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1.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-14], nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349123

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presente revisión bibliográfica referencia diversos estudios que describen la biosíntesis de alcaloides en la familia Amaryllidacea. Se toman en cuenta los procesos enzimáticos que rigen la biosíntesis de los metabolitos secundarios y los métodos de estimulación y mejoramiento de la producción de alcaloides. OBJETIVO: determinar, mediante una amplia revisión bibliográfica, los posibles métodos de mejora de la producción de alcaloides. METODOLOGÍA: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los documentos más relevantes sobre la biosíntesis de alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae. RESULTADOS: en esta revisión, es posible establecer una metodología de mejoramiento de la producción de alcaloides tipo crinina/haemantamina en plantas de la familia Amaryllidaceae nativas de Bolivia y evaluar la posibilidad de aplicarla con éxito para la obtención de mejores rendimientos.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the referenced studies in this bibliographic review show the alkaloid biosynthesis in the Amaryllidaceae family. Some of the processes involved in the improvement and stimulation of alkaloid production are also taken into account and the enzymatic processes that rule secondary metabolites synthesis are described. OBJECTIVE: to determine, through a bibliographic review, possible methods of improving alkaloid production. METHODS: a wide bibliographic review of the most relevant articles about the Amaryllidaceae family alkaloid production was applied. RESULTS: it was possible to demonstrate that there is the possibility to stablish and develop a successful method to improve the production of crinine/haemanthamine type alkaloids in the Bolivian native family Amaryllidacea and to evaluate the possibility of applying it successfully to obtain better yields.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants , Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids , Alkaloids , Records , Amaryllidaceae
2.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-17], nov. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el incremento en el consumo de recursos naturales para el alivio de diferentes enfermedades ha llevado a varios países a diseñar mecanismos de control, que garanticen mediante métodos físico-químicos la calidad del material vegetal que se utilizará como materia prima para las preparaciones farmacéuticas y/o como medicina tradicional. La falsificación, la mala calidad o la adulteración en estos productos constituyen una grave amenaza a la seguridad del consumidor. El estudio de los parámetros de calidad de una especie vegetal nos permite reconocer su identidad, su pureza, así como el contenido de principios activos, que garanticen su calidad, eficacia y seguridad. U. urens L. (Urticáceas) es una especie ampliamente distribuida en América del Sur, en Bolivia se encuentra en diferentes tipos de terreno, en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi es ampliamente utilizada por sus pobladores principalmente en el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias e urinarias. OBJETIVO: estudiar los parámetros de calidad de la especie vegetal U. urens L. recolectada en el Cantón Chama de la provincia Ingavi del Departamento de La Paz. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó el análisis de las características organolépticas, para el análisis micrográfico se utilizó el material vegetal seco reducido a polvo, el análisis físico químico se realizó por métodos oficiales AOAC. Se obtuvieron cuatro tipos de extractos, extracto etéreo, diclorometánico, etanólico y acuoso, en ellos se determinó la composición cualitativa de grupos mayoritarios de moléculas mediante la técnica Screening Fitoquímico y se elaboró el perfil cromatográfico de la especie vegetal. RESULTADOS: el estudio reveló la presencia de pelos urticantes unicelulares y pluricelulares, los parámetros fisicoquímicos concuerdan con los valores referencia encontrados en las principales farmacopeas. El screening fitoquímico cualitativo reveló la presencia mayoritaria de taninos, alcaloides, compuestos reductores, esteroles, flavonoides y cumarinas. Adicionalmente, el perfil cromatográfico reveló la presencia de diferentes manchas en fases móviles asociadas principalmente con flavonoides. CONCLUSIONES: el estudio de los parámetros de calidad de Urtica urens L aporta con información para su identificación y establece la presencia de determinados compuestos que serían los responsables de la actividad farmacológica atribuida por su uso tradicional.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the increase in the consumption of natural resources for the relief of different diseases has led several countries to design control mechanisms that guarantee through physical-chemical methods the quality of the plant material that will be used as raw material for pharmaceutical preparations and / or as traditional medicine. Counterfeiting, poor quality, or adulteration in these products pose a serious threat to consumer safety. The study of the quality parameters of a plant species allows us to recognize its identity, its purity, as well as the content of active principles, which guarantee its quality, efficacy and safety. U. urens L. (Urticaceae) is a widely distributed species in South America, in Bolivia it is found in different types of terrain, in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province it is widely used by its inhabitants mainly in the treatment of inflammatory and urinary diseases. OBJECTIVE: to study the quality parameters of the plant species U. urens L. collected in the Canton Chama of the Ingavi province of the Department of La Paz. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the analysis of the organoleptic characteristics was carried out, for the micrographic analysis the dry plant material reduced to powder was used, the physical-chemical analysis was carried out by official AOAC methods. Four types of extracts were obtained, ethereal, dichloromethane, ethanolic and aqueous extract, in which the qualitative composition of major groups of molecules was determined by the phytochemical screening technique and the chromatographic profile of the plant species was elaborated. RESULTS: the study revealed the presence of unicellular and multicellular stinging hairs, the physicochemical parameters agree with the reference values found in the main pharmacopoeias. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the majority presence of tannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, sterols, flavonoids and coumarins. Additionally, the chromatographic profile revealed the presence of different spots in mobile phases mainly associated with flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the quality parameters of Urtica urens L provides information for its identification and establishes the presence of certain compounds that would be responsible for the pharmacological activity attributed to its traditional use.(AU)


Subject(s)
Sterols , Urtica urens , Alkaloids
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881073

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
4.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. [1-16] p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284586

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se expone una revisión bibliográfica realizada con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre la actividad antidiabética de las plantas medicinales y los productos naturales obtenidos a partir de ellas. Existe gran variedad de plantas con acciones hipoglicemiante y antidiabética relacionadas con la presencia de determinados metabolitos secundarios, entre los que se encuentran en primer lugar los flavonoides, seguidos de alcaloides, taninos y saponinas. Los resultados obtenidos en esta revisión se fundamentan en estudios in vitro e in vivo que probaron el potencial farmacológico de un elevado número de plantas estudiadas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Hypoglycemic Agents , Saponins , Flavonoids , Databases, Bibliographic , Alkaloids , Medicine, Traditional
5.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342398

ABSTRACT

Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 24 (May, 2021); 257- 263 Research Article Protective Effect of Alkaloid-rich Extract of Brimstone Tree (Morinda lucida) on Neurotoxicity in the Fruit-fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Model Nwanna E.E. Functional Food, Nutraceutical and Phytomedicine unit Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure PMB 704, Nigeria ABSTRACT Brimstone plant is one of the medicinal plants found in Nigeria used in fore-lore medicine with little scientific information on its alkaloid constituents. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of alkaloid-rich compounds from the plant in manganese- induced (MgCl2) neurotoxicity in the fruit fly. In addition, alkaloid compounds will be characterized using gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Alkaloid-rich extract was prepared by solvent extraction method, fruit flies were pre-treated with the extract (0.5 ­ 1.0mg/ml) in a fortified diet before induction with MgCl2. The survival rate and negative geotaxis were observed. Thereafter, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, antioxidantive potentials in in -vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total thiol content, nitric oxide (NO*), hydroxyl oxide (OH*) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTs*) radical scavenging ability were carried out on the flies' homogenate. Results obtained revealed that the alkaloid-rich extract regulated the neuro-protective activity of AchE, reduced the reactive oxygen species level in the induced flies with an increased in antioxidantive potential, higher survival rate and increases in the life span of the flies with 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The GC-MS showed a total of (1.55/100mg) of different plant-derived alkaloids such as dicentrine, atropine, aporphine. These alkaloids-rich compounds were found to have anti-oxidative, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti- cholinergic activities. In conclusion, this study suggests that alkaloids from brimstone plant could be the reason for the observed biological activities for the prevention of neuronal related complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sulfur , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Acetylcholinesterase , Drosophila Proteins , Alkaloids
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879154

ABSTRACT

In order to study the alkaloids from branches and leaves of Ervatamia hainanensis, silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC chromatography were used to obtain six alkaloids from the branches and leaves of E. hainanensis with use of. Based on the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as 10-hydroxydemethylhirsuteine(1), 3R-hydroxycoronaridine(2), 3-(2-oxopropyl)coronaridine(3), pandine(4), 16-epi-vobasine(5), and 16-epi-vobasinic acid(6). Among them, compound 1 was a new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, and compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Tabernaemontana
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878976

ABSTRACT

Breast tumor has become one of the malignant tumors with the highest incidence, and is a serious threat to human health, especially to women. Chemotherapy is an important anti-breast tumor therapy, which can be used in almost every stage of breast tumor therapy alone or in the combination with surgery and radiation therapy. Alkaloids are a kind of ubiquitous natural products, and important active components of various medicinal plants. A large number of studies have shown that alkaloids could exert an anti-breast tumor effect by inhibiting proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, resisting mitosis, promoting apoptosis and autophagy, and triggering cell cycle arrest. The extensive anti-breast tumor effect makes alkaloids an important candidate drug source. This paper reviews the anti-breast tumor mechanism of natural products of alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878974

ABSTRACT

The differences of the active ingredients in Dendrobium huoshanense of different growth years and their protective effects on acute liver injury were studied to provide evidence for optimizing harvest time. The contents of polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total alkaloids in D. huoshanense of different growth years were determined by UV spectrophotometry, and the contents of gigantol in D. huoshanense were determined by HPLC. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group(saline), modeling group(saline), high-dose(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(1.25 g·kg~(-1)) groups of D. huoshanense of different growth years. Each group was intragastrically administered every day for 2 weeks. 500 mg·kg~(-1) paracetamol was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after last treatment except the control group. After 12 hours, the serum and liver tissues were collected to detect the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of SOD and MDA. The hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The results showed that the chemical constituents of D. huo-shanense of different growth years were significantly different(P<0.05). The contents of polysaccharide and gigantol of D. huoshanense of 2 growth years were the highest. The contents of flavonoids and alkaloids of D. huoshanense of 3 growth years were the hig-hest, followed by the D. huoshanense of 2 growth years, and the lowest were that of 1 growth year. Compared with the modeling group, D. huoshanense of different growth years could decrease the activities of ALT and AST in serum. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA reduced significantly, while those of SOD increased markedly. Histopathological results suggested that all D. huoshanense samples were effective in the reduction of the necrosis of hepatocytes in different degrees. The results of the multi-component SPSS paired tests showed that polysaccharide and gigantol probably played a leading role in the liver protection effects, while D. huoshanense of 2 growth years showed the best efficacy. The optimal harvesting time of D. huoshanense is 2 growth years.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dendrobium , Liver , Mice , Polysaccharides
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878889

ABSTRACT

Three compounds, including scolosprine C(1), uracil(2) and hypoxanthine(3), were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of centipede by silica gel normal-phase column chromatography, reversed-phase medium pressure preparation chromatography, and high-pressure semi-preparative HPLC. The structure was elucidated through a combination of spectroscopic analyses [such as nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS)] and literature review. Among them, compound 1 was a new quinoline alkaloid. In previous reports, we have described the isolation and structure elucidation of one new and two known quinoline alkaloids. In this paper, we would report the isolation and structure elucidation of scolosprine C in detail.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Arthropods , Chilopoda , Quinolines
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 247-288, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116290

ABSTRACT

Selaginella is the only genus from Selaginellaceae, and it is considered a key factor in studying evolution. The family managed to survive the many biotic and abiotic pressures during the last 400 million years. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of Selaginella in order to recognize their potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Carbohydrates, pigments, steroids, phenolic derivatives, mainly flavonoids, and alkaloids are the main natural products in Selaginella. A wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, some of them pointed out by folk medicine, has been reported. Future studies should afford valuable new data on better explore the biological potential of the flavonoid amentoflavone and their derivatives as chemical bioactive entities; develop studies about toxicity and, finally, concentrate efforts on elucidate mechanisms of action for biological properties already reported.


Selaginella es el único género de Selaginellaceae, y se considera un factor clave en el estudio de la evolución. La familia logró sobrevivir a las muchas presiones bióticas y abióticas durante los últimos 400 millones de años. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de Selaginella para reconocer su potencial y evaluar futuras oportunidades de investigación. Los hidratos de carbono, pigmentos, esteroides, derivados fenólicos, principalmente flavonoides, y alcaloides son los principales productos naturales en Selaginella. Se ha informado un amplio espectro de actividades farmacológicas in vitro e in vivo, algunas de ellas señaladas por la medicina popular. Los estudios futuros deberían proporcionar datos nuevos y valiosos para explorar mejor el potencial biológico de la amentoflavona flavonoide y sus derivados como entidades bioactivas químicas; desarrollar estudios sobre la toxicidad y, finalmente, concentrar los esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos de acción para las propiedades biológicas ya informadas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Selaginellaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 289-299, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116296

ABSTRACT

Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant possessing high medicinal and various therapeutic properties. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatic arthritis. Numerous studies on this species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites. The main chemical constituents which have been isolated and identified from P. kadsura are lignans and neolignans, which possess anti-inflammatory activities. The present article aims to provide a review of the studies done on the phytochemistry and antiinflammatory activities of P. kadsura. The scientific journals for this brief literature review were from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. This review is expected to draw the attention of the medical professionals and the general public towards P. kadsura and to open the door for detailed research in the future.


Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, perteneciente a la familia Piperaceae, es una planta medicinal conocida que posee importantes propiedades medicinales y diversas propiedades terapéuticas. Es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional china para el tratamiento del asma y la artritis reumática. Numerosos estudios sobre esta especie también han corroborado el destacado potencial antiinflamatorio de sus extractos y metabolitos secundarios. Los principales componentes químicos que se han aislado e identificado de P. kadsura son los lignanos y los neolignanos, que poseen actividades antiinflamatorias. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre las actividades fitoquímicas y antiinflamatorias de P. kadsura. Las revistas científicas para esta breve revisión de literatura fueron de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Se espera que esta revisión atraiga la atención de los profesionales médicos y el público en general respecto de P. kadsura y abra la puerta a una investigación detallada en el futuro.


Subject(s)
Piper/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lignans/analysis , Piperaceae/chemistry , Kadsura , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 50-59, marz. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129607

ABSTRACT

La medicina tradicional y estudios realizados a diferentes especies del género Prosopis, del desierto sonorense, indican que es una fuente para la cualificación de compuestos bioactivos, con poder antioxidante y ácidos grasos (linoleico y linolénico) de la semilla. La actividad biológica, es atribuible a alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos y compuestos fenólicos, para lo cual, se realizó el perfil fitoquímico en los extractos acuoso, etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico (mediante técnicas colorimétricas), actividad antioxidante (método: 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), fenoles totales (utilizando el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau) y perfil de ácidos grasos (cromatografía de gases) de la semilla de Prosopis spp. La extracción del aceite se realizó mediante Soxhlet. Se encontraron saponinas en todos los extractos, mientras que, en el etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico, terpenos y esteroles. En el extracto etanólico se encontraron quinonas y en el acuoso aminoácidos libres. El valor más alto de la actividad antioxidante de EC50 fue de 3.272,41 ± 5,97, para el extracto etanólico, indicando su potencial como antioxidante. El contenido de fenoles totales, fue hexano> etanol > cloroformo> acuoso (81,95; 119,83; 125,18 y 127,57 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de extracto seco). Los ácidos grasos en mayor proporción fueron los insaturados con 71,41 % (ácido linoleico: 42,68 %; oleico: 28.73 %) y ácidos grasos saturados: ácido palmítico (13.42 %) y estérico (4,73 %). Se concluye que este tipo de extractos presentan metabolitos importantes para la dieta, presentan actividad antioxidante y ácidos grasos esenciales para el organismo(AU)


Traditional medicine and studies with different species of the Prosopis genus, from the Sonoran Desert, is a source for the qualification of bioactive compounds, with antioxidant power and fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) of the seed. The biological activity is attributable to alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, for which, the phytochemical profile was performed in the aqueous, ethanolic, hexane and chloroform extracts (using colorimetric techniques), antioxidant activity (method: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), total phenols (using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and fatty acid profile (gas chromatography). The oil was extracted using Soxhlet. Saponins were found in all extracts, while, in ethanolic, hexanic and chloroform, terpenes and sterols. In the ethanolic extract quinones were found and in the aqueous free amino acids. The highest value of the antioxidant activity of EC50 was 3,272.41 ± 5.97, for the ethanolic extract, indicating its potential as an antioxidant. The total phenolic content was hexane> ethanol> chloroform> aqueous (81.95, 119.83, 125.18 and 127.57 mg equivalent of gallic acid / g of dry extract). The fatty acids in greater proportion were unsaturated with 71.41 % (linoleic acid: 42.68 %; oleic: 28.73 %) and saturated fatty acids: palmitic acid (13.42 %) and stearic (4.73 %). It is concluded that this type of extracts have important metabolites for the diet, have antioxidant activity and essential fatty acids for the body(AU)


Subject(s)
Prosopis , Phenolic Compounds , Fatty Acids , Phytochemicals , Seeds , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e489, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126684

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la medicina militar, los agentes cicatrizantes naturales frente a heridas por incisión son relevantes en el tratamiento de los militares. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad cicatrizante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Peperomia congona Sodiro (congona), Annona muricata L. (guanábana), Urtica urens L. (ortiga),Ormosia coccinea (Aubl) Jacks (huayruro), Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill. (tuna) y Musa acuminata Colla (plátano bellaco) en heridas incisas de Rattus norvegicus albinus (rata albina). Métodos: Estudio analítico experimental de tipo prospectivo y longitudinal. Se realizó el análisis fitoquímico preliminar de los 6 extractos. Se emplearon 80 ratas albinas machos, aleatorizadas y distribuidas en 8 grupos (n = 10). Se realizó una aplicación dermal durante 10 días consecutivos posteriores a la generación de heridas incisas que se realizaron en el dorso. Grupo I (cloruro de sodio al 0,9 por ciento). Grupo II (gel cicatrizante comercial). Del Grupo III al VIII fueron tratados con extracto hidroalcohólico de congona, guanábana, ortiga, huairuro, tuna y plátano bellaco respectivamente. La evolución de la cicatrización fue seguida en los días 1, 5 y 11 y medida en milímetros. Resultados: Se detectó la presencia de alcaloides, compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides en los 6 extractos; además de cumarinas en congona, taninos en guanábana, ortiga, tuna y huayruro, y quinonas en guanábana y plátano bellaco. Se comprobó la actividad cicatrizante en los extractos de guanábana (69,77 por ciento), tuna (66,27 por ciento), plátano bellaco (64,38 por ciento), ortiga (56,73 por ciento), congona (55,74 por ciento) y huayruro (54,50 por ciento), comparados con un gel comercial (72,21 por ciento). Conclusiones: El extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Annona muricata L. (guanábana) presentó la mayor actividad cicatrizante en heridas incisas de ratas albinas machos(AU)


Introduction: In military medicine, natural healing agents against incision wounds are relevant in the treatment of the military. Objective: To evaluate the healing activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Peperomia congona Sodiro (congona), Annona muricata L. (guanabana), Urtica urens L. (ortiga), Ormosia coccinea (Aubl) Jacks (huairuro), Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill. (tuna) and Musa acuminata Colla (platano bellaco) in incised wounds of Rattus norvegicus albinus (albino rat). Methods: Experimental analytical study of prospective and longitudinal type. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the 6 extracts was carried out. We used 80 male albino rats, randomized and distributed in 8 groups (n = 10). A dermal application was made during 10 consecutive days after the generation of incised wounds that were made on the back. Group I (0.9 percent sodium chloride). Group II (commercial healing gel). From Group III to VIII they were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of congona, guanábana, ortiga, huairuro, tuna and platano bellaco respectively. The evolution of healing was followed on days 1, 5 and 11 and measured in millimeters. Results: The presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids was detected in the 6 extracts; in addition to coumarins in congona, tannins in guanábana, nettle, tuna and huayruro, quinonas in guanábana and plantain bellaco. The healing activity was verified in the extracts of guanabana (69.77 percent), tuna (66.27 percent), platano bellaco (64.38 percent), ortiga (56.73 percent), congona (55.74 percent) and huayruro (54.50 percent), compared with a commercial gel (72.21 percent). Conclusions: The hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (guanábana) showed the highest healing activity in incised wounds of male albino rats(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Plants , Therapeutics , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Phenolic Compounds/methods , Phytochemicals , Military Medicine
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190050, 2020. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056678

ABSTRACT

Between 40,000-70,000 people die yearly of rabies, an incurable disease. Besides post-bite vaccination, no treatment is available for it. Methods: First, virus dilution for antiviral effects in mice was determined. Then, animals were treated as follows: control (NaCl 250 µL/animal/day); bufotenine (0.63, 1.05 and 2.1 mg in 250 µL of NaCl/animal/day); rabies (10-6,82CVS dilution); and test (10-6,82 CVS dilution and bufotenine, in the above-mentioned doses). Animals were observed daily for 21 days or until the 3rd stage of rabies infection. Twitch-tension and liposome studies were applied to understand the possible interaction of bufotenine with receptors, particularly acetylcholine. Results: Bufotenine was able to increase the survival rate of intracerebrally virus-infected mice from 15 to 40%. Bufotenine did not seem to interfere with the acetylcholine response in the skeletal muscle, indicating that its mechanism of action is not blocking the virus entrance due to nAChR antagonism. By analyzing liposomes, we could observe that bufotenine did not passively penetrates cell membranes, indicating the necessity of complementary structures to cell penetration. Conclusions: Bufotenine is a promising candidate for drug development. After further chemical modification, it might be possible to dissociate minor side effects, increase efficiency, efficacy and pharmacokinetics, yielding a true anti-rabies drug.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabies , Tryptophan , Bufotenin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Alkaloids , Mice/virology
15.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 5(3): 100-109, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1179413

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Detectar metabolitos secundarios y caracterizar estructuras químicas de flavonoides de los extractos metanólicos de hojas de dos tipos de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ y «ruda hembra¼. Materiales y métodos. Se elaboraron extractos metanólicos de hojas de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ y «ruda hembra¼. Se llevó a cabo la prueba de solubilidad de los extractos obtenidos utilizando solventes de polaridad creciente. Posteriormente, se detectaron los metabolitos secundarios presentes en los extractos mediante la ejecución del tamizaje fitoquímico, donde se utilizaron diversos reactivos Shinoda, Dragendorff, Borntrager, entre otros. Se utilizó el método de cromatografía en capa fina, espectrofotometría UV/Vis y reactivos de desplazamiento para caracterizar las estructuras químicas de los flavonoides presentes en los extractos metanólicos de hojas de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ y «ruda hembra¼. Resultados. El extracto metanólico de hojas de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ presentó una mayor afinidad por solventes polares, mientras que en el extracto metanólico de hojas de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda hembra¼ fue soluble en solventes medianamente polares. Se detectaron metabolitos secundarios tales como: taninos, alcaloides y flavonoides en ambos tipos. Por otro lado, se caracterizaron diez estructuras químicas tipo flavonoides a través del análisis de los espectros UV/Vis y utilizando reactivos de desplazamiento, de las cuales cinco corresponden a Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ y las restantes a Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda hembra¼. Conclusiones. Se detectaron algunos metabolitos secundarios caracterizándose diez estructuras químicas de flavonoides en los extractos metanólicos de hojas de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda macho¼ y «ruda hembra¼. Asimismo, la presencia de rutina en «ruda hembra¼ es la principal característica que la diferencia de «ruda macho¼.


Objective. To detect the secondary metabolites and characterize the chemical structures of the flavonoids in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda macho" and "ruda hembra" types. Materials and methods. We elaborate the methanolic extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves "ruda macho" and "ruda hembra". Then, the solubility test of the obtained extracts was carried out using solvents of increasing polarity. Subsequently, the secondary metabolites present in the extracts were detected by executing the phytochemical screening, various reagents were used: Shinoda, Dragendorff, Borntrager, among others. The method of thin layer chromatography, UV / Vis spectrophotometry and displacement reagents was used to characterize the chemical structures of the flavonoids in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda macho" and "ruda hembra". Results. The methanolic extract of Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda macho" leaves showed a greater affinity for polar solvents, while the methanolic extract of Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda hembra" leaves was soluble in moderately polar solvents. Secondary metabolites were detected, such as: tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids in both types. On the other hand, ten flavonoidtype chemical structures were characterized through the analysis of UV / Vis spectra and using displacement reagent, of which five of them correspond to Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda macho" and the others to Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda hembra". Conclusions. Some secondary metabolites were detected and ten chemical structures of flavonoids were characterized in the methanolic extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. "ruda macho" and "ruda hembra" leaves. Likewise, the presence of rutina in "ruda hembra" is the main characteristic that differentiates it from "ruda macho".


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Ruta/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chromatography , Alkaloids , Phytochemicals
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 527-541, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284290

ABSTRACT

The genus Lindera consists of approximately 100 species that are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Most Lindera plants, particularly Lindera aggregata is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has important medicinal value and health benefits. Contemporary chemical and pharmacological studies have shown that L. aggregata are a source of structurally diverse molecules having pharmacological potential. In an effort to promote research on L. aggregata and develop therapeutic and pharmacological products, this review describes the structural diversity of its components and pharmacological and biological significance of L. aggregata. This review is based on a literature analysis of scientific journals from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Thus, with the growing interest in traditional medicine and botanical drugs worldwide, L. aggregata will increasingly capture chemists' and pharmacologists' attention because they produce diverse and structurally novel compounds having pharmacological significance.


El género Lindera consta de aproximadamente 100 especies que están ampliamente distribuidas en áreas tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. La mayoría de las plantas de Lindera, particularmente Lindera aggregata, es parte conocida de la medicina tradicional china con un importante valor medicinal y beneficios para la salud. Estudios químicos y farmacológicos contemporáneos han demostrado que L. aggregata es una fuente de moléculas estructuralmente diversas que con potencial farmacológico. En un esfuerzo por promover la investigación sobre L. aggregata y desarrollar productos terapéuticos y farmacológicos, esta revisión describe la diversidad estructural de sus componentes y la importancia farmacológica y biológica de L. aggregata. Esta revisión se basa en un análisis de literatura de revistas científicas de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Por lo tanto, con el creciente interés en la medicina tradicional y las drogas botánicas en todo el mundo, L. aggregata captará cada vez más la atención de los químicos y farmacólogos debido a que producen compuestos diversos y estructuralmente novedosos que tienen importancia farmacológica.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Lindera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Alkaloids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828044

ABSTRACT

A new isoquinoline alkaloid(1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Thalictrum glandulosissimum by using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, sephadex, MCI-gel resin, and RP-HPLC, and its structure was determined as 1-(6-hydroxy-7-methylisoquinolin-1-yl) ethantone by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. This compound was evaluated for anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. The results showed that it had prominent anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates of 28.4%. This rate was closed to that of positive control.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antiviral Agents , Isoquinolines , Thalictrum , Tobacco Mosaic Virus
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828009

ABSTRACT

To further study and fully exploit the medicinal plant Sophora alopecuroides, the molecular markers related with the phenotypic traits of alkaloid content in S. alopecuroides should be detected. In this study, SSR molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 23 S. alopecuroides populations, in combination with the association analysis between molecular markers and the alkaloid contents. The results showed that P, H, I, G_(st) and N_m values were 40.10%, 0.335 3, 0.504 5, 0.433 7 and 0.625 9 respectively, in 23 S. alopecuroides populations. This indicated that there was less gene exchange and higher genetic differentiation among different S. alopecuroides populations. The results of SSR unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means(UPGMA) cluster showed that the S. alopecuroides populations relationship from Xinjiang was far from the populations of other regions, but the populations of S. alopecuroides from Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Qinghai were closely relevant to those from Ningxia. The 23 populations were further divided into 2 genetic subpopulations by the population structure analysis. Through association analysis, a total of 26 loci in 13 SSR markers were found to be significantly associated(P<0.005)with the content of MA, OMA, SC and OSC, and the rate of explanation on the phenotype variance of related markers ranged from 36.45% to 77.93%. Among the locus, 1 each were related with MA and OSC content at interpretation rate reached as high as 50% with high threshold(P<0.000 1). These results could provide support for the discovery of important genes in the alkaloid biosynthetic and metabolic pathway of S. alopecuroides.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , China , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Phenotype , Plants, Medicinal , Sophora , Genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828006

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of bitterness is a significant measure to improve the compliance and clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction. According to the characteristics of TCM decoction, such as high dispersion of bitterness components, multi-component bitterness superposition and strong instantaneous stimulation, the research group put forward a new strategy to inhibit bitterness in the early stage based on the self-assembly characteristics of amphiphilic substances in aqueous solution, in order to reduce the distribution of bitterness components in real solution and achieve the purpose of bitter-masking. It was found that the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic substances was different on the bitter compounds of various structures. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be a certain relationship between the bitter inhibition effect and the substrate structure. In this paper, the interaction between mPEG-PLLA and five bitter alkaloids(bamatine, jatrorrhizine, berberine, epiberberine and coptisine) in Coptidis Rhizoma was studied to explore the effect of substrate structure on the inhibition of bitterness. The sensory test of volunteers was used to determine the bitter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and its main bitter alkaloids. The molecular docking and molecular force field were applied to locate the bitter groups and the bitter-masking parts. The relationship between the bitter strength and the structure was analyzed by the surface electrostatic potential of the bitter alkaloids, and the correlation between the bitter-masking effect and the structural parameters of the bitter components was explored by factor analysis, so as to clarify the structure-activity relationship of mPEG-PLLA in masking the bitterness of coptis alkaloids. It was found that mPEG-PLLA had significant taste masking effect on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and five alkaloids. The masking effect was obviously related to the structure of different alkaloids: the effect increased with the increase of the number of hydrogen donors, rotatable bonds, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity, and decreased with the increase of surface electrostatic potential, electrophilicity and binding energy with bitter receptors. In this study, the influence of alkaloid structure of Coptidis Rhizoma on the butter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA was preliminarily elucidated, providing a scientific basis for better exerting the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic block copolymers.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Coptis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Structure-Activity Relationship , Taste
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827959

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyzed medical records of 40 patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), in order to explore the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The investigation was based on the results of a previous animal test, which was aimed to investigate and confirme the clinical efficacy of Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection in the treatment of COVID-19. The animal test demonstrated that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection has a significant therapeutic effect on the human coronavirus pneumonia for the model mice. The lung inhibition index reached up to 86.86%. The evaluation was conducted on 40 confirmed cases of COVID-19 treated at Jingzhou Hospital of Infectious Disease(Chest Hospital) of Hubei Pro-vince from January 30~(th) to March 21~(th), 2020. In these cases, patients were treated with other integrated Chinese and Western medicines regimens in the recommended Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection diagnosis and treatment regimen. The clinical manifestations, laboratory data, nucleic acid clearance time, and imaging data were compared and analyzed before and after treatment. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the clinical symptoms of 40 cases were alleviated markedly, and their blood analysis and biochemical indexes returned to normal. The lung CT showed more than 50% of lesion absorption rate, and the viral nucleic acid test showed the average clearance time of patients was 16.6 days, and the average length of hospital stay was 25.9 days. After administration with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection, the symptoms of cough and fatigue were alleviated significantly, and the appetite was significantly improved compared with before, especially for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, laboratory indicators, especially absolute value and ratio of lymphocytes and CRP were significantly alleviated. According to the chest CT for short-term review, the absorption of lung lesions was faster than before, especially for grid-like and fibrotic lesions. Compared with antiviral drugs, such as Abidol and Kriging, the nucleic acid clearance time was significantly shorter than the cases treated with Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection. The clinical effective rate of 40 cases was 100.0%. We believed that Matrine and Sodium Chloride Injection have a good clinical effect in the treatment of COVID-19, and suggested increasing the clinical application and further conducting large-sample-size cli-nical verification.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quinolizines , Sodium Chloride , Treatment Outcome
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