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3.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(2): 139-148, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283427

ABSTRACT

Atopic diseases, especially asthma may confer increased susceptibility to viral infections, however, such patients have been largely unaffected in the current Covid-19 pandemic. This favorable course could be explained by a protective role of cytokines and cells involved in an immune response with a T2 profile. In spite of the favorable course observed, it is a priority to maintain with its basic treatments to ensure a good control of the pathology. With respect the immunization process being carried out in patients with a history of allergic reactions in different degrees, the recommendation of the type of vaccine and the protocol for its administration should be individualized according to a risk stratification prior to its administration. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology
4.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(3): 9-21, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342066

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las exposiciones frecuentes o estacionales a helmintos que no provocan infecciones crónicas se asocian a un aumento de la inflamación alérgica, situación que podría extrapolarse a la toxocariasis humana. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de seropositivos a Toxocara spp. entre estudiantes atópicos y la relación entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal donde por conveniencia se seleccionaron 90 estudiantes de los programas de Enfermería, Regencia en Farmacia y MVZ de la Universidad de los Llanos que según diligenciamiento del cuestionario ISAAC fase III se presume sufren de enfermedad atópica; para desarrollar en ellos la prueba de hipersensibilización alérgica cutánea (PHAC), utilizando extractos de Blomia tropicalis y Dermatophagoides pteronyssius. En los estudiantes positivos a esta prueba, se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para el recuento de eosinófilos e inmunoensayo in-house para IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Resultados: De los 90 estudiantes con antecedentes de enfermedad atópica, solo el 33,3% fueron positivos para uno o ambos ácaros del polvo en la PHAC y su recuento de eosinófilos en sangre fue normal 66,6%, medio 26,7% y moderado 6,7%. La frecuencia de seropositividad a Toxocara spp. fue del 73,3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). La OR entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp. fue 1,18 (IC95% 0,24-5,7). Discusión: Colombia es uno de los países con alta endemicidad de toxocariasis con prevalencias entre 40.4­54.4%, dato confirmado según la frecuencia de seropositivos a Toxocara spp. encontrada en personas atópicas en estudio. Conclusiones: No se encontró relación entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp.


Introduction: The frequent or seasonal expositions to parasitic worms that do not provoke chronic infections are associated to an increase of allergic inflammation, situation that could be extrapolated to human toxocariasis. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of Toxocara spp seropositivity among atopic students and the relationship be-tween atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. Materials and methods: Observational and cross-sectional study using 90 students by convenience from the Nursing, Farmacy, Veter-inary, and Animal Science programs at the Universidad de los Llanos that according to the completion of the ISSAC phase III questionnaire are presumed to suffer from an atopic dis-ease. In order to perform an allergy skin test in them, extracts from Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssius were used. The students that tested positive got a blood test to count the eosinophils and the in-house enzyme immunoassay for IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Results: From the 90 students with records of atopic diseases, only 33,3% were positive to one or the two dust mites in the allergy skin test. Their eosinophils count in the blood test were normal 66.6%, medium 26.7% and moderate 6.7%. The frequency of seropositivity to Toxocara spp. was 73.3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). The OR between atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. corresponded to 1.18 (CI 95% 0,24-5,7). Discussion: Colombia is one of the countries with high endemicity of toxocariasis with prevalences between 40.4­54.4%, a fact that is confirmed according to the frequency of seropositives to Toxocara spp. found in atopic people in the study. Conclusions: No relationship between atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. was found


Introdução: as exposições frequentes ou estacionais a helmintos que não desenvolvem in-feções crônicas associam-se com o incremento de inflamação alérgica, situação que poderia evoluir a toxocaríase humana. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi determinar a frequência de soro positividade à Toxocara spp. entre alunos atópicos e a relação entre atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal onde por conveniên-cia estudaram-se 90 alunos dos programas de enfermagem, regência em farmácia e medicina veterinária da Universidade dos Llanos que segundo o preenchimento do questionário ISAAC fase III presumiam padecer doença atópica. Para desenvolver a prova de hiper sensibilidade alérgica cutânea (PHAC), usaram-se extratos de Blomia tropicalis e Dermatophagoides pter-onyssius. Os alunos com teste positivo, foram analisados por meio de amostra sanguínea para contagem de eosinófilos e imunoensaio in-house para IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Resultados: dos 90 alunos analisados, só 33,3% foram positivos para um ou ambos ácaros no PHAC. A contagem de eosinófilos em sangue foi normal (66,6%), média (26,7%) e moderada (6,7%). A frequência de soro positividade para à Toxocara spp. foi de 73,3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). O OR relacionando atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp. foi de 1,18 (IC95% 0,24-5,7). Discussão: Colômbia é um dos países endêmicos para toxocaríase com prevalências entre 40.4 e 54,4%, informação confirmada com os achados desse estudo. Conclusões: Não foi encontrada relação estadística entre atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp


Subject(s)
Toxocariasis , Zoonoses , Adolescent , Allergy and Immunology
5.
Iatreia ; 33(3): 298-304, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143081

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La inmunología es una de las ciencias biomédicas con mayor desarrollo en la segunda parte del siglo XX y principios del presente en al ámbito mundial. También ha tenido un desarrollo muy importante en Antioquia a partir de los años sesenta del siglo pasado. En la tercera parte de esta reseña histórica el autor expone, según su criterio, cuál es el estado actual y los retos futuros de la inmunología en lo científico, pedagógico y administrativo en la Universidad de Antioquia.


SUMMARY Immunology is one of the biomedical sciences that had, worldwide, a greater development in the last part of the XX century and the beginning of the present century. In Antioquia, immunology also had important developments that began in the 1960s. In the third part of this historical review, the author exposes his personal view about the present situation and the future challenges of immunology at the scientific, pedagogical and administrative levels in the Universidad de Antioquia.


Subject(s)
Humans , History , Allergy and Immunology
6.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e477, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138988

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La psoriasis, enfermedad inflamatoria sistémica de la piel, tiene consecuencias adversas serias para el bienestar físico, mental y social de las personas; sus tratamientos son costosos y con marcados efectos adversos. El itolizumab, anticuerpo monoclonal anti CD6 humanizado, actúa como inmunomodulador de las células T y desempeña un importante papel en su patogénesis. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad clínica del itolizumab en 80 pacientes con psoriasis vulgar grave. Métodos: Se realizó un programa de uso clínico expandido, promovido por el Centro de Inmunología Molecular. La respuesta clínica se midió por el índice de gravedad y área de afectación de psoriasis, y para la eficacia se conjugaron estos elementos con los de seguridad, mediante un análisis clínico complementario de los datos generados durante la fase de inducción. Se emplearon como medidas de resumen los números absolutos, el porciento, el promedio y estadísticas de asociación: las pruebas de correlación de de Pearson, de Friedman y la prueba de Lambda. Resultados: El análisis del área de afectación de psoriasis arrojó un rápido y sostenido descenso de sus valores; prevalecieron los eventos adversos relacionados con la administración del producto en investigación, de aparición inmediata, ligeros, muy probables y no serios. Conclusiones: El itolizumab es seguro y eficaz en el 96 por ciento de los pacientes psoriásicos graves durante los esquemas de inducción(AU)


Introduction: Psoriasis, systemic inflammatory skin disease, has serious adverse consequences for the physical, mental and social well-being of people; its treatments are expensive and with marked adverse effects. Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, acts as an immunomodulator of T cells and plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and clinical safety of itolizumab in 80 patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: An expanded clinical use program was carried out, promoted by the Molecular Immunology Center. The clinical response was measured by the severity index and area of psoriasis involvement and for effectiveness these elements were combined with safety, through a complementary clinical analysis of the data generated during the induction phase. Absolute numbers, percent and average and association statistics such as Pearson's correlation tests or Lambda's test were used as summary measures. Results: The area of psoriasis involvement analysis showed a rapid and sustained decrease in its values; adverse events related to the administration of the product under investigation prevailed, light onset, very probable and not serious. Conclusions: Itolizumab is safe and effective in 96 percent of severe psoriatic patients during the induction phase(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis , Skin Diseases , Effectiveness , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Allergy and Immunology , Immunologic Factors
7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 173-182, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130592

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio sobre treinta pacientes con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) que asisten para su atención a centros especializados que funcionan en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y en el conurbano bonaerense. A todos ellos se les efectuó un estudio psico-neuro-cognitivo exhaustivo, según la escala IDEA (Inventario del Espectro Autista) que tiene el objetivo de evaluar doce dimensiones características significativas en estos pacientes, con cuatro niveles de puntuación en cada una de las dimensiones estudiadas. Los padres o tutores completaron una encuesta con datos epidemiológicos y se investigaron posibles factores de alergias y/o intolerancias presentes. Esta encuesta también se hizo extensiva a otras familias con niños autistas, para que los datos epidemiológicos fueran representativos de una población mayor. Sobre los treinta pacientes estudiados se dosaron anticuerpos antiendomisio y antitransglutaminasa, ambos asociados con la enfermedad celíaca; IgE total, asociada a procesos de alergia y a parasitosis; homocisteína sérica o urinaria, cortisol sérico o urinario y factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro (BNDF). Se trataron de establecer posibles asociaciones causales entre los parámetros estudiados y las manifestaciones de los trastornos autistas.


Thirty patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who attend specialized centers in Buenos Aires and its suburbs were carefully studied. All of them underwent a psycho-neuro-cognitive study. The psychologists used the IDEA (Autism Spectrum Inventory) scale which is focused on twelve characteristically significant dimensions with four typical levels in each of those dimensions studied. Their parents or guardians completed a survey with epidemiological data and possible factors of allergies and/or intolerance presence were investigated. This survey was also distributed among other families with children with ASD condition so that the epidemiological results were taken from a larger number of cases. Anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies usually related to celiac disease, total IgE related to allergic processes, homocysteine measures in serum or urine, cortisol measured in serum or urine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were dosed in all the cases. The aim was to establish possible causal associations between the studied parameters and the manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder.


Foi conduzido um estudo em trinta pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) que para serem atendidos frequentam centros especializados que operam na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e seus arrededores. Todos eles foram submetidos a um exaustivo estudo psico-neurocognitivo, de acordo com a escala IDEA (Inventário do Espectro Autista) que visa avaliar doze características significativas desses pacientes, com quatro níveis de pontuação em cada uma das dimensões estudadas. Os pais ou responsáveis responderam uma pesquisa com dados epidemiológicos e foram pesquisados possíveis fatores de alergias e / ou intolerâncias presentes. Essa pesquisa também foi estendida a outras famílias com crianças autistas, de modo que os dados epidemiológicos fossem representativos de uma população maior. Anticorpos antiendomísio e antitransglutaminase foram dosados nos trinta pacientes estudados, ambos associados à doença celíaca; IgE total associada a processos de alergia e a parasitose; homocisteína sérica ou urinária, cortisol sérico ou urinário e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF). Tentou-se estabelecer possíveis associações causais entre os parâmetros estudados e as manifestações dos transtornos autistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurobiology , Biomarkers , Allergy and Immunology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Association , Attention , Celiac Disease , Cerebrum
8.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785454

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on a variety of chronic noncommunicable diseases in particular respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The extent of air pollution both outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change including global warming is increasing-to alarming proportions particularly in the developing world especially rapidly industrializing countries worldwide. In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment and increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in many Asian countries especially in China and India are substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion, indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources of air pollutants, with increasing burden on respiratory allergies. Here we highlight the major components of outdoor and indoor air pollutants and their impacts on respiratory allergies associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Asia-Pacific region. With Asia-Pacific comprising more than half of the world's population there is an urgent need to increase public awareness, highlight targets for interventions, public advocacy and a call to action to policy makers to implement policy changes towards reducing air pollution with interventions at a population-based level.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Allergy and Immunology , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Biodiversity , Biomass , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Climate Change , Climate , Consumer Advocacy , Developed Countries , Economic Development , Family Characteristics , Global Warming , Humans , Hypersensitivity , India , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tobacco
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1167-1170, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of chidamide on the killing activity of NK (Natural killer cell, NK) cells targeting K562 cells and its related mechanism.@*METHODS@#K562 cells were pretreated with chidamide at different concentrations and cocultured with NK cells at different effect-target ratios. The killing effect of chidamide on K562 cells by NK cells, the expression of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands and apoptosis rate of K562 cells were detected by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The killing sensitivity of NK cells to K562 cells could be enhanced by chidamide. The expression of ULBP2 on K562 cell surface could be up-regulate, however, the expression of ULBP1 and MICA/MICB showed no statistically difference as compared with control group. Chidamide showed no obvious cytotoxicity to K562 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Chidamide can significantly improve killing efficiency of NK cells on K562 cells, which may be related to the up-regulation of ULBP2 expression.


Subject(s)
Aminopyridines , Benzamides , GPI-Linked Proteins , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural , Allergy and Immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827023

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827016

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Young Adult
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 571-592, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827010

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as named by the World Health Organization has millions of confirmed cases around the world and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The virus was named SARS-CoV-2 in February by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. COVID-19 presents as fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache and pneumonia. In a small subset of severe cases, the disease quickly progresses to respiratory failure and even death. Since the 21st century, there have been three major outbreaks caused by human coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that broke out in 2003, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the recent pandemic of COVID-19. Since 2003, significant progress has been made in the study of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV concerning their natural origins, pathogenesis, antiviral development and vaccine design. Since SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are closely related, previous findings on SARS-CoV are highly relevant to a better understanding as well as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we highlight recent progresses in the field; compare the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2; summarize the urgently-needed diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control options; and provide future perspectives for the outcome of the outbreak and research questions to be answered, including some of the difficulties in vaccine development. Hopefully, our comments and suggestions would prove useful for the control of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in China and the world.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Viral Vaccines
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 593-604, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827009

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, which appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019, was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This disease was named as "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified as an etiological pathogen of COVID-19, belonging to the species of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV). The speed of both the geographical transmission and the sudden increase in numbers of cases is much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is the first global pandemic caused by a coronavirus, which outbreaks in 211 countries/territories/areas. The vaccine against COVID-19, regarded as an effective prophylactic strategy for control and prevention, is being developed in about 90 institutions worldwide. The experiences and lessons encountered in the previous SARS and MERS vaccine research can be used for reference in the development of COVID-19 vaccine. The present paper hopes to provide some insights for COVID-19 vaccines researchers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Internationality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1069-1082, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826869

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) is an important biological macromolecule and widely used in immune detection, in vitro diagnostics, and drug discovery. However, the inherent properties of mAb restrict its further development, such as high molecular weight and complex structure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives for mAb. Various types of miniaturized antibodies have been developed, among which the variable domain of immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (VNAR) is very attractive. The shark single-domain antibody, also known as shark VNAR, is an antigen-binding domain obtained by genetic engineering technology based on the immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) that naturally exists in selachimorpha. It has a molecular weight of 12 kDa, which is the smallest antigen-binding domain found in the known vertebrates at present. Compared with mAb, the shark VNAR exhibits various superiorities, such as low molecular weight, high affinity, tolerance to the harsh environment, good water solubility, strong tissue penetration, and recognition of the hidden epitopes. It has attracted wide attention in the fields of immunochemical reagents and drug discovery. In this review, various aspects of shark VNAR are elaborated, including the structural and functional characteristics, generating and humanization techniques, affinity maturation strategies, application fields, advantages and disadvantages, and prospects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Allergy and Immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens , Epitopes , Metabolism , Protein Domains , Allergy and Immunology , Receptors, Antigen , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Sharks
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1198-1208, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826858

ABSTRACT

In this research, we studied the formation of Drosophila melanogaster FADD (Fas-associated death domain-containing protein) amyloid fiber and its influence on signal transduction in IMD (Immune deficiency) signaling pathway to better understand the regulation mechanism of Drosophila innate immune signaling pathway, which will provide reference for the immune regulation in other species. First, we purified dFADD protein expressed in Escherichia coli and performed Sulfur flavin T binding and transmission electron microscopy to identify the dFADD amyloid fibers formed in vitro. Then we investigated the formation of dFADD polymers in S2 cells using SDD-AGE and confocal microscope. We also constructed dFADD mutants to find out which domain is essential to fiber formation and its effect on IMD signal transduction. Our results revealed that dFADD could be polymerized to form amyloid fiber polymers in vitro and inside the cells. Formation of fibers relies on DED (Death-effector domain) domain of dFADD, since DED domain-deleted mutant existed as a monomer. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that intact DED domain was required for the induction of downstream antimicrobial peptides, indicating that fiber formation was the key to IMD signal transduction. Our study revealed the role of dFADD in mediating the cascade between IMD and Dredd in the IMD signaling pathway by forming amyloid fibers, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism of innate immune signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drosophila Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Drosophila melanogaster , Allergy and Immunology , Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Innate , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1223-1231, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826855

ABSTRACT

In order to prepare human-mouse chimeric cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin M (CMV-IgM) in vitro and study the effects of different signal peptides on the secretion of CMV-IgM, genes were amplified from hybridoma cell line using RLM-RACE to construct the expression vector of chimeric CMV-IgM. Then, the signal peptide of SigF itself was replaced by five different secreted signal peptides (SigA-SigE) by PCR method, and the CHO cell was chosen as host cell for in vitro expression. SDS-PAGE, SEC-HPLC and ELISA experiments were carried out to evaluate the protein expression level and immunoreactivity of the purified CMV-IgM. A 910 kDa recombinant protein was successfully prepared and signal peptides (SigA-SigE) had an increased expressed CMV-IgM, which were 6.72, 5.19, 1.44, 1.85 and 1.98 times higher than that of the CMV 6# cell signal peptide SigF. In summary, this work provides a theoretical basis for the development of human-mouse chimeric CMV-IgM, and a novel route to increase the expression level of CMV-IgM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cricetinae , Cytomegalovirus , Allergy and Immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Protein Sorting Signals , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1314-1322, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826845

ABSTRACT

To screen the best genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine candidate antigens, the prMEIII gene, the polytope gene and the prMEIII-polytope fusion gene of the GenotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus GS strain were cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The recombinant proteins were obtained after the induction and purification. The prepared recombinant proteins were immunized to mice, and the immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine candidate antigens was evaluated through monitoring the humoral immune response by ELISA, detecting the neutralizing antibody titer by plaque reduction neutralization test, and testing the cell-mediated immune response by lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine profiling. The recombinant proteins with the molecular weights of 35 (prMEIII), 28 (polytope antigen) and 57 kDa (prMEIII-polytope) induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Compared with prMEIII-polytope and polytope proteins, the prMEIII protein induced a significant expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ (P0.05). The study suggests that the prMEIII protein can be used for the development of the Japanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Subunit , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1323-1333, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826844

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MHCⅠ gene in different tissues of Rana dybowskii under the stress of Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah), and to provide evidence for revealing the anti-infective immune response mechanism of amphibians. The experimental animal model of Aeromonas hydrophila infection was first constructed, and the pathological changes were observed by HE staining. The MHCⅠ gene α1+α2 peptide binding region of Rana dybowskii was cloned by RT-PCR and analyzed by bioinformatics. Real-time PCR was used to detect the transcription level of MHCⅠ in different tissues under Ah stress. After Ah infection, the skin, liver and muscle tissues showed signs of cell structure disappearance and texture disorder. The MHCⅠ gene α1+α2 peptide binding region fragment was 494 bp, encoding 164 amino acids, and homology with amphibians. Above 77%, the homology with mammals was as low as 14.96%, indicating that the α1+α2 region of MHC gene was less conserved among different species. The results of real-time PCR show that the liver, spleen and kidney of the experimental group were under Ah stress. The transcript levels of MHCⅠ gene in skin and muscle tissues were higher than those in the control group at 72 h, but the time to peak of each tissue was different (P<0.01), indicating that the response time of MHCⅠ gene in different tissues was different under Ah stress. This study provides a reference for further exploring the immune function of MHC molecules in anti-infection.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas hydrophila , Animals , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Allergy and Immunology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Liver , Metabolism , Ranidae , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Microbiology , Skin , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1378-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826839

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is zoonotic pathogen that can cause listeriosis, and vaccine is one of the effective methods to prevent this pathogen infection. In this study, we developed a novel vaccine that is a mixture of inactivated bacteria and Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, a mineral oil adjuvant, and evaluated the safety and immune response characteristics of this vaccine. The mice immunized with the ISA 61 VG adjuvant had high safety, and it could induce significantly higher titer of anti-listeriolysin O (LLO) antibody and higher value of IgG2a/IgG1 ratio compared with the group without the adjuvant. In particular, it could provide 100% immune protection against lethal doses of Lm challenge in mice. In summary, ISA 61VG adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of inactivated listeria vaccine to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, thereby enhanced the protective immune response in the host, and it is a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention of Lm infection in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Pharmacology , Animals , Hemolysin Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular , Listeria monocytogenes , Allergy and Immunology , Listeriosis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Inactivated , Allergy and Immunology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1440-1449, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826832

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus core protein can self-assemble into icosahedral symmetrical viral-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, and display exogenous sequences repeatedly and densely on the surface. VLPs also have strong immunogenicity and biological activity. When the nanoparticles enter the body, they quickly induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses to exogenous antigens. In this study, we designed an HBc-VLPs that can be coupled with antigens at specific sites, and developed a set of efficient methods to prepare HBc-VLPs. Through site-specific mutation technology, the 80th amino acid of peptide was changed from Ala to Cys, a specific cross-linking site was inserted into the main immunodominant region of HBc-VLPs, and the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+)-hbc was constructed. After expression and purification, high purity HBc(A80C) monomer protein was assembled into HBc-VLPs nanoparticles in Phosphate Buffer. The results of particle size analysis show that the average particle size of nanoparticles was 29.8 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that HBc-VLPs formed spherical particles with a particle size of about 30 nm, and its morphology was similar to that of natural HBV particles. The influenza virus antigen M2e peptide as model antigen was connected to Cys residue of HBc-VLPs by Sulfo-SMCC, an amino sulfhydryl bifunctional cross-linking agent, and M2e-HBc-VLPs model vaccine was prepared. The integrity of HBc-VLPs structure and the correct cross-linking of M2e were verified by cell fluorescence tracing. Animal immune experiments showed that the vaccine can effectively stimulate the production of antigen-specific IgG antibody in mice, which verified the effectiveness of the vaccine carrier HBc-VLPs. This study lays a foundation for the research of HBc-VLPs as vaccine vector, and help to promote the development of HBc-VLPs vaccine and the application of HBc-VLPs in other fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Allergy and Immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
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