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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411330

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever a atividade de inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE), por meio de ativos extraídos de alcaloides naturais. Metodologia: este estudo se configura como uma revisão sistemática da literatura, no período de janeiro de 2015 a setembro de 2021, nas bases de dados PUBMED, LILACS e SCIENCE DIRECT, com os descritores Acetylcholinesterase; Alzheimer; Alkaloids. As informações obtidas foram tabuladas para avaliação dos alcaloides inibidores da acetilcolinesterase. Resultados: de 563 artigos encontrados, 17 foram utilizados. Dois deles relataram a atividade de alcaloides inibidores da AChE por meio de ensaios clínicos, enquanto os demais a realizaram por testes in vitro. De 160 substâncias estudadas, 48 apresentaram atividade anticolinesterásica, as quais foram avaliadas de acordo com a sua concentração inibitória média (IC50). Discussão: a eficiência dos alcaloides como inibidores da AChE, provavelmente está relacionada com sua carga positiva no pH do organismo e sua boa biodisponibilidade, tendo como consequência uma atividade duradoura in vivo, em comparação com os medicamentos sintéticos. Conclusão: no presente estudo, foi possível observar uma grande diversidade de substâncias alcalóidicas antiAChE. Contudo, torna-se necessária a realização de mais ensaios in vivo e in vitro para a constatação efetiva da atividade dessas moléculas.


Objective: describe the activity of the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) through natural actives extracted from alkaloids. Methodology: this study is a systematic literature review, from January 2015 to September 2021, in the PUBMED, LILACS, and SCIENCE DIRECT databases, with the descriptors Acetylcholinesterase; Alzheimer's; Alkaloids. The information obtained was tabulated for the evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor alkaloids. Results: of 563 articles found, 17 were used. Two of them reported the activity of AChE-inhibiting Alkaloids through clinical trials, while the others performed it through in vitro tests. Of 160 substances studied, 48 showed anticholinesterase activity, which was evaluated according to their mean inhibitory concentration (IC50). Discussion: the efficiency of Alkaloids as AChE inhibitors is probably related to their positive charge on the body's pH and their good bioavailability, resulting in a long-lasting activity in vivo compared to synthetic drugs. Conclusion: in the present study, it was possible to observe a great diversity of antiAChE alkaloid substances. However, it is necessary to carry out more in vivo and in vitro tests to verify the effective activity of these molecules.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Alzheimer Disease , Acetylcholinesterase , Therapeutics , Cholinesterases , Neurodegenerative Diseases , PubMed , Alkalies , Synthetic Drugs
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939919

ABSTRACT

The rhizome of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott), which is a highly adaptable wild plant, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In the current study, the antiproliferative constituents of giant taro were investigated and six new (1-6) and four known piperidine alkaloids (7-10) were isolated from its rhizomes. Their chemical structures and absolute configurations were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods and the Mosher ester method. The isolated alkaloids were screened for the antiproliferative activity through MTT assay. The results indicated that piperidine alkaloids exerted potential antiproliferative activity against HepG2, AGS and MCF-7 tumor cells. Further researches showed that compounds 3-5 dose-dependently decreased the colony formation rate and induced the apoptosis of AGS cells, while compound 4 induced AGS cell death via the proapoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that the piperidine alkaloids isolated from giant taro exhibit significant antitumor activity, which provides phytochemical evidence for further development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alocasia/chemistry , Humans , Piperidines/pharmacology , Plants , Rhizome/chemistry
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939772

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins , Terpenes
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928116

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii Caulis are commonly used tonic Chinese medicinal materials with a long history of application. As demonstrated by pharmacological results, the chemical constituents and the extracts of Dendrobii Caulis have anti-inflammatory, antibacte-rial, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects, and can also regulate immunity, lower blood pressure, and regulate blood sugar. The active ingredients contained are widely concerned by scholars. This paper comprehensively summarized the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Dendrobium plants reported so far. The chemical constituents isolated from Dendrobium plants are mainly alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, fluorenones, coumarins, bibenzyls, phenanthrenes, lignans, steroids, phenols, and polysaccharides. This paper is expected to provide a reference for further research, development, and utilization of Dendrobium plants.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dendrobium , Flavonoids , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928027

ABSTRACT

This study established a mouse model of ulcerative colitis and explored the serum transitional components of Gegen Qinlian Decoction by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS. Based on the exact relative molecular weight and MS/MS spectrum, 55 prototype components and 59 metabolites were identified from the model group, while 18 prototype components and 35 metabolites from the control group. The prototype components in serum were mainly flavonoids and the characteristic components of the model group were alkaloids. Glucuronidation, sulfonation, and glycosylation have been confirmed to be the main metabolic types in vivo. The results of comparative analysis of differences indicated that puerarin, baicalin, wogonoside, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, berberine, berberrubine, and palmatine were the characteristic components in model state, which at the same time, were confirmed by pharmacological studies to be the serum pharmacodynamic material basis of Gegen Qinlian Decoction in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This study has provided reference for explaining the metabolic transformation pattern and mechanism of action of Gegen Qinlian Decoction in vivo.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20464, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Papaveraceae is one of the prominent alkaloid-containing families, and plants of the genus Glaucium (Papaveraceae) are known for their bioactive alkaloids. Glaucium species have been used in traditional medicine in Turkey as an analgesic, narcotic, sedative, and antitussive. In this study, it was planned to evaluate the inhibitory activity of an alkaloidal extract of Glaucium corniculatum subsp. refractum on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), as well as exploring the chemical profile of the plant by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The AChE, BuChE and POP inhibition activities of the alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum were determined spectrophotometrically. A rapid GC-MS method was used to identify alkaloids that could be responsible for these inhibition activities. In total, eleven alkaloids were identified in the alkaloid extract of the plant by GC-MS. Allocyptopine (52.92%) and protopine (25.38%) were found as the major constituents. The alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum showed potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC50:1.25 µg/mL) and BuChE inhibitory activity (IC50: 7.02 µg/mL). The extract also showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on POP with an IC50 value of 123.69 µg/mL. This study presents the first GC-MS investigation and POP inhibitory activity of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Papaveraceae/metabolism , Plant Extracts/agonists , Alkaloids/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Traditional
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18672, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360164

ABSTRACT

The use of plants in disease treatment is cost effective and relatively safe. This study was designed to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus alone and in combination therapy in hyperlipidemic & diabetic mice. Eight groups comprising five mice each were used. Group A was hyperlipidemic control, group B, C, D received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and leaf extract in combination with atorvastatin (200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) orally for 15 days. Group E was diabetic control. Group F, G, H received sitagliptin (40 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and extract in combination with sitagliptin (200 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. Blood cholesterol levels were measured at 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day and fasting blood sugar levels were measured at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours during treatment. One-way ANOVA with tukey- kramer multiple comparison test was used. The chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus has significant anti-hyperlipidemic & anti-diabetic effects (p<0.05, p<0.01) when compared with control but had not cause significantly increase in anti-hyperlipidemic effects of atorvastatin. While significantly increased the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin (p<0.05)


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/classification , Catharanthus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Disease/classification , Alkaloids/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19494, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384024

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this paper is to study the chemical composition of alkaloids present in Haloxylon scoparium Pomel extracts and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. The alkaloids were isolated from two parts of Haloxylon scoparium plant by two extraction protocols. and The quantitative study made it possible to propose the best protocol for the extraction of the alkaloids. Moreover, GC-MS analysis of alkaloid extracts allowed us to determine their chemical composition. Haloxylon scoparium contains four types of alkaloids: tetraisoquinolines, phenylethylamines, tryptolines and tryptamines. The main compounds are the tetraisoquinolines type, the predominant product of which was N-methylsalsoline. These compounds present a great interest for the researchers due to their various pharmacological and biological activities. The antioxidant effect of the different plant extracts was studied by two methods: the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical (DPPH·) scavenging tests. The results show that extracts of root part are more active than those from aerial part; the acetone/water extract is the most powerful. The interesting results obtained in this study will be supplemented by other analyses and biological tests in order to better valorize this plant.


Subject(s)
Amaranthaceae/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/chemical synthesis , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching/methods
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloids (Sangzhi alkaloids, SZ-A) for treatment of type 2 diabetes in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial.@*METHODS@#A total of 200 patients were randomized to receive SZ-A (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 16 weeks. The data analysis system for electronic data capture clinical trial central randomization system was used for randomization and dispensing of drugs. The primary outcome was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome included the proportions of cases with HbA1c <7.0% and HbA1c <6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), area under curve for the PBG (AUC0-2h), body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Adverse events (AEs), severe adverse events (SAEs), treatment-related adverse events (TAEs), gastrointestinal disorders (GDs), blood pressure, routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function were monitored.@*RESULTS@#Compared with baseline, the change of HbA1c at week 16 was -0.80% (95% CI: -0.98% to -0.62%) and -0.09% (95% CI: -0.27% to 0.09%) in SZ-A group and placebo group, respectively. The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7% and <6.5% was higher in the SZ-A group than in the placebo group (46.8% vs. 21.6% and 29.9% vs. 10.8%). The observed values and changes in FBG, 1 h-PBG, 2 h-PBG, and AUC0-2h differed significantly between groups (P<0.001), but differences were not significant in body weight and BMI (P>0.05). The incidence rates of AEs, TAEs, and GDs differed significantly between groups (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.006, respectively), whereas the incidence rates of SAEs showed no significant differences between groups (P=1.000).@*CONCLUSION@#SZ-A are effective and safe for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The protocol was registered in http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=60117 (ChiCTR2000038550).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Morus , Tablets/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
10.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(3): 121-126, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374204

ABSTRACT

Resumen Nicotiana glauca también llamada Palán Palán, es un arbusto con hojas verdes azuladas y despulidas y una flor amarilla tubular pendulante que presenta alcaloides piridínicos, como nicotina, nornicotina, anatabina y anabastina (análogo estructural de la Nicotina). Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 50 años con cuadro agudo de debilidad muscular generalizada que evoluciona con paro respiratorio, tras la ingesta accidental de una cantidad desconocida de hojas de Nicotiana glauca, cultivadas en una huerta hogareña mediante técnica de hidroponía y confundidas por su conviviente con espinaca. Presentó aumento de lactato y Troponina Ultra Sensible e Hipoquinesia Global de Ventrículo Izquierdo en el ecocardiograma, compatible con Aton tamiento Miocárdico (AM), que evolucionó favorablemente. Si bien hay pocos reportes, se han informado muertes de animales y humanos, tras la ingesta accidental de Nicotiana glauca. El inicio del cuadro es rápido, con patrón bifásico, con vómitos y estímulo simpático, seguido por bloqueo ganglionar y neuromuscular, pudiendo presentar paro respiratorio, shock, convulsiones y coma. El AM es una disfunción miocárdica prolongada con retorno gradual de la actividad contráctil, posterior a un episodio breve de isquemia grave, puede ser asintomático, pudiendo presentar alteraciones en el electrocardiograma, enzimas cardíacas o ecocardiograma. Generalmente presenta pronóstico favorable, pudiendo presentar insuficiencia cardíaca ante patologías concurrentes o aumento de requerimientos de oxígeno.


Abstract Nicotiana glauca is a shrub with bluish green leaves and a pendulous tubular yellow flower. It has pyridine alkaloids, such as nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine and anabastine (structural analog of Nicotine). We present the case of a 50 years old pa- tient with acute generalized muscle weakness that evolves to respiratory arrest, after accidentally ingesting an unknown quantity of Nicotiana glauca leaves, grown in a home vegetable garden, using a hydroponic technique and confused by her cohabiting with spinach. She presented increased lactate and Ultra Sensitive Troponin and Left Ventricular Global Hypokinesia in the echo- cardiogram, compatible with Myocardial Stunned, that it evolved favorably. There are few reports, animal and human deaths have been reported following accidental ingestion of Nicotiana glauca. The onset of the symptoms is early, with a biphasic pattern, with vomiting and sympathetic stimulation, followed by ganglionic and neuromuscular blockage and may present respiratory arrest, shock, seizures and coma. Myocardial Stunned is a prolonged myocardial dysfunction with gradual return of contractile activity after a brief episode of severe ischemia, it can be asymptomatic, and it can present alterations in the electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes or echocardiogram. Generally presents a benign prognosis, being able to present heart failure with concurrent patholo- gies or increased requirements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Poisoning/complications , Poisoning/diagnosis , Poisoning/therapy , Tobacco/adverse effects , Myocardial Stunning/epidemiology , Alkaloids/adverse effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Tobacco/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/classification
11.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-14], nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349123

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presente revisión bibliográfica referencia diversos estudios que describen la biosíntesis de alcaloides en la familia Amaryllidacea. Se toman en cuenta los procesos enzimáticos que rigen la biosíntesis de los metabolitos secundarios y los métodos de estimulación y mejoramiento de la producción de alcaloides. OBJETIVO: determinar, mediante una amplia revisión bibliográfica, los posibles métodos de mejora de la producción de alcaloides. METODOLOGÍA: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los documentos más relevantes sobre la biosíntesis de alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae. RESULTADOS: en esta revisión, es posible establecer una metodología de mejoramiento de la producción de alcaloides tipo crinina/haemantamina en plantas de la familia Amaryllidaceae nativas de Bolivia y evaluar la posibilidad de aplicarla con éxito para la obtención de mejores rendimientos.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the referenced studies in this bibliographic review show the alkaloid biosynthesis in the Amaryllidaceae family. Some of the processes involved in the improvement and stimulation of alkaloid production are also taken into account and the enzymatic processes that rule secondary metabolites synthesis are described. OBJECTIVE: to determine, through a bibliographic review, possible methods of improving alkaloid production. METHODS: a wide bibliographic review of the most relevant articles about the Amaryllidaceae family alkaloid production was applied. RESULTS: it was possible to demonstrate that there is the possibility to stablish and develop a successful method to improve the production of crinine/haemanthamine type alkaloids in the Bolivian native family Amaryllidacea and to evaluate the possibility of applying it successfully to obtain better yields.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants , Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids , Alkaloids , Records , Amaryllidaceae
12.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-17], nov. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el incremento en el consumo de recursos naturales para el alivio de diferentes enfermedades ha llevado a varios países a diseñar mecanismos de control, que garanticen mediante métodos físico-químicos la calidad del material vegetal que se utilizará como materia prima para las preparaciones farmacéuticas y/o como medicina tradicional. La falsificación, la mala calidad o la adulteración en estos productos constituyen una grave amenaza a la seguridad del consumidor. El estudio de los parámetros de calidad de una especie vegetal nos permite reconocer su identidad, su pureza, así como el contenido de principios activos, que garanticen su calidad, eficacia y seguridad. U. urens L. (Urticáceas) es una especie ampliamente distribuida en América del Sur, en Bolivia se encuentra en diferentes tipos de terreno, en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi es ampliamente utilizada por sus pobladores principalmente en el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias e urinarias. OBJETIVO: estudiar los parámetros de calidad de la especie vegetal U. urens L. recolectada en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi del Departamento de La Paz. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó el análisis de las características organolépticas, para el análisis micrográfico se utilizó el material vegetal seco reducido a polvo, el análisis físico químico se realizó por métodos oficiales AOAC. Se obtuvieron cuatro tipos de extractos, extracto etéreo, diclorometánico, etanólico y acuoso, en ellos se determinó la composición cualitativa de grupos mayoritarios de moléculas mediante la técnica Screening Fitoquímico y se elaboró el perfil cromatográfico de la especie vegetal. RESULTADOS: el estudio reveló la presencia de pelos urticantes unicelulares y pluricelulares, los parámetros fisicoquímicos concuerdan con los valores referencia encontrados en las principales farmacopeas. El screening fitoquímico cualitativo reveló la presencia mayoritaria de taninos, alcaloides, compuestos reductores, esteroles, flavonoides y cumarinas. Adicionalmente, el perfil cromatográfico reveló la presencia de diferentes manchas en fases móviles asociadas principalmente con flavonoides. CONCLUSIONES: el estudio de los parámetros de calidad de Urtica urens L aporta con información para su identificación y establece la presencia de determinados compuestos que serían los responsables de la actividad farmacológica atribuida por su uso tradicional.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the increase in the consumption of natural resources for the relief of different diseases has led several countries to design control mechanisms that guarantee through physical-chemical methods the quality of the plant material that will be used as raw material for pharmaceutical preparations and / or as traditional medicine. Counterfeiting, poor quality, or adulteration in these products pose a serious threat to consumer safety. The study of the quality parameters of a plant species allows us to recognize its identity, its purity, as well as the content of active principles, which guarantee its quality, efficacy and safety. U. urens L. (Urticaceae) is a widely distributed species in South America, in Bolivia it is found in different types of terrain, in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province it is widely used by its inhabitants mainly in the treatment of inflammatory and urinary diseases. OBJECTIVE: to study the quality parameters of the plant species U. urens L. collected in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province of the Department of La Paz. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the analysis of the organoleptic characteristics was carried out, for the micrographic analysis the dry plant material reduced to powder was used, the physical-chemical analysis was carried out by official AOAC methods. Four types of extracts were obtained, ethereal, dichloromethane, ethanolic and aqueous extract, in which the qualitative composition of major groups of molecules was determined by the phytochemical screening technique and the chromatographic profile of the plant species was elaborated. RESULTS: the study revealed the presence of unicellular and multicellular stinging hairs, the physicochemical parameters agree with the reference values found in the main pharmacopoeias. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the majority presence of tannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, sterols, flavonoids and coumarins. Additionally, the chromatographic profile revealed the presence of different spots in mobile phases mainly associated with flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the quality parameters of Urtica urens L provides information for its identification and establishes the presence of certain compounds that would be responsible for the pharmacological activity attributed to its traditional use.(AU)


Subject(s)
Sterols , Urtica urens , Alkaloids
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888788

ABSTRACT

Terpenoid indole (TIAs) and β-carboline alkaloids (BCAs), such as suppressant reserpine, vasodilatory yohimbine, and antimalarial quinine, are natural compounds derived from strictosidine. These compounds can exert powerful pharmacological effects but be obtained from limited source in nature. the whole biosynthetic pathway of TIAs and BCAs, The Pictet-Spengler reaction catalyzed by strictosidine synthase (STR; EC: 4.3.3.2) is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their biosynthesis pathways, especially the role of STR, and related findings will support the biosynthetic generation of natural and unnatural compounds. This review summarizes the latest studies concerning the function of STR in TIA and BCA biosynthesis, and illustrates the compounds derived from strictosidine. The substrate specificity of STR based on its structure is also summarized. Proteins that contain six-bladed four-stranded β-propeller folds in many organisms, other than plants, are listed. The presence of these folds may lead to similar functions among organisms. The expression of STR gene can greatly influence the production of many compounds. STR is mainly applied to product various valuable drugs in plant cell suspension culture and biosynthesis in other carriers.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/biosynthesis , Carbolines/metabolism , Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases , Indoles/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888779

ABSTRACT

The tubers and roots of Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) are widely used as heart medicine or analgesic agents for the treatment of coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain since ancient times. As a type of natural products mainly extracted from Aconitum plants, Aconitum alkaloids have complex chemical structures and exert remarkable biological activity, which are mainly responsible for significant effects of Aconitum plants. The present review is to summarize the progress of the pharmacological, toxicological, and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids, so as to provide evidence for better clinical application. Research data concerning pharmacological, toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids were collected from different scientific databases (PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science) using the phrase Aconitum alkaloids, as well as generic synonyms. Aconitum alkaloids are both bioactive compounds and toxic ingredients in Aconitum plants. They produce a wide range of pharmacological activities, including protecting the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and immune system and anti-cancer effects. Notably, Aconitum alkaloids also exert strong cardiac toxicity, neurotoxicity and liver toxicity, which are supported by clinical studies. Finally, pharmacokinetic studies indicated that cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) and efflux transporters (ETs) are closely related to the low bioavailability of Aconitum alkaloids and play an important role in their metabolism and detoxification in vivo.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/chemistry , Alkaloids/toxicity , Biological Availability , Phytochemicals/toxicity , Plant Roots/chemistry
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 311-316, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888757

ABSTRACT

Tetrandrine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN) are dominant bisbenzylisoquinoline (BBIQ) alkaloids from the roots of Stephania tetrandra of the family Menispermaceae. BBIQ alkaloids comprise two benzylisoquinoline units linked by oxygen bridges. The molecular structures of TET and FAN are exactly the same, except that TET has a methoxy (-OCH


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Stephania tetrandra
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888177

ABSTRACT

In this study, we studied the solubility and permeability of matrine, oxymatrine, sophoridine, and oxysophocarpine, four alkaloids in the Mongolian herbal medicine Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, and evaluated the absorption mechanism with the Caco-2 cell model, so as to provide a basis for the new drug development and efficacy evaluation of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix. The results showed that all the four alkaloids had high solubility and high permeability and can be well absorbed, belonging to the class-I drugs of Biopharmaceutical Classification System(BCS). The absorption(AP→BL) and excretion(BL→AP) of matrine and oxymatrine were not affected by the concentration while the absorption depended on P-gp protein. The absorption(AP→BL) and excretion(BL→AP) of sophoridine and oxysophocarpine were positively related to the concentration and time, and the absorption process was independent from P-gp protein. The results provide scientific reference and an experimental basis for the development of Mongolian medical prescriptions containing Sophorae Flavescentis Radix.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Biological Products , Caco-2 Cells , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Sophora
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888142

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the roots of Aconitum kongboense were studied. Twenty-five diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the 95% methanol extract of the roots of A. kongboense by silica gel, reverse-phase silica gel and basic alumina column chromatography. They included a new aconitine-type diterpenoid alkaloid, named as kongboensenine(1), and twenty-four known ones(2-25), i.e., acotarine F(2), acotarine G(3), 14-acetyltalatisamine(4), talatisamine(5), indaconitine(6), yunaconitine(7), chasmanine(8), 6-epi-foresticine(9), homochasmanine(10), 8-deacetyl-yunaconitine(11), chasmaconitine(12), ajaconine(13), franchetine(14), ezochasmanine(15), crassicautine(16), 14-O-deacylcrassicausine(17), genicunine A(18), falconeridine(19), sachaconitine(20), liljestrandisine(21), 8-methyl-14-acetyltalatisamine(22), kongboendine(23), 14-benzoylchasmanine(24) and pseudaconine(25). Their structures were elucidated by common spectroscopic methods including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) techniques. Compounds 2-4, 10, 13, 15-19 and 21-22 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Experimental results showed that all compounds did not have a significant inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase(AChE).


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Aconitum/metabolism , Alkaloids , Diterpenes , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888021

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of total alkaloids of Fibraurea recisa in HT22 cells damaged by corticosterone (CORT) in vitro and in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as well as the underlying mechanisms.In cellular experiments,the viability of CORT-damaged HT22 cells was detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8),and the cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining.In animal experiments,C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into the control group,model group,low (100 mg·kg~(-1)),medium (200 mg·kg~(-1)) and high (400 mg·kg~(-1))-dose of total alkaloids of F.recisa groups,and positive control group.After 21 days of CUMS exposure,their depressive behaviors were observed in behavioral and Morris water maze tests.The serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),dopamine (DA),and norepinephrine (NE) were assessed by ELISA.The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2,Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HT22 cells and mouse hippocampus were detected by Western blot.The results suggested that total alkaloids of F.recisa alleviated the damage of HT22 cells induced by CORT in a dose-dependent manner.The Hoechst 33258 staining uncovered that total alkaloids of F.recisa better reduced the blue spots and inhibited cell apoptosis.The results of animal experiments showed that total alkaloids of F.recisa significantly improved the depression-like behaviors of mice and increased the serum levels of 5-HT,DA and NE as compared with those in the model group.The Western blot assays revealed a significant up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression,but an obvious reduction in Bax and cleaved caspase-3protein expression in the total alkaloids of F.recisa group.In conclusion,total alkaloids of F.recisa inhibited depression possibly by regulating the apoptosis-related protein expression or elevating the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Depression/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Stress, Psychological
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888002

ABSTRACT

According to the records of Chinese materia medica,Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala is an authentic Chinese medicinal plant highly recommended by ancient physicians since its rhizome is like a string of beads and has a good medicinal value. However,its medicinal components and values remain to be studied as it is endangered because of overexploitation. Therefore,this study aims to quantitatively determine its effective components based on UPLC-QTOF-MS,and to compare the contents of isoquinoline alkaloids in C.chinensis var. brevisepala with those in other Coptis species. Meanwhile,molecular methods accurately identified 12 batches of C. chinensis var. brevisepala,9 batches of C. chinensis,4 batches of C. deltoidea,and 1 batch of C. teeta. Gradient elution was performed with Waters CORTECS C18 column( 4. 6 mm× 150 mm,2. 7 μm) and the mobile phase acetonitrile-water with 0. 4% formic acid. Mass spectrometry was conducted in ESI positive mode. The quantitative results showed that 8 main alkaloids had a good linear relationship within the concentration range( R~2>0. 996),with the recovery rate of 95. 18%-105. 0% and the RSD of 0. 28%-3. 7%. Compared with that of other Coptis species,the rhizome of C. chinensis var. brevisepala had the highest contents of berberine and columbamine. The total content of the 8 alkaloids in C. chinensis var. brevisepala was similar to that in C. chinensis but higher than that of the other two species. PCA was performed to compare the alkaloids among the 4 species. Besides,the 8 alkaloids were evaluated in different parts of C. chinensis var. brevisepala. The results indicate that this method is reliable and efficient and can provide a reference for the quality research.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Berberine Alkaloids , China , Coptis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Plants, Medicinal
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888001

ABSTRACT

Coptidis Rhizoma is a common Chinese medicinal in clinical practice,with the effects of clearing heat,drying dampness,purging fire,and removing toxin. All the medicinal plants of Coptis can be used for clinical treatment,but some species are endangered due to resource destruction and difficulty in planting. The dominant medicinal components in Coptidis Rhizoma are isoquinoline alkaloids. There are various methods for the analysis and detection of alkaloids,such as LC-MS,HPLC,and TLC,among which LC-MS is the most widely applied. Different plants of Coptis vary in the kind and content of alkaloids. C. chinensis,C. deltoidea,C. teeta,C. chinensis var. brevisepala,C. omeiensis,C. quinquefolia,and C. quinquesecta mainly contain berberine,palmatine,coptisine,jatrorrhizine,and columbamine,five effective alkaloid components. Plant isoquinoline alkaloids( PIAs) have strong pharmacological activity but are difficult to prepare. The application of synthetic biology of PIAs will be helpful for the clinical application of PIAs. This paper reviews the research progress on biological resources of Coptis species and structures of alkaloids as well as analysis methods and synthetic biology for isoquinoline alkaloids in the medicinal plants of Coptis in recent years,which will facilitate the protection of Coptis medicinal resources and the application and development of alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Berberine , Berberine Alkaloids , Coptis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isoquinolines , Rhizome
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