueso, células necesarias para mantener la masa ósea. Las células MLO-Y4 son la línea celular osteocítica más investigada; sin embargo, no expresan esclerostina, el pro esclerostina, el producto del gen SOST que bloquea la formación ósea y es indispensable para la función de los osteocitos. Con el objetivo de aislar clones de las células MLO-Y4 con diferentes perfiles de expresión génica, realizamos cultivos a muy baja densidad de las células transfectadas en forma estable con proteína verde fluorescente nuclear (MLO-nGFP). La morfología celular fue evaluada utilizando un microscopio de fluorescencia. Una vez que las células alcanzaron el 80% de confluencia, el ARN fue extraído y analizado por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real. Las células de los diferentes clones tienen diferentes tamaños y morfología, algunas células son fusiformes y otras con proyecciones citoplasmáticas abundantes y en forma de estrella. La expresión de los genes también varió en los distintos clones. Sin embargo, ninguno de ellos expresó SOST. En conclusión, los clones de las células MLO-nGFP constituyen una herramienta útil para estudiar la diferenciación de los osteocitos y el rol de estas células en el control de la formación y resorción ósea in vitro. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoclasts/cytology , Osteocytes/cytology , Cell Line , Clone Cells/cytology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Osteocytes/metabolism , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Resorption/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA/analysis , Gene Expression , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Collagen/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Fluorescence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 307-316, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888646

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of a three-dimensional cell culture model and bioactive glass (BG) particles on the expression of osteoblastic phenotypes in rat calvaria osteogenic cells culture. Cells were seeded on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) collagen with BG particles for up to 14 days. Cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was performed. Cell morphology and immunolabeling of noncollagenous bone matrix proteins were assessed by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. The expressions of osteogenic markers were analyzed using RT-PCR. Mineralized bone-like nodule formation was visualized by microscopy and calcium content was assessed quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Experimental cultures produced a growing cell viability rate up to 14 days. Although ALP activity at 7 days was higher on BG cultures, cells on 3D and 3D+BG had an activity decrease of ALP at 14 days. Three-dimensional conditions favored the immunolabeling for OPN and BSP and the expression of ALP and COL I mRNAs. BG particles influenced positively the OC and OPN mRNAs expression and calcified nodule formation in vitro. The results indicated that the 3D cultures and BG particles contribute to the expression of osteoblastic phenotype and to differentiated and mineralized matrix formation.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência do modelo de cultura celular tridimensional e das partículas de vidro bioativo (BG) sobre a expressão fenotípica de culturas de células osteogênicas da calvária de ratos. As células foram mantidas em culturas sobre superfícies colágenas bi-dimensionais (2D) e em géis de colágeno tridimensional (3D) com e sem partículas de BG até 14 dias. Foram avaliadas: viabilidade celular, atividade de fosfatase alcalina (ALP), morfologia celular e imunomarcação de proteínas da matriz não-colágena do osso através de epifluorescência e microscopia confocal. As expressões de marcadores osteogênicos foram analisadas utilizando RT-PCR. A formação de nódulos mineralizados foi visualizada através de microscopia e o conteúdo de cálcio foi avaliado quantitativamente pelo Alizarina Red. As culturas experimentais produziram uma taxa crescente de viabilidade até 14 dias. Embora a atividade ALP em 7 dias tenha sido maior em culturas com BG, as células em 3D e 3D+BG apresentaram uma diminuição da atividade ALP aos 14 dias. As condições tridimensionais favoreceram a imunomarcação para OPN e BSP e a expressão de mRNAs para ALP e COL I. As partículas de BG influenciaram positivamente a expressão do mRNAs para OPN e OC e a formação de nódulos calcificados in vitro. Os resultados indicaram que as culturas em 3D e partículas BG contribuíram para a expressão do fenótipo osteoblástico e para a diferenciação e formação de matriz mineralizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Glass , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteogenesis , Skull/cytology , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Survival , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Gene Expression Profiling , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Osteoblasts/enzymology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteopontin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Skull/enzymology , Skull/metabolism , Tissue Scaffolds
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(1): 65-71, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839107

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based cements combined with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) micro and nanoparticles, comparing the response in different cell lines. This evaluation used four cell lines: two primary cultures (human dental pulp cells - hDPCs and human dental follicle cells - hDFCs) and two immortalized cultures (human osteoblast-like cells - Saos-2 and mouse periodontal ligament cells - mPDL). The tested materials were: White Portland Cement (PC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), white Portland cement combined with microparticles (PC/Nb2O5µ) or nanoparticles (PC/Nb2O5n) of niobium oxide (Nb2O5). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue exclusion assays and bioactivity by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (a=0.05). PC/Nb2O5n presented similar or higher cell viability than PC/Nb2O5µ in all cell lines. Moreover, the materials presented similar or higher cell viability than MTA. Saos-2 exhibited high ALP activity, highlighting PC/Nb2O5µ material at 7 days of exposure. In conclusion, calcium silicate cements combined with micro and nanoparticles of Nb2O5 presented cytocompatibility and bioactivity, demonstrating the potential of Nb2O5 as an alternative radiopacifier agent for these cements. The different cell lines had similar response to cytotoxicity evaluation of calcium silicate cements. However, bioactivity was more accurately detected in human osteoblast-like cell line, Saos-2.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e bioatividade de cimentos à base de silicato de cálcio associados com óxido de nióbio (Nb2O5) micro e nanoparticulados, e comparar a resposta em diferentes linhagens celulares. Foram utilizadas quatro linhagens celulares: duas culturas primárias (células da polpa dentária humana - hDPCs e células do folículo dentário humano - hDFCs) e duas culturas imortalizadas (células osteoblásticas humanas - Saos-2 e células do ligamento periodontal de ratos - mPDL). Os materiais analisados foram: Cimento Portland branco (PC); Agregado trióxido mineral (MTA); PC associado com micropartículas (PC/Nb2O5µ) ou nanopartículas (PC/Nb2O5n) de óxido de nióbio (Nb2O5). A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pelos ensaios de brometo de metil-tiazolil-difeniltetrazólio (MTT) e azul de tripan, e a bioatividade pela atividade da enzima fosfatase alcalina (ALP). Os resultados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (a=0,05). O grupo do PC/Nb2O5n apresentou viabilidade celular semelhante ou maior do que o grupo do PC/Nb2O5μ em todas as linhagens celulares. Além disso, ambos os grupos apresentaram viabilidade celular semelhante ou maior do que o MTA. Saos-2 apresentaram maior atividade de ALP, com destaque para o material PC/Nb2O5μ aos 7 dias de exposição. Concluiu-se que cimentos de silicato de cálcio associados com Nb2O5 micro ou nanoparticulado apresentaram citocompatibilidade e bioatividade, demonstrando potencial do Nb2O5 como agente radiopacificador alternativo para estes cimentos. As linhagens celulares estudadas apresentaram resposta semelhante na avaliação da citotoxicidade de cimentos de silicato de cálcio. No entanto, a bioatividade é melhor detectada na linhagem de células osteoblásticas humanas, Saos-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Oxides/pharmacology , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Dental Cements/pharmacology , Niobium/pharmacology , Cell Line , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(3): 267-272, May-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782818

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive effect of atorvastatin (ATV) in an experimental alveolar bone loss (ABL) model. Wistar rats were subjected to ligature placement around the maxillary second molar for 11 days. The animals received 0.9% saline (2 mL/kg) or ATV (0.3, 3 or 27 mg/kg) daily by gavage. ABL was evaluated by resorption area and histopathological analysis. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity was also evaluated. Leukogram was performed at 0 h, 6th h, 2nd, 7th and 11th days. Kidney and liver conditions and the body mass variation were analyzed. ATV (3 and 27 mg/kg) inhibited ABL by 39% and 56%, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed that ATV 27 mg/kg prevented ABL and cemental resorption, and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by ligature. ATV (27 mg/kg) prevented serum BALP levels reduction. ATV (27 mg/kg) prevented leukocytosis and did not affect either kidney or liver function nor body mass weight. ATV showed a protecting effect in the ligature-induced periodontitis, without affecting system parameters, by inhibition of inflammatory process and by its anabolic activity on the alveolar bone.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito anti-inflamatório e anti-reabsortivo da atorvastatina (ATV) no modelo de perda óssea alveolar experimental (POA). Para isto, ratos Wistar foram submetidos a inserção de ligadura ao redor do segundo molar maxilar durante 11 dias. Os animais receberam diariamente, por gavagem, soro fisiológico a 0,9% (2 mg/kg) ou ATV (0,3, 3 ou 27 mg/kg). A POA foi avaliada pela área de reabsorção e análise histológica. Dosagens séricas da atividade de fosfatase alcalina óssea foram avaliadas. Leucograma foi realizado a 0 h, na 6a h, 2o, 7o e 11o dias. Foram analisadas condições de rim, fígado e variação de massa corpórea. As ATV (3 e 27 mg/kg) inibiram POA em 39% e 56%, respectivamente. A análise histopatológica mostrou que a ATV 27 mg/kg preveniu POA e reabsorção de cemento, e o infiltrado celular inflamatório induzido por ligadura. ATV (27 mg/kg) preveniu a redução dos níveis séricos de fosfatase alcalina óssea. ATV (27 mg/kg) preveniu leucocitose e não afetou função renal e hepática ou o peso corporal. ATV mostrou um efeito protetor na periodontite induzida por ligadura, sem afetar os parâmetros sistêmicos, através da inibição do processo inflamatório e pela atividade anabólica no osso alveolar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Bone Loss , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , Bone Resorption/prevention & control , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Bone and Bones/enzymology , Rats, Wistar
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5291, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787385

ABSTRACT

Fluoride, which is often added to toothpaste or mouthwash in order to protect teeth from decay, may be a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fluoride on proliferation and mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. The periodontal ligament cells were stimulated with various concentrations of NaF added into osteogenic inductive medium. Immunohistochemistry of cell identification, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed. Moderate concentrations of NaF (50-500 μmol/L) had pro-proliferation effects, while 500 μmol/L had the best effects. ALP activity and calcium content were significantly enhanced by 10 μmol/L NaF with osteogenic inductive medium. Quantitative RT-PCR data varied in genes as a result of different NaF concentrations and treatment periods. We conclude that moderate concentrations of NaF can stimulate proliferation and mineralization in periodontal ligament cells. These in vitro findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration by addition of suitable concentrations of NaF into the medication for periodontitis treatment, i.e., into periodontal packs and tissue patches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
10.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tridaxprocumbens flavonoids (TPFs) are well known for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides traditionally used for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, gout, asthma, ulcer, piles, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric problems, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. TPFs have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Our previous study showed that TPFs were significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. However, the effects of TPFs to promote osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation remain unclear. TPFs were isolated from Tridax procumbens and investigated for their effects on osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation by using primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts. RESULTS: TPFs promoted osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner demonstrated by up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. TPFs also upregulated osteoblast differentiation related genes, including osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 in primary osteoblasts. TPFs treated primary osteoblast cells showed significant upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) including Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7. Addition of noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited TPFs induced upregulation of the osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2. CONCLUSION: Our findings point towards the induction of osteoblast differentiation by TPFs and suggested that TPFs could be a potential anabolic agent to treat patients with bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Skull/cytology , Skull/drug effects , Transcription Factors/genetics , Flavonoids/analysis , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Osteocalcin/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Sp7 Transcription Factor , Medicine, Traditional , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential and invitro cytotoxicity studies of whole plant methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius L. Methanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw were assessed for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by monitoring activity levels of SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), ALP (Alkaline phosphatase), TP (Total protein), TB (Total bilirubin) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase), CAT (Catalase), MDA (Malondialdehyde). The cytotoxicity of the same extract on HepG2 cell lines were also assessed using MTT assay method at the concentration of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/ml. RESULTS: Pretreatment of animals with whole plant methanol extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver. The biochemical parameters in serum also improved in treated groups compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. Histopathological investigation further corroborated these biochemical observations. The cytotoxicity results indicated that the plant extract which were inhibitory to the proliferation of HepG2 cell line with IC50 value of 563.33 ± 0.8 Mg/ml were not cytotoxic and appears to be safe. CONCLUSIONS: Rumex vesicarius L. whole plant methanol extract exhibit hepatoprotective activity. However the cytotoxicity in HepG2 is inexplicable and warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Rumex/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Bilirubin/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Catalase/metabolism , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Methanol , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Formazans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 760-771, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is intended to investigate the effects of plants or plant-derived antioxidants on prevention of osteoporosis through the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at a favorable level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a novel antioxidant, namely 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-N-[4-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-pyrimidin-4-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-benzamide (ZXHA-TC) was synthesized from gallic acid and sulfadimoxine. Its effect on osteoblast metabolism was investigated via the detection of cell proliferation, cell viability, production of ROS, and expression of osteogenic-specific genes including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), alpha-1 type I collagen (COL1A1), and osteogenic-related proteins after treatment for 2, 4, and 6 days respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that ZXHA-TC has a stimulating effect on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of primary osteoblasts by promoting cell proliferation, cell viability, and the expression of genes BSP and OCN. Productions of bone matrix and mineralization were also increased by ZXHA-TC treatment as a result of up-regulation of COL1A1 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at the early stage and down-regulation of both genes subsequently. A range of 6.25x10(-3) microg/mL to 6.25x10(-1) microg/mL is the recommended dose for ZXHA-TC, within which 6.25x10(-2) microg/mL showed the best performance. CONCLUSION: This study may hold promise for the development of a novel agent for the treatment of osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Collagen Type I/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Down-Regulation , Gallic Acid , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Reactive Oxygen Species , Up-Regulation
13.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 515-518, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171068

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is well known that testicular germ cell tumors arise with increased frequency in patients with cryptorchidism. In addition, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion to testicular germ cell tumor. Approximately 50% of patients with ITGCN will develop an invasive of testicular germ cell tumors within 5 years. Therefore, we evaluated that the incidence of ITGCN in postpubertal cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2002 and August 2012, orchiectomy specimens from 31 postpubertalpatients (aged 12 or over) with cryptorchid testis were reviewed. The specimens were evaluated for ITGCN using immunohistochemical stains of placental-like alkaline phosphatase and Oct 3/4 with routine hematoxylin-eosin stain. Additionally, the degree of spermatogenesis was assessed using the Johnsen score. RESULTS: Mean age was 34 years (range, 17 to 74 years) at surgery. All patients were diagnosed as unilateral cryptorchidism. One patient (3.2%) of 20-year-old had ITGCN in surgical specimen with all positive markers. Histological assessment of spermatogenesis showed that mean Johnsen score was 3.42 (range, 1 to 9). Majority of patients (27 of 31) presented impaired spermatogenesis with low Johnsen score lesser than 5. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of malignancy and low spermatogenesis, we should perform immunohistochemical stains and discuss preventative orchiectomy for the postpubertal cryptorchidism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Cryptorchidism/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Infertility, Male/etiology , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Orchiectomy , Puberty , Retrospective Studies , Spermatogenesis , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnosis , Young Adult
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 809-814, 19/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686578

ABSTRACT

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been shown to exhibit a synergistic effect to promote bone repair and healing. In this study, we constructed a novel adenovirus with high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF and evaluated its effect on osteogenic differentiation of goat bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs). Recombinant adenovirus Ad-BMP2-bFGF was constructed by using the T2A sequence. BMPCs were isolated from goats by density gradient centrifugation and adherent cell culture, and were then infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF or Ad-BMP2. Expression of BMP2 and bFGF was detected by ELISA, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected by an ALP assay kit. In addition, von Kossa staining and immunocytochemical staining of collagen II were performed on BMPCs 21 days after infection. There was a high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF. Twenty-one days after infection, ALP activity was significantly higher in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF than in those infected with Ad-BMP2. Larger and more mineralized calcium nodules, as well as stronger collagen II staining, were observed in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF than in those infected with Ad-BMP2. In summary, we developed a novel adenovirus vector Ad-BMP2-bFGF for simultaneous high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF, which could induce BMPCs to differentiate efficiently into osteoblasts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , /metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , /metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Stem Cells/cytology , Analysis of Variance , Adenoviridae/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Base Sequence , Bone Marrow Cells/virology , /genetics , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , /genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Goats , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Osteoblasts/cytology , Primary Cell Culture , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Stem Cells/virology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 676-680, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684529

ABSTRACT

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were first isolated from bone marrow and then from various adult tissues including placenta, cord blood, deciduous teeth, and amniotic fluid. MSCs are defined or characterized by their ability to adhere to plastic, to express specific surface antigens, and to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. Although the molecular mechanisms that control MSC proliferation and differentiation are not well understood, the involvement of microRNAs has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-125b during osteoblastic differentiation in humans. We found that miR-125b increased during osteoblastic differentiation, as well as Runx2 and ALPL genes. To study whether the gain or loss of miR-125b function influenced osteoblastic differentiation, we transfected MSCs with pre-miR-125b or anti-miR-125b and cultured the transfected cells in an osteoblastic differentiation medium. After transfection, no change was observed in osteoblastic differentiation, and Runx2, OPN, and ALPL gene expression were not changed. These results suggest that the gain or loss of miR-125b function does not influence levels of Runx2, OPN, and ALPL during osteoblastic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteopontin/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/isolation & purification , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , Gene Expression/physiology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Osteopontin/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(6): 412-418, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675574

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the bone repair process in ovariohysterectomized rabbit submitted to an ovarian transplant to stomach that may supplying some quantity of estrogen occurs to improve bone healing. METHODS: In 20 female rabbits three holes of 1, 2 and 3mm diameter in tibial shaft were made and after that all animals received OHE through a ventral incision and they were randomly divided into two groups of ten rabbits each. In group one, animals received one of their self-ovaries that transplanted on serosal layer of stomach and group two did not receive treatment. Animals were kept during bone healing for a period of 45 days and radiological, biochemical, biomechanical and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: The tibial defects in group one healed completely after 45 days and had more callous than second group. There is significant difference between two groups after operation in 21, 28 and 35 days about estrogen, progesterone and phosphatase Alkaline. The maximum forces in group one, were significantly higher than that for the group two. CONCLUSION:Ovarian transplantation prevents the effects of ovariohysterectomized on bone healing of rabbit tibia, suggesting that unilateral transplanted ovaries can substitute for the action of ovaries on the skeleton in ovariohysterectomized animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Hysterectomy , Ovariectomy , Ovary/transplantation , Stomach/surgery , Tibia/injuries , Wound Healing/physiology , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Progesterone/metabolism , Time Factors
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(2): 98-111, Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668746

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a triiodotironina (T3) aumenta a diferenciação osteogênica das células-tronco mesenquimais do tecido adiposo (CTM-TA) de ratas adultas ovariectomizadas e com osteoporose e compará-lo ao de ratas adultas e jovens sem osteoporose. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: CTM-TA foram cultivadas em meio osteogênico e distribuídas em sete grupos: 1) CTM-TA de ratas jovens sem osteoporose; 2) CTM-TA de ratas adultas sem osteoporose; 3) CTM-TA de ratas adultas com osteoporose e 4, 5, 6 e 7) CTM-TA de ratas adultas com osteoporose tratadas com T3 (0,01 nM, 1 nM, 100 nM e 1.000 nM). AVALIARAM-SE: atividade da fosfatase alcalina, conversão do dimetiltiazol (MTT), porcentagem de nódulos de mineralização, celularidade e quantificação de transcriptos gênicos para colágeno I, osteocalcina, osteopontina e Bmp-2. RESULTADOS: Independente da dose, T3 reduziu a conversão do MTT, a atividade da fosfatase, a porcentagem de células e a expressão de colágeno I em pelo menos uma das doses e dos períodos estudados (p < 0,05). Mas o tratamento com T3 não alterou o número de nódulos de mineralização e a expressão de osteopontina e Bmp-2 em culturas de CTM-TA de ratas adultas com osteoporose (p > 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: T3 apresenta efeitos negativos sobre alguns fatores envolvidos na diferenciação osteogênica de CTM-TA, sem, no entanto, reduzir a formação de nódulos de mineralização e a expressão de proteínas ósseas.


OBJECTIVE: To examine if triiodothyronine (T3) increases osteogenic differentiation adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) from ovariectomized adult rats with osteoporosis compared with young rats and adult rats without osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ASCs were cultured in osteogenic medium and distributed into seven groups: 1) ASCs of young rats without osteoporosis; 2) ASCs of adult rats without osteoporosis; 3) ASCs of adult rats with osteoporosis and 4, 5, 6 and 7) ASCs of adult rats with osteoporosis treated with T3 (0.01 nM, 1 nM, 100 nM and 1,000 nM). We analyzed alkaline phosphatase activity, dimethylthiazol (MTT) conversion, percentage of mineralized nodules, cellularity and quantification of gene transcripts for collagen I, osteocalcin, osteopontin and Bmp-2. RESULTS: Regardless of the dose, T3 reduced the MTT conversion, alkaline phosphatase activity, percentage of cells and the expression of collagen I in at least one of the doses and periods studied (p < 0.05). But, the treatment with T3 does not modify the number of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteopontin and Bmp-2 in culture of ASCs from adult rats with osteoporosis (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: T3 has a negative effect on some factors involved in osteogenic differentiation of ASCs from adult rats with osteoporosis, without; however, reduce the formation of mineralized nodules and the expression of bone proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Osteoporosis , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Age Factors , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/enzymology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Ovariectomy , Osteogenesis/physiology , Osteoporosis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Feb; 50(1): 64-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147288

ABSTRACT

The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was investigated with respect to kinetic parameters such as Vmax, Km and Kcat under varying pH, buffers, substrate concentration, temperature and period of incubation. Highest activity was obtained with Tris-HCl at pH 11, while in the case of glycine-NaOH buffer the peak activity was recorded at pH 9.5. The enzyme showed the following kinetic characteristics with pNPP in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 11 and 100 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 9.5 at an incubation temperature of 37°C: Vmax, 3.12 and 1.6 µmoles min-1 unit-1; Km, 7.6 × 10-4 M and 4 × 10-4 M; and Kcat, 82.98 s-1 and 42.55 s-1, respectively. CIAP displayed a high temperature optimum of 45°C at pH 11. The kinetic behaviour of the enzyme under different parameters suggested that the enzyme might undergo subtle conformational changes in response to the buffers displaying unique characteristics. Bioprecipitation of Cu2+ from 50 ppm of CuCl2 solution was studied where 64.3% of precipitation was obtained. Pi generated from CIAP-mediated hydrolysis of pNPP was found to bind with copper and precipitated as copper-phosphate. Thus, CIAP could be used as a test candidate in bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastes through generation of metal-phosphate complexes.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/chemistry , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Cattle/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Stability , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Nitrophenols/chemistry , Organophosphorus Compounds/chemistry
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(1): 62-70, fev. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-665764

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a adição de T3 aumenta o potencial osteogênico das células-tronco mesenquimais da medula óssea (CTM-MO) de ratas adultas normais comparado ao de ratas jovens. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: CTM-MO foram cultivadas em meio osteogênico e separadas em seis grupos: 1) CTM-MO de ratas jovens; 2) CTM-MO de ratas adultas; 3, 4, 5 e 6) CTM-MO de ratas adultas com T3 nas concentrações de 0,01; 1; 100 e 1000 nM, respectivamente. Foram avaliados: atividade da fosfatase alcalina, conversão do dimetiltiazol (MTT) e síntese de colágeno aos sete, 14 e 21 dias e celularidade e número de nódulos de mineralização aos 21 dias de diferenciação. RESULTADOS: T3 reduziu significativamente a conversão do MTT, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina, a síntese de colágeno e a formação dos nódulos de mineralização em pelo menos uma das doses e dos períodos estudados (p < 0,05). Os valores foram menores quando comparados aos das CTM-MO de ratas jovens e adultas sem T3 (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: T3 apresenta efeitos negativos sobre os fatores envolvidos na diferenciação osteogênica das CTM-MO de ratas adultas.


OBJECTIVE: To examine if triiodothyronine (T3) increases osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) of adult rats compared with young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMMSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium and distributed into six groups: 1) BMMSCs of young rats; 2) BMMSCs of adult rats; 3, 4, 5 and 6) BMMSCs of adult rats with T3 (0.01, 1, 100 to 1000 nM). We analyzed alkaline phosphatase activity, dimethylthiazol (MTT) conversion, and collagen synthesis at 7, 14, and 21 days, and percentage of cells per field and number of mineralized nodules at 21 days of differentiation. RESULTS: T3 reduced MTT conversion, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and the synthesis of mineralizalized nodules in at least one of the doses and periods studied (p < 0.05). Values were lower when compared with young and adult rats BMMSCs (p < 0.05) without T3. CONCLUSION: T3 has a negative effect on the factors involved in osteogenic differentiation of BMMSC from adult rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Collagen/metabolism , Models, Animal , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Phenotype , Rats, Wistar , Tetrazolium Salts/metabolism , Thiazoles/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81325

ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bone Matrix/metabolism , Calcification, Physiologic/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Electromagnetic Fields , Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Stem Cells/cytology
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