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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200491, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249215

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the toxic impact of hydro-alcoholic Allium jesdianum extract (AJE) on the growth of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line. Phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GCMS) was done to determine the bioactive components of AJE. HT-29 cells exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, and 100 ��g/mL of AJE for 48 hours. Cell survival, colony numbers, flow cytometry, oxidative stress, and gene expression were examined to evaluate the toxic impacts of the AJE. Twelve different phyto-constituents with peak areas were determined by the GCMS analysis. The major compounds were Allicin and α-Pinene. AJE considerably reduced the viability and colony numbers of the HT-29 cells. The AJE concentration-dependently increased necrosis, but not apoptosis in the HT-29 cells. AJE upregulated the expression of necroptosis-associated genes including RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL in a concentration-dependent manner. AJE also dose-dependently enhanced MDA contents and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and diminished antioxidant enzyme level in the HT-29 cells. These data collectively indicated that AJE prevented the growth of the HT-29 cells by inducing oxidative stress, and activation necroptosis signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allium/toxicity , Colorectal Neoplasms , Oxidative Stress , Necroptosis
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741596

ABSTRACT

A phytochemical investigation of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) afforded the new pregnane steroidal glycoside, named allimacroside F (1), along with three known glycosides, benzyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), phenylethyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (Z)-3-hexenyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4). The identification and structural elucidation of a new compound (1) was carried out based on spectral data analyses (¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, ¹H-¹H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HR-FAB-MS.


Subject(s)
Allium , Glycosides , Liliaceae , Statistics as Topic
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we observed the effect of ethanol extract of Allium fistulosum (EAF) on NAFLD and have suggested the possibility of using EAF as a natural product for application in the development of a treatment for NAFLD. MATERIALS/METHODS: The preventive effect on hepatic lipid accumulation was estimated by using an oleic acid (OA)-induced NAFLD model in vitro and a Western diet (high-fat high-sucrose; WD)-induced obese mouse model. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 7): normal diet group (ND), WD group, and WD plus 1% EAF group. RESULTS: EAF reduced OA-stimulated lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells in the absence of cellular cytotoxicity and significantly blocked transcriptional activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase genes. Subsequently, we investigated these effects in vivo in mice fed either ND or WD in the presence or absence of EAF supplementation. In comparison to the ND controls, the WD-fed mice exhibited increases in body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight, and accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, and these effects were significantly attenuated by EAF supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Allium fistulosum attenuates the development of NAFLD, and EAF elicits anti-lipogenic activity in liver. Therefore, EAF represents a promising candidate for use in the development of novel therapeutic drugs or drug combinations for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Allium , Animals , Body Weight , Diet , Diet, Western , Drug Combinations , Ethanol , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocytes , In Vitro Techniques , Lipogenesis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Oleic Acid , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Transcriptional Activation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715044

ABSTRACT

Allium hookeri is widely consumed plant as a vegetable and herbal medicine in southeastern Asia. Allium hookeri has been reported antioxidant, improvement of bone health and antidiabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the potential inhibitory effect of Allium hookeri extract (AHE) on Helicobacter pylori. The in vitro anti-bacterial activities of AHE were determined by disk agar diffusion method. Also, the inhibition effect of the AHE on H. pylori infection was investigated using a mouse model. H. pylori colonization was confirmed by rapid urease tests, as described previously. Mucosal damage was evaluated grossly and histologically according to previously described criteria. As the results of the disk agar diffusion assay, CLR, AMX and MTZ inhibited the bacterial growth with inhibition zone of 19.2, 15.2 and 7.5 mm, respectively. AHE 100 µg/mL showed an inhibition zone value of 20.6 mm. Rapid urease tests of the mice stomachs demonstrated a significant reduction in H. pylori colonization. In addition to the therapeutic effect against H. pylori infection, the AHE reduced mucosal inflammation and epithelial damages in the stomach of H. pylori-infected mice. These results demonstrate that the AHE successfully cured an H. pylori infection and treated the H. pylori infection. This AHE could be a promising treatment for patients with gastric complaints including gastritis caused by H. pylori.


Subject(s)
Agar , Allium , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Colon , Diffusion , Gastritis , Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Herbal Medicine , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Methods , Mice , Plants , Stomach , Urease , Vegetables
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839353

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Seeds/drug effects , Textiles , Allium/drug effects , Brazil , Biotransformation , Lettuce/drug effects , Aerobiosis , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Chlorophyta/drug effects , X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy , Hydra/drug effects , Anaerobiosis , Industrial Waste , Mutagens/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokine plays an important role in vascular endothelial cell injury, leading to vascular disease. Allium tuberosum (AT), which is used as a functional food, has a thrombolytic effect. It contains vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and phosphorus. There are many carotenes that turn into vitamin A in the body. Also, it helps blood circulation and stimulates metabolism. The purpose of the this study was to estimate the anti-inflammatory effects of the AT extract. METHODS: Human vascular endothelial cells were pre-treated with 100 μg/mL AT extract for 30 minutes and subsequently co-treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) and AT extract (100 μg/mL) for 1, 4, and 6 hours. After treatment, the cells were lysed and used for quantitative reverse transcription PCR, Western blot analysis, and monocyte adhesion assay. RESULTS: We examined the effect of the AT extract on inflammatory gene expression in TNF-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The extract reduced the expression levels of mRNA and protein of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. It also inhibited the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the AT extract prevented the increased adhesion capacity of monocyte to TNF-α-stimulated vascular endothelial cells by reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The AT extract has preventive and anti-inflammatory effect against vascular disease and has potential for supporting prevention against the early process of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Allium , Ascorbic Acid , Atherosclerosis , Blood Circulation , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Carotenoids , Chive , Endothelial Cells , Functional Food , Gene Expression , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Iron , Metabolism , Monocytes , Necrosis , NF-kappa B , Phosphorus , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Diseases , Vitamin A
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812598

ABSTRACT

Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (Xiebai in Chinese), as a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has great medicinal and dietary values since ancient times. In China, the dry bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense are both used as its original plants. Pharmacological studies have revealed that both of them could increase plasminogen activator activity and prolong the effect of coagulation to achieve antiplatelet aggregation which validates their traditional uses for the treatment of thoracic obstruction and cardialgia in clinics. Besides, several other significant activities, including lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerosis, antitumor, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities, have already been reported. The volatile oils, nitrogenous compounds, and steroidal saponins are the major beneficial compounds. Among them, steroidal saponins are considered as the characteristic constituents. In this review, the current information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus is summarized comprehensively. In addition, several research future perspectives are presented, especially the mechanism of bioactive components and fraction from the bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense.


Subject(s)
Allium , Chemistry , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 292-300, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. METHODS: A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Allium , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Garlic , Hand , Humans , Iran , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Onions , Prebiotics , Vegetables
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236038

ABSTRACT

A commonly used Chinese crude drug Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus has been shown to possess good anticancer activities and related properties such as antioxidation, nitrite scavenging, nitrosamine synthesis blocking and immune enhancement, and has been widely used as an effective auxiliary drug in the treatment of some malignant tumors. This paper systematically reviews the advances in the study of anticancer-related activities of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus's various components such as raw juice, extracts, saponins, volatile oil, polysaccharides, nitrogen compounds, etc.


Subject(s)
Allium , Chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Humans , Oils, Volatile , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology
11.
Mycobiology ; : 412-415, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729758

ABSTRACT

Alternaria from different Allium plants was characterized by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on sequences of the beta-tubulin (BT2b), the Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1), and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes and phylogenetic data analysis, isolates were divided into two groups. The two groups were identical to representative isolates of A. porri (EGS48-147) and A. vanuatuensis (EGS45-018). The conidial characteristics and pathogenicity of A. vanuatuensis also well supported the molecular characteristics. This is the first record of A. vanuatuensis E. G. Simmons & C. F. Hill from Korea and China.


Subject(s)
Allium , Alternaria , China , Korea , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Phylogeny , RNA Polymerase II , Statistics as Topic , Tubulin , Virulence
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Feb; 51(2): 139-148
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147577

ABSTRACT

To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Allium/chemistry , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Creatinine/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/enzymology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/enzymology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/enzymology , Lipids/blood , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Urea/urine , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
13.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 15(1): 17-27, ene.-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-696143

ABSTRACT

El uso de biocidas es una constante en el campo agronómico, el daño ocasionado a los cultivos y por consiguiente el gran potencial de daño para los consumidores es conocido, sin embargo su uso sigue en marcha. Por ello se realizaron pruebas citogenéticas para la observación de aberraciones cromosómicas en Allium cepa, usando muestras de raíces de plantas expuestas y no expuestas a biocídas. Los tratamientos se realizaron con el objetivo de comparar el grado de afectación de los biocídas sobre la mitosis y la ocurrencia de mutaciones cromosómicas. El ANOVA para los datos de desarrollo radicular al finalizar la experimentación, mostraron un CV de 9.88, se observo diferencias significativas entre el control y los tratamientos, los porcentajes de inhibición llegaron a tener valores máximos de 84.2% para vertimec X8 y 76.5% para pentacloro X8, y valores mínimos de 38.2% para vertimec X0.5 y 43.8% para pentacloro 0.5 X. El índice mitótico fue mayor para el control (0.193) y menores para el tratamiento con menor desarrollo radicular, vertimec X8 (0.021) y pentacloro X8 (0.028). Las pruebas citogenéticas mostraron la ocurrencia de anomalías en el ciclo celular siendo la más frecuente la C-mitosis. Se puede concluir que el test Allium es un buen indicador de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad. Los biocidas ocasionan cambios en la estructura genómica de un cultivo, estos cambios podrían acumularse y ocasionar cambios de expresión génica, pudiendo dañar regiones de interés agronómico para una especie y afectar su estabilidad genética.


Use of biocides is a constant in the agronomic field, the damage to crops and therefore the potential for harm to consumers is known, however its use is ongoing. Therefore, tests were performed to observe cytogenetic aberrations in Allium cepa using plant root samples exposed and not exposed to biocides. Treatments were performed in order to compare the degree of impact of biocides on mitosis and the occurrence of chromosomal mutations. The ANOVA for root development data at the end of the experiment showed a CV of 9.88, significant differences was observed between control and treatments; the inhibition percentages have reached maximum values of 84.2% for Vertimec X8 and 76.5% for pentachloro X8, and minimum values of 38.2% for Vertimec X0.5 and 43.8% for pentachloro X0.5. The mitotic index was higher for control (0.193) and lower for treatment with less developed root Vertimec X8 (0.021) and pentachloro X8 (0.028). Tests showed the occurrence of cytogenetic abnormalities in the cell cycle being the most frequent C-mitosis. It can be concluded that the Allium test is a good indicator of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Biocides cause changes in the genomic structure of crops; these changes may accumulate and cause gene expression changes, can damage agronomic interest regions for a species and affect their genetic stability.


Subject(s)
Onions , Genotoxicity , Allium , Genetics
14.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 387-397
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138296

ABSTRACT

Garlic [Allium sativum L., Alliaceae], Persian shallot [Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae] and Sage [Salvia offcinalis L., Lamiaceae] are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate [100 mg kg[-1]] to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose [PBG], oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT], inhibition of rat intestinal alpha -glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide [5 mg kg[-1] bw] while S. offcinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose [20 mg kg[-1] bw]. After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin [100 mg kg[-1] bw]. For OGTT, S. offcinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose [20 mg kg[-1] bw]. Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. offcinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of alpha -glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Garlic , Allium , Salvia officinalis , Shallots , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Glucose Tolerance Test , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts , alpha-Glucosidases/drug effects , Lamiaceae , Glucose Transporter Type 4
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54418

ABSTRACT

Veratrum alkaloids in Veratrum maackii may cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms, bradycardia, hypotension, and arrythmia. We experienced successful outcomes in two patients who were victims of poisoning due to ingestion of Veratrum maackii, which was mistaken for Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum. One patient developed hypotension and prolongation of QT interval in electronicardiogram (ECG) and was treated with administration of vasopressor and magnesium. The other patient developed bradycardia and was treated with administration of atropine. Both patients were kept under close observation, and received supportive care, and both patients were discharged without any symptoms or complications.


Subject(s)
Allium , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atropine , Bradycardia , Eating , Humans , Hypotension , Magnesium , Veratrum , Veratrum Alkaloids
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28516

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety.


Subject(s)
Adult , Agaricales , Aged , Allium , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brassica , Citrus , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables
17.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 17(1): 4-11, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576877

ABSTRACT

Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Allium/toxicity , Anemia, Hemolytic/drug therapy , Cats , Dogs , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Heinz Bodies
18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (1): 81-85
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-108720

ABSTRACT

Emergence of multi-drug resistant [MDR] and extensively drug resistant [XDR] TB throughout the developing world is very disturbing in the present scenario of TB management. There is a fundamental need to explore alternative anti-TB agents. Hence natural plants should be investigated to understand their antimicrobial properties and safety. Garlic [Allium sativum] is one of natural plant which possesses variety of biological properties like anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipedemic and anti-microbial etc. The present study was evaluated for antibacterial activity of garlic against non-MDR and MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. A total of 20 clinical isolates of MTB including 15 MDR and 5 non-MDR were investigated. Ethanolic extract of garlic was prepared by maceration method. Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] was performed by using 7H9 middle brook broth dilution technique. MIC of garlic extract was ranged from 1 to 3 mg/ml; showing inhibitory effects of garlic against both non-MDR and MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. Alternate medicine practices with plant extracts including garlic should be considered to decrease the burden of drug resistance and cost in the management of diseases. The use of garlic against MDR-TB may be of great importance regarding public health


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Allium , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Plants, Medicinal
19.
Mycobiology ; : 230-232, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729514

ABSTRACT

In this study, we characterized sporadically occurring sclerotium rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Roth.) in farm fields in Sacheon, Korea. The initial symptom of the disease was water-soaked, which progressed to rotting, wilting, blighting, and eventually death. Further, mycelial mats spread over the lesions near the soil line, and sclerotia formed on the scaly stem and leaves. The sclerotia were globoid, 1~3 mm, and white to brown. The optimum temperature for growth and sclerotia formation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was 30degrees C. The diameter of the hypae ranged from 4 to 8 microm. Clamp connection was observed on PDA medium after 5 days of incubation. Based on the mycological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the causal agent was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot in Chinese chive caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.


Subject(s)
Agar , Allium , Allyl Compounds , Chive , Glucose , Humans , Korea , Sequence Analysis , Soil , Solanum tuberosum , Sulfides
20.
Guatemala; s.n; 2010. 71 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-879009

ABSTRACT

En el presente estudio se evaluaron las propiedades inmunomoduladoras in vitro de dos especies cultivadas nativas de Mesoamérica, (P. alliacea y S. domingensis), conocida popularmente como apacín y zarzaparrilla respectivamente por medio de ensayos de linfoproliferación y ensayos hemolíticos que demostraron la regulación del sistema de complemento en sus dos vías, por medio de extractos etanólicos y acuosos de hoja y raíz de P. alliacea, hojas, fruto y rizoma de S. domingensis. Dichas plantas han sido empleadas como plantas medicinales, a las que se les atribuyen las características de ser antiinflamatorias, analgésicas, antipiréticas, entre otras. En la etapa inicial se realizó la recolección del material cultivado, procediendo a su percolación y rotaevaporación con etanol al 70 % para la obtención de los extractos etanólicos y para la obtención de extractos acuosos de las diferentes partes de las plantas fue a través de la infusión por sonificación y liofilización de los mismos, calculando su porcentaje de rendimiento. Dentro de este estudio, se realizó una metodología colorimétrica para demostrar la actividad moduladora de la linfoproliferación de los extractos de las diferentes partes de las plantas, así como el determinar la concentración efectiva mínima (CEM). La metodología colorimétrica empleada, se realizó mediante una separación inicial de los linfocitos, los cuales se agregaron a una microplaca, la cual contenía una concentración conocida de los diferentes extractos, que posteriormente se incubaron por cuatro días, para luego obtener las actividades por medio de absorbancia tomadas con la ayuda de un lector de ELISA. Se empleo el mitógeno Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), como control positivo y se determino, junto con la CEM si la actividad que presenten los extractos es inhibitoria o estimulatoria. Los extractos que presentaron actividad lo hicieron de manera inhibitoria sobre la actividad linfocítica y se les determinó su CEM siendo: extracto etanólico de rizoma de S. domingensis (CEM de 250 µg/ml) y extractos acuosos de hoja y raíz de P. alliacea (CEM de 500 y 250 µg/ml, respectivamente) y hoja y rizoma de S. domingensis (CEM de 250 y 500 µg/ml, respectivamente). Mientras que en los extractos etanólicos de hoja de P. alliacea, fruto y hoja de S. domingensis mostraron actividad únicamente en la concentración inicial de 1,000 µg/ml y los extractos sin actividad fueron extracto etanólico de raíz de P. alliacea y extracto acuosos del fruto de S. domingensis La evaluación sobre la actividad del sistema de complemento se efectuó mediante ensayos basados en la hemólisis de eritrocitos por el Complejo de Ataque a Membrana (CAM), el cual es generado al activarse el sistema de complemento; en este ensayo los eritrocitos actúan como células blanco y al ser activados se produce la lisis de eritrocitos, liberándose hemoglobina la cual es utilizada como parámetro para medir la actividad. Los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo del sistema de complemento mostraron que tanto para la vía clásica como para la vía alterna, la mayoría de los extractos tanto etanólicos como acuosos de hoja y raíz de P. alliacea, hoja y rizoma de S. domingensis presentaron un efecto inhibitorio de ambas vías, determinado por su CI50, por el contrario los extractos que no mostraron ninguna actividad fueron: extractos etanólicos y acuosos de fruto en la vía clásica y alterna y extracto acuoso de hoja de S. domingensis en vía clásica. Esto se estableció con la determinación del CI50 considerando un límite de 15 µg/ml como punto significativo de corte para establecer la presencia o ausencia de la actividad sobre las vías clásicas y alternas del complemento. Puede decirse que los extractos evaluados son de gran interés por el efecto inhibidor sobre la linfoproliferación y sobre el sistema de complemento, además de representar material vegetal cultivado que se puede aprovechar de mejor manera generando mayor volumen para su utilización en la disminución de la estimulación del sistema inmune y aprovechamiento de manera sostenible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allium , Immunologic Factors , Medicine, Traditional , Serenoa , Guatemala , In Vitro Techniques
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